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Full text of "Iskusstvo snaipera"

AjieKcefl IIoTanoB: «HcKyccTBo CHaflnepa» 



AjieKceii AHapeeBHH IIoTanoB 
HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



AHHOTaUHJI 

B nacmoxufeM nocoGuu o6o6u\en onum pecuibnou paGomu cnaunepoe e pasjiuuHux ycnoeunx, a maKotce 
nodpodno npedcmaenenu pasdenu no Mamepuajibnou nacmu omeuecmeennozo cnaunepcKozo opyoKun u 
ycmpoucmey onmimecKia npuuejioe, mexnuxe npaxmrnecKou cmpejibdu, npucmpejixe cnaunepcxux eunmoeox, 
eunmoeonnou 6ajuiucmuKe u MacKupoem na juecmnocmu. Pasdenu no cnaunepcKou maKinuxe e Goeeux ycnoeu- 
mx cocmaejienbi c yuemoM onuma cnaunepoe Benuxou Omeuecmeennou eoiinu, a<pzancKou xajwnanuu, a maKotce 
deucmeuu cnaunepoe e coepeMennux zopnuux monxax na meppumopuu CHr u Eeponu. Pc&dejibi no meopuu 
cmpejiKoeozo cnaunepcKozo opyoKun, Goenpunacoe u peMonmy opyowun noseonmom pacuiupumb mexnuuecKuu 
Kpyzosop npaxmmecKozo cnaunepa u o6i>KCHHK>m npununu npojwaxoe, cemannux c paGomou opyoKun u nenpa- 
eujibHUM yxodoM 3a hum, 

Knuza npednasnauena dim nodzomoexu cnaunepoe nenocpedcmeenno e uacmnx u nodpasdenenunx, e 
KonmpmeppopucmuuecKux nodpasdenenunx, opzanax npaeonopndxa u dun oxomnuKoe-npoMbicnoeuKoe. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



nPE^HCJIOBHE 

HHTepec k CHaMnepcKOH TeMe HeoSbinanHO Bejinic. TeM Sojiee hto Ha npoTa>KeHHH nooieflHnx 
copoKa jieT Ha TeppnTopHH SbiBinero CCCP no/ipoSHbix HHCTpyKnnn no CHannepcKon npaKTHKe He 
H3flaBanocb. HexBaTKa Taicon HH^opMannoHHO-cnpaBOHHon jinrepaTypbi ocTpo oinymaeTca He TOJibKO 
b BOHCKax, ho h b KonrpTeppopncTHHecKHx noflpaBflejieHnax, b opraHax npaBonopaflKa, a Taioice b na- 
CTax cnennanbHoro Ha3HaneHHa. Eojibinon HHTepec k ^amion TeMe npoaBJunoT He TOJibKO BoeHHbie, ho 
h npoMbicnoBbie oxothhkh, Bjiaflenbubi Hape3Horo opy>KHa c onrHnecKHMH npnnejiaMH, a Taioice Ma- 
CTepa-opy>KeHHHKH. 

KHHra, yHHTbiBaa MHoroHHCJieHHbie 3aaBKH BbiinenepeHHCJieHHoro 3anHTepecoBaHHoro kohthh- 
reHTa, aBJiaeTca yneSHbiM nocoSneM h npeflHa3HaneHa ^Jia noflroTOBKn CHaiinepoB HenocpeflCTBeHHO 
b nacTax h noflpa3flejieHHax. 

B HacToameM nocoSnn noflpoSHO npeflCTaBJieHbi pa3flejiw no MaTepnanbHon nacTH OTenecTBeH- 
Horo CHannepcKoro opy>KHa h ycTponcTBy onrnHecKnx npnnejiOB, TexHHKe npaKTnnecKon CTpenbSw, 
npncTpenKe CHannepcKnx bhhtobok, bhhtobohhoh SarnincTHKe n MacKnpoBKe Ha mccthocth. Pa3flejiw 
no CHannepcKon TaKTHKe h 6opb6e co CHannepaMn npoTHBHHKa b pa3JinHHbix SoeBbix ycnoBnax co- 
CTaBJieHbi c yneTOM SoeBoro onbiTa CHannepoB Bejiracon OTenecTBeHHon bohhm, ac})raHCKOH Kaivtna- 
hhh, a Taioice npnHHMaBninx ynacTne b coBpeMeHHbix KOH^jinierax Ha TeppnropHH CHr h EBponw. 

Pa3flejibi no Teopnn CTpenKOBoro CHannepcKoro opy>KHa n SoenpnnacoB, a TaK>Ke no peMonry 
opy>Kna no3BOJiaiOT pacmnpnTb TexHHHecKHH Kpyro3op npaKTHnecicoro CHannepa n oSbacHaiOT npn- 
HHHbi npoMaxoB, Hanpaiviyio CB33aHHbix c paSoTon opy>KHa n HenpaBHJibHbiM yxoflOM 3a hhm. 

JIHCTOBKA-nAMHTKA CHAHIIEPy 

Cnaunep - smo cneijuajibno omodpannbiu, odyuennbiu u nodzomoejiennuu k caMocmonmejibnuM 
UHUijuamueHbiM deucmeuHM eoun, MewiKuu cmpenoK, yjueioufuu ucxycno deucmeoeamb e 6oeeou 06- 
cmanoeKe. 3adcma cnaunepa - ynuumootcenue eaotcnux u onacnux uejieu, nonejinwu^uxcn na Kopomtcoe 
epeMH, -peiuaemcn mepnenueM dm eu6opa ydodnozo MOMenma, nmodu naeepnnKa nopa3umb ux. Mc- 
Kyccmeo cnaunepa cocmoum e moM, nmodu caMocmonmejibno naumu uejib, ouenumb ee eaotcnocmb u 
nopa3umb odnuM eucmpenoM. 

Cnaunep o6n3an ne mojibKo ynunmootcamb otcueyw cujiy npomuenuxa, no u MemKou cmpemdou 
napajiu3oeamb opzanu3aijUJO epazoM meKyujeu 6oeeou pa6omu. flnn smozo ynuumootcb ezo ocpuuepoe; 
ycmpou eDtcenacnyw oxomy na ezo pa3eednuKoe, nadmodamejieu, ceH3ucmoe, apmuiuiepuucKux xop- 
pexmupoeujUKoe; pa36eu ux nadjuodamejibnbie npu6opu; ocjienu npomuenuxa; omynu ezo xodumb e 
nojinuu poem; 3acmaeb ezo noji3amb; ne daeau eMy ebicynymbcn; noceu nanuxy cpedu nuotcnux nunoe. 
Konennan uejib cnaunepa - empax. Tlonejinucn maM, zde me6n ne otcdym. 3anoMnu: npomuenux doji- 
otcen donmbcn! 

Cnaunep - 3tno oxomnux. Oxomnux o6n3an dumb neeuduMbiM. HeyH3euMocmb cnaunepa dejvio- 
pajiu3yem npomuenuxa. Teou Memod - CKpumnocmb. Teou padonuu uncmpyjvienm - mepnenue. Ynucb 
nepenocumb zojiod, xojiod, 6ojib, nenodeuotcnocmb. TojibKo 3tno no3eojium me6e ynunmooKumb npo- 
muenuxa ee3de, daotce e zjiydune ezo odoponu. IJpomuenuK - 3eepb. Bucjiedu ezo u euManu nod eu- 
cmpeii. Bpaz xoeapen - 6ydb xumpee ezo. On eunocjiue - 6ydb ynopnee ezo. Teon npotpeccun - 3tno uc- 
Kyccmeo. Tbi MOJ/ceuib mo, nezo ne Mozym dpyzue. Te6e doeepnwm. 3a modou - Poccun. Eydb 
decnoujaden. Tbi nodeduuib, nomoMy umo mu o6n3an nodedumb! 

3t?l naMaTKa cocTaBJieHa KOMaHflyiomnM 62-ii apMnen reHepanoM BacnjineM HBaHOBnneM Hyii- 
KOBbiM npn oSopoHe CTannHrpafla. B ManeHbKOH jihctobkc npeflenbHO hctko c^opMynnpoBaHa cyrb 
CHannepcKoro npoMbicjia. 

3a BCeM 3THM CT03JI TJDKeJIblH n onacHbin Tpyfl. 

BCTYnJIEHHE. KTO TAKOH CHAHIIEP 

Bee 3araflOHHoe nopoayjaeT jiereH^bi. HcKyccTBO SoeBoro CHannepa rpaHHHHT c mhcthkoh. 3(J)- 
(})eKT ero paSoTbi yacaceH, a cnocoSHOCTb B03HHKaTb b caMOM HeoacnflaHHOM MecTe n SeccjieflHO ncne- 
3aTb nocjie BbiCTpena Ka>KeTca CBepxbecTecTBeHHon. JlereH^bi B03MO>KHOCTax CHaiinepoB ocHOBaHbi 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



Ha peajitHOCTH. noflroTOBJieHHbiM CHaMnep fleMcrBHTejibHO mtokct flenaTb to, nero He Moryr flpyrne. 

CHaMnep - 3TO flJIHHHblM HO>K B CepflU,e npOTHBHHKa; CJIHHIKOM flJIHHHblM H CJIHHIKOM >KeCTOKHH, HT06bI 

c hhm He CHHTaTbca. HrnopHpoBaTb CHaMnepa Hejib3a. Ot Hero He cnacaiOT paccTOJfflne h 6poHe>KH- 
neT. IIpoTHB CHannepcKOH nyjin SeccnjibHa oxpaHa. CHaMnep cnocoSeH b KopHe H3MeHHTb oScraHOBKy 
Ha none 6oa, nocTaBHTb Hy>KHyio TOHKy b nojiHTHnecKOM nponecce h c tohhoctbio xnpypra o6e3Bpe- 
flHTb TeppopncTa. CaMa yrpo3a ynacTna CHaMnepoB ^aBHT Ha ncnxHKy Bpara h 3acTaBJiaeT ero npnrn- 
6aTb rojiOBy. 

HacToainnM CHaMnep hcbh^hm, SecnomafleH h HeyjiOBHM. YraeTaiome ^eMcTByeT caM 4)aier ero 
HeflOcaraeMOCTH h 6e3HaKa3aHHOCTH. Oh noaBnrca H3 nycTOTbi, BbinonHHT npHKa3 h yM^eT b nycTOTy; 
Hcne3HeT b o^hom MecTe, htoSw noaBHTbca b ^pyroivi; ero npoMbicen poManrHHeH, KaK poManrnHeH 
caM nponecc BbiCTpena Ha cboSoahoM oxotc 

KaK 6w 3to acecTOKO hh 3Bynajio, ho CHaMnep - sto Bce-TaKH oxothhk. Oxothhk 3a nejiOBeKOM - 
caMbiM onacHbiM H3 >KHBbix cymecTB. Oxothhk ^eMcTBHTejibHO floiDKeH SbiTb HeBH/niM. H no3TOMy 
CTHJib >kh3hh CHaMnepa - rapMOHna c OKpy>KaiomeM cpe^oM, cnocoSHOCTb nyBCTBOBaTb h cnnBaTbca c 
HeM. TjiaBHoe KanecTBO CHaMnepa - HenejiOBeHecKoe TepneHHe. Y^ana conyTCTByeT TeM, kto yMeeT 
>KflaTb. CHaMnepcKoe HCKyccTBO - 3to #ep3Koe yMeHHe TepnejiHBbix, HCKyccTBO >K#aTb noflxoflamero 
MOMeHTa h MrHOBeHHO Hcnojib30BaTb ero. CHaMnep Bbicjie>KHBaeT nenb, KaK oxothhk Ha npoMbicjie, h 
opraHH3yeT Tenemie coSmthM TaK, htoSm 3acTaBHTb 3Ty nenb noaBHTbca h noflCTaBHTbca nofl bw- 
CTpen. CHaMnep He nivteeT npaBa Ha npoMax. IIpoMax - sto omnSKa. OmnSKa - cneflCTBHe HenoflroTOB- 
jieHHOCTH. CHaMnep, KaK h canep, onmSaeTca o#hh pa3. H nosTOMy Bee, hto flenaeT CHaMnep, oh aoji- 
>KeH flejiaTb Se3ynpeHHO h b coBepmeHCTBe. 

CHaMnepcKnM npoMbicen, OBeaHHbiM TanHCTBeHHoM poManrHKoM, npe^CTaBJiaeT coSoM oneHb 
onacHyio, HanpjDKeHHyio h (})H3HHecKH Ta>Kejiyio SoeByio paSoTy. CHaMnepaM npeflOCTaBJieHO npaBO 
"oxotm" b CBoSoflHOM noHCKe. Ho 3tot noHCK Ha BoMHe CHaMnep o6$i3aH bccth eaceAHeeHO, HeB3npaa 
Ha ycjiOBna, npn jnoSbix oScTO>rrejibCTBax. H e>KeflHeBHO CHaMnep oSa3aH ^aBaTb pe3yjibTaT. 3HaTb h 
yMeTb fljia 3Toro Hy>KHO oneHb MHoro. 

CHaMnep - 3to He npocTO CTpenoK co CHaMnepcKoM bhhtobkoM. 3to CBepxMeTKnM CTpenoK Ha 
flajibHne flncTaHUHH. 3TanoH CHaMnepcKoM tohhocth - nona^aHHe npoTHBHHKy Me>Kfly raa3 Ha pac- 
CToaHHH 800 MeTpoB. CHaMnepcKnM npoMbicen KaK TaKOBoM b Hanane n cepemiHe XIX BeKa He Kynb- 
THBHpoBanca H3-3a OTcyTCTBna TOHHoro flanbHoSoMHoro opy>Kna. BbiBann eflHHHHHbie cjiynan b 
KpbiMCKoM KaMnaHHH h pyccKO-TypenKoM BoMHe, Kor^a aHranMcKne apncTOKpaTbi H3 flanbHoSoMHbix 
Hape3Hbix mrynepoB c flHonrpHnecKHMH npnnejiaMH, cflejiaHHbix Ha 3aKa3, oxoTHJincb 3a pyccKHMH 
conflaTaMH n ocjmnepaMH. OnbiT aHrjinnaH nepeHjmn rojuiaHflCKne nocejieHnbi pecnySunKn TpaHCBa- 
anb b aHrao-SypcKoM BoMHe. Ha BOopy>KeHHH SypoB b sto BpeMa y>Ke noaBHJiHCb onrHnecKne npnne- 
jim (npaB^a, rpoM03flKne n HecoBepmeHHbie). 3to Sbui npopbiB b BoeHHoM TexHHKe. JlioSoe H3MeHe- 
Hne b SoeBoM TaKTHKe - aneflCTBne nporpecca b pa3BHTHH opy>KHa. OnrHHecKne npnnejibi, 
ycTaHOBJieHHbie Ha HeMenKne bhhtobkh May3epa KannSpa 6,5 mm, Hcnojib30BaHne Se3#biMHoro nopo- 
xa, pe3KO noBbiCHJiH CTpenKOByio pe3yjibTaTHBHOCTb SypoB. 3(J)(|)eKT MaccoBoro npHMeHeHna TaKoro 
opy>KHa 6bm Heo>KHflaHHbiM n BnenaTJiaioninM. no cyniecTBy, sto h Smjih nepBbie CHaMnepcKne bhh- 
tobkh. 

"CHaMnep" b nepeBO^e c aHranMcKoro 03HanaeT "mctkhM CTpenoK no neTainnM yTKaM". Kor^a- 
to b AHrnHH TaK Ha3biBanH yflanjiHBbix oxothhkob. Hotom TaK CTann Ha3biBaTb SypcKnx CTpenKOB. 
npnHHHbi 3TOMy SbiJiH. Bypw co cbohmh flanbHoSoMHbiMH BHHTOBKaMH flocTaBanH aHrjiHHaH b jnoSoe 
BpeMa cyTOK h, Ka3anocb 6bi, b caMbix 6e3onacHbix MecTax. H3BecTHoe ^>KeHTJibMeHCKoe npaBHJio 
"Tpoe ot oflHoM cnnHKH He npmcypnBaiOT" poflnnocb hmchho TaM, Ha aHrjinMcKnx no3nu,Hax b pec- 
nySnHKe TpaHCBaanb. B HOHHoe BpeMa, Kor^a oc})HLi,epbi Ee BennnecTBa coSnpanHCb KynKoM h pac- 
CJiaSjiajiHCb hhkothhom, SypcKnM CHaMnep 3aceKan BcnbiniKy 3aropeBmeMca cnnnKn h oroHeK cnrapbi, 
Kor^a npmcypHBaji nepBbiM, 3aTeM npHKypnBan BTopoM ocjmnep, - oroHeK chhhkh nepeflBHranca, 3aro- 
panacb BTopaa cnrapa, CHaMnep Span ynpe>KfleHHe Ha nepeHOC oraa. npnKypHBan TpeTnM n cpa3y >Ke 
nojiynan nyjno b rojiOBy. 

npn HacTynjieHHH aHrjinnaH MeTKne SypcKne CTpenKH paccTpenHBann aTaKyioninx coji/iaT, KaK 
Ha CTpejibSnme, npaKTHnecKn He noflnycKaa nx k cbohm no3Hu,naM. BypaMn mnpoKO npaKTHKOBanncb 
n 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie CHaMnepcKne 3acaflbi. OnbiT CHaMnepoB aHrjio-SypcKoM boMhm oSoSnieH He 6bm. 
Bo BpeMa nepBoM mhpoboM h nocjieflyiomeM rpa>KflaHCKoM boMh CHaMnepbi b BoMcKax npaKTHnecKH 
He npHMeHajiHCb. He 6bmo CHaMnepcKoro opy>KHa n onTHHecKnx npnu,ejiOB, a TaK>Ke OTpaSoTaHHbix 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



CHaMnepcKHx mctoahk. Hspeflica CTpejumn flpyr no flpyry npnBOBbie CTpenKH, pa^n coSctbchhoh no- 
TexH ycTpaHBaa Ha 4)poHre CBo6o#Hyio oxoTy. Ilocjie rpa^aHCKon bohhm b KpacHon ApMHH CHaM- 
nepoB CHHTanH HeHy>KHOH 6jia>Kbio. PacneT Ha ocHOBHoe nopa>KeHHe npoTHBHHKa, KaK h b napcKon 
apMHH, CTpoHJica Ha njiOTHOCTH oraa. 

B nocneflHee BpeMa CTajiH npocannBaTbca CBep,emw, hto 3to Swjio cueflCTBHeM yKa3aHHa cbbi- 
uie. BoeHHbiM He3aneM Swjio 3HaTt CHaiinepcKHe tohkocth. 3to aojckhm Swjih 3HaTb tojibko Te, KOMy 
nojio>KeHO 3HaTb. B CHCTeivte Orny-HKB,H, npn TeHpHxe .Hrofle CHannepcKOH noflroTOBKe coTpy^HH- 
kob fljia BbinonHeHHa cnennajibHbix 3a#aHHH y^ejiajiocb noBbiiueHHoe BHHMaHHe h Bbi^ejiajiHCb HeMa- 
Jiwe cpeflCTBa. Epnraflbi noflroTOBJieHHbix CHannepoB cyinecTBOBann h npn CTanHHCKon oxpaHe. JJjik 
3Toro b repMaHHH SbiJiH 3aicynjieHbi BecbMa Henjioxne onrHHecKne npnnejibi, Ha 6a3e KOTopbix Bno- 
CJieflCTBHH SbiJiH co3flaHbi oneHb xopouine npHnenbi IIE h IIB. B CCCP paBBHBanca CTpenKOBbiH 

CnOpT, HO oSmeBOHCKOBblX TaKTHHeCKHX CHaMnepCKHX MeTOflHK He SblJIO. 

5KecTOKHH ypoK pyccKHM npenoflanH (|)HHHbi bo BpeM» 3HMHeH KaMnaHHH 1939 ro#a. cDHHCKoe 
KOMaH/iOBaHHe otjihhho noflroTOBHJiocb k bohhc h ynjio SyKBanbHO Bee, b tom HHCJie h bo3mo>khocth 

MeTKHX CTpeJIKOB. 

Bo BpeMa (})hhckoh bohhm caMOHa#eaHHbie coBeTCKne KOMaHflHpw CTOJiKHynHCb c HeoSbacHH- 
MbiM h CTpaniHbiM aBJieHHeM - CHannepaMH-KyKyniKaMH. PaSoTa hx SbiJia HeoSbinanHO 3(J)(})eKTHBHa h 
npH3HaHa HanSojiee pe3ynbTaTHBHOH CHannepcKOH npaierHKOH Bcex BpeMeH h HapoflOB. EoeBaa Taiem- 
Ka CHaHnepoB-KyKyiueK Swjia HenoHjrmoH CBoeM HecTaH^apTHOCTbio, HeycTaBHOCTbio h KOBapcTBOM. 
cDhhhm nepBbiMH yica3ajiH Ha to, hto 3anpemeHHbix npneiviOB b CHannepcKOH npaKTHice HeT. ripneMaM 
3thm He SbiJio HHCJia, h ohh Majio noBTopajiH #pyr flpyra. 

Ha3BaHHe "KyKyuiKH" (JmHCKne CHannepbi nojiynnjiH 3a to, hto noHanajiy CTpejiajin c flepeBbeB h 
neperoBapHBanHCb nrnHbHMH ronocaMH. YaoSho ycTpoHBinncb Ha Morynnx bctbjix bckoboh cochm, 
(Jjhhh BbDKHflan noaBJieHHa nejin noBa>KHee h "cHHMan" ee. Ilo flepeBy, r^e HaxoflHJiocb CHannepcKoe 
rHe3flO, pyccKne OTicpbiBajin yparaHHbiH oroHb H3 Bcex ctbojiob, ho CHannepa TaM y>Ke He SbiJio - xht- 
pbiii (})hhh Ha BepeBKe cpa3y >Ke cnycKanca no# npHKpbiTHeM TOJiCToro CTBOJia cochw b 3apaHee bbiko- 
naHHWH SjiHH^aac, r^e h nepe>KHflaji oScTpen. HHor/ja, no oScTOjrrejibCTBaM, htoSm ycnoKOHTb npo- 
THBHHKa, (})hhh TaHyn 3a BepeBKy h CTaraBan H3 CHannepcKoro rae3#a Hyneno b MacKxanaTe c 
bhhtobkoh, KOTopoe oneHb KpacHBO na^ano, nepeBajiHBaacb c BerBH Ha BeTBb, a HHorfla #a>Ke 3acTpe- 
Bano Me>Kfly BeTBaMH b caMon HeecTecTBeHHon no3e. Ilocjie oScTpena CHannep Bbrae3aji H3 6jinHfla>Ka, 
noflHHManca Ha ^epeBO n onaTb npHHHMajica 3a cboio paSoTy. 

Ilo AepeBy CHOBa HannHajin CTpejiHTb. OSbiHHO H3 nyjieMeTOB "MaKCHM" (oh ycTOHHHB h o6ec- 
nenHBaeT oneHb TOHHbiii h npHu,ejibHbiH Son) ^epeBO paccTpenHBann B^onb h nonepeic, noKa oho He 
naflano. Ho noKa nyjieMeTHHKH, yBJieneHHbie CTpejibSon h oraoxmne ot Hee, "nHJiHJiH" ^epeBO, Apy- 
roii (Jjhhh co CTopoHbi paccTpenHBan Bcex, kto HaxoflHJica C3a^H nyjieMeTHHKOB, a noTOM npnHHMajioi 
3a hhx caMHx. IlyjieMeTHHKH npeKpacHO rjiyninjin BbiCTpenbi (})HHCKoro CHaiinepa, hto TOMy h TpeSo- 
Banocb. 

OHHCKHe "KyKyniKn" chrqjiii Ha ^epeBbax noonepeflHO - noKa o^hh BbiCMaTpnBan ^oSbiny, #py- 
ron cnoKOHHO OTCbinanca BHH3y, b yrenjieHHOM 6jinHfla>Ke. TaKHM cnocoSoM Ha necHbix Tponax o6ec- 
neHHBanocb KpyraocyTOHHoe fle>KypcTBO, hto npenaTCTBOBano npoHHKHOBeHHio pyccKnx pa3Befl- 
flHBepcnoHHbix rpynn 3a jihhhio (J)poHTa. 

^jia (})hhckhx CHannepoB He Swjio pa3HHu,bi, Ha KaKoii CTopoHe CTpenaTb - Ha CBoeii hjih conpe- 
flejibHOH. Ilpn mnpoKOMacniTaSHOM HacTynjieHnn pyccKnx MHO>KecTBO (})hhckhx CHannepoB ocTaBa- 
jiocb cn^eTb 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiMH b yTenjieHHbix (})hhckhx cyrpoSax (onncaHO flanee), b6jih3h nporao- 
3HpyeMoro (h ^OBOJibHO tohho) pacnojio>KeHHa CTpaTernnecKH Ba>KHbix oSbeKTOB KpacHOH ApMHH: 
aspoflpoMOB (Ha 03epax, noicpbiTbix Jib^oivi), MecT nocTaHOBKH apTniuiepHHCKHx SaTapen, HiTaSoB, y3- 

JIOB CB33H, KOMMyHHKaUHH, TpaHCnOpTHblX pa3B330K, COCpeflOTOHeHHS >KHBOH CHJIbI H T. fl. OSbiHHO 

3-to 6buiH poBHbie MecTa b necax, 3aniHmeHHbie no nepHMeTpy CKJia^KaMn mccthocth, BbinncjinTb ko- 
Topbie Swjio flOBOJibHO nerKo. 

OHHCKHe CHaiinepbi, BbDK^aB BpeMa, HanHHanH ^encTBOBaTb b caMbift Heo>KHflaHHbiH MOMeHT. 
IIocjieflCTBHa hx paSoTbi Swjih y>KacaiomHMH. BpomeHHbie Ha 3axBaT h noHMKy "KyKynieK" noflpa3fle- 
jieHHa pa3BeflHHKOB noflpbiBajincb Ha MHHax, kotopwmh (Jjhhh 3a6jiaroBpeMeHHO OKpy>Kaji no3Hu,nio. 
Ho fla>Ke ocTaBmneca b >KHBbix B03BpamajiHCb hh c HeM. Ohhckhh CHannep BCTaBan Ha Jibiacn h yxo- 
flHJi k cbohm. BbipocmeMy Ha ceBepe (})HHHy npoiiTH 3hmoh 100-120 KHJiOMeTpoB Ha jibi>Kax h 3aHone- 
BaTb b CHery npn TeMnepaType MHHyc 40° Smjio oSbiHHbiM ^ejiOM. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



EcTecTBeHHO, SoeBoro HCKyccTBa CHaftnepoB-"KyKyiueK" BbicoKoe coBeTCKoe pyKOBOflCTBO He 
npH3HaBajio h b Hey^anax o6bhh»jio MJia^iHHx KOMaH^HpoB (SoaBiunxca npoaBHTb HHHUHaTHBy h 
cjiQJiajb mar BnpaBO-BJieBO ot CTanHHCKHx ycTaBOB). BbicoKoe HananbCTBO npHBa^yMajiocb tojibko 
Tor^a, Kor^a "KyicyiiiKH" paccTpenajiH HecKOJibKO niTaSHbix aBTOManiHH c npeflCTaBHrejiaMH KOMaHflo- 
BaHHa BMecTe c conpoBO>Kflaiomeft hx cbhtoh. PaccTpejibi npoHCxoflHJiH b pa3Hbix MecTax, ho no o#- 
HOMy cneHapnio: (})hhckhh CHaftnep npocTpejiHBan 3a#Hee KOJieco, o6e3flBH>KHBaa ManiHHy, h cnoKoft- 
ho paccTpejiHBan Bcex, kto b Heft HaxoflHJica. TojibKO nocne 3Toro BbicoKoe HananbCTBO CTano 
noHHMaTb, hto Ha/io opraHH30BaTb BCTpenHbie 3aca#bi Ha nyrax BbiflBn^eHna (|)hhckhx CHaftnepoB. Ho 
SbiJio no3flHO. cDHHCKaa KaMnaHHa OKOHHHJiacb noSefloft npn HyflOBHiHHbix noTepax. H3 (J)hhckhx 
CHaftnepoB Mano kto Smji y6nr h hh o#hh He 6bui 3axBaneH b nueH >KHBbiM. 

CHaHnepbi-"KyKyuiKH", cboSo^ho nepeMemaBiHHeca b Jiecax, npHHHHJuiH pyccKHM mhoto He- 
npHjrmocTeft b flHBepcnoHHOM nnaHe. JIcthhrh, SbiBHine Ha toh bohhc, paccKa3biBanH, KaK "KyKyiu- 
kh" OTKpbiJiH HiJiK)3bi 03epa, Ha Jib^y KOToporo pyccKne oSocHOBajin aspo^poM. IIpH nyHHOM CBeTe 
Sojibiue flByx ^ecaTKOB SoeBbix caMOJieTOB HanajiH npoBanHBaTbca no# Jiefl. 3pejiHme 6bmo CTpaniHoe. 
OrHeM CHannepcKHx bhhtobok (})HHHbi He flaBann npH6jiH3HTbca k HiJiio3aM h 3aKpbiTb hx. 

Pa3pa6oTaHHaa (})HHHaMH TaKTHKa paSoTbi CHaftnepoB b 3HMHee BpeMa OKa3anacb HacTOJibKO 
y^aHHOH, hto BnocjieflCTBHH ee npHMeHJum h pyccKne, h Heivinbi. H name ceftnac k Heft floSaBHTb 
npaKTHnecKH Henero. 

nocne (J)HHCKoft BoftHbi coBeTCKoe KOMaHflOBaHHe Cflejiano cooTBeTCTByiomHe BbiBOflbi. J\im 
CHaftnepcKoro npHMeHeHna Smjih pa3pa6oTaHbi HOBbie o6pa3u,bi CHaftnepcKoro opy>KHa: BHHTOBKa 
CBT h onTHHecKnft npnneji yHHBepcanbHbift ny, KOTopwft OKa3anca HacTOJibKO y^anHbiM, hto npnivie- 
HaeTca h no ceft fleHb. B to ace Bpeivta SbiJia oSoSmeHa oSmeBoftcKOBaa CHaftnepcKaa TaKTHKa h pa3pa- 
SoTaHa npaKTHnecKaa MeTOflHKa CTpejiKOBbix TpeHnpoBOK, npnroflHaa flJia ninpoKoro npnivieHeHHa. 
HeMu,bi nepefl BTopoft MnpoBoft BoftHoft TO>Ke pa3pa6aTbiBanH CHaftnepcKne MeTOflHKH h ocHOBHyio 
CTaBKy npn 3tom cflenanH Ha BbicoKyio TexHmcy MeTKoro BbiCTpena. IIoflroTOBKa CHaftnepa b flOBoeH- 
Hoft repMaHHH fljiHJiacb He MeHee #Byx neT. Ha/io OT^aTb floiDKHoe, HeivienKHe CHaftnepw CTpenajiH 
oneHb xoponio h noflroTOBJieHO hx Swjio Sojibiuoe KOJinnecTBO. Mbi >Ke, k co>KajieHHio, b CHaftnepcKOM 
nnaHe k BoftHe noflonuiH HenoflroTOBJieHHWMH. 

BoftHa TpeSoBana HeMeflJieHHoro fleftcTBna, h no3TOMy b KpacHoft ApMHH ynop flenanca Ha (})h- 
3HnecKyio BbiHOCJiHBOCTb CHaftnepa, MacKnpoBKy n MaccoBOCTb. Ochoboji cneniiajibHoft TaKTHKH CTan 
CHaftnepcKHft Teppop. TaKTHKa 3Ta b ycjiOBnax HinpoKOMacnrraSHoro BoeHHoro KOH^jimcra OKa3anacb 
eflHHCTBeHHO npaBHJibHoft h npHMeHJuiacb #o KOHna BTopoft MHpoBoft BoftHbi. B nepBbie Mecjmw Boft- 
hw noflroTOBJieHHbix CHaftnepoB b KpacHoft ApMHH (J)aKTHHecKH He 6wjio. ConflaTw h ocjmnepw OBJia- 
fleBanH CHaftnepcKHM MacTepcTBOM no xo#y SoeBwx ^eftcTBHft. IIo3flHee, b 1942 ro#y, CTann 4)yHKnn- 
OHHpoBaTb CHanana TpexMecaHHbie, a 3aTeM HiecTHMecaHHbie CHaftnepcKne Kypcbi. Ho 3Toro Swjio 
HeflOCTaTOHHO. Bo BTopoft nojiOBHHe BoftHbi cpoK oSyneHHa CHaftnepoB Swji yBejinneH ^o BOCbMH Me- 
caneB b cneu,HajiH3HpoBaHHbix CHaftnepcKnx niKOJiax. 

Bo BpeMa BTopoft MHpoBoft BoftHbi h b nocjieflyiomHx BOopy>KeHHbix KOH(})jiHKTax Haiue CHaft- 
nepcKoe ^BH>KeHHe OKa3anocb pe3ynbraTHBHee HeMeu,Koro h nponnx Sjiaro^apa He TOJibKO MaccoBO- 
cth, ho, raaBHbiM o6pa30M, SecnpeflenbHoft pyccKoft H3o6peTaTejibHOCTH, HenejiOBenecKoft BbmocjiH- 
bocth h a^cKOMy TepneHHio, cnocoSHOCTH paSoTaTb b rpa3H, CHery, nofl nanantHM cojimi,eM. 

CnocoSHOCTb pyccKHx CHaftnepoB H3 Bpo^e 6bi npHMHTHBHoro opy>KHa - TpexjiHHeftHoft bhh- 
tobkh - nona^aTb npoTHBHHKy Me>Kfly raa3 c paccToaHna 700-800 MeTpoB CTapocny>KamHe noMHaT ^o 
chx nop. Ha BoftHe BpeMa cnpeccoBbiBanocb. 5KecTOKaa HeoSxoflHMOCTb oSocTpana BoenpnHMHHBOCTb 
h 3acTaBJiajia HejiOBenecKHft opraHH3M paSoTaTb Ha rpaHH HeB03MO>KHoro. Ha hto b MnpHoe BpeMa 
TpeSoBajiHCb roflbi, Ha BoftHe yxoflnjin Mecau,bi h HeflenH. B SKCTpeivtajibHbix >kcctokhx ycnoBnax ne- 
jiOBeK flOBOJibHO SbiCTpo npeBpamanca b to, hto ceftnac Ha3biBaiOT MOflHbiM TepMHHOM - HHHfl3a. Boe- 
Boe HCKyccTBO coBeTCKne CHaftnepw ^OBejiH ^o coBepnieHCTBa, h ^o Haninx anoHCKHM CHaftnepaM- 
HHHfl3a SbiJio flaneKO. 

3a BpeMa, npoiuefliuee nocne BTopoft MHpoBoft BoftHbi, CHaftnepcKaa TaKTHKa b npnHii,Hne He 
H3MeHHJiacb. Opy>KHe ocTanocb TaKnx >Ke KannSpoB h TaKoft >Ke flanbHoSoftHOCTH. CHaftnepcKnft npo- 
Mbicen no-npe>KHeMy Ta>Keji h onaceH. CHaftnep, KaK h paHbiue, He HMeeT npaBa Ha npoMax. H noaTO- 
My jiynnine CHaftnepbi nonynaiOTca H3 3HTy3nacTOB. B cneu,Ha3e 3HTy3Ha3M Ba>KHee TanaHTa. H npnH- 
u,Hn npo^eccHOHanbHoft necTH ocTanca TaKHM >Ke - u,ejib flOJDKHa SbiTb nopa>KeHa Ha npeflenbHO 
^ajibHeft flHCTaHUHH, Me>Kfly rjia3 h c nepBoro BbiCTpena. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



O tom, hto flenajiH CHaftnepbi Ha bohhc h Meac^y BOHHaMn, HanncaHO ^OBOJibHO MHoro. B 
HacToameM nocoSnn H3Jio>KeHO, KaK 3to flejiaeTca. 

PA3^EJI 1. ^AJIBHOEOHHOE OPY^CHE CHAHIIEPA 

nPAKTHKYM TPEXJIHHEHHOH BHHTOBKH 

EcTb opy>KHe, KOTopoe noaBHJiocb ^aBHO h ncne3HeT He CKopo. Ero He jhoSjit hobhhkh h yBa- 
>KaiOT npoc})eccHOHajibi. H3 Hero T»>Kejio CTpejurrb h nerKO nonaflaTb. Oho oflHHaKOBO Hafle>KHO b ro- 
pax h flacyHraax, b CHerax h nycTbmax. Opy>KHe, KOTopoe He CTapeeT. 3to opy>KHe - Mara3HHHaa bhh- 

TOBKa. 

B KOHu,e npouuioro CTOJieTna noaBHJiocb MHoro pa3HOBHflHOCTen bhhtobok - Ka>Kflaa #ep>KaBa 
BOopy>Kajiacb CBoen Hau,HOHanbHOH chctcmoh. IIIjio BpeM», h Ha hx ocHOBe noaBJuuiHCb MOflejin oxot- 
HHHbero h cnopTHBHoro opy>KHa, caMH >Ke apMeMcKne o6pa3u,bi BbiTecHajiHCb Sojiee coBpeMeHHbiMH 

aBTOMaTHHeCKHMH KOHCTpyKUHJIMH. Ilo HCTeHeHHH CTa JieT B SoeBOM npHMeHeHHH OCTajIHCb OHeHb 

HeMHorne "Mara3HHKH M , y^anHO CKOHCTpyHpoBaHHbie h OKa3aBiHHeca He3aMeHHMbiMH. B hx nncjie 
pyccKaa TpexjiHHeHHaa BHHTOBKa (c|)oto 1). Ee Heron Te, kto Hana^aeT, h Te, kto 3amninaeTca. Ee 
xparorr b KOJiJieKu,Hax opy>KeHHbix papnTeTOB. OHa ecTb b cboSoahoh npofla>Ke. HaKOHen, 3to opy>KHe 
b Manbix KOJinnecTBax HaxoflHTca Ha BOopy>KeHHH cneu,noflpa3flejieHHH /urn ocoSo tohhoh paSoTbi. H 

y>Ke TOJIbKO n03TOMy C TpeXJIHHeHHOH BHHTOBKOH CTOHT n03HaKOMHTbC5I no6jiH>Ke. 




cDoto 1. BHHTOBKa o6pa3na 1891-1930 rr. 

Ee o(|)HHHajTbHoe Ha3BaHHe - BHHTOBKa MocHHa-HaraHa o6pa3ua 1891 ro#a. Ho b peanbHOH koh- 
CTpyKu,HH opy>KHa ot HaraHa ocTanacb TOJibKO 4)aMHJiHa 3Toro SeccnopHO TanaHTJiHBoro opy>KeHHHKa. 
Ero oneHb y^anHbiH MaTeMaTHnecKHH KOMnoHOBOHHO-SajiaHCOBbiH pacneT reHnanbHO BonnomeH b 
MeTanji pyccKHM apTHJuiepnHCKHM oc})HHepoM C.H. Mochhwm. KanHTaH Mochh nocTaBHJi ce6e 3a#any 
- C03flaTb opy>KHe /urn npaKTHnecKoro npHMeHeHna b TJDKejieHiunx ycjiOBHax pa3JiHHHbix KJiHMaTHne- 
ckhx 30H Pocchhckoh HMnepHH, cnocoSHoe Bbiflep>KaTb BapBapcKyio 3KcnjiyaTau,Hio b rpa3H OKonoB h 
necKe, nocroaHHO na^aioineM Ha bohhc CBepxy bhh3. Mochh ^ocTHr noun. Oh 3ano>KHJi b cboio bhh- 
TOBKy KOHu,enTyajibHO HOBbie npnHnnnbi paSoTbi nacTen, y3JiOB h MexaHH3MOB. reoMeTpnnecKHn 
npo<|)HJib rqtsljiqPl opy>Kna h cncTeivta hx B3aHMOfleHCTBHa Sbuin TinaTejibHO npoflyivtaHbi, onpoSoBaHbi 
b caMbix >KecTOKHx ycjiOBHax, h TOJibKO no pe3yjibTaTaM ncnbiTaHHn npHHHMajincb e^HHCTBeHHO npa- 
BHJibHbie KOHCTpyKTHBHbie peiueHna. B KOHCTpyKu,Hio bhhtobkh Sbuia BHeceHa npHHU,HnHajIbHO HOBaa 
fleTanb - OTcenKa-OTpa>KaTejib, cflejiaBiuaa CHCTeMy npaKrnnecKH 6e30TKa3HOH. JIhhihhx fleTaneH b 
3tom opy>KHH He Sbijio. BHHTOBKa He jiOMajiacb - jiOMaTbca b Hen Sbuio HeneMy. Bojiee Toro, OHa Jiercco 
pa36Hpanacb h coSnpajiacb, hto Smjio oneHb Ba>KHbiM npn ee ocbochhh MOJiOflbiMH cojiflaTaMH, 
HaSpaHHbiMH H3 nojiyrpaMOTHoro KpecTbaHCTBa TorflaniHen Pocchh. 

CncTeivia, npeflCTaBJieHHaa Ha opy>KeHHbiH KOHKypc b 1891 ro#y, He Sbuia bhhtobkoh HaraHa. 
3to SbiJia BHHTOBKa MocHHa. Ee KajinSp H3Mepajica b CTapoM /hohmoboh CHCTeivte h paBHajica TpeM 
jiHHHaM (oflHa jiHHHa paBHa 2,54 mm). H nosTOMy, HecMOTpa Ha Ka3eHHbie HanMeHOBaHHa MOflH(})HKa- 
u,hh pa3JiHHHoro BpeMeHH BbinycKa, ^Jia HaceneHHa Pocchh OHa TaK h ocTanacb TpexjiHHeiiHOH bhh- 
tobkoh. TaK ee Ha3biBaioT y>Ke Sojiee CTa JieT. 

npHHu,Hn flencTBHa 3Toro opy>KHa ocHOBaH Ha paSoTe noBopoTHoro 3aTBopa ((})oto 2), npoflOJib- 
ho CKOJib3amero b ctbojibhoh KopoSKe (7 Ha (})oto 3). npn flocbuiaHHH 3aTBopa Bnepefl oh noflXBaTbi- 
BaeT naTpoH H3 Mara3HHHOH kopoSkh, BbrrajiKHBaeT ero 3a npeflejiw B03fleHCTBHa OTcenKH-OTpa>KaTejia 
(7 Ha (J)oto 4), KOTopaa. He flaeT naTpoHy "BbiBanHTbca" BepTHKanbHO BBepx, h no HanpaBJiaiontHM na- 
3aM CTBOJibHon kopoSkh noflaeT naTpoH b naTpoHHHK. npn noBopoTe pyKoaTKH 3aTBopa BnpaBO 6oe- 
Bbie BbiCTynw SoeBon jihhhhkh (7 Ha (})oto 2) noBopanHBaiOTca Ha 90° h 3axofl»T 3a SoeBbie BbiCTynw 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSKH. TaKHM o6pa30M, npOHCXOflHT 3anHpaHHe CHCTeMbI (cxeMbi 1, 2, 3). IIpH Ha>KHMe 

Ha cnycKOBoii KpionoK (7 Ha (})oto 5, 6) onycicaeTca Hienrajio (2 Ha (J)oto 5, 6), c KOToporo cpwBaeTca 
KypoK (3 Ha (})oto 5), y^apHmc pa36HBaeT Kanciojib, npoHCxoflnr BbiCTpeji. Ilpn noBopoTe pyKoaTKH 
3aTBopa BBepx SoeBbie BbiCTynw jihhhhkh h ctbojibhoh kopoSkh Bbixofljrr H3 B3aHMHoro 3au,enjieHHa, 
CHCTeMa OTnHpaeTca, KypoK B3BOflHTca B3aHMOfleiicTBHeM ero bhhtoboh HepBaHHoM reoMeTpHH c aHa- 

JIOrHHHOH BHHTOBOH reOMeTpnen TOpna CTeSjIH 3aTBOpa (2 Ha (})OTO 2). TaKHM 06pa30M, KypOK OTKpbl- 

Toro 3aTBopa Bcer^a 6y#eT B3BefleH. ripn OTBefleHHH 3aTBopa Ha3a# 3anen-Bbi6pacbiBaTejib, 3anpecco- 
BaHHbiH b SoeBOH jiHHHHKe, H3BJieKaeT H3 naTpoHHHKa CTpejiaHyio rHJib3y. TeoMeTpHa OTKpbiToro 
3aTBopa o6pa3yeT na3->Kejio6oK (7 Ha (})oto 7), KOTopbiM 3aTBop npn ^BH>KeHHH nmap, CKOJib3HT no 3y- 
6y OTceHKH-OTpa>KaTejia (2 Ha (})oto 4). H3BJieKaeMa» rnjib3a M Hae3>KaeT" Ha stot 3y5, OTpa^aeTca ot 
Hero h BbiSpacbiBaeTca b CTopoHy 3anena Hapy>Ky. 

J\jm 3apa>KaHHa opy>KHa Ha^o OTKpbiTb 3aTBop, BCTaBHTb b cnenHanbHbie na3bi CTBOJibHoii ko- 
PoSkh (3 Ha (})oto 4) oSoHMy, CHapa>KeHHyio rorrbio naTpoHaMH (c|)oto 8), HaacHMaa Ha BepxHHH na- 

TpOH B6jIH3H oSOHMbl, BblflaBHTb OflHHM flBH>KeHHeM BCe nSTb naTpOHOB B Mara3HHHyK) KOpoSKy BHH3, 

flo ynopa. 3aTeM 3aKpbiTb 3aTBop. BnHTOBKa roTOBa k BbiCTpeny. Ilocjie BbiCTpena 3aTBop OTKpbiTb 
Ha3a/i ^0 ynopa, CHOBa 3aKpbiTb, CHOBa BbiCTpejinrb. H TaK rorrb pa3. Mo>kho CTpejurrb h "no OflHOMy", 
BKJiaflbiBaa naTpoHbi npaMO b naTpoHHHK. KcTaTH, MacTepa TaK n ^ejiaiOT bo H36e>KaHHe H3MeHeHHa 
Beca opy>KHa, hto BJinaeT Ha TpaeKropnio nojieTa nyjin npn CTpejibSe Ha ^ajibHHe flHCTaHnnn. Bhhtob- 
Ka b oSpameHHH npeflejibHO npocTa. 

Tenepb o tohkoctsx KOHCTpyKunn, flejiaiomnx ee npe^ejibHO Ha^oKHOH. IlaTpoHbi TpexjinHen- 
hoh bhhtobkh HMeiOT HiJuinKy-3aKpaHHy, KOTopaa rapaHTnpyeT 3anenjieHHe rnjib3bi BbiSpacbiBaTejieM. 
KpoMe Toro, rHJib3bi TaKon (J)opMbi He "3aTHpaeT M necKOM b MexaHHBMe. Ho b cboio onepeflb 3Ta 3a- 
KpaHHa npn npoflOJibHOM #BH>KeHHH naTpoHa no MexaHH3My "nemiaeT" Bee Ha CBoeM nyTH, b tom hhc- 
jie h 3aKpanHbi ^pyrnx naTpoHOB. y bhhtobkh CHCTeMbi HaraHa H3-3a 3Toro b ctboji nacTeHbKO no#a- 
Banocb cpa3y no #Ba naTpoHa, hto npnBOflHJio k 3aKJinHHBaHnio opy>KHa. Mochh stot He^ocTaTOK 
jiHKBHflnpoBan BBefleHHeM b cboio KOHCTpyKu,nio ocoSoh fleTanH - OTceHKH-OTpa>KaTejia, npeflCTaBJia- 
lomeM coSoh no#npy>KHHeHHyio nuacTHHKy c 3y6oM (cxeMa 4, (})oto 9). IIjiacTHHKa 3Ta noMemaeTca 
3y6oM BHyTpb b npope3H ctbojibhoh kopoSkh (7 Ha (})oto 10). CreSejib 3aTBopa b nonepenHOM cene- 
hhh 3Kcu,eHTpHHeH ((})oto 11). Kor^a 3aTBop OTKpbiT, 3y6 OTcenKH-OTpa>KaTejia HaxoflHTca b raySHHe 
SKcnempHKa (7 Ha (})oto 11). B TaKOM nojio>KeHHH nuacTHHa-jionacTb BbiCTynaeT H3 Kopnyca ctbojib- 
hoh kopoSkh h y#ep>KHBaeT BepxHHH naTpoH 3anojiHeHHoro Mara3HHa ot Bbina^eHHa BBepx. B cboio 
onepeflb OTceKaiomnH 3y6 npy>KHHHOH nacTH (7 Ha (})oto 9) BbiflBHHyr b nonocTb Mara3HHHOH kopoSkh 
(7 Ha (})oto 12) h HaxoflHTca Me>Kfly BepxHHM naTpoHOM h TeMH, KOTopbie pacnojio>KeHbi HH>Ke. Kor^a 
BepxHHH naTpoH BbiTanKHBaeTca 3aTBopoM Bnepefl, 3y6 npy>KHHbi y#ep>KHBaeT ocTanbHbie ot noflann 
BBepx - oh hx "oTceKaeT". npn noBopoTe 3aTBopa BnpaBO SKcnempHK CTeSjia (eme pa3 nocMOTpnTe Ha 
(})oto 11) Ha>KHMaeT Ha 3y6 jionacTH-njiacTHHbi h "yTanjiHBaeT" ee b na3 ctbojibhoh kopoSkh, 3ao#HO h 
"yTanjiHBaa" b CTopoHy 3y6 npy>KHHbi, "oTceKaiontHii" naTpoHbi. IIoflnpy>KHHeHHbie CHH3y naTpoHbi 
noflaiOTca BBepx, nonocTb nofl 3aTBopoM CHOBa 3anojmaeTca. Ilocjie BbiCTpena 3aTBop OTKpwBaeTca, 
OTcenKa-OTpa>KaTejib CHOBa CTaHOBHTca b nepBOHananbHoe nojio>KeHHe. Ilpn otkpmtom 3aTBope na- 
TpoH, noflHaBHiHHca H3 Mara3HHa BBepx, 6y#eT (J)HKcnpoBaH CHH3y OTceKaioniHM 3y6oM npy>KHHbi, 
CBepxy - jionacTbio-njiacTHHKOH OTcenKH-OTpa>KaTejia (cxeMa 5). Oh He MO>KeT flBnraTbca hh BBepx, 
hh bhh3. Oh pa3o6meH c ocTanbHbiMH naTpoHaMH, h ero 3aKpanHa y>Ke hhhto He CMO>KeT 3au,enHTb 
npn npoflBH>KeHHH naTpoHa Bnepefl, b ctboji. OTcenKa-OTpa>KaTejib BbinonHaeT ^BOHHyio (})yHKLi,HK) - 
OTceKaeT naTpoHbi ot HeHy>KHOH noflann h OTpa>KaeT CTpenaHyio rnjib3y. 




Ooto 2 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



cDoto 3 



cDoto4 



cDoto 5 



cDoto 6 




cDoto 7 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



10 



cDoto 8 



cDoto 9 



(Doto 10 



cDoto 1 1 





cDoto 12 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



11 




cDoto 13. HenonHaa pa36opKa. Uojj,a.Tb Ha3a^ 3amejiKy Mara3HHHon kopoSkh (1) 




cDoto 14. OTKpwTb KpbiniKy Mara3HHHOH kopoSkh. B TaKOM nojio>KeHHH fleTaneii mo>kho H3- 
BJienb HepaccTpejiaHHbie naTpoHbi 




cDoto 15. HenonHaa pa36opKa. rioflaBaTenb 1 h KpbiniKy Mara3HHHon kopoSkh 2 npi«KaTb flpyr k 
Apyry, noflaiomnn y3en H3BJienb b HanpaBJieHHH CTpenKH 3 




cDoto 16. HenojiHaa pa36opKa. H3BJieneHHe 3aTBopa. IIpH Ha>KaTOM cnycKe 1 OTKpbiTbin 3aTBop 
H3BJienb no HanpaBJieHHio CTpenKn 2. B ctbojibhoh KopoSKe BH^Ha jionacTb-njiacrnHa OTcenKn- 
OTpa^arejia 




cDoto 17. Pa36opKa 3aTBopa. Yflep>KHBaa KypoK 1, noBepHyrb no nacoBon CTpenKe CTeSenb 3a- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



12 



TBopa 2. B TaKOM nojio>KeHHH KypoK cnymeH. IIoflaTb Bnepefl SoeByio jihhhhky 3 




cDoto 18. Pa36opKa 3aTBopa. BoeByio jihhhhky 3 noBepHyTb npoTHB nacoBOH CTpenKH h OT/ie- 
jihtb Bnepefl ot coeflHHHiejibHOH nuaHKH 4 




cDoto 19. Pa36opKa 3aTBopa. Bhjikoh coeflHHHiejibHOH njiaHKH 4 BbiBHHTHTb y^apHHK 5, npn- 
Aep>KHBaa KypoK. BmiMaHHe: CHJibHaa SoeBaa npy>KHHa mtokct "BbiSirrb" fleTanH b pa3Hbie ctopohm 
no OKOHnaHHH pacKpyrKH 




cDoto 20. Pa3o6paHHbiii 3aTBop. BHHMaHHe: fljia oSecnenefflia c6opKH 3aTBopa npn HaBHHHHBa- 
hhh Kypica Ha y^apHHK 6oeK c chjioh ynnpaeTca bo hto yro^HO #o nojiHoro Bbixo^a pe3b6oBoii nacTH 
y^apHHKa 5 H3 TopueBoM nacTH CTeSjia 3aTBopa. 6 - HepBaHHaa reoMeTpna B3BefleHHa KypKa 




CDOTO 21. IIOJIHaa pa36opKa. OTBepTKOH BbiBHHTHTb SoJIbHIOH COeflHHHieJIbHblH BHHT 1 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



13 




cDoto 22. IIojiHaa pa36opKa. BblBHHTHTb Manbin coeflHHHrejibHbin bhht 1, 3aTeM H3BJienb Mara- 
3HHHyio KopoSicy 2 no HanpaBJieHHio CTpenKH 3 



7. 3 




cDoto 23. IIojiHaa pa36opica: 

- BblBHHTHTb H BblHyTb HIOMIIOH 1 ; 

- "yTonHTb" CTonop jio>KeBoro KOJibna 2; 

- CHaTb no HanpaBJieHHio k MyniKe Manoe n Sojibinoe jio>KeBbie KOJibna 3; 

- CHaTb BBepx CTBOJibHyio HaKJia^Ky 4, nocjie nero OT^ejiHTb ctboji ot jio>Ka 




cDoto 24. IIojiHaa pa36opKa: 

- BblBHHTHTb BHHT 1 ; 

- npHnoflHaTb npy>KHHy OTceHKn-OTpa>KaTejia 2; 

- b HanpaBJieHHH CTpenKH 3 BbiTOJiKHyrb H3 nana npy>KHHy OTceHKH-flep>KaTejia; 

- H3BJienb Hapy>Ky jionacTb-nnacTHHy OTceHKn-OTpa>KaTejia 4; 

- BbiSnTb BbiKOJiOTKOH ocb cnycKa 5; 

- BblBHHTHTb bhht menTajia 6; 

- CHaTb cnycKOBOH KpiOHOK 7 h uienTano 8 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



14 










CxeMa 1. TexHHnecKHH pa3pe3 bhhtobkh o6pa3u,a 1891-1930 rr. 




CxeMa 2. IIojio>KeHHe fleTaneii yflapHoro h cnycKOBoro MexaHH3MOB npn KpaiiHeM 3a#HeM no- 
JIO>KeHHH 3aTBopa 




CxeMa 3. IIojiOMceHHe rqtsljiqPl y^apHoro h cnycKOBoro MexaHH3MOB npn 3anepTOM KaHane ctbo- 
jia h B3BefleHHOM y^apHMKe 




i^p^c 



5 -A* 

"T)Bf 



CxeMa 4. OTceHKa-OTpa>KaTejib: 1- jionacTt; 2 - npy>KHHHaa nacTt; 3 - 3y6 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



15 




CxeMa 5. Mara3HH bhhtobkh o6pa3ua 1891-1930 it.: 1 - KopoSica; 2 - noflaiomnii MexaHH3M; 3 - 
OTceHKa-OTpa>KaTejib; 4 - OTceKaiomnii 3y6 

riopaflOK pa36opKH opy>KHJi npeflCTaBJieH Ha (})oto 13-24. CSopKa npoHBBOflHrca b oSpaTHOM no- 
paflKe. IIpH npaBHJitHOH cSopKe 3aTBopa y^apHHK BBHHHHBaeTca pe3b6oBOH nacTbio b KypoK ,zjo Tex 
nop, noKa Topeu, pe3b6oBoii nacTH He OKa>KeTca "3anoflJiHHo" c 3aTbiJibHOH njiocKOCTbio KypKa. Phckh 
Ha y^apHHKe h KypKe npn 3tom flOJi>KHbi coBna^aTb (c|)oto 25). CaMaa cjio>KHaa nacTb bhhtobkh - 3a- 
TBop. flua ero H3BJieneHHa H3 bhhtobkh flocraTOHHO npn HaacaTOM cnycKe "BbiTaHyrb" OTKpbiTbiii 3a- 
TBop Ha3a^, "k ce6e". CoeflHHHrejibHaji nnaHKa y#ep>KHBaeT Boe^HHO Bee nacTH 3aTBopa, HBBJieneHHO- 
ro H3 bhhtobkh, h aBJifiQTCfi CBoeo6pa3HbiM "kjiiohom" k ero nojiHoii pa36opKe. HanienKa-yrjiySjieHHe, 
npoToneHHaa b nepeflHeii nacTH SoeBoii jihhhhkh, Hae3>KaeT Ha HiJianKy rHJib3bi npn 3aKpbiBaHHH 3 a- 
TBopa h cjiy>KHT flua ero uenrpoBKH no och KaHana CTBOJia. 3thm noBbiniaeTca KynHOCTb 6oa. 3aTBop 
n noflaiomaa npy>KHHa c kpbihikoh Mara3HHa HBBJieKaiOTca H3 bhhtobkh npn ee HHCTKe nocjie crpejib- 
6w h CMa3KH. 3to Sy^eT HenojiHaa pa36opKa. IIojiHOCTbio BHHTOBKa pa36npaeTca nocne Toro, KaK OHa 
noSbiBana b BO#e, rpa3H, CHery h en TpeSyeTca KanHTanbHaa HHCTKa. B TaKOM anynae Bee MeTajniHHe- 
CKne HacTH OTflejunoTca ot flepeBaHHbix h BHHTOBKa pa36npaeTca "flo BHHTHKa". Ctboji, Ha kotopom 
Harjiyxo 3aKpenjieHbi ocHOBaHHa npHnejibHOii miaHKH h MyniKH, coe^HHeH co CTBOJibHOH KopoSKoii 
pe3b6oBbiM coeflHHeHHeM Harayxo, pa3 h HaBcer^a, no# ropanen noca^Kon. BbiBHHTHTb ero bo3mo>kho 
TOJibKO b opy>KeHHOH MacTepcKon. CTBOJibHaa KopoSKa npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoii ^OBOJibHO cjio>KHyK) (J)pe- 
3epoBaHHyio fleTanb. Ha Hee Kpennrca cnycKOBOH MexaHH3M: npy>KHHa-menTajio c bhhtom h cnycKO- 
boh KpiOHOK c ocbio, a TaK>Ke OTcenKa-OTpa>KaTejib, npy>KHHa KOTopon noca>KeHa b na3y "jiacroHKHH 
xboct". B HH>KHeH nepeflHeii nacTH CTBOJibHaa KopoSKa HMeeT chjioboh ynopHbiii BbiCTyn c onopHon 
njioma^Kon ((})oto 26). B fflDKHen nacTH 3Toro BbiCTyna HMeeTca pe3b6oBoe OTBepcTne fljia Manoro 
coeflHHHTejibHoro BHHTa. B xboctoboh nacTH CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh HMeeTca OTBepcTne fljia Sojibinoro 
coeflHHHTejibHoro BHHTa. 3thmh flByMa BHHTaMH CTBOJibHaa KopoSKa co ctbojiom, HaiaiaflbiBaeMaa Ha 
jio>Ke CBepxy, coeflHHaeTca c Mara3HHHoii KopoSKoii, BCTaBJiaeMoii b jio^Ke CHH3y. BbimeHa3BaHHbie 
bhhtm b 3aBepHyroM coctojihhh "crarHBaiOT" nepe3 jio>Ke 3th MeTajiJinnecKHe nacTH flpyr c flpyroM, 
o6pa3ya "noca^Ky" opy>KHa. Ctboji b nepeflHeii nacTH npnTarHBaeTca k jio>Ky nepe3 flepeB»HHyio 
CTBOJibHyio HaKJia^Ky ppyww jio>KeBbiMH KOJibuaiviH. MaraBHHHaa KopoSKa - niTaMnoBaHHO-CBapHon 
KOHCTpyKu,HH ((})oto 27) c noflaBaTejieM, KOTopbiM MO>KeT SbiTb jierKO otkpwt npn Heo6xo#HMOCTH H3- 
BJienb HepaccTpejiaHHbie naTpoHbi. 




cDoto 25. IlpaBHJibHO coSpaHHbie y^apHHK, h KypoK 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



16 




CDOTO 26. Ynop CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSlCH C BBHHHeHHbIM MajIbIM COeflHHHTeJIbHbIM BHHTOM 




cDoto 27. Mara3HHHaa KopoSica: 1 - Bbipe3 Rim OTceKaiomero 3y6a npy>KHHbi otcchkh- 
OTpa>KaTejia 

1 




k 



2 



cDoto 28. OnopHbiM Harenb 



cDoto 29 




cDoto 30 

KanHTaH Mochh npoflyMan CHCTeMy TaK, hto reoMeTpHeM fleTajieM nonaBinaa b MexaHH3M rpa3b 
npn ^BH>KeHHH 3aTBopa OTSpacbiBaeTca hjih Hapy>Ky, hjih b jno(|)Tbi h nonocTH CHCTeMbi, OTKy^a rpa3b 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 17 

h necoK Bee paBHO BbiTanKHBaiOTca 3a npeflejibi opy>KHa flBH>KymHMHca HacTaMH. 3aTBop bhhtobkh, 
HMea jiio(})Tbi b coHJieHeHHH cbohx fleTaneii, mtokct cnerKa "H3rn6aTbca" no och, "oSxofla" npn npo- 
flOJibHOM ^BH>KeHHH necoK, nonaBniHH b CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy. Ecjih necKa Hacbinanocb CTOJibKO, hto 
3aTBop y>Ke He 3aKpBiBaeTca, opy>KHe ^ocTaTOHHO npoTepeTb TeM, hto ecTb no# pyKoM, BbiHyB 3aTBop h 
noflaBaTenb Mara3HHHOH KopoSiCH. Ho ,ua5Ke HeHHmeHaa TpexjiHHeiiHaa BHHTOBKa bo (})poHTOBbix 
ycnoBHax MO>KeT SKcnjiyaTHpoBaiBca SecKOHenHO aojito. Pa3yMeeTca, H3 yBa>KeHHa k opy>KHio ero 
Ha^o hhcthtb, h neM name, TeM Jiynine. J\qtsljik bhhtobkh MocHHa He xpoMnpoBaHbi h noaTOMy nofl- 
Bep>KeHbi HHTeHCHBHOMy p>KaBJieHHK). Bpar HOMep o#hh opy>KHa - p>KaBJieHHe BHyTpeHHHx noBepxHO- 
creM. IIpH 3tom yBejiHHHBaiOTca HeHy>KHbie jikxJjtm, MexaHH3M HanmiaeT "cTynaTb", pa36poc CTBOJia 
yBejiHHHBaeTca. KaHan CTBOJia h naTpoHHHK hjokho hhcthtb nocne Ka>KflOH CTpejitSw, Jiynnie Bcero 
epuiHKOM, CMOHeHHbiM KepocHHOM. KepocHH flOBOJibHO SbiCTpo "oTbeflaeT" H3 nop MeTamia n Harap, n 
p>KaBHHHy. Hhcthtb Hy>KHO n nameHKy SoeBon jihhhhkh 3aTBopa; npopBaBmneca nepe3 3a3op Kan- 
cioJibHoro me3fla arpeccnBHbie ra3bi ^encTByiOT Ha Hee pa3pyniaiome. CMa3biBaTb mo>kho TOJibKO Me- 
TanjiHHecKHe ^eTanH. ^epeBO ot opy>KeHHoro Macua CTaHOBHTca xpynKHM. 

B Pocchhckoh HMnepnH, a 3aTeM b CCCP TpexjiHHenHaa BHHTOBKa HeoflHOKpaTHO noflBepranacb 
MOflHC^HKannn. H b nepBbiii pa3 b 1910 rofly, Kor^a Ha BOopy>KeHHe Sbiji npHrorr Sojiee chjibhbih na- 
TpoH c ocTpoKOHenHOH nyneii. Tor^a Ha opy>KHH noaBHJiacb npnnejiBHaa paMKa KoHOBanoBa h onop- 
Hbiii Harenb ((J)oto 28), KOTopbiii BOcnpHHHMan HMnyjibc noBbinieHHOH OT^ann ot onopHoro BbiCTyna 
ctbojibhoh KopoSiCH. Ha BHHTOBKe noaBHJiacb CTBOJibHaa HaKJia^Ka, npeflOxpaHaiomaa pyKn CTpejiKa 
ot o>KoroB. Ha nexoTHOM BapnaHTe CTBOJiBHaa HaKJia^Ka "npnxBaTbiBanacb" BHHTOBbiMn jio>KeBbiMH 
KOJibu,aMH, Ha AparyHCKOM - pa3pe3HbiMH npyacHHHbiMH. KpoMe sthx o6pa3noB BBinycKanca TaK>Ke ko- 
POtkhh KaBanepHHCKHH KapaSnH /urn Ka3anbnx n nuacTyHCKnx nojiKOB. 

Opyacne, BbinycicaeMoe b "HMnepaTopcKoe" BpeMa, Sbijio npeBoexoflHoro KanecTBa. KynHOCTb 
6oa nexoTHon bhhtobkh o6pa3na 1910 rozja "Ha cto ca>KeHb" (180 MeTpoB) SbiJia "4,5x3,5 fliOHMa" 
(11x8 cm). TaK CTpenajiH oSbiHHbie cepnHHbie bhhtobkh oSbihhbimh "BanoBbiMH" naTpoHaMH. Toh- 

HOCTb H3rOTOBJieHHa H HHCTOTa o6pa6oTKH B HaHie BpeMS BbI3bIBaiOT TOJibKO BOCXHIHeHHC MeTOfl 

"rocnpneMKH" Toro BpeMeHH Sbiji npocT: cto bhhtobok pa36HpanHCb #o BHHTHKa, fleTann CMeniHBa- 
jiHCb b Kyny, n noTOM opy>KHe CHOBa coSnpajiH. npn kohtpojibhom OTCTpejie Ha "cto ca^KeHb" pa36poc 
Ka>KflOH bhhtobkh He flOJDKeH Sbiji npeBbiuiaTb ycTaBHoro ypoBHa. HHane SpaKOBanacb bcs napTHa b 
HecKOJibKO Tbican HiTyK. BnponeM, TaKne cjiynan Sbijih Hpe3BbiHanHO pe^Kn. 

nocne 1931 rofla BbinycKanncb bhhtobkh tojibko flparyHCKoro (cnerKa yKopoHemioro) oSpa3na. 
CncTeMa SbiJia npe#ejibHO ynpomeHa: rpaHeHaa CTBOJiBHaa KopoSKa crana KpyraoH, SyKOBBie h ope- 
xoBbie jio>Ka 3aMeHHJiH Ha 6epe30Bbie, a npHnejibHyio paMKy KoHOBanoBa - Ha ceKTopHyio. H3MeHHJin 
KpenneHHe HiTbiKa: paHbnie oho 6bmo c bhhtoboh 3aTa>KKOH, noTOM CTano c oSbiKHOBemiOH 3ameji- 
koh. CneiniajibHyio "Sejiyio" CTaub HienTana-npy>KHHbi 3aMeHHJin Ha oSbiKHOBeHHyio nepHyio. Ewjih h 
Apyrne ynponieHHa, BCJieflCTBne nero KynHOCTb 6oa bhhtobkh yxyflimijiacb. nojio>KeHHe He cnacjio h 
to, hto BMecTO Tpex Hape30B b KaHane CTBOJia CTann RQjiarb neTbipe. CHannepw c Tex nop h ^o cero 
BpeMeHH BbiHy>KfleHbi OTSnpaTb nyreM npncTpejiKH ocoSo y^aHHO H3roTOBJieHHbie ctbojiw. KpoMe to- 
ro, npnxoflHTca OTJiaacHBaTb MexaHH3M opy>KHa h noca^Ky MeTamiHHecKHx nacTeii Ha jio>Ke. npn stom 
oSpamaiOT BHHMaHHe Ha cocTbiKOBKy noBepxHOCTH onopHoro BbiCTyna ctbojibhoh kopoSkh (7 Ha (})0- 
to 26) c onopHOH nnoniaflKOH Harena (1 Ha (})oto 28). 3th noBepxHOCTH flOJDKHbi KOHTaKTnpoBaTb no 
Been CBoeii njioma^H. OSpaTHTe BHHMaHHe Ha "3anbicnHbi", yKa3aHHbie CTpenKaMH 1 Ha (})oto 26 h 2 
Ha (J)oto 28. Ohh 03HanaiOT, hto HMnyjibc OT/jaHH npHHHMaeTca HareneM cSoKy, c oahoh CTopoHbi. 
Boh TaKoii bhhtobkh He 6y#eT TOHHbiM. ^Jia nojmoro KOHTaKTa no Been noBepxHOCTH BbinieyKa3aH- 
Hbie fleTanH flpyr k flpyry noflroHaiOTca Hafl4)HJieM. y coSpaHHon bhhtobkh Ha^o "noca^HTb" ctboji: 
npn cnerKa OTnynieHHbix coeflHHHrejibHbix BHHTax BHHTOBKy HecKOJibKO pa3 yflapnrb npnKJia/iOM 06 
non, nocne nero bhhtm 3aT»HyTb. Ctboji He flOjraceH "SojiTaTbca" Meac^y jioaceM h ctbojibhoh HaKnafl- 
hoh, fljia 3Toro ero ca>KaiOT Ha npoKnaflKy-cajibHHK, H3roTOBJiaeMbiii H3 xjionHaTo6yMa>KHOH SaiiKH 
(cipejiKa 1 (})oto 29). CTapwe MacTepa TepnejiHBO BbiSnpanH nycTOTbi b ctbojibhoh HaKna^Ke h jio>Ke, 
a ctboji ca>KajiH Ha j\&& canBHHKa, Me>Kfly kotopbimh oh He Kacanca ^epeBaHHBix nacTen BOoSme. Hto- 
6bi niOMnoji He SojiTanca, Meac^y hhm h jioaceM CTaBHJiacb MarKaa npoKJia^Ka (5 Ha (})oto 23). MoK^y 
rpeSHeM 3aTBopa h jiojkcm TaK>Ke noflKJieHBanacb MarKaa 4)eTpoBaa npoKJia^Ka (cTpejiKa 7 Ha (})oto 
30). Hhhto He flOJi>KHO CTynaTb: jihhihhh CTyK - 3to Jinnmee coTpaceHne, Jinnmaa CTeneHb SoKOBoro 
CMemeHHa nyjin. CTapbie CHannepbi CTpejiajin tojibko co hitbikom flopeBOJnou,HOHHoro BbinycKa. Ta- 

KOH HITBIK, nJIOTHO 3aT3HyTBIH Ha CTBOJie BHHTOM, CJiy>KHJI KaK npoTHBOBec h coKpaH(aji coScTBeHHbie 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



18 



KOJieSaHHa CTBOJia npn BbiCTpene. Ha^ peryjinpoBKOH h OTJia^KOH opy>KHa CHaMnepw paSoTann nocTO- 
shho. Xoponio OTJia>KeHHaa BHHTOBica c otSophwm ctbojiom h SbiJia cnocoSiia ^ocTaTb uejib "mok^y 
rjia3" Ha paccToaHHH 800 MeTpoB. 3to 3aBHflHaa tohhoctb #a>Ke fljia coBpeivteHHoro cnopTHBHO- 
uejieBoro opy>KHa. J\im CHaMnepcKoro npHMeHeHHa Ha TpexjiHHeHHyio BHHTOBKy CTaBHJiHCb oimiHe- 
CKne npHu,ejibi ny ((})oto 31-33), a TaK>Ke npjmejibi MapKH IIE, IIB, oflHHaKOBbie no KOHCTpyKHHH, ho 
c pa3HbiMH KpoHHiTeiiHaMH. Ha CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkc pyKoaTKa 3aTBopa HMeeT yfljiHHeHHyio H30- 
rHyryio (})opMy H3-3a oimiHecKoro npimejia, Haxoflameroca CTporo Ha# ctbojibhoh kopoSkoh. IIo 
3toh >Ke npHHHHe 3apa>KaTb CHaMnepcKHe bhhtobkh h3 oSohmw He.iib3a. Mara3HH npHxofljrrca Hanoji- 
H»Tb, BKJiaflbiBaa naTpoHbi CBepxy o#hh 3a flpyrHM, npocTO Ha>KHMaa naTpoHOM bhh3. IlaTpoH, "npn- 
xBaneHHbiH" OTceHKOH-OTpa>KaTejieM, BBepx y>Ke He Bbina^eT. 

CTpejiHTb H3 TpexjiHHeHHOH bhhtobkh cjie^yeT, nnoTHO npn>KaB npHKJiafl k njieny, HHane bmccto 
rayxoro TOJiHKa npn BbiCTpene CTpenoK nonyHHT b njieno oneHb CHJibHbm y#ap, SyKBanbHO cSnBaio- 

IHHH C HOr. y npaBHJIbHO OTJia>KeHHOH BHHTOBKH BCer^a 6yRQT 3a30p MOKfly XBOCTOBHKOM CTBOJibHOH 

kopoSkh h Bbipe30M jio>Ka (cTpenKa 2 Ha (J)oto 21). Ecjih TaKoro 3a3opa HeT, npn BbiCTpene 6y#eT 
omymaTbca npoTHBHoe pe3Koe coTpacemie, hjih, KaK roBopaT, BHHTOBKa "flepeTca". 

Jlim nocTaHOBKH opy>KHa Ha npeflOxpaHHTenb npn 3aKpbiTOM 3aTBope h naTpoHe, HaxoflameMca 
b naTpoHHHKe, HeoSxoflHMo: OTraHyrb KypoK Ha3a# #o ynopa, He OTnycKaa, noBepHyrb ero npoTHB 
nacoBOH CTpenKH h OTnycTHTb (7 Ha (})oto 34). 3tot npouecc TpeSyeT 3HanHTejibHbix (})H3HHecKHx 
ycHJiHH. IIpH TaKOM nojio>KeHHH KypKa 6oeK He ^ocTaHeT #o KancKma h 3aTBop He OTKpoeTca. Bhh- 
TOBKa CHHMaeTca c npeflOxpaHirrejia b oSpaTHOM nopa^Ke. IIpH fljiirrejibHOM xpaHeHHH 3aTBop OTKpw- 
BaeTca, KypoK OTTarHBaeTca Ha3a#, noBopanHBaeTca npoTHB nacoBOH CTpenKH h OTnycKaeTca. B TaKOM 
nojio>KeHHH SoeBaa npy>KHHa OTnymeHa h He "BaHeT" (7 Ha (})oto 35). 




cDoto 3 1 . H3orHyTaa pyKoaTKa 3aTBopa He 3a#eBaeT 3a onrHnecKHH nprnjeji. Mara3HH HanojiHa- 
eTca Ha>KaTHeM naTpoHa CBepxy bhh3. Ha CHHMKe BH^eH naTpoH, y#ep>KHBaeMbiH ot Bbina^eHHa BBepx 
jionacTbio OTcenKH-OTpa>KaTejia 




cDoto 32. nocTaHOBKa oimiHecKoro npimejia ny: 

1 - BHHTbi /BepTHKanbHOH peryjiHpoBKH; 2 - 3annpaiomHH bhht (3aTaHyr) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



19 




cDoto 33. KperuieHHe onrHHecicoro npHuejia: 

1 - c(J)epHHecKaa onopa; 

2 - 3anHpaiomHH bhht (oTnymeH) 




cDoto 34. BHHTOBKa, nocTaBJieHHaa Ha npe/ioxpaHHTejib. KypoK 1 c chjioh OTraHyTb Ha3a#, no- 
BepHyTb npoTHB nacoBOH CTpenKH h OTnycTHTb. 2 - HeoSxoflHMbiM 3a3op 




cDoto 35. BHHTOBKa, nocraBJieHHaa Ha fljiHTenbHoe xpaHeHne. KypoK 1 OTTaHyr Ha3a# h noBep- 
HyT BJieBO 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 20 




cDoto 36. BwSop opy>KHa: 

- SoeBoii naTpoH c chjioh BCTaBHib b ctboji; 

- "npOKpyTHTb" HeCKOJIbKO pa3 

IIpH BbiSope bhhtobkh cjie^yeT ynecTb, hto cpe^n HOBoro opy>KHa ecTb MHoro SbiBiuero Ha 
(})poHTe h HCKycHO OTpecTaBpHpoBaHHoro. Opy>KHe, #OJiroe BpeMa SbiBiuee b ynoTpeSjieHHH, HMeeT b 
nepeflHeM nacTH KaHana CTBOJia "pacTpyS". B ctboji TaK hjih HHane nona^aeT nbuib, nacTHHKH KOTopoM 
fleMcTByiOT KaK Ha>KflaK, Kor^a npn BbiCTpene nyna "TaHeT" hx 3a coSoh. KaK.H3BecTHO, 1 rpaMM nbuin 
"bmhocht" 3a coSoh 1 rpaMM MeTamia. IIo3TOMy cymecTByeT npocToii cnocoS BbiSopa CTBOJia: c 
flyjibHoii nacTH b ctboji BCTaBJiaiOT nyjiio SoeBoro naTpoHa (c|)oto 36) h c chjioh npoBopanHBaioT ee 
TaM. Ha nyjie ocraeTca "noacoK" noTepTOCTH. HeM 6jm>Ke 3tot "noacoK" k HOCHKy nyjm, tcm Bbinie 
KanecTBO CTBOJia. TaKHM o6pa30M, H3 HecKOJibKHx ctbojiob mo>kho npeflBapHTejibHO BbiSpaTb jiyninHH. 
BbiBaeT, hto nyjia nojiHOCTbio npoBanHBaeTca b ctboji #a>Ke c ayjibneM rmib3bi. TaKoe opy>KHe 6beT 
CHJibHO, ho KyHHOCTH CTpejibSw He Sy^eT. Tor^a CBepjiOM cD-10 KaHan CTBOJia co ctopohm ^yjibHoro 
cpe3a BbiCBepjiHBaeTca Ha rjiySnHy 4-5 cm. PacrpyS npn 3tom "ySnpaeTca", KynHOCTb npaKTHnecKH 
BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeTca, ho opy>KHe Ha^o npHCTpejiHBaTb 3aHOBO. Ecjih naTpoHHHK pa3flyr HacTOJibKO, hto 
CTpejiaHbie rajib3bi He Bbixo^aT nocjie BbiCTpejia, naTpoHbi Heo6xo#HMO CMa3biBaTb napac|)HHOM. 

3a nponieflinee CTOJieTHe TpexjinHeiiHbix bhhtobok h KapaSnHOB Smjio H3roTOBJieHO HecKOJibKO 

fleCSTKOB MHJIJIHOHOB. KpOMe POCCHH, OHH npOHBBOflHJIHCb B CDHHJiaHflHH, IlOJIbnie, CepSlIH, AHrJIHH 

(TaK Ha3biBaeMbiii aHrjiHHCKnii 3aKa3 b IlepByio MHpoByio Boinry). B KaKHx CTpaHax BHHTOBKa CToajia 
Ha BOopy>KeHHH - nepenHCJiaTb ^ojiro. TpexjiHHeHHaa BHHTOBKa ynacTBOBana bo Bcex Boiniax 3Toro 
CTOJieTHa no BceMy 3eMHOMy niapy. H3 Hee CTpejiajiH b #>KyHrjiax HH^OKHiaa h JlaTHHCKoii AMepHKH, 
nycTbmax A(|)pHKH h CpeflHeM A3hh, Ha 3KBaTope h Ha CeBepHOM nojiioce. Ot Hee nacTO TpeSoBann 
HeB03MO>KHoro, h OHa HHRor^a He noflBOflHJia. 

K Heft npHBbiioiH HacTOJibKO, hto nepecTanH 3aMenaTb, KaK nepecTaiOT 3aMenaTb npHBbiHHyio 
6e30TKa3Hyio Bemb. BHHTOBKa MocHHa pa3bexanacb no CBeTy. Ilocjie BTopoft MHpoBoft bohhm npaBH- 
TejibCTBO CCCP BTaiiHe ot cbohx rpa>KflaH npoflaBano 3anacbi 3thx bhhtobok Sojiee neM b 40 rocy- 
flapcTB Mnpa. HecKOJibKO cotch Tbican pyccKnx bhhtobok Swjio npoflaHO... b CIIIA! H b opy>KeftHbix 
Mara3HHax sth bhhtobkh He 3ane>KajiHCb. TpexjiHHeftHyio BHHTOBKy He peKJiaMHpoBajiH - TaKoe opy- 
>Kne b peKJiaMe He Hy>KflaeTca. 

IIocjieflHee BpeMa nacTO roBopaT h nHinyr 06 OTcyTCTBHH b Pocchh cneiniajibHoft bhhtobkh 
TOHHoro 60a. J\&, ceftnac TaKoft bhhtobkh hct. A coBceM HeflaBHO SbiJia. Ha (})oto 37 npe^CTaBJieHa 

BHHTOBKa AB - CnOpTHBHblH BapHaHT TpeXJIHHeHHOH BHHTOBKH C yTOJIIHeHHblM CTBOJIOM OC060 TOHHOft 

o6pa6oTKH. KynHOCTb 60a TaKoro opy>KHa - 3x2 cm Ha flHCTamniH 100 MeTpoB nejieBbiM naTpoHOM. 
J\jih "nojinneftcKHx" nejieft 3Toro Bnojme ^ocTaTOHHO. Bhhtobkh AB nonijin Ha nepenjiaBKy, Kor^a b 
KOHu,e 70-x roflOB SoeBbie ctbojiw CHajin c OjiHMnnftcKoft nporpaMMbi. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



21 




cDoto 37. BHHTOBKa AB KajniSpa 7,62 mm 




cDoto 38. KapaSnH c onrHHecKHM npHuejiOM ny 

TpexjiHHeHHbiii KapaSnH (yKoponeHHbiH BapnaHT bhhtobkh) BnepBbie noaBnnca b 1 907 ro#y riis 
BOopyaceHHa KaBanepncTOB. HeMHoro MOflepHnBHpoBanca b 1938 ro^y, a b 1944 ro#y k HeMy Sbui pa3- 
paSoTaH HeoTi>eMHbiH otkh#hoh niTbiK. 3th KapaSnHbi c otSophmmh CTBOJiaMH hjih HBroTOBJieHHbie 
Ha 3aKa3 oSecnenHBanH KynHOCTb Soa 5x4 cm Ha ^HCTaHUHH 100 MeTpoB oSbiHHbiM naTpoHOM. IIo3to- 
My Ha hhx Hepe^KO CTaBHJiH onrHHecKHH npHueji ny h npHMeHajin ^Jia paSoTbi b pa3BeflflHBepcHOH- 
hmx rpynnax ((})oto 38). KopoTKHe KapaSnHbi OKa3anHCb npaKTHHHbiMH, MaHeBpeHHbiMH h y^oSHbiMH 
fljia paSoTbi b ycjiOBHax HacejieHHbix nyHieroB h no3TOMy npHMeHajincb b HKB,3„ KrB h mhjihhhh ^Jia 
o6e3Bpe>KHBaHHa BOopy>KeHHbix h ocoSo onacHbix "kjihchtob". B oSnxofle kopotkhh KapaSnH c ohth- 
necKHM npHu,ejiOM OKa3anca HacTOJibKO npaKTHHHbiM, hto npoflOJDKan npHMeHaTbca #a>Ke nocne bo- 
opy>KeHHa BbinieHa3BaHHbix bcaomctb xoponiHMH, ho npe3MepHO ^.jiHHHbiMH ^Jia "nojiHueHCKOH" pa- 

SOTbl aBTOMaTHHeCKHMH BHHTOBKaMH CB,3,. 

3a Tpyflbi Ha Siiaro OrenecTBa BbiconaHiHHM yKa30M KanHTaH Mochh Sbui nponBBefleH b hhh 
nojiKOBHHKa, h eMy Smjio no>KajiOBaHO 30 000 pySjieM 30jiotom, fleHbra HeMajibie, KOTopwe oh pa3#e- 
jihji c npH^aHHOH eMy SpHra#OH CJiecapeM, cpaSoTaBinnx nepBbie oSpa3Hbi HOBoro pyccKoro opy>KHa. 
Mochh yviep b 6e3BecTHOCTH. H3 ero bhhtobkh CTpenaiOT #0 chx nop. TaKTHKO-TexHHHecKHe ^aHHbie 

TpeXJIHHeHHOH BHHTOBKH npeflCTaBJICHbl B Ta6ji. 1 . 

TaSjiHua 1 

TaKTHKO-TexHHHecKHe flaHHbie TpexjiHHeiiHOH bhhtobkh 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



22 



KannGp 


7,62 mm 


KonmeciBO napesoE 


4 


riaipoH — aMepHKaHCKHH k ny neMeiy 

"M3KCHM" 


7,62x53 mm 


KonHiecTEonaipoHOE b MarasHHe 


5 


BeC EHHTOEKH 


4,0-^,2 kt 


BecKapa6nHa 


3,5kT 


/(jIHHa CO DTTEIKOM 


1660— L 734 mm 


/JjiHHa 6e3 mrEiKa 


123 8— 1306 mm 


.IJjiHHa Kapa6aHa 


1016— 1020 mm 


/JjiHHa Kapa6HHa 1944 r. oo dtteikom 


1330 mm 


BecnynH: 




jictkoh 


9,6 r 


sapsfl nopoxa 


305 r 


TBxenoH 


ll,8r 


sapsfl nopoxa 


3,10 r 


/(yjiBHaa 3Heprm nynH H3 ehhtoekh 




o6pasqa L9L0 r. TynoKoseHHOH 


v san 620 m/c 70 

w www 

KTM 


OCipOKOHeHBOH JieTKOH 


VH3H 880 m/c 

W WWW 

376 KTM 


oGpasqa 1908 r. xaxenoH 


v Ban BOO m/c 

Vv WWW 

376 KTM 


o&pasna L93 1 r. Jiencon 

•* ' WWWWWW 


v nan 865 m/c 

w www 

370kitm 


^anEHOcn, nonera nyim 




jiencon 


3,5 km 


TfixenoH 


5km 


^anEHOcn, fleHCTEHrejiBHoro ofhh: 




EHHTOEKa 


800 m 


Eapa6HH 


550 m 



CHAHIIEPCKAfl BHHTOBKA ^PArYHOBA 




cDoto 39. CHarniepcKaa BHHTOBKa ,HparyHOBa 

CaM03apaflHaa CHaMnepcKaa BHHTOBKa ^.paryHOBa (CBfl,) - coBpeivteHHoe opy>KHe CHaMnepcKoro 
npoMbicna, npeflHa3HaneHHoe fljia tohhoix) nopa>KeHHa OTflaneHHbix, Manopa3MepHbix, 3aMacKHpoBaH- 
hwx h TpyflHopa3JiHHHMbix u,ejieii ((J)oto 39). CaM03apaflH0CTb h flocTaTOHHaa eMKOCTb Mara3HHa (10 
naTpoHOB) oSecnenHBaiOT noBbinieHHyio CKopocTpenbHOCTb opy>KHa h MeTKOCTb nopa>KeHHa mhtokc- 
CTBeHHbix u,ejieH, He ^aBaa hm bo3mo>khocth yKpwTbca. 

BHHTOBKa KOMnneKTyeTca ohthhcckhm npimejiOM IICO-1 c yBejinneHHeM 4,3- YBejiHHeHHe h 
CBeTOCHJia npHuejia no3BOJiaiOT o6Hapy>KHBaTb h yHHHTO>KaTb Manopa3MepHbie, yflaneHHbie h 3aMac- 
KHpoBaHHbie u,ejiH #a>Ke b ycnoBHax iuioxoh bh^hmocth: b cyMepKax h TyMaHe. CoBepnieHHaa npn- 
u,ejibHaa ceTKa npimejia IICO-1 no3BOJiaeT 6e3 ^ajibHOMepa hctko onpeflenaTb flHCTaHu,Hio flo u,ejiH h 
SbiCTpo BHOCHTb nonpaBKH Ha ee flBH>KeHHe h CHJiy BeTpa. Ilpn HeoSxoflHMOCTH CTpenbSbi b TeMHOTe 
npHu,ejibHaa cerica CTaHOBHTca OTHeTJiHBO BH^Ha npn BKJiiOHeHHH cneu,HanbHOH noflCBeTKH. IlH(|)pa- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



23 



KpacHtie 3KpaHti, kotopwmh ocHameHbi CTaptie o6pa3u,bi npnnejiOB IICO-1, no3BOJunoT bccth 
CTpeubSy no neji»M, o6Hapy>KHBaiomHM ce6a b TeMHOTe CBeneHneM HH(|)paKpacHbix npo>KeKTopoB. 
UenrpajibHaa nacTb opy>KHa npeflCTaBJieHa Ha (J)oto 40, 41. 

IipHHnnn aBTOMaTHKH bhhtobkh CBfl ocHOBaH Ha HHepnnH noflBH>KHbix nacreM. 3annpaHHe 
CTBOJia >KecTKoe h nporoBOflnrca noBopoTOM 3aTBopa b 3aTBopHOH paMe. IIpH 3tom SoeBbie BbiCTynw 
3aTBopa BxoflaT b onopHbie bmtohkh CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh (nofloSHO TOMy, KaK SoeBbie BbiCTynbi Soe- 
boh jihhhhkh 3aTBopa Tpex' jiHHeiiHOH bhhtobkh oSpa3na 1891-1930 rr. npn ero noBopoTe 3axoflar 3a 
SoeBbie BbiCTynbi ctbojibhoh kopoSkh). 

TaKHM o6pa30M, nponcxoflnr >KecTKoe 3anHpaHHe CTBOJia, HeoSxoflHMoe npn CTpejibSe MomHbi- 
mh flanbHoSoHHbiMH SoenpnnacaMH. 

YflapHO-cnycKOBOH MexaHH3M - KypKOBoro THna. IIpH cnycKe KypKa noaneflHHH y/japaeT no 
y^apHHicy, pacnojio>KeHHOMy BHyTpn 3aTBopa, KOTopbin pa36nBaeT Kancionb. Ilpn cropaHnn nopoxo- 
Boro 3ap>ma, Kor^a nyna npoxoflnr no CTBOJiy n MHHyeT ra300TBO#Hoe OTBepcTne, nacTb nopoxoBbix 
ra30B nocTynaeT b ra30Byio TpySKy n ^BnraeT ra30Bbin nopmeHb, KOTopbin, b cboio onepeflb, #aBHT Ha 
TOJiKaTenb (iutok). IIocjieflHHH OKa3biBaeT BJinaHne Ha 3aTBopHyio paMy. Bee BbimenepeHHCJieHHbie 
nacTH Ha3biBaiOTca.noflBH>KHbiMH. K TOMy BpeMeHH KaK Bee 3th no#BH>KHbie nacrn, -HMeioinne cpaB- 
HHTejibHO Sojibinyio, HeM Macca nynn, oSinyio Maccy, npnflyr b 3aflHioio Kpanmoio TOHKy, nyjia y>Ke 
noKHHeT KaHan CTBOJia. Ho HHepnna oSinen Maccw no#Bn>KHbix nacTen ocTaHeTca. 3aTBopHa» paMa, 
OTKaTbiBaacb Ha3a# nofl flencTBneM chjim stoh HHepnnH, CBoen (})HrypHOH reoMeTpnen B03flencTByeT 
Ha 3aTBop n noBopannBaeT ero. IIpH stom SoeBbie BbiCTynbi 3aTBopa pacnennaiOTca c BbiTOHKaMH 
CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh h npoHCxoflHT OTnnpaHHe CTBOJia. JIshiqq 3aTBopHaa paMa tsuqt 3aTBop Ha3a#, oh 
Bbi6pacbiBaTejieM-3anenoM BbrracKHBaeT H3 naTpoHHHKa CTpejiaHyio rnjib3y, 3aKpanHa KOTopon HaTbi- 
KaeTca Ha OTpaacaioinnH BbiCTyn ctbojibhoh kopoSkh, nocjie nero rnjib3a BbiSpacbiBaeTca Hapyacy ne- 

pe3 BblBOflHOe OKHO KpbllHKH CTBOJibHOH KOpoSKH. 




cDoto 40. U,eHTpajibHaa nacTb bhhtobkh CBJl cnpaBa 




cDoto 4 1 . UenrpajibHaa nacTb bhhtobkh CB,H, cjieBa. JJ,im OTCoeflHHeHna npnnejia noBepHyrb Ha 
ceSa pynKy 3a>KHMHoro BHnra 1 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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cDoto 42. PaKypc co ctopohw BbiBOflHoro OKHa. 3aTBop yflep>KHBaeTca b 3a#HeM KpaftHeM nojio- 
>KeHHH noflHaTbiM ocTaHOBOM 3aTBopa: 

1 - BbiCTyn-OTpa>KaTejib CTpejiaHOH rajib3bi; 

2 - BbiSpacbiBaTenb 




cDoto 43. PaKypc co ctopohw Mara3HHa: 

- noflHaTbiM ocTaHOB 3aTBopa; 

- nc-flHJiTbiH no/iaBaTejib ocTaHOBa 3aTBopa 

^BHraacb Ha3a#, 3aTBopHaa paMa noBopanHBaeT KypoK BOKpyr och h b3boaht ero. IIo OKOHna- 
hhh HHepu,HH OT^aHH ycHJiHeM npy>KHHbi B03BpaTHoro MexaHH3Ma 3aTBopHaa paMa BMecTe c 3aTBOpOM 
B03BpamaeTca b nepeflHee nojio>KeHHe. Ecjih b Mara3HHe ecTb naTpoHbi, 3aTBop noflXBaTbiBaeT Bepx- 
hhh H3 hhx (iuih nocjieflHHii) h flocbuiaeT ero b ctboji. 3aTBopHaa paMa npoflOJi>KaeT flBiDKemie Bne- 
pefl, npn 3tom ee (JmrypHaa reoMeTpmi noBopanHBaeT 3aTBop BOKpyr och h nponcxoflHT 3annpaHHe 
CTBOJia. IIpH cjie^yiomeM BbiCTpene BbiineoniicaHHbiH u,hkji noBTopaeTca. 

Kor^a b Mara3HHe ropacxoflOBaH noaneflHHH naTpoH, noflaBaTejib Mara3HHa, noflHJiBiiiHHca k ero 
ropjiOBHHe, B03fleiiCTByeT Ha ocTaHOB 3aTBopa (7 Ha (J)oto 42, 43), KOTopbiM noflHHMaeTca h nperoiT- 
CTByeT B03BpameHHio 3aTBopa b nepeflHee nojio>KeHHe. B TaKOM anynae 3aTBop nocne BbiCTpena (no- 
CJieflHero) ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca b 3a#HeM KpaiiHeM nojio>KeHHH h BbiBOflHoe okho ocTaeTca OTKpbiTbiM. 
3thm CTpenoK npeflynpe>KflaeTca o pacxoflOBaHHH SoeKOMiuieKra. 

nocne 3ai\ieHbi nycToro Mara3HHa Ha nojiHbiM pyKOjrncy 3aTBopHOH paMbi ^ocTaTOHHO nyTb-nyTb 
noflaTb Ha3a^ (npn 3tom ocTaHOB 3aTBopa ocBo6o>KflaeTca h yxoflHT bhh3) h OTnycTHTb. Ilofl fleMcTBH- 
eM B03BpaTHoro MexaHH3Ma 3aTBopHaa paMa npoflBHHeTca Bnepefl, BHHTOBKa OKa>KeTca c naTpoHOM b 

CTBOJie H rOTOBOH K BblCTpeJiy. IIpH HeoSxOflHMOCTH BblCTpeJIHTb OflHHOHHbIM naTpOHOM npH BCTaB- 

jieHHOM Mara3HHe naTpoH nepe3 BbiBOflHoe okho "BflaBJiHBaeTca" b nonocTb Mara3HHa. IIpH 3tom 
"injianKa" naTpoHa flOJKKHa HaxoflHTbca nocpeflH rySoK Mara3HHa, TaM, r^e ohh pacninpeHbi cneu,H- 
anbHO fljia y/ioScTBa CHapjDKeHHa. nocne nero naTpoH He o6a3aTejibHO OTBOflHTb na.3a.ji: ero flocTaroH- 
ho npocTO "BTOJiKHyTb" norjiy6>Ke h npn>KaTb b CTopoHy, 3aTeM nyrb OTBecTH Ha3a# h OTnycTHTb 3a- 
TBopHyio paMy. 

IIpH CHapaaceHHH Mara3HHa Ka>KflbiH naTpoH, nocne Toro KaK oh 6y#eT "B^aBJieH hijijiiikoh" no- 
cpeflH rySoK Mara3HHa, OTBOflHTca Ha3a# #o ynopa, 3aTeM b Mara3HH aHanorHHHbiM o6pa30M "B^aBJiH- 
BaeTca" onepeflHoii naTpoH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



25 



IIpH CTpenbSe c onTHnecKHM npHu,ejiOM o6a3aTejibHO Hcnojib3yeTca cneu,HajibHaa Ko^aHaa me- 
Ka-noflCTaBKa, (^HKCHpyioiHaa nocroaHHoe nojio>KeHHe rojiOBbi. J\jis CTpejibSw OTKpbiTbiM npHu,ejiOM 
mexa He Hy>KHa. OHa KpenHrca h CHHMaeTca npn noMOiHH 3amejiKH. IIopjmoK pa36opKH bhhtobkh 
CBJl npeflCTaBJieH Ha ceprai 4)OTorpa(})HH 44-56. 

CSopKa npoH3BOflHTca b oSpaTHOM nopaflKe. 




cDoto 44. Ilepefl pa36opKOH: 

- Ha>KaTb 3amejiKy Mara3HHa 1 ; 

- H3BJienb Mara3HH 2 

- CHaTb npeflOxpaHHTenb, otbccth 3aTBop Ha3a#, npoBepnTb opy>KHe Ha OTcyrcTBHe naTpoHa 




■ 



cDoto 45. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

npn chstom npHHene noBepHyTb no nacoBOH CTpenKe flo OTKa3a 3aMbiKaTejib kpmhikh ctbojibhoh 
KopoSiCH 1 h nocTaBHTt ero Ha (|)HKcaTop 




cDoto 46. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

- OTfleJIHTb BBepX KpblHIKy CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSKH C B03BpaTHbIM MexaHH3MOM 1 , 

- npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH OTCTerayTb "meKy" 2 




cDoto 47. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

- 3aTBopHyio paMy no^aTb Ha3a# - 1; 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



26 



3aTBopHyio paMy H3BJienb BBepx - 2 




cDoto 48. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

3aTBop 1 noBepHyTt h H3BJienb H3 3aTBopHOH paMbi 2 




cDoto 49. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

3aMbiKaTejib 1 npn>KaTb k ra30BOH TpySKe 2 #o ynopa 




cDoto 50. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

- noBepHyTb 3aMbiKaTejib 1 no nacoBOH CTpenKe; ~ cflBHHyrb Bnepefl BepxHee ynopHoe kojibho 2 




cDoto 5 1 . Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

pa3BeCTH B CTOpOHbl CTBOJIbHbie HaKJiaflKH 




cDoto 52. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

TOJiKaTenb 1 OTBecTH Ha3a^, BbiBecTH H3 rae3fla nopuiHa 




cDoto 53. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

- TOJiKaTenb 1 noflaTb BBepx h OT^ejiHTb; 

- HBBJienb "k 3aTBopy" ra30BbiH nopuieHb 2 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



27 




cDoto 54. Pa36opKa bhhtobkh: 

- Ha>KaTb Ha 3amejiKy ra30BOH TpySicn 1 ; 

- kjhohom neHana 3axBaTHTb h BbiBHHTHTb ra30Byio TpySicy 2 




cDoto 55. ,H,eTajiH pa3o6paHHoro ra300TBOflHoro y3Jia 

1 - ra30Baa TpySica; 

2 - ra30Bbiii perynaTop; 

3 - ra30Bbiii nopnieHb; 

4 - TaracaTejib 




cDoto 56. MexaHH3M CBfl b pa3o6paHHOM BH^e 

H3 BHHTOBKH CBJl OrOHb MO>KHO BeCTH TOJIbKO OflHHOHHblMH BblCTpeJiaMH. HoCHMblH 6oe3anaC 

cocTaBJiaer 50 naTpoHOB (5 Mara3HHOB). B npeflejiax 3Toro KOJinnecTBa naTpoHOB BHHTOBKa He nepe- 
rpeBaeTca h He MeHaeT CTaSmibHOCTH 6oa fla>Ke npn HHreHCHBHon crpejibSe. 

B KOHCTpyKu,HH CBJi, npeflycMOTpeH ra30Bbin perynaTop (2 Ha (J)oto 55). Oh HeoSxoflHM #jia 
KoppeKTHpoBaHHa TpaeKTopHH noneTa nyjin no BbicoTe b 3HMHee h neraee BpeMa. JleTOM nojio>KeHHe 
ra30Boro peryurropa OTKpbiToe (7 Ha (})oto 57). 3hmoh, npn hh3khx TeMnepaTypax, Kor^a nacTb 3Hep- 
rnn nopoxoBoro 3apa#a pacxo/iyeTca Ha flonojiHHTejibHbin HarpeB CTBOJia, nojio>KeHHe ra30Boro pery- 
jiaTopa 3aKpbiToe (2 Ha (})oto 58). B neTHeM nojioaceHnn (N° 1) OTKpbiTO SoKOBoe OTBepcTHe b ra30Bon 
TpySice, h noaTOMy ^aBJieHne nopoxoBbix ra30B b CTBOJie HecKOJibKO na^aeT. CooTBeTCTBeHHO, iiohh- 
>KaeTca Tpaeieropna nojieTa nyjin. Ecjih neTOM nocTaBHTb ra30BbiM perynaTop b 3HMHee, 3aKpbiToe, no- 
jio>KeHHe (N° 2), to SoKOBoe OTBepcTne b ra30Boii TpySice nepeicpbiBaeTca, ^aBJieHne b CTBOJie noBbi- 
niaeTca n, CooTBeTCTBeHHO, Tpaeieropna noneTa nyjin noBbiniaeTca. IIpH TeMnepaType 25°C 
npeBbinieHHe TpaeKTopHH noneTa nyjin Ha flncTaHnnn 1 00 m c 3aicpbiTbiM perynaTopoM 6y#eT Ha 4 cm 
Bbinie, neM npn otkpwtom; npn TeMnepaType 30°C - Ha 5 cm Bbime. 3hmoh npn MHHyc 20°C npn ot- 
kpmtom ra30BOM perynaTope Ha toh >Ke flHCTaHUHH crpejibSbi TpaeKTopna nyjin 6y#eT Ha 7-8 cm hh- 
>Ke, neM npn 3aicpbiTOM (3hmhcm) nojio>KeHHH perynaTopa. ra30Bbin perynaTop 3aicpbiT h Tor^a, Kor^a 
H3-3a npe3MepHoro 3arpa3HeHna ra300TBOflHoro y3Jia b SoeBbix ycnoBHax, npn HeB03MO>KHOCTH pa30- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



28 



SpaTb H BblHHCTHTb Opy>KHe, aBTOMaTHKa BHHTOBKH HaHHHaeT OTKa3bIBaTb. IIpH TaKOM OTKa3e 3aTBop 

OTKpbiBaeTca 11a.3a.ji BpynHyio, a Bnepefl oh ^oxoflHT ycHJiHeM B03BpaTHOH npy>KHHbi. YcTaHOBKa ra30- 
Boro perynaTopa npe#CTaBJieHa Ha (})oto 59. 

CoScTBeHHO, H3 BHHTOBKH CBfl, MO>KHO CTpeJISTb H npH OTCyTCTBHH ra30BOrO nOpiHHa H TOJIKa- 

Tena, nepe3apa>Kaa opy>KHe BpynHyio. Cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa npn stom Ha ^HCTaHnHH 100 m no- 

HH3HTC3 3HMOH Ha 4-5 CM, HO KyHHOCTb 6oa 3aMeTHO B03paCTeT H3-3a OTCyTCTBHa BJIHSHHa B3aHMO- 
BHSpaHHH nOflBH>KHbIX HaCTeM. 

OcoSeHHOCTb BHHTOBKH CBJ\ - B03MO>KHOCTb SblCTpOTO CHJITH5I H SblCTpOH nOCTaHOBKH Ha nO- 

ca^OHHoe Kpene>KHoe MecTO (".nacTOHKHH xboct") onrnHecKoro npHnejia 6e3 yxy^HieHHa KanecTBa 6oa 
h MeTKOCTH CTpejibSbi. KpoMe Toro, fljia CTpeubSbi b tcmhotc Ha sto noca^OHHoe MecTO Kperorrca 
HOHHbie npnnejibi HCn, HCny h HCnY-3. 




cDoto 57. Ta30BbiH perynjrrop b HopManbHOM otkpwtom (neTHeM) nojio>KeHHH N 1 




cDoto 58. ra30BbiH perymrrop b 3aKpbiTOM (3HMHeM) nojio>KeHHH N 2 




cDoto 59. J\jui ycTaHOBKH ra30Boro perymrropa: 

- Ha>KaTb Ha 3amejiKy ra30BOH TpySKH 1 ; 

- b 3auenbi perymrropa 2 BCTaBHTb 3aKpanHy rnjib3bi h noBepHyTb perynjrrop 

Jinn nopa>KeHHa >khboh chum h3 bhhtobkh CBJl npHMeronoTca cnenHanbHbie naTpoHbi ocoSo 
TOHHoro 6oa no# Ha3BaHneM "cHannepcKHe". flna CTpejibSw no jierKoSpoHHpoBaHHbiM nejiaM ncnojib- 
3yK)Tca naTpoHbi TOHHoro 6oa co CTanbHbiM cepflenHHKOM c MapKHpoBKoft "cepeSpaHbiM hochk". (IIo- 
ApoSHee o flaHHbix Soenpnnacax cm. flanee.) IIpH CTpenbSe H3 CBJl, KaK h npn CTpenbSe H3 Tpexjin- 

HeHHOH BHHTOBKH, MOryT npHMeHSTbCa naTpOHbl C TJDKCIIblMH nyjiflMH, TpaccnpyiOHiHMH H 

6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbiMH, a TaK>Ke cnopTHBHO-nejieBbie naTpoHbi KannSpa 7,62 mm pa3JiHHHbix 
cepnn. 

BHHMAHHE! Be3 ocoSon HeoSxoflHMOCTH He cjie#yeT yBJieKaTbca crpejibSon TpaccnpyiomnMn 
h 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbiMH nynjiMH. Tpaccepw TaKnx nyjib Bbi^ejiaiOT npn cropaHHH xhmhhcckh 
arpeccHBHbie ra3bi, KOTopwe pa3pyniaiome ^encTByiOT Ha ctboji. ,3,eTajiH ra300TBO#Horo y3Jia no#- 

Bep>KeHbI HHTCHCHBHOMy p>KaBJieHHK), n03TOMy BHHTOBKy HeoSxOflHMO HHCTHTb (>KeJiaTCJIbHO o6e3BO- 

>KeHHbiM KepocHHOM) #a>Ke nocne OflHoro BbiCTpena. 3AIIPEIII,AETC.H HHCTHTb BHHTOBKy CTanbHbiM 
niOMnojiOM co ctopohw njiaMeracHTena (c ^yjibHOH Hac™): npn stom Me#JieHHO, ho BepHO CTHpaiOTca 
Hape3bi Ha Bbixo^e h opy>KHe TepaeT KynHOCTb 6oa. 

BoeBOH pecypc bhhtobkh CBfl npn npaBHJibHOM h CBoeBpeMeHHOM yxo^e cocTaBJiaeT 25 000 
BbiCTpenoB 6e3 yxyfliueHHa KyHHOCTH 6oa. 

MyniKa OTKpbiToro npHnejia nepeMemaeTca b no3y "nacTOHKHH xboct" (7 Ha (})oto 60). O^hh 
oSopoT MyniKH paBeH nepeMemeHnio cpeflHen tohkh nonaflaHna Ha 16 cm no bmcotc npn flHCTaHnnn 
CTpenbSbi 100 MeTpoB. Ha toh >Ke npncTpejiOHHOH flncTaHUHH oaho flejieHne ropHBonrajibHOH niKanbi 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 29 

ocHOBaHHa HaMyniHHKa (npeflOxpaHHiejui MyniKH) paBHO b npoeKUHH oahoh TbicanHOH, hjih nepeivte- 
meHHio cpeflHeM tohkh nona^aHHa no ropH30HTy Ha 10 cm (c|)oto 61). 




cDoto 60. MyniKa c HaMyniHHKOM h njiaMeracniejib. J\im ropHBOHTajibHoii npncTpejiKH MyniKa c 
HaMyniHHKOM (npeflOxpaHHiejieM MyniKH) nepeMemaeTca b "jiaciOHKHHOM xboctc" ^aBJieHHeM Myni- 
KOBOfla hjih y^apaMH MOJiOTOHKa no Me^HOMy niTH(})Ty 




cDoto 61. ropHBonrajibHoe nepeMememie MyniKH Ha oaho Manoe flejiemie niKanbi ocHOBaHna 
MyniKH 1 Bbi3biBaeT nepeMemefflie cpeflHeM tohkh nona^aHHa Ha o^Hy TbicanHyio flncTaHUHH #o nejin 

BHHMAHHE! Ilpn CTpejibSe H3 aScojiiOTHO hoboh bhhtobkh MO>KeT HaSjnoflaTbca HecTaSnjib- 
HOCTb 6oa: 2 nyjin BnpaBO, 3 nyjin bjicbo h t. n. 3to aBJiemie npeKpamaeTca nocjie HacTpena 350-400 
BbiCTpenoB, Kor^a paSonne noBepxHOCTH no#BH>KHbix nacreM "npnpaSoTaiOTCJi" flpyr k flpyry. HHor^a 
HecTaSnjibHOCTb HaSjnoflaeTca npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh 3aBe#OMO KynHoro 6oa. IIphhhhoh b TaKOM 
anynae MoryT nocjiy>KHTb nnoxo 3aTaHyTbie bhhtw KpenjieHHa KpomnreHHa oniHHecKoro npnnejia 
hjih HenpaBHJibHoe npnjieraHHe BHyTpeHHnx KO>KaHbix canbHHKOB, Haxoflamnxcji b nonpaBOHHbix Me- 
xaHH3Max npnnejia (no^poSHee 06 sthx HencnpaBHOCTax cm. "IIpaKTHKa oniHHecKoro npnnejia", c. 
82). B nejiOM BHHTOBKa CB,3, oneHb y^anHO cSajiaHcnpoBaHa h He TpeSyeT flonojiHHiejibHbix peryjin- 

POBOK. 

3to opy^Kne noaBHJiocb b 1963 ropy h 3aMeHHJio caM03ap»flHyio BHHTOBKy ToKapeBa, KOTopaa 
npn 3KcmiyaTanHH TpeSoBana noBbinieHHOH KBanH^HKannn CHaiinepa h SbiJia meneTHJibHa b oSpame- 
hhh. BnHTOBKa CBfl, H36aBJieHa ot 3thx HeflocTaTKOB, Bbiflep>KHBaeT caMoe BapBapcKoe oSpamefflie, 
npocTa b 3KcnjiyaTau,HH h aScojiiOTHO Ha^e>KHa b Socbom npHMeHeHHH. CaM03apaflHaa BHHTOBKa ,3pa- 
ryHOBa npoeKTHpoBanacb KaK opy>KHe ocoSo TOHHoro 6oa fljia CHannepcKon paSoTbi b jhoSwx ycjiOBH- 
ax. IlepBbie cepnn bhhtobok npon3BOflnjincb H3 CTann oneHb xopomero KanecTBa, npn noBbinieHHOH 
tohhocth H3roTOBJieHna h 6e3yKopH3HeHHOH HHCTOTe o6pa6oTKH KaHana CTBOJia. KynHOCTb 6oa BHH- 
TOBOK CB,H„ H3roTOBJieHHbix b 60-e roflbi, SbiJia HeoSbinaiiHO BbicoKa ^a>Ke fljia HeaBTOMaTnnecKHx 
Mara3HHHbix bhhtobok. IIpH yKa3aHHbix b HHCTpyKUHH napaMeTpax pa36poca, He npeBbiiuaiomHx 8x8 
cm npn flHCTamniH CTpejibSw 100 MeTpoB, Hepe^KO mo>kho Swjio BCTpeTHTb 3K3eMnjiapbi c KynHOCTbio 
3x2 cm Ha toh >Ke flncTaHUHH cipejibSw. 

HanHHaa c 70-x ro^OB KanecTBO bhhtobok, nocTynaiomnx b BoncKa, pe3KO yxyfliunjiocb. B 
Heflpax UK KIICC bo3hhkjio MHeHne o HeHy>KHOCTH opyacna CBepxTOHHoro 6oa. 

OneHb BbicoKne rocyflapcTBeHHbie HHHbi CCCP onacanncb npnnejibHon CTpejibSw. HbHM-TO 
yKa3aHneM CHannepcKoe opy>KHe Swjio nepeBefleHO b pa3pafl jiHHeiiHoro. B 3th ro^bi b CCCP CHaii- 
nepcKaa noflroTOBKa b apMHH h ^OCAAO SbiJia nocTeneHHO CBe^eHa Ha HeT. 3aflanen apMencKoro 
CHaiinepa CTano He nopa>KeHHe nyneii tojiobhoh nejin Me>Kfly rjia3 Ha flncTaHnnn 400 m, KaK Swjio 
paHbuie, a nona^aHne Ha tom >Ke paccToaHHH b jnoSyio TOHKy MHinemi "nyjieMeT co btopmm HOMe- 

POM". 3T0 CHHTajIOCb flOCTaTOHHblM. 

,3,0 HacToamero BpeMeHH caM03ap»flHyio CHaMnepcKyio BHHTOBKy Sojiee TOHHoro 6oa, 6ojiee 
Ha#e>KHOH KOHCTpyKu,HH h MeHbHiero Beca co3#aTb TaK h He yflanocb. B MnpoBon opy>KeHHOH npaKTH- 
Ke CBJl npH3HaHa caMoii y^aHHOH SoeBoii chctcmoh CBoero KJiacca. Bojiee Toro, 3Ta BHHTOBKa CTana 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



30 



CBoeo6pa3HOH Bexoft b pa3BHTHH orHecTpenbHoro caM03apaflHoro opy>KHa. OHa opHrHHanbHO ckom- 
noHOBaHa, TmaTejibHO paccnnraHa MaTeMaTHHecKH h BbinojiHeHa c HeManbiM 3anacoM npoHHOCTH. 
BiiHTOBica CBJ\ He jiOMaeTca, He H3HauiHBaeTca h He OTKa3biBaeT. OHa Taic >Ke HenyBCTBHTejibHa k nbi- 
jih, rpa3H, necKy h MexaHHnecKHM yflapaM, KaK h aBTOMaT KananiHHKOBa. 3Ta CHCTeMa He Hy^aeTca 
b ^onojiHHTejibHbix peryjinpoBKax h OTJia^Kax. Eio npocTO nojib3yiOTca KaK 6e30TKa3HbiM SoeBbiM hh- 

CTpyMeHTOM. 

CoBeTCKHH Cok)3 3KcnopTHpoBan opyacne TOJibKO oneHb BbicoKoro KanecTBa. BnHTOBKy CBfl, 
hhkto h HHKorfla He peKJiaMHpoBan: OHa peKJiaMnpoBana ce6a caivta. 3a npouieflniHe ^ecaTHJieTHa 
npHu,ejibHaa CTpenbSa H3 Hee yHecua ^ecaTKH (ecjin He cothh) tmcjih >KH3Heii bo Bcex KJiHMaTHnecKHx 
30Hax 3eMHoro niapa. IIpHHeM ot CTpenaiomnx He nocTynano npeTeH3HH Ha OTKa3bi, Henoflany naTpo- 
hob, ocenKH h nponne 3a#ep>KKH. Ha pe3yjibTaTHBHOCTb CTpenbSbi HapeKaHHH TO>Ke He Smjio. IIocTe- 
neHHO 3to opy>KHe npnoSpejio ^OBOJibHO MpanHyio penyraHHio. BHHTOBKy CBfl, CTaBHiyio 3JiOBemeH 
jiereHfloii, opy>KeHHbie KOJiJieKHHOHepbi Ha 3ana#e CTapaiOTca 3anojiyHHTb BceMH npaB^aMH h HenpaB- 
aaMH - no npHHHHe noBbiuieHHoro SoeBoro B03fleHCTBHa OHa 3anpemeHa k cboSoahoh npofla>Ke b 
CTpaHax 3anaflHOH EBponw, CIIIA h KaHa^e. 

IIo TexHHnecKOH cxeMe CB,3, Swjih co3#aHbi ee yKoponeHHbiH BapnaHT CBY (cHaiinepcKaa bhh- 
TOBKa yKoponeHHaa) h oxothhhhh KapaSnH "THrp", KOHCTpyKTHBHO noBTopaiomHH CB,3„ ho 6e3 nna- 
MeracHTena h ra30Boro perymrropa, co CTHJiH30BaHHbiM npHKna^OM, npHcnocoSjieHHbiM ^Jia oxothh- 
Hbeii CTpenbSbi. 3KcnjiyaTaHHOHHO-6ajiJiHCTHHecKHe xapaKTepncTHKH bhhtobkh CBY h KapaSnHa 
"THrp" aHanorHHHbi xapaKTepHCTHKaM bhhtobkh CB,ZL TaKTHKO-TexHHnecKHe ^aHHbie bhhtobkh CB,H, 
npeflCTaBJieHbi b Ta6n. 2. 

TaSjiHua 2 



Bee 


4,3 KT 


J\rrrrrKt 


1225 mm 


/JlIHHa CTEOJia 


62 cm 


IUarHapesoE 


320 mm 


KonHHecrBO Hapesos 


4 (npaBoe EpameHHe) 


HaianEHaa CKopocTE 
nyjiH 


S36-B40m/c 


^anEHOcn, nojiera nyjin 


4000 m (naipoHa 
"cnaHnepcKHH") 


YGohhocte nyjiH 
coxpaaaercB Ha 
flHcraBUHHiiojieTa 


3E00m 


p ^HCI3HIXHH 

^eHCTEHTeiiEHoro oi*hh: 




no pocroEOH (jrarype 


Ao800m 


no ronoEHOH nenH 


Ao600m 


CKOpOCTpeJIBHOCTB 

npaKTHHecKaa 


30 BBicrpenoB e MHHyry 


Emkoctb MarasHHa 


10 naipoHOE 


KaHan CTBOJia 


xpoMHpoBaH 


KyraociE 6oa, 

nonoxesHaa 


4 EEicrpena Ha AHcraHqHH 100 
m no HHCTpyKnHH He aojxxhei 
bbewhhtb H3 Kpyra AHaMeipoM 

8 CM 


ripSMOH BBICTpeiT 




no rpyflHofi nenH 

BBICOTOH 50 CM 


450 m 


no ronoEHOH nenH 

BBICOTOH 30 CM 


350 m 


no pocxoBOH nenH 

BBICOTOH 150 CM 


600m 



BECUIYMHAil BHHTOBKA BCC ("BHHTOPE3") 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



31 



BiiHTOBKa cnennanbHaa CHannepcKaa BCC "BHHTope3" ((J)oto 62-64) no3BOJiaeT bccth SecniyM- 
Hyio h SecnjiaMeHHyio CTpejibSy h aBnaeTca opy>KHeM CKpbnoro Hana^eHHa h 3ainnTbi. 



cDoto 62. BCC. OSmnn bh# 



cDoto 63. BCC c jieBon ctopohw 




cDoto 64. BCC b npoc})HJib 

TjiynieHHe 3ByKa BbiCTpejia ocHOBaHO Ha HHTerpHpyiomeM npnHnnne. IIpH npoxo>KfleHHH nyjiH 
mhmo MHO>KecTBa OTBepcTHH b CTeHKax CTBOJia nopoxoBbie ra3bi npoHHKaiOT nepe3 hhx b pacmnpn- 
TejibHyio KaMepy rjiymnTejia He cpa3y, a nocneflOBaTejibHO. IIpH TaKOM nocneflOBaTejibHOM pacmnpe- 
hhh pacKaneHHbix nopoxoBbix ra30B hx TeMnepaTypa na^aeT, cjie#OBaTejibHO, coKpainaeTca oSbeM h 
"BbixjionHoe" ^aBJieHHe. KpoMe Toro, npn BbiHieonncaHHOM nponecce eflHHbin 3ByKOBOH Bbixnon #po- 
Shtcs Ha MHorae cocTaBJunomne. OcTaTOHHbie 3ByKOBbie BOJiHbi, OTpa^aacb ot koco nocTaBJieHHbix 
neperopoflOK cenapaTopa, HaKJia^biBaiOTca flpyr Ha flpyra b npoTHBonojio>KHbix (J)a3ax h B3anMHO no- 
rjioniaiOTca. 

H3 BHHTOBKH MO>KHO BCCTH OrOHb KaK OflHHOHHblMH BblCTpeJiaMH, TaK H OHepeflSMH. 

Jlirn CKpbiToro HonieHHa ot bhhtobkh OTflejiaKxrca npnneji, npHKJia/i h rayniHTejib. Bee 3th na- 
cth yKJia^biBaiOTca b raSapnibi 37x27x4,5 cm h Moryr nepeHOCHTbca b oSbiKHOBemiOM nopT(|)ejie. 

CTpenbSa npoH3BOflHTca cnennajibHbiMn naTpoHaMH CII-5 h CII-6. IlyjiH naTpoHOB CII-6 HMe- 
iot CTanbHOH cepflenHHK h nopoxoBon 3apafl, ycHJieHHbiH no cpaBHeHHio c naTpoHOM CII-5 Ha 20%. 
Ha flHCTaHu,HH 200 MeTpoB nyna naTpoHa CII-6 npoSnBaeT CTajibHon jihct TOJimnHon 6 mm, Ha #n- 
CTaHu,HH 500 MeTpoB - TOJimHHOH 2 mm npH 6e3ycjiOBHOM nopa>KeHHH >khbmx nejieii, HaxoflamHxca 3a 
3THMH yKpwTHaMH. OflHaKO 6e3 HeoSxoflHMOCTH CTpenaTb TOJibKO naTpoHaMH CII-6 He peKOMeH^yeT- 
ca, TaK KaK ohh Bbi3biBaiOT noBbiineHHbiH h3hoc CTBOJia n MexaHH3Ma opy>KHa. flua CTpejibSbi no He- 
SpoHnpoBaHHbiM nejiaM n fljia TpeHnpoBOK npnMeHaeTca naTpoH CII-5. EanjincTHKa naTpoHOB CII-5 n 
CII-6 pa3JiHHHa no BbicoTe TpaeKTopnn, nosTOMy BHHTOBKy Hy>KHO npncTpennBaTb OT^ejibHO no# 
Ka>Kflbin H3 3thx SoenpnnacoB. 

IipnnejibHaji ^ajibHOCTb no ronoBe - 200 MeTpoB, no Kopnycy - 400 MeTpoB. BnHTOBKa CHa6>Ka- 
eTca npnnejiaMn: onrnHecKHM IICO-1 n HOHHbiM HCIiy-3. 

KoHCipyKnna "BnHTope3a" npeflejibHO npocTa. OcoSemiocTb ee - yflapHO-cnycKOBon MexaHH3M, 
cocToamnn H3 y^apHHKa n flByx menraji - oaho fljia aBTOMaTnnecKoro, flpyroe fljia oflHHOHHoro ora. 
npnHnnn aBTOMaTHKn h 3annpaHH5i CTBOJia TaKon >Ke, KaK y aBTOMaTa KajianmnKOBa. Pa36opKa npefl- 
CTaBJieHa Ha (J)oto 65-78. CSopKa npon3BOflHTca b oSpaTHOM nopa^Ke. OcoSeHHOCTn ycTpoiicTBa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



32 



"BHHTope3a" h naTpoHOB k HeMy npeflCTaBJieHbi Ha (})oto 79-83. IlaTpoH CII-6 b pa3o6paHHOM BH^e 
npeflCTaBJieH Ha (})oto 84, 85. 

Pecypc bhhtobkh BCC o4)HHHajibHO cocTaBJiaeT 1500 BbicrpejiOB, ho npn CBoeBpeMeHHOM yxo- 
pp, HHCTKe h CMa3Ke 3to opy>KHe Bbiflep>KHBaeT flo 5000 BbiCTpenoB 6e3 yxy^nieHHa KanecTBa 6oa. 

IIpH paSoTe b CHannepcKon nape OflHOMy H3 CHaiinepoB oneHb >KejiaTejibHO HMeTb "BHHrope3". 
Oh HanHHaeT SecniyMHyio CTpeubSy, "cHHMaa" Tex, kto HaxoflHTca b 3a#HHx nopaflKax npoTHBHHKa. 
,H,pyroH CHannep, BOopy>KeHHbiH oSmhhoh bhhtobkoh, BKmonaeTca b coSbiTHa Tor^a, Kor^a npoTHB- 
hhk o6Hapy>KHBaeT pe3yjibTaTbi paSoTbi "SecmyMHHKa". B ^pyroM BapHanre CTpenoK c jnoSbiM "myM- 
hhm" opy>KHeM "o6Hapy>KHBaeT" ce6a CTpejibSoM, npoBOUHpya npoTHBHHKa Ha OTBeTHbie ^eiicTBHa. 
Ilocjie nero CHaMnep c "BHHrope30M" c 6jih3khx flHCTaminH nofl HiyMOBbiM npHKpbiTHeM HanapHHKa 
yHHHTO>KaeT BbMBJieHHbie oraeBbie tohkh npoTHBHHKa. OcoSemio 3(|)4)eKTHBeH "BHHTope3" Honbio c 
HOHHbiM npHu,ejiOM npn SoeBbix rqPlctbiwx b HacejieHHbix nyHierax. 

BnHTOBKa BCC CKOHCTpynpoBaHa fljia BbinojmeHHa tohhoh, aKKypaTHon h thxoh paSoTbi no 
npHHu,nny "yKycnn h CKpbuica". He cne^yeT yBJieKaTbca nacTOH h AJinrejibHOH CTpejibSoii H3 Hee. ^jih 

TOHHOCTH 60S JHO(})TbI MOKfly paSOHHMH nOBepXHOCTJIMH paSOHHX HaCTeH OCTaBJieHbl MHHHMajIbHblMH, 

h nocjie OTCTpena Tpex nonHbix Mara3HHOB OTJio>KeHHa nopoxoBoro Harapa OTpnnaTejibHO CKa3biBaiOT- 
ca Ha 6e3ynpeHHOCTH paSoTbi MexaHH3Ma. B HenpepbiBHOM pe>KHMe opy>KHe Bbi#ep>KHBaeT n Sojibinee 
KOJiHnecTBO BbiCTpejiOB, ho, octwb nocjie 3Toro, "BHHTope3" HanHHaeT "cnoTbiKaTbca". 3to aBJieHne 
ocoSeHHO flaeT o ce6e 3HaTb b cwpyio noro#y, h6o npn noBbimeHHOH BJia>KHOCTH B03flyxa nopoxoBOH 
Harap HMeeT cbohctbo "pa36yxaTb". IIo3TOMy BHHTOBKy Hy>KHO hhcthtb KaK mo>kho name, flna He- 
npepbiBHOH aBTOMaTHnecKOH SeciuyMHOH CTpeubSbi cymecTByeT aBTOMaT cnenHanbHbiii AC "BAJI", 
KOHCTpyKTHBHO noBTopaioinHH BHHTOBKy BCC, HMeiomHH SojibuiOH pa36poc nyjib. 

IIo npnHHHe Manoro Beca h cpaBHHTejibHO Ta>Kejioro y^apHHKa npn ero cnycKe h xo#e Bnepefl 
HaSniOflaeTca He3HanHTejibHoe CMemeHHe opy>KHa Ha3a# H3-3a peaKUHH SoeBoii npy>KHHbi. IIosTOMy, 
CTpenaa H3 BCC, CJie^yeT nnoTHee B>KHMaTb npnioiafl b rnieno. 

Jljm o6cjiy>KHBaHHa bhhtobkh Hcnojib3yeTca py>KeHHaa CMa3Ka P5K.OCT 38:01:439-88. 

BHHMAHHE! CMa3biBaTb naTpoHbi 3anpeinaeTC»! Ohh nocjie 3Toro He CTpejiaiOT! 

BHHTOBKa BCC, noaBHBHiaaca b KOHne 80-x ro^OB, 3a 10 neT CBoero cymecTBOBaHHa CTana 
opy>KeHHon jiereHflon. Ee b Sojibiuhx KOJinnecTBax 3aKynaiOT CIIIA h ^pyrae cTpaHbi. B SoeBOM npn- 
MeHeHHH "BHHTope3" Ha nopaflOK pe3ynbTaTHBHee Bcex H3BecTHbix o6pa3noB opy>Kna TaKoro Kiiacca h 
Ha3HaneHHa. IIpaKTHHHbie aiviepHKaHnbi iunpoKO pa3peKJiaMHpoBaHHbiM HaTOBCKHM CHCTeMaM npe#- 
noHHTaiOT SecniyMHyio h HeBH^HMyio CMepTb poccniicKoro npoH3BOflCTBa. TaKTHKO-TexHHnecKHe 



flaHHbie bhhtobkh BCC npeflCTaBJieHbi b TaSji. 3. 




cDoto 65. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- OT>KaTb 3amejiKy Mara3HHa 1 ; 

- OTCoeflHHHTb Mara3HH; 

- OTKpbiTb 3aTBop, npoBepHTb opy>KHe Ha OTcyTCTBne naTpoHa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



33 







cDoto 66. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- yromiTb 3amejiKy rjiyniHTejia 1 ; 

- noBepHyrt Kopnyc rayniHTejia 2; 

- OTflejiHTb Bnepefl - 3 




cDoto 67. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- yTonHTb 3amejiKy rjiyniHTejia 1 ; 

- oTflejiHTb u,eBbe 2 




cDoto 68. Pa36opKa rnyniHTejia: 

- OT>KaTb OTBepTKoft 3amejiKy cenapaTopa 1 ; 

- hiomiiojiom BbiTOJiKHyrb cenapaTop BHyTpb rayniHTejia 2 




cDoto 69. Pa36opKa rjiyniHTena: 
H3BJienb cenapaTop H3 rayniHTejia 




cDoto 70. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- yronHTb (})HKcaTop KpbiniKH 1 ; 

- OTflenHTb KpbiniKy 2; 

- yTonHTb 3amejiKy npracnafla 3; 

- OTflejiHTb npHKJiafl 4 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



34 




cDoto 71. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- ynop B03BpaTHOH npy>KHHbi noflaTb Bnepefl - 1 ; 

- noflHaTb BBepx -2 




cDoto 72. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

OTfleJIHTb B03BpaTHbIH MexaHH3M 1 




cDoto 73. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- HanpaBJiaiomHH hitok noflaTb k CTBOJiy 1 ; 

- BbiBecTH H3 onopHoro rHe3fla BBepx - 2 




cDoto 74. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- OTflejiHTb SoeByio npy>KHHy 1 ; 

- OTflejiHTb y^apHHK 2 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



35 




cDoto 75. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- 3aTBopHyio paMy noflaTb Ha3a# 

- nOflHSTb H OTfleJIHTb - 2 




cDoto 76. Pa36opKa "BHHTope3a": 

- 3aTBop OT^ejiHTb Bnepefl - 1 ; 

- ra30Byio TpySicy noBepHyrb h OT^ejiHTb nsaap, - 2 




cDoto 77. 3anHpaiomHH h y^apHbiH MexaHH3Mbi b paBoSpaHHOM coctojihhh 







CDOTO 78. BCC B pa306paHH0M COCTOJIHHH 




cDoto 79. ^.bipaBbiH ctboji SecniyMHoM bhhtobkh 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



36 




cDoto 80. Kopnyc rayniHTejia c npHuejibHbiMH npHcnocoSjieHHaMH h cenapaTop 




cDoto 8 1 . Ctboji co CTBOJibHoii kopo6koh h ra30BOH KaMepoM 




cDoto 82. PaSoTa npeflOxpaHHTe.ua h nepeBOflHHKa BH^a CTpejibSbi: 

- nocTaBJieHO Ha npeflOxpaHHTenb - 1 ; 

- nepeBefleHO Ha CTpenbSy oflHHOHHbiMH BbicTpenaMH - 2 

t 




cDoto 83. CnycKOBOH MexaHH3M: 

1 - Hienrajio aBTOMarHHecicoro orHa; 

2 - Hienrajio oflHHOHHoro orHa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



37 



Ooto 84. riaTpoH cn-6 




cDoto 85. rHJib3a h nyjia naTpoHa CII-6 co CTanbHbiM cepflenHHKOM 

TaSjiHua 3 

TaKTHKO-TexHHHecKHe flaHHbie bhhtobkh BCC 



KannGp 


9mm 


J\rrrrrKt 


894 mm 


IIInpHBa 


40 mm 


BbicoTa 


160 MM 


Bee c nycTEiM MarasHHOM h 6e3 
npHEiena 


2^6 KT 


Bee c nyeTEiM MarasHHOM h npnqejioM 

nco-L 


3,41 kt 


Bee c nyciBiM MarasHHOM h ErpaqejioM 

Hcny 


5,93 kt 


Emkoctb MarasHHa 


10 naipoHOE 


ripHEiejiB^ia ^ajiEHoeTE c onrarecKHM 

H OTKpEITBIM IipHEferBMH 


400m 


DpHEiejibBaa flanEHOcrb c onrmecKHM 

HOHHBIH npHEfCHOM 


300 m 


BecnaipoHa 


23r 


BecnyjiH 


16,2 r 


/JjiHHa naipom 


56 mm 


Ha^anEHaa cKopocxE noneia nynH 


290-300 m/c 


Teian cipejiB6bi 


60 EbicipejioE e 
MHHyxy 



MAJIOKAJIHEEPHME BHHTOBKH 



B cnopTHBHOH jiHTepaType npo hhx HanncaHO ^OBOJibHO MHoro. B oxoTHHHbeM npaKTHKe npn- 
MeHaiOTca bhhtobkh T03-8, T03-12, T03-16, T03-17, T03-18. CueflyeT OTMeTHTb, hto 0flH03ap>m- 
Hbie bhhtobkh T03-8, T03-12 h T03-16 HMeiOT Sojiee tohhmh 6oh no cpaBHeHHio c ^pyrHMH Bbime- 
ynoMaHyTbiMH MapKaMH, KOTopwe aBJunoTca MHoro3apaflHbiMH. J\qjio b tom, hto b MHoro3apa#Hbix 
Mara3HHHbix oxoTHHHbnx ManoKanHSepHbix BHHTOBKax oneHb HecoBepnieHHa no^ana naTpoHa H3 Ma- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 38 

ra3HHa b ctboji, BCJieflCTBHe nero nacTO npoHCxofljn nepeKocw, yibiKaHHa, MarKHe CBHHHOBbie nyjin 
fle(J)opMHpyiOTca npn oSpaTHOM xo#e 3aTBopa h npn noflane b ctboji. fl,e(})opMHpoBaHHaa nyna Bcer^a 
Sy^eT OTKJiOHaTtca b CTopoHy. KpoMe Toro, y sthx bhhtobok T»>Kejio 3aKpwBaiOTca 3aTBopw. 

B npaKTHKe 6opb6bi c TeppopH3MOM MajioKajinSepHbie bhhtobkh npHMeronoTca #jia tohchhoh 
CTpenbSbi npn o6e3Bpe>KHBaHHH BOopy>KeHHoro h ocoSo onacHoro KOHTHHreHTa b HacejieHHbix nyHK- 
Tax, r^e HOKenaTejibHO CTpejurrb H3 SoeBoro flanbHoSoHHoro h CHJibHoro opy>KHa. fljia 3Toro oSmhho 
Hcnojib3yiOTca cnopTHBHbie MajioKannSepHbie bhhtobkh MH.-12, "CTpena", "Tanra", CM, CM-2, 
"Ypaji", "ypan-2", KynHOCTb 6oa KOTopbix HeoSbiHaiiHO BbicoKa. y cepninibix bhhtobok TaKoro THna 
KyHHOCTb 6oa cocTaBJiaeT oSmhho 18x12 mm Ha flHCTamniH 100 m npn CTpejibSe uejieBbiMH naTpoHa- 
mh. TaKaa KynHOCTb no3BOJi»eT oneHb 3(})4)eKTHBHO "^ocTaTb" TeppopncTa, yKpbiBaiomeroca 3ano>KHH- 
kom, Ha paccToaHHH flo 70 m, ecuH BHHTOBKa ocHameHa AHonipHHecKHM npHuejiOM, h Ha ^HCTaHnHH 
200 m, ecuH Ha BHHTOBKy nocTaBJieH oniHHecKHH npnueji. JIshiqq 200 m acJ^eKTHBHO CTpejurrb no >kh- 
boh uejiH oSbiHHbiM cnopTHBHbiM ManoKanHSepHbiM naTpoHOM npoSjieMaTHHHo: nyjia TepaeT cko- 
pocTb, CTaHOBHTca "HeySoHHoft" h ee HannHaeT "chochtb" aTMOC(j)epHbiMH B03MymeHHaMH. 

KpoMe Toro, Ha npecTynHbiM ajieMeni, oSjia^aiomHH noBbinieHHOH ncnxo3HepreTHKOH (a Teppo- 
pncTbi oSbiHHO TaKHMH h SbiBaKxr) CBHHnoBaa ManoKajiHSepHaa nyna oSbiHHoro cnopTHBHoro naTpoHa 
He OKa3biBaeT flOJDKHoro ocTaHaBJiHBaiomero fleiicTBHa. EbiBanH cjrynaH, Kor^a #a>Ke npn nona^aHHH 
ManoKajiJiSepHOH nyneii b cep^ne hjih ronoBy B3BHHHeHHbie h o#ep>KHMbie ySjiiOflKn Ha 3anacax a#pe- 
HanHHa flBHranncb eme ^OBOJibHO flOJiro h OKa3biBaiiH arpeccHBHoe conpoTHBJieHHe. IIosTOMy npn- 
3HaHO uejiecoo6pa3HbiM npHMeronb MajioKajinSepHbie naTpoHbi SoKOBoro oraa noBbinieHHOH moiijho- 
cth c nojiyoSojioneHHOH nyneii, KOTopwe b noaneAHHe ro^bi CTann npoHBBOflHibca Ha 3ana#e h 
nocTynaTb b CHr ajih npofla>KH b opy>KeHHbix Mara3HHax. CKopocTb nyjib TaKoro naTpoHa b 1,5-2 pa- 
3a Sojibine, neM y oSbiHHoro cnopTHBHoro Soenpnnaca. nojiyoSojionenHaa "aKcnaHCHBHaa" nyna npn 
nona^aHHH b >KHByio TKaHb "pa3BopaHHBaeTca" h tcm caMbiM OKa3biBaeT noBbinieHHoe ocTaHaBJiHBa- 
iomee ^encTBHe Ha npoTHBHHKa. HanpHMep, MajioKajmSepHbie aMepHKaHCKne naTpoHbi "CTHHrep", 
HMeiomHe oSbiHHbie jiHHeiiHbie pa3Mepw, c nojiyoSojioneHHOH nyneii npn^aiOT eM HanajibHyio cko- 
pocTb 480 m/c. IIpH nona^aHMH b ronoBy TeppopncTa TaKaa nyna OKa3biBaeT rqPlctbkq, no#o6Hoe nyne 
nncTOJieTa TT (npoBepeHO b ropo#e X npn 3a#ep>KaHHH BOopy>KeHHoro h ocoSo onacHoro npecTyn- 
HHKa). ManoKanHSepHbie nyjin oneHb SbiCTpo "Ba3Hyi" b B03flyxe h He jictst #aJieKO, KaKoii 6bi bbico- 
koh HanajibHOH CKopocTbio ohh hh oSnaflajiH. KpoMe Toro, ohh flaiOT "HeflaneKHe" pHKOineTbi ot creH, 
ctojiSob h t. %. IIo3TOMy CHaiinepy KOHipTeppopHCTHHecKoii rpynnbi h ero HananbCTBy cjie^yeT 3HaTb 
o TaKHX ocoSeHHOCTax MajioKaniiSepHoro opy>KHa ^Jia ero B03MO>KHoro npHMeHeHHa b HacejieHHbix 
nyHKTax. 

CTpejiHTb naTpoHaMH "CTHHrep" no TeppopncTy oneHb xopomo, ho, k co>KajieHHio, TaKne Mom- 
Hbie naTpoHbi Bbiflep>KHBaeT He BcaKaa MajioKajinSepHaa BHHTOBKa. y SojibniHHCTBa nx 3annpaHne 3a- 
TBopa nponcxoflHT b oflHOM MecTe: Ha ero pyKoaTKy, KaK y OKOHHoro mnHHraneTa (7 Ha (})oto 86). H 
no3TOMy TaKoii npHMHTHBHbiH y3en "oAHonjienero" 3annpaHHa SbiCTpo H3HamnBaeTca, 3aTBop Hann- 
HaeT "SojiTaTbca", noaBJiaiOTca npoflOJibHbie jikxJjtm, BHHTOBKa HannHaeT ^enaTb ocenKn, He BbiSpa- 
CbiBaTb CTpejiaHyio rnjib3y. B KOHue kohu,ob yBejiHHHBaeTca 3epKanbHbin 3a3op 3aTBopa (noflpoSHee 
cm. pa3flen 8 "Teopna opy>KHa h SoenpHnacoB") h rajib3a HannHaeT pa3pwBaTbca b naTpoHHHKe npn 
BbiCTpejie. 

^jia CTpenbSbi naTpoHaMH noBbimeHHon mouihocth npnroflHbi TOJibKO Te ManoKannSepHbie bhh- 
tobkh, y KOTopwx 3aTBop 3aKpwBaeTca Ha ^Ba n Sojiee CHMMeTpHHHO hjih acHMMeTpHHHO pacnojio- 
acemibix SoeBbix BbiCTyna, HanpHMep cnopTHBHbie bhhtobkh MU.-12, "CTpejia", "Tanra", "ypan", 
"ypaji-2" h BHHTOBKa "BHaTJiOH-6" ((})oto 87). IIocjieflHioio CJie^yeT otmcthtb ocoSo. Ee 3annpaHHe 
nponcxoflHT Ha Tpn acnMMeTpHHHbix SoeBbix BbiCTyna 3aTBopa (2 Ha (})oto 86). Ctboji HMeeT mecTb 
MejiKHx Hape30B, KaK Hejib3a Sojiee npHcnocoSjieHHbix fljia CTpejibSw naTpoHOM c oSojioneHHon hjih 
nojiyoSojioneHHOH nyjieii. IlaTpoHbi H3 njiacTMaccoBoro Mara3HHa no^aiOTca 6e3ynpenHO, 6e3 fle(J)op- 
Mau,HH nyjin, yibiKaHHH h nepeKocoB. Ha "jiacTOHKHH xboct", BbinojiHeHHbiii Ha BepxHen noBepxHOCTH 
CTBOJibHoii kopoSkh, mo>kho jierKO CTaBHTb onTHHecKHH npHu,eji ((J)oto 88). ^aHHaa opy>KeHHaa CH- 
CTeMa "jierKa b xo^y", to ecTb 3aTBop JierKO OTKpwBaeTca h 3aKpwBaeTca npn nepe3apa^Ke. BHHTOBKa 
HenpnxoTJiHBa, HMeeT oneHb KynHbiii 6oh h aScojiiOTHO 6e30TKa3Ha b jnoSbix KJiHMaTHnecKHx ycjiOBH- 
ax. 3to opyacne HeoflHOKpaTHO Hcnojib30Banocb CHannepaMn-SHaTJiOHHCTKaMH b ropannx TOHKax co- 
BpeMeHHoro CHr h K)rocjiaBHH. B SoeBOM npHMeHeHHH npoaBHJio ce6a 6e3ynpeHHO. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



39 




cDoto 86. 3aTBopbi ManoKajiHSepHbix bhhtobok: 

1 - T03-8 T03-12; 

2 - "EiiaTJiOH-6". Bh^ho ffsa SoeBbix BbiCTyna H3 Tpex 




cDoto 87. MajioKajniSepHaa BHHTOBKa BH-6 KajniSpa 5,6 mm Sokoboix) oraa c onrHnecKHM npn- 

u,ejioM ny 




cDoto 88. KpenneHHe onrHnecKoro npHuejia Ha bmhtobkc BH-6. "OKHa" napHoro KpoHHiTeHHa 

n03BOJIHK)T npHUeJIHBaTbCa OTKpblTbIM npHU,eJIOM 1 

BHHMAHHE! Bonee coBpeMeHHaa BHHTOBKa "BHaTJiOH-7" c "miaBaiomHM" niapHHpHbiM 3aTBO- 
poM Ha CTpeubSy naTpoHaMH noBbinieHHOH moihhocth He paccHHraHa. Tohho TaK >Ke He npHcnocoS- 
jieHbi fljia TaKOH paSoTbi oneHb xoponiaa BHHTOBKa "BHaTJiOH-4" h cnopTHBHbie bhhtobkh CM, CM-2, 
oxoTHHHbH bhhtobkh T03-8, T03-12, T03-16, T03-17, T03-18. 

Jlirn nocTaHOBKH onTHnecKoro npHuejia Ha MajioKajinSepHbie bhhtobkh, HMeiomne "nacTOHKHH 
xboct" Ha BepxHen nacTH ctbojibhoh kopoSkh, Hcnojib3yiOTca oSbiHHbie KpenneHHa, KOTopwe npo#a- 
K)Tca b opy>KeHHbix Mara3HHax. Ecjih TaKoro noca^OHHoro MecTa HeT huh npHueji Hy>KHO nocTaBHTb 
cSoKy, to flua nocTaHOBKH npHuejia Ha Kpyrnyio CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy Hcnojib3yeTca KpoHinreHH npH- 
uejia ny. Ero ocHOBaHne cnpoeKTHpoBaHO hmchho fljia ycTaHOBKH cSoKy Ha CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy, 
HMeiomyio Kpyrayio (})opMy (cm. (J)oto 66 h cxeMy 8). 

APMEHCKHE CHAHIIEPCKHE nPHIJEJIM 

Elocjie peBOJHOHHH h rpa>KflaHCKOH bohhbi "npoMbicen" mctkhx CTpenKOB KyjibTHBHpoBanca b 
CHCTeMax BHK, OEEiy, HKB,ZL EcTecTBeHHO, fljia 3Toro npHBJieKanHCb Jiynnine HHCTpyKTopbi h opy- 
>KeHHHKH, THiaTenbHO OTSnpajiocb opy>KHe OTenecTBeHHoro npoHBBOflCTBa h 3aKynanocb Bee Jiynniee, 

HTO 6bIJIO B HHOCTpaHHOH Opy>KeHHOH npaKTHKC CBOHX OnTHHeCKHX npHHeJIOB b CCCP Tor^a He 6bl- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



40 



no. IIo3TOMy b TepMaHHH Swjih 3aKymieHbi oneHb xopoinne onrHnecKHe npHnejibi, KOTopbie b Hanane 

30-X TOflOB npOH3BOflHJIHCb B CCCP no JIHLI,eH3HH. 

IIo3flHee Ha 3thx npnnejiax HeMHoro HBMeHHJin KOHCTpyicnHio nonpaBOHHbix MexaHH3MOB, h 
ohh nojiyHHJiH HaHMeHOBaHHe IIE (npHneji EivtejibjiHOBa) ((J)oto 89). OnrnHecicaa cxeMa npnnejia 
ocTanacb npaKTHnecKH 6e3 H3MeHeHHH. Kaic n y HeMenicoro npoTOTHna, HaBefleHne Ha pe3KOCTb y 
npnnejia IIE npoH3BOflHTca BpameHHeM flnonTpniiHoro KOJibna (6 Ha cxeivte 6) no HHflHBHflyanbHbiM 
ocoSeHHOCTaM 3peHHa CTpejiKa. IIpoAOJibHbiH pa3pe3 npnne.na IIE npe#CTaBJieH Ha cxeMe 7. 



cDoto 89. OnTHnecKHH npnneji IIE 




CxeMa 6. OSmnn bh# onrnnecKoro BHHTOBOHHoro npHne.na IIE: 

1 - Kopnyc; 2 - onpaBa oSbeiernBa; 3 - oSbeierHBHaa TpySica; 4 - onpaBa oKyjiapa; 5 - TpySica oicy- 
Jiapa; 6 - flHonrpHHHoe icojibno; 7 - rainca TpySicn; 8 - KOJibno; 9 - CTonop; 10 - ranica onpaBbi; 1 1 - Ma- 
xobhhok co niKajion SoKOBbix nonpaBOK; 12 - MaxoBHHOK co niKajioii flHcraHnnn 




CxeMa 7. IipoflOJibHbiH pa3pe3 BHHTOBOHHoro onTHnecKoro npnnejia IIE: 

1 - Kopnyc: 4 - onpaBa OKyjiapa; 13 - OKynap; 14 - oSopaHnBaiomaa cncTeMa; 15 - oSbeiernB 




cDoto 90. CHannepcKHH npHneji IIB 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



41 




cDoto 91. "Kocoh" "nacTOHKHH xboct" 1 fljifl KpenjieHHa KpoHniTeiiHa Ha TaKOM >Ke "kocom" oc- 

HOBaHHH 

B cepeflHHe bohhm npHneji IIE 6bm ycoBepnieHCTBOBaH. IIonpaBOHHbie MexaHH3Mbi MOflepHH- 
3HpoBaHbi h yjiynnieHbi. CoxpaHHB oneHb y^aHHyio onrHnecKyio cxeMy, c npnnejia chjuih flHonrpHH- 
Hoe KOJibno, cSanaHCHpoBaB oirrHKy b CTopoHy HenoflBH>KHOCTH. Pe3KOCTb CTana "jiOBHTbca" TaK, KaK 
ceMnac "jiobhtcji" Ha SojibniHHCTBe onrHnecKHx npHnejiOB, a hmchho npH6jiH>KeHHeM hjih yflaneHHeM 
npHuejibHoro rjia3a OTHOCHTejibHO OKyjrapa npHuejia. B SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe 3to OKa3anocb HaMHoro 
npaKTHHHee, HeM HaBefleHne Ha pe3KOCTb paSoTOH flHonrpHHHoro KOJibna. K TOMy >Ke HenoflBH>KHaa 
onTHKa 6e3 BHyrpeHHHx no#BH>KHbix, Tpymnxca h H3HainHBaiomHxca nacTeft OKa3anacb Sojiee tohhoh 
h flOJiroBenHOH b 3KcnjiyaTau,HH. ycoBepnieHCTBOBaHHbiH TaKHM o6pa30M npHneji nojiynHJi Ha3BaHHe 
nfi ($oto 90). 

IIpHneji IIB 6bm npeflHa3HaneH ^jih nocTaHOBKH Ha OTSopHbie TpexjiHHenHbie bhhtobkh o6pa3na 
1891-1930 rr. c ocoSo bmcokoh KynHOCTbio 6oa. KaK HBBecmo, KanHTaH Mochh npn H3o6peTeHHH 
CBoeft bhhtobkh He Mor npe^ycMOTpeTb ee ocHameHHe onrHnecKHMH npnnejiaMH. IIosTOMy onTHKy 
npHHinocb npHcnocaSnHBaTb k y>Ke HMeiomeMycfl opy>KHio. Pa3pa6oTHHKH nocTaBHJiH nepefl coSoh 
3a#any CKOHCTpynpoBaTb CHCTeMy KpenneHHa Ta>Kejioro npnnejia Ha bkhtobkc c chjibhoh OTflaneH, 
npHneM npHneji flOJi>KeH 6wji nerKO CHHMaTbca c bhhtobkh h jierKO CTaBHTbca Ha Hee 6e3 CHH>KeHHa 
MeTKOCTH h KyHHOCTH 6oa. KpoMe Toro, KpoHHiTeiiH flOJDKeH 6bui HMeTb MexaHH3M HaBefleHHa nenrpa 
3pHTejibHoro nona Ha nejib. KoHCTpyKuna KpoHinreHHa flOJi>KHa SbiTb npocTOH h ^ocTaTOHHO nponHon. 

KpoHHiTeiiH nojiyHHJica oneHb y^anHbiM. Oh ca^HJica Ha CBoe ocHOBaHne "kocwm" "nacTOHKH- 
hwm xboctom" (7 Ha 4)oto 91), hto HCKJHOHano ero BepTHKanbHbie KOJieSaHHa, h Kpennjica Ha 3tom 

"KOCOM" "jiaCTOHKHHOM XBOCTe" (|)HKCHpyiOinHM BHHTOM (7 Ha (J)OTO 90) C KOHHHeCKHM XBOCTOBHKOM 

(2 Ha (})oto 91). TaKaa KOHCTpyKuna no3BOJia.ua JierKO h SbiCTpo CHHMaTb npHneji npn nepeB03Ke bo 
H36e>KaHHe ero HeHy>KHbix noBpe>KfleHHH h CHOBa npHCoeflHHarb no HeoSxoflHMOCTH. KpomnreHH 
npnnejia IIB ocHameH peryjinpoBOHHbiM MexaHH3MOM BbiBefleHna 3pHTejibHoro nojia Ha nejib no ropn- 
30HTy. TaKaa perynnpoBKa ocyinecTBJiaeTca BpameHHeM npaBoro h neBoro perynnpoBonHbix bhhtob 
(2 Ha <|)oto 90 n 3 Ha (})oto 91), KOTopwe no OKOHnaHHH perynnpoBKH 3a>KHMaiOTC» "HaBCTpeny" flpyr 
Apyry. Ilocjie nero 3aTarHBaeTca h bhht - BepTHKanbHaa ocb (3 Ha (})oto 90), cuerKa "oTnycKaiomaaca" 
nepeA peryjinpoBKOH. 




cDoto 92. OnTHnecKHH npHneji ny (npHneji yHHBepcajibHbin): 1 - KpomnreHH npnnejia 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



42 




cDoto 93. OcHOBaHHe KpoHiHTenHa npHnejia IIY pjm KpemieHHa Ha Kpyrjion ctbojibhoh KopoSice 
1 

IIpHneji IIB b OTenecTBeHHOH CHaiinepcKOH npaKTHKe ao chx nop cnnraeTca jiynniHM H3 Bcex 
cymecTByiomHx. Ero onrHHecicaa CHCTeMa oneHt xoponio cSanaHcnpoBaHa, npHnenbHaa "KapTHHKa" 
CMOTpHTca neTKO h ycTOHHHBO. CaM nponecc CTpejibSw c Taicon ohthkoh #0CTaBJiaeT CTpenKy y#o- 
BOJibCTBHe. JlynniHe pe3ynbTaTbi CHaiinepcKOH CTpejibSw h Ha BOHHe, h npn BbinojiHeHHH cnennanb- 
hwx 3a#aHHH flocTHranHCb HMeHHO c npHMeHeHHeM npHnejiOB IIB. K co>KajieHHio, hx BbinycK npeicpa- 
THJica b Hanane 50-x roflOB b cb»3h c hx Sojibhikm BecoM h cjitokhoctbio b nponBBOflCTBe. 

HanSojibniyio nonynapHOCTb b Cobctckoh ApMHH, ,Z],OCAAcD h oxoTHHHbeM npoMbicjie npnoS- 
pen HeSojibinoii, jierKHH h Ha#e>KHbiH npnneji ny (npHneji yHHBepcanbHbiH, (J)oto 92). 

Oh 6bui pa3pa6oTaH cnennanbHO mia CHaMnepcKoro Bapnanra bhhtobkh CBT (ToKapeBa) b koh- 
ne 30-x roflOB h OKa3anca HacTOJibKO y^anHbiM, hto npHMeHajica He TOJibico Ha CHaftnepcKHx bhhtob- 

KaX, HO H B npOTHBOTaHKOBblX OpyflHaX flJia CTpeJIbSbl npaMOH HaBOflKOH H B JierKHX 3eHHTHbIX ycTa- 

HOBKax. 3tot npHueji flonien £0 Hainnx #Hen, c ycnexoM npHMeHaeTca b Hanie BpeMa h, bh^hmo, 
6y#eT npHMeHaTbca eme oneHb ^ojiro. IIo ycTpoMcTBy oh oneHb npocT h Ha^oKeH. KpomnTeHH no3- 
BOJiaeT ocymecTBJiaTb HaBefleHne nenrpa 3pHTejibHoro nojia Ha nenb h no ropn30HTajin, n no BepTHKa- 
jih. KpomnTeHH coctoht h3 flByx nacTem coSctbchho KpomnreHHa (7 Ha (J)oto 92) n ero ocHOBaHHa (1 
Ha (})oto 93, cxeMbi 8, 9). 




CxeMa 8. KpemieHHe ocHOBamia icpomnTeHHa npHnejia ny Ha CTBOJibHOH KopoSice 7,62 mm 
CHannepcKOH bhhtobkh 1 - 3a>KHMHOH bhht; 2- mapoBaa onopa 




CxeMa 9. KpoHinreHH npHnejia ny; 

1 - XBOCTOBHK KpOHIHieHHa 




cDoto 94. KpemieHHe ocHOBaHHa KpomnTeHHa Ha CTBOJibHOH KopoSice (bh# CBepxy): 
1 - mapoBaa onopa /uia KpomnTeHHa npHnejia; 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 43 

2 - BepXHHH MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHH BHHT; 

3 - 3a>KHMHOH BHHT 




cDoto 95. PeryjinpoBaHHe cncTeMbi npnnejia riY: 

1 - BepXHHH MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHH BHHT; 

2 - HH>KHHH MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHH BHHT; 

3 - 3a5KHMHOH BHHT 

OcHOBaHHe KpoHHiTeiiHa Kpennrca k Kpyrjion ctbojibhoh KopoSKe flByMa BHHTaMH c mcjikoh 
pe3b6oii h (})HKCHpyeTca ^ByMa uiTH(})TaMH rjw npeflynpe>KfleHHa oceBoro CMeineHHa. KpomnTeHH 
npnnejia onnpaeTca c^epnnecKOH bbicmkoh Ha uiapoByio onopy ocHOBaHHa (1 Ha (})oto 94), a ero xbo- 
ctobhk HaxoflHTca MOK^y MHKpoMeTpHnecKHMH BHHTaMH ycTaHOBOHHOH peryjiHpoBKH npHne.na (1,2 
Ha (J)oto 95). 3thmh BHHTaMH nenrp 3pHTejibHoro nona npnnejia BbiBOflHica Ha nejib no BepTHKajiH. 
Xboctobhk KpoHHiTeiiHa (})HKCHpyeTca 3aaaiMHbiM bhhtom (3 Ha (})oto 94, 3 Ha (J)oto 95). 

J\im peryjinpoBKH nempa 3pHTejibHoro nojia no roproonrajin MOK^y xboctobhkom KpomnTeHHa 
h ero ocHOBaHneM npoKna^biBaiOTca nonocKH H3 tohkoh >kccth (ot oSmhhoh KOHcepBHon SaHKn), no- 
cjie nero xboctobhk 3a>KHMaeTca 3a>KHMHbiM bhhtom. IIpHneji IIY BbiBOflHTca nempoM 3pHTejibHoro 
nojia Ha nejib pa3 h HaBcer^a, KpennTca Ha bkhtobkc HaMepTBO h c opy>KHa He CHHMaeTca. He3HanH- 
TenbHbie "flOBOflKH" cpeflHen tohkh nona^aHHa npn noaneflyiomnx npncTpenKax npoH3BOflaTca CMe- 
meHneM npHnejibHbix hhtch. IIpHneji ny HenpnxoTJiHB, "nocjiynieH" b npncTpenKe h Bbiflep>KHBaeT 
fla>Ke BapBapcKoe oSpamefflie. Ero npoflOJibHbin pa3pe3 npeflCTaBJieH Ha cxeMe 10. 

BoeHHbie KOHcepBaTHBHbi h He cnemaT paccTaBaTbca co CTapbiMH h npoBepeHHbiMH opy>KenHbi- 
mh CHCTeMaMH. ,3,0 chx nop b nacTax cnen,Ha3a Hcnojib3yiOTca TpexjinHeiiHbie bhhtobkh c npnnejiaMn 
IIE, IIB h ny. HHorfla SbiBaeT, hto TOJibKO H3 hhx mo>kho "^ocTaTb" oneHb Ba>KHyio nejib, KOTopaa 
HeflOcaraeMa pjm coBpeMeHHoro opy^na. 

CoBpeMeHHbiH onTHnecKHH npnneji IICO-1 (npnneji CHaiuiepcKHH onTnnecKHn) (c})oto 96, 97) 
pa3pa6oTaH b 1963 ro^y cnennajibHO fljia bhhtobkh CB,ZL OcoSemiocTb npnnejia - oneHb y^anHaa 
npHu,ejibHaa ceTKa, no3BOJi»ioma» CHannepy SbiCTpo onpe^ejiaTb paccToaHHe h SpaTb HeoSxoflHMbie 
ropH30HTanbHbie nonpaBKH no xo#y CTpejibSbi, He Bpainaa MaxoBHKaMH. B npnnejie npe^ycMOTpeHa 
BbiflBH>KHaa 6.neHfla ^jiji HeflonymeHHa noaBJieHna cojiHenHbix otSjicckob, fleMacKHpyiomnx CHaiuiepa. 

Ochobhoh npnii,ejibHbiH 3JieMenr - npHnejibHbiii yrojibHHK (HHane ero eme Ha3MBaK)T npnnejib- 
hoh MapKon) - HanSojiee y^anHbiH H3 Bcex npHMeroieMbix b mhpoboh CHannepcKon npaKTHKe npn- 
nenbHbix 3JieMeHTOB, TaK KaK oh He 3aKpbiBaeT nejib hh CHH3y, hh CBepxy h no3TOMy no3BOJiaeT neTKO 
BbiSnpaTb h KonrpojiHpoBaTb TOHKy npnnejinBaHna. 3to oneHb Ba>KHO npn ocoSo tohhoh CTpejibSe b 
CHannepcKOH npaKTHKe. 

Pe3HHOBbiii Harjia3HHK HMeeT onrnMajibHyio flJiHHy, oSjiernaiomyio CTpenKy ycTaHOBKy npa- 
BHJibHoro nojio>KeHHa npHnejibHoro rjia3a. KpoMe Toro, 3tot Harjia3HHK He no3BOJiaeT noaBjnribca 
CBeTOBbiM SnHKaM OKyjiapHOH jiHH3bi, KOTopwe HenpnaTHO M 3acBeHHBaiOT" 3pHTejibHoe none h yroM- 
jiaiOT 3peHne CTpenKa. B npnii,ejie npenycMOTpeHa oneHb nojie3Haa Benib, a hmchho: noflCBeTKa npn- 
nejibHOH ceTKH, KOTopyio npn CTpenbSe b cyMepKax Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb. B CTapwx BbinycKax npn- 
nejia IICO-1 ycTaHaBJiHBanca jnoMHHecii,eHTHbiH 3KpaH .zjjia CTpenbSw no HH(})paKpacHbiM 
npo>KeKTopaM npoTHBHmca. 

,H,jia npnBefleHHa 3Toro ycTpoMcTBa b ^encTBHe HeoSxoflHMO (})jia>KOK jnoMHHecii,eHTHoro 3KpaHa 
(17 Ha (J)oto 96) BbiCTaBHTb b ropHBonrajibHoe nojio>KeHHe, a ero okohichko noflCTaBHTb nofl Jiynn 
cojiHu,a Ha 1 5 MHHyr hjih >Ke b TeneHHe 1 MHHyT noflCBerHTb 3tot 3KpaH jnoMHHecii,eHTHbiM hctohhh- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



44 



kom CBeTa. Taicoft "3apaflKH M xBaTaeT peantHO Ha 2-3 cyroK. OnTHnecKaa nacTb npHuejia npeflCTaBJieHa 
Ha cxeMe 1 1 . 

IIpHHeji nCO-1 oneHb jierKO h npocTO CHHMaeTca c bhhtobkh h npHCoeflHHaeTca k Heft 6e3 
CHH>KeHHa KanecTBa CTpenbSbi. flna OTCoeflHHeHHa npHuena HeoSxoflHMO noflaTb Ha ce6» pynicy 3a- 
>KHMHoro BHHTa (8 Ha (})oto 96) h CHaTb npHu,eji c "nacTOHKHHa xBOCTa" b CTopoHy npHKJiafla. "Jla- 
ctohkhh xboct" - noca^OHHoe MecTO npHuejia - BbinojiHaeTca Ha CTBOJibHoft KopoSice bhhtobkh CBfl, 
oneHb tohho, h noaTOMy npHu,eji IICO-1 He TpeSyeT BbiBefleHHa ijeinpa 3pHTejibHoro nona Ha uejib. 
HHor^a npn npncTpejiKe npHuejia HeoSxoflHMa He3HanHTejibHaa KoppeKTHpoBKa nepeMemeHHeM npn- 
u,ejibHoft ceTKH, ho, KaK npaBHJio, npHu,ejibHbift yrojibHHK npn 3tom npaierHHecKH He BbixoflHT H3 u,eH- 
TpanbHoft oSnacTH 3pHTejibHoro nona. 

IIonpaBOHHbie MexaHH3Mbi npimejiOB IICO-1 HMeiOT BCTpoeHHbie "TpempTKH", 3aMKHyTbie Ha 

JIHMSbl (iHKajiy) MaXOBHKOB. 




CxeMa 10. Pa3pe3 Kopnyca npHuejia ny 




CxeMa 11. OnTHnecKaa nacTb npjme.ua IICO-1: 

1 - oSbeKTHB; 2 - oSopaHHBaiomaa CHCTeMa; 3 - cctkh: 4 - OKynap; 5 - jnoMHHecu,eHTHbift 3KpaH 




cDoto 96. OnTHnecKHft npHu,eji IICO-1 (bh# cneBa): 

1 - Kopnyc; 2 - KpoHHrreftH; 3 - BepxHHft MaxoBHHOK; 5 - BbiflBiDKHaa SneH^a; 6 - pe3HHOBbift 
Harjia3HHK; 8 - pynica 3a>KHMHoro BHHTa; 12 - KonnanoK oSbeKTHBa; 14 - imcajia; 17 - (})jia>KOK jiiomh- 
Hecu,eHTHoro sicpaiia; 18 - Kopnyc fljia SaTapeftKn; 19 - KonnanoK c ynopoM; 20 - TyivtSjiep; 21 - 3JieK- 
TponaMnoHKa 




cDoto 97. OnTHnecKHft npHu,eji IICO-1 (bh^ cnpaBa): 

4 - SoKOBoft MaxoBHHOK; 9 - abh>kok; 10 - peryjinpoBOHHaa raftica; 11 - yKa3aTejib; 13 - Topu,OBaa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 45 

raftKa; 15 - coeflHHHTejibHbiii bhht; 16 - KOJinanoK oSbeKTHBa; 22 - ynop 

OflHO fleneHHe niKanbi MaxoBHKa Sokobbix nonpaBOK HMeeT ^Ba mejiHKa TpemoTKH. Ka>KflbiH 
menHOK ropH30HTanbHoro MaxoBHKa paBeH 0,5-tmcjihhoh, #Ba mejiHKa - o#hoh tmcjihhoh. 3to no3BO- 
jiaeT TOHHee h Ha omynb BBOflHTb nonpaBKH bo BpeM» CTpejibSbi, He OTpbiBaacb ot npnuejia h He raa^a 
Ha MaxoBHKH. BepTHKanbHbiH MaxoBHK flaeT mejiHKH nepe3 Ka>Kflbie 50 MeTpoB ^HCTaHHHH CTpeubSbi, 
to ecTb no flBa mejiHKa Ha o#ho flejiefflie. 

BHHMAHHE! B cb»3h c TeM, hto b nocjieflHee BpeMa npHuejibi IICO-1 BbinycKaiOTca pa3HbiMH 

3aBOflaMH, B pa3HbIX CTpaHaX HaSjIIOflaiOTCa pa3HOBHflHOCTH IHeJIHKOBblX MexaHH3MOB. B HeKOTOpblX 

npnuejiax cymecTByeT no OflHOMy mejiHKy Ha ojxro flejiemie niKajibi, a b HeKOTopbix - #a>Ke no Tpn, a 
to h no neTbipe. B nepBOHanajibHOM apMencKOM BapnaHTe mejiHKOBbiii MexaHH3M ^aBaii no OflHOMy 
menHKy Ha fleneHnax flHCTaHHHomioro MaxoBHKa ot 1 #o 3 h ^anee flaBan no #Ba mejiHKa ot flejiemui 
ro fleneHHa. npnueji IICO-1 b MnpoBOH CHannepcKOH npaKTHKe npn3HaH o#hhm h3 HanSojiee y#an- 
hwx, no3TOMy ero BbinycKaiOT 3a py6e>KOM b pa3JiHHHbix MOflH^mcaHHax c pa3JiHHHbiMH npHuejibHbi- 

MH CeTKaMH. 

H3 3KcnjiyaTau,noHHbix ocoSeHHOCTen flamioro npnuejia cjie^yeT OTMeTHTb HHor^a BCTpenaio- 
myioca HecTaSnjibHOCTb 6oa (2 nynn BnpaBO - 3 nyjin BJieBo) H3-3a HenpaBHJibHon ycTaHOBKn hjih 
pa36yxaHna nbiJieBJiaro3amHTHbix KO>KaHbix canbHHKOB, Haxoflamnxca b nonpaBOHHOM MexaHH3Me. 
3Ta HencnpaBHOCTb Jierico ycTpaHaeTca b MacTepcKoM: caMOMy npnneji Jiyniue He TporaTb. Kor^a no- 
cjie npncTpejiKn Hy>KHO BbiCTaBHTb roprooHiajibHyio n BepTHKanbHyio niKanbi npnuejia Ha#jie>KamHM 
o6pa30M h bm OTKpyTHJiH (|)HKCHpyiomHe bhhtm Ha MaxoBHKax h HananH BpamaTb OTnymeHHbie jihm- 
6w, He nyranrecb omymaeMbix "mejiHKOB": jihmSm (niKanbi) npHuejiOB IICO-1 3aMKHyTbi Ha TpempT- 
Ky, a MaxoBHKH - HeT. IIo3TOMy mejinoK Ha jiHM6e - HopivtajibHoe aBJieHne. Ecjih nocjie Toro, KaK ot- 
nymeHbi (})HKCHpyiomHe BHHTbi Ha MaxoBHKe, jihmS He npoBopannBaeTca, 3HanHT, oh npHKneeH k 
MaxoBHKy. 3to nacTO ^ejiaiOT Ha npnnejiax, npeflHa3HaneHHbix ^Jia oxoTHHHbero opy>KHa. B hckoto- 
pwx MOflH(J)HKaLi,Hax npnu,ejiOB /urn Toro, htoSm noBepHyTb jihmS, Hy>KHO cuerKa npnnoflHaTb Maxo- 
BHK. 

B npnnejibHon ceTKe npnuejia HMeiOTca flonojiHHiejibHbie yrojibHHKn pjm cipejibSbi Ha 1100, 
1200 h 1300 MeTpoB. Hcnojib3yKxrca ohh oneHb pe^KO, TaK KaK ^anbHOCTb fleMcTBHTejibHOH tohhoh 
CTpeubSbi /ja>Ke oneHb KyHHoro CTBOJia bhhtobkh CBJl He npeBbimaeT 800-900 MeTpoB. Ho ecjin y Bac 
B03HHKna HeoSxoflHMOCTb CTpenaTb no pocTOBbiM uejiaM Ha Sojiee OT^aneHHbie ^HCTaHUHH, ycTaHaB- 
jiHBanre flHCTaHHHOHHbiH MaxoBHK Ha fleneHne 1 1 h CTpejiairre, uejracb flonojiHHiejibHbiMH yrojibHH- 

KaMH. 

KaK npaBHJio, CHannep npn nojiyneHHH npnuejia IICO-1 o6Hapy>KHBaeT, hto SaTapeincH, npefl- 
Ha3HaHeHHbie fljia noflCBeTKH niKajibi, ot xpaHeHna y>Ke "hbaoxjih" h He 4)yHKu,noHHpyiOT. IIo3TOMy h 
BJiaflejibnbi TaKHx npHu,ejiOB, h ^a)Ke SbiBanbie CHannepbi H3roTOBJiaK)T H3 o6pe3KOB aniOMHHHeBbix 
Tpy6 npocTeHHine nepexoflHHKH, KOTopbie BCTaBJiaiOT Me>Kfly KopnycoM SaTapeiiKH 1 8 h KOJinanKOM c 
ynopoM 19 ((})oto 96), a BMecTO niTaTHbix SaTapeeK Hcnojib3yiOT SbiTOBbie, KOTopbie paSoTaiOT b He- 
CKOJibKO pa3 flOJibnie. OSbiHHO xBaraeT oahoh SaTapeiiKH c Hanpa>KeHHeM 1,5 B. Ilpn cnjibHbix Mopo- 
3ax CHannep noflCoeflHHaeT npnii,eji k SaTapeiiKe nepe3 3KpaHHpoBaHHbin KaSenb, a SaTapeiiKy npaneT 
Ha Teno, "nofl niKypy", noTOMy hto npn hh3khx TeMnepaTypax SaTapeiiKH He BbipaSaTbiBaioT tok. 

3AIIOMHHTE! npnneji - TOHHbin onTHnecKHn npnSop. HecMOTpa Ha to hto apMencKne CHan- 
nepcKne npHu,ejibi H3roTOBJiaiOTca oneHb KanecTBeHHO n c HeManbiM 3anacoM npoHHOCTH, nx ocHOBy 
cocTaBJiaiOT CTeiaiaHHbie jinH3bi. Ctckjio - Benib xpynKaa. IIo3TOMy npnu,eji cne^yeT BcanecKH oSepe- 
raTb ot y^apoB, coTpaceHHH, nona^aHna nbuin h BJiarn h pe3Knx nepena^OB TeMnepaTyp. Hapy>KHbie 
noBepxHOCTH jihh3 flep>KHTe cyxHMH h HHCTbiMH, ho He npoTHpaiiTe HX BeTOHIbK): OT 3Toro Ha CTeiaie 
noaBJiaiOTca uapanHHbi. IlbiJib c noBepxHOCTH jihh3 CMaxHBaiiTe jiioSoh bojiocshoh khctohkoh. A ec- 
jih ee Ty^a Hannnjio oneHb MHoro, CHHMaHTe BaToii, HaMoneHHOH npoKHnaneHHOH boaoh (6e3 HaKH- 
ra). Ha AO>Kfle h npn CHerona^e npHu,eji 3aKpbiBaiiTe npHflaHHbiM k HeMy nexjiOM. 

JlHH3bi b HepaSonee BpeMa flOJDKHbi SbiTb 3aKpbiTbi cneu,HajibHbiMH KOJinaHKaMH ^Jia npeflOT- 
BpameHHa nonaflaHHa nbuin. fljia Toro htoSw OKynapHbie CTeiaia He 3anoTeBanH, hx npoTnpaiOT cne- 
HHanbHbiMH caji(})eTKaMH, cjiaSo nponHTaHHbiMH xnonKOBbiM MacnoM, hjih, Ha xy^OH KOHeu,, cjienca 

CMa3bIBaiOT MblJIbHOH TpanOHKOH. 

Cjia6o-opaH>KeBbie CBeTO(})HJibTpbi, KOTopwe HHor/ia npn^aiOTca k onrHnecKHM npHu,ejiaM, npn- 
MeHaiOTca npn cjiaSoM TyMaHe hjih aTMOC(})epHOH ^biMKe. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



46 



nPAKTHKA OnTHHECKOrO IIPHIJEJIA 



OnTHnecKHH npHneji - HeoTteMJieMaa npHHafljie>KHOCTb CHaMnepcKoro "npoMbiana". 3tot npn- 
6op He3aMeHHM fljia y^oSHoro, Sbicrporo h tohhoix) npHHejiHBaHHa. Tojibko oh no3BOJiaeT CHaMnepy 
flOCTaTb uenb Ha OTflaneHHbix flHCTaHHHJix. Bnaroflapa CBeTOCHJie h yBejiHneHHio H3o6pa>KeHHa ohth- 
necKHM npHu,ejiOM bo3mo>kho bccth oroHb no uejiaM He tojibko 3HaHHrejibHO yflaneHHbiM, ho h Men- 
khm, Mano3aMeTHbiM h 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiM, a TaK>Ke nopa>KaTb hcjih, HeBH^HMbie HeBOopy>KeHHbiM 
rjia30M. 

CBOHCTBa onTHnecKoro npHuejia no3BOJiaiOT pe3yjibTaTHBHO CTpenaTb npn HeSjiaronpnaTHOM 
ocBenieHHH h b ycnoBHax orpaHHneHHOH bh^hmocth. YBejiHHeHHe npHuejia b coneTaHHH c ^ocTaTOH- 
hoh CBeTOCHJioft no3BOJiaeT BecTH oroHb ^a>Ke b cyMepKax h npn nyHHOM CBeTe. OnTHnecKHH npHueji 
flaeT B03MO>KHOCTb BecTH HaSniOfleHHe 3a noneM Soa h KoppeKTHpoBaTb pe3yjibTaTbi CTpenbSbi, noMO- 
raeT OTbicKHBaTb uejiH h onpeflejurrb paccToaHHa #o hhx. 

OnTHnecKHH bhhtobohhmh npHueji npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoft 3pHTejibHyio TpySy c MexaHH3MaMH 
ycTaHOBKH yrnoB npHuejiHBaHHji h yneTa Sokobmx nonpaBOK h coctoht h3 Kopnyca, oSbeKTHBHoM h 
OKyjiapHOH TpySoK. 

Ha Kopnyce pa3MemeHbi: MexaHH3M yraoB npimejiHBaHHa (nonpaBKH Ha ^ajibHOCTb CTpenbSbi, 
hjih BepTHKanbHbie nonpaBKH) c MaxoBHKOM h niKajion flHCTaHUHH, HaceneHHOH b u,H(})pax nepe3 icaac- 
ffbie 100 MeTpoB, MexaHH3M Sokobmx nonpaBOK c MaxoBHKOM n niKanoH Sokobmx nonpaBOK c ueHoM 
fleneHHa b o^Hy TbicanHyio flHCTampiH. 

BHyrpn npHu,ejia noMemaKxrca onTHnecKaa nacTb h npHu,ejibHbie hhth. B npHu,ejiax CTapbix oS- 
pa3u,OB ny, IIE h IIB npjmejibHaa ceTKa oSpa30BaHa CTajibHMMH 3JieMeHTaMH - npHu,ejibHMM neHbKOM 
h Sokobmmh BbipaBHHBaiomHMH hhtsmh (cxeMa 12). B coBpeMeHHbix npimejiax nCO-1 MeTamiHHe- 
CKne npnnejibHbie hhth 3aMeHeHM npHu,ejibHon ceTKoM (cxeMa 13), HaHeceHHOH Ha noBepxHOCTb ofl- 
hoh H3 jihh3. OnTHHecKaa nacTb coctoht h3 oSbeKTHBa, oSopanHBaiomeH chctcmm (cxeMa 14) h OKy- 
Jiapa (cxeMa 15). OSbeKTHB h OKynap co cbohmh onpaBaMn 3aKpenjieHM b npHu,ejie HenoflBH>KHO, 
oSopanHBaioniaa >Ke CHCTeMa jihh3 co CBoeft onpaBOH n BHyrpeHHeM TpySKoii MO>KeT flBnraTbca baojib 
och npHu,ejia npn BpameHHH flHonrpHHHoro KOJibu,a hjih MHKpoMeTpHnecKoro BHHTa (y npnne.na ny). 
IlepeMenieHHeM oSopaHHBaiomeii chctcmm jihhb B^ojib npimejia ^ocTHraeTca HanSojiee neTKaa bh^h- 

MOCTb. 




CxeMa 12. CxeMa npHnejibHbix HHTen 



*m 



- I ■ ■ i ■ 1 1 1 1 iA 1 1 ■ 1 1 1 ft 1 1 



Ui 



— I 




CxeMa 13. CeTKa npnnejia IICO-1, ycTaHOBJieHHoro Ha bhhtobkc CBfl, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



47 




CxeMa 14. Pa3pe3 oSopanHBaiomeH CHCTeMbi 

1 - CKJieeHHbiii kojijickthb; 

2 - onpaBa; 

3 - Kopnyc 

1 




3 4 

CxeMa 15. Pa3pe3 OKynapa npnnejia riY: 
1 - CKJieeHHbiii kojijickthb; 

raa3Haa jiHH3a; 

onpaBa OKynapa; 

KOJibuo OKyjiapa; 

ranKa OKynapa; 

CTOnOpHblH BHHT 

B npHnenax IIY, IIE, IIB BepTHKanbHaa npHuejibHaa HHTb, HMeiomaa ocTpbiM KOHeu,, HaBbiBaeT- 
ca npHu,ejibHbiM neHbKOM (cxeMa 16). IIpH npaBHJibHO npncTpejiaHHOH bmhtobkc ocTpne npimejibHoro 
neHbKa coBMemaeTca c >KejiaeMOH tohkoh nona^aHHa, h npn 3tom nyna flOJi>KHa "na^aTb" Ha kohhhk 
ocTpna npHu,ejibHoro neHbKa. Hhth, pacnojio>KeHHbie no SoicaM ot npHnenbHoro neHbKa, Ha3biBaiOTca 
SoKOBbiMH BbipaBHHBaiomHMH, npeflHa3HaHeHHbiMH fljia npaBHJibHon opneHTannH opy>KHa no ropn- 
30HTy bo H36e>KaHHe ero "cBanHBaHHa" n ^Jia onpefleneHHa flncTaHUHH #o nejin. IIpHnejibHbie hhth 
MoryT nepeMemaTbca b none 3peHHa npHne.na BBepx, bhhb, BnpaBO h bjicbo. 



2 
3 
4 
5 
6 




CxeMa 16. IipnHejibHbie hhth npHnenoB ny, IIE, IIB: 

IIpoeKHHa yraoBbix BejinnnH npnnejibHbix hhtch b TbicanHbix 

ycTpoMcTBO MexaHHBMa BBefleHHa nonpaBOK npeflCTaBJieHO Ha cxeMax 17 n 18. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



48 




CxeMa 17. npnnejibHoe npncnocoSjieHHe: 

1 - ropH30HTajibHbiH bojiocok (ffliTb); 2 - BepTHKajibHbiii bojiocok (HHTb); 3 - maiiSa nepeKpe- 
CTHa; 4 - noji3yHOK; 5 - onpaBa nepeKpecTHa; 6 - bhht; 1 1 - MaxoBHHOK co niKajioii Sokobbix nonpaBOK; 

12 - MaXOBHHOK CO HIKajIOH flHCTaHHHH 




CxeMa 18. MexaHH3M ycTaHOBKH yraoB npnnejiHBaHHa h Sokobmx nonpaBOK npnnejia riY: 

1 - onpaBa nepeKpecTHa; 2 - CTonopHbiM bhht; 3 - OT>KHMHaa maiiSa; 4 - jihmS niKajibi Sokobbix 
nonpaBOK; 5 - jihmS niKanbi BepTHKanbHbix nonpaBOK; 6 - Kopnyc MexaHH3Ma; 7 - MaxoBHHOK ycTaHOB- 
kh flanbHOCTH (yraoB npHnejiHBaHna); 8 - MaxoBHHOK Sokobmx nonpaBOK 

Ilpn BpameHHH BepTHKanbHoro MaxoBHKa co niKanon flHCTamniH BpamaeTca bhht (6 Ha cxeMe 
17). IIoji3yHOK, CB33aHHbiH c bhhtom, nepeMecTHica BflOJib BHHTa h, Syflynn CB»3aH c onpaBOH nepe- 
KpecTna (5 Ha cxeMe 17), Ha KOTopoM 3aKpenjieHbi hhth (7, 2 Ha cxeMe 17), noTaHeT ee 3a coSoh BBepx 
hjih bhh3, b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot HanpaBJieHHa BpaineHHJi MaxoBHKa. 

Tohho TaK >Ke, Bpamaa MaxoBHK co nncajiOH Sokobwx nonpaBOK, npnnejibHbie hhth (hjih npn- 
nejibHyio ceTKy) mo>kho nepeMemaTb BnpaBO hjih bjicbo. TaKHM o6pa30M, nonpaBKH no ^anbHOCTH 
npoH3BOflaTca BpameHneM BepxHero (BepTHKanbHoro) MaxoBHKa, pacnojio>KeHHoro CBepxy npnnejia. 
IIonpaBKH no ropH30HTanH npoH3BOflaTca BpameHneM ropHBOHiajibHoro (SoKOBoro) MaxoBHKa, pac- 
nojio>KeHHoro cnpaBa hjih cjieBa ot npnnejia. 

IIpH yBejiHneHHH flanbHOCTH CTpejibSbi BepTHKajibHbiii flHCTaHHHOHHbin MaxoBHK BpainaeTca no 
nacoBOH CTpejiKe (ecjin CMOipeTb Ha Hero CBepxy), npn 3tom npHnejibHbie hhth (hjih ceTKa) yxofljn 
bhh3, ctboji bhhtobkh noflHHMaeTca BBepx h nyjiH, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, TO>Ke yxofljrr BBepx (cxeMa 19). 
Ilpn yMeHbmeHHH ^ajibHOCTH CTpejibSbi BepTHKajibHbiii flHCTaHUHOHHbiH MaxoBHK BpamaiOT npOTHB 
nacoBoii CTpejiKn; npn 3tom npHnejibHbie hhth (ceTKa) yxofljn BBepx, a nyjin, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, noii- 
jjyr HH>Ke. KaK y>Ke Swjio CKa3aHO paHee, niKanbi flHCTaHUHOHHbix MaxoBHKOB OTrpa^yHpoBaHbi b cot- 
hjix MeTpoB (cxeMa 20). IIo3TOMy nocjie BH3yanbHoro onpeflejieHHa flHCTaHHHH #o uejiH flHcraHnHOH- 

Hbffl MaXOBHK BblCTaBJiaeTCS COOTBeTCTByiOmeH U,H(})pOH npOTHB KOHTpOJIbHOH pHCKH. TaKOH npHHunn 

BepTHKanbHbix flHCTaHu,HOHHbix nonpaBOK oflHHaKOB fljia npHu,ejiOB ny, IIE, IIB h IICO-1. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



49 




ni^t 



HMH t«™») 



CxeMa 19. BBeflemie nonpaBOK no ^ajibHOCTH b npHuejiax ny, IIE, IIB, IIB. ,3,HCTaHLi,HOHHbiH 

MaxoBHK BpamaeTca no nacoBon CTpejnce, hhth (ceTKa) onycKaiOTca bhh3, nynn yxofljrr BBepx 

nniMiUlll 




CxeMa 20. CeTKa npnne.na IICO-1, ycTaHOBJieHHoro Ha CHannepcKon BHHTOBKe CB,3, 

BBefleHne nonpaBOK b npHueji IICO-1. 

IIo flanbHOCTH: nocTaBHTb BepxHHH MaxoBHK Ha HeoSxoflHMoe flejieHHe - oho cooTBeTCTByeT 
paccToaHHio. IIo ropH30HTanH: Sokoboh MaxoBHK KpyTHTb Ha KpacHbie u,H(J)pbi - ceTKa noH^eT bjicbo, 
nynn noiiflyT BnpaBo; Ha nepHbie u,H(|)pbi - ceTKa nepeMecTHTca BnpaBO, nynn yiijiyT BJieBO 

ropH30HTanbHbie (SoKOBbie) nonpaBKH (Ha BeTep h no #BH>KymHMC}i uejiaM) npoH3BOflaTca Bpa- 
meHHeM roprooHrajibHbix (SoKOBbix) MaxoBHKOB. Ha HiKane Sokobwx nonpaBOK HaHeceHbi fleneHna co 
3HaKOM + (nuioc) fljia nonpaBOK BnpaBO n co 3HaKOM - (MHHyc) ajih nonpaBOK bjicbo, Bcer^a no 10 #e- 
jieHHH b Ka>Kflyio CTopoHy. 3aHyMepoBaHbi TOJibKO rorroe h ^ecaToe fleneHHa. Ka>Kfloe fleneHne coot- 
BeTCTByeT oahoh tmcjihhoh ^HCTaHUHH. Ho Ha npHuejiax pa3Hbix thhob SoKOBbie MaxoBHKH Bpama- 
K)Tca He b OflHy h Ty >Ke CTopoHy. Ha npHuejiax ny, nE, nB ohh HaxoflaTca cneBa, htoSw He MeuiaTb 
OTKpbiBaHHio 3aTBopa BpyHHyio Ha HeaBTOMaTHHecKHx TpexjiHHeHHbix BHHTOBKax ((J)oto 98), a Ha 
npHuejie nCO-1, npe#Ha3HaHeHHOM ^Jia aBTOMaTHnecKOH bhhtobkh CBJl, Sokoboh MaxoBHK pacno- 
jio>KeH cnpaBa (c|)oto 99). CneflOBaTejibHO, SoKOBbie MaxoBHKH BpamaiOTca b pa3Hbix HanpaBJieHHax. 
Ha npHuejiax ny, nE, nB npn BpameHHH SoKOBoro MaxoBHKa (HMea ero nepefl coSoh) npoTHB naco- 
boh CTpenKH, ot Ha nuioc, hhth yxoflaT BJieBO, a nynn (cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa) noiiflyT BnpaBO 
(cxeMa 21). npn BpameHHH >Ke ero no nacoBOH CTpejnce, ot Ha MHHyc, hhth yxofljrr BnpaBO, a cpefl- 
Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa, ecTecTBeHHO, bjicbo (cxeMa 22). 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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cDoto 98. Pacnojio>KeHHe nonpaBOHHbix MaxoBHKOB Ha npnnejie IIB. MaxoBHK Sokobmx nonpa- 
bok pacnojio>KeH cneBa, htoSbi He MeiuaTt OTKpbiBairre 3aTBopa 




cDoto 99. Pacnojio>KeHHe nonpaBOHHbix MaxoBHKOB Ha npHnene IICO-1. MaxoBHK Sokobmx no- 
npaBOK pacnojioaceH cnpaBa. OTKpwBaHHio 3aTBopa Ha bkhtobkc CBJl oh He MeiuaeT 




CxeMa 21. BoKOBbie nonpaBKH Ha IIY, IIE. IIB. Cpe^Haa TOHKa nonaflaHHa (CTII) Bcer^a yxo- 
flHT b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyK) nepeMemeHHio npHnejibHbix hhtch 




CxeMa 22. BoKOBbie nonpaBKH Ha IIY. IIE, IIB. Cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa (CTII) Bcer^a yxo- 
flHT b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyK) nepeMemeHHio npHnejibHbix HHren 

Ha npHnenax IICO-1, ecun BpamaTb MaxoBHK Sokobmx nonpaBOK (hmoi ero nepefl coSoh) no 
nacoBOH CTpenKe, ot Ha KpacHbie nn^pbi, npHnenbHaa ceTKa yxoflnr bjicbo, cpe^Haa TOHKa nona/ia- 
HHa (CTII) - BnpaBO (cxeMa 23). Ecjih BpamaTb MexaHH3M npoTHB nacoBOH crpejiKH, ot Ha nepHbie 
u,H(J)pbi, ceTKa yxoflHT BnpaBO, cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa - bjicbo (cxeMa 24). Ha TopneBbix noBepxHO- 
ctjix MaxoBHKOB npnnejia nCO-1 fljia Jiynmen HaraaflHOCTH HaHeceHbi CTpenKH BpameHHa h cootbct- 
CTByiomee hm nepeMemeHne cpeflHen tohkh nona^aHHa: CTn > BnpaBo; CTn < bjicbo ((})oto 100- A); 
CTn > BBepx, CTn < bhh3 ((})oto 100-B). Ho HecMOTpa Ha 3to, #a>Ke onbiTHbie CHarniepbi no^nac ny- 
TaiOTca, Ky^a KpyrHTb MaxoBHKH. EcTb CTapbin CHannepcKHH cnocoS: ecun KpyrHTb MaxoBHK nioSoro 
npnnejia no nacoBon CTpejiKe, rjia^a Ha Hero b Topeu,, nyjin "non^yT b jia^OHb" (c|)oto 101); ecjin Kpy- 

THTb MaXOBHK npOTHB HaCOBOH CTpeJIKH, nyjIH "nOHflyT H3 JiaflOHH" ((})OTO 102). npH 3TOM aScOJIIOTHO 

Bee paBHO, KaKne MaxoBHKH KpyrHTb, SoKOBbie hjih BepxHne, h aScojnoTHO Bee paBHO, cnpaBa hjih 
cneBa Sy^eT pacnojio>KeH MaxoBHK Sokobwx nonpaBOK. BnHTbi nonpaBOHHbix MexaHH3MOB hmciot 
npaByio pe3b6y, nosTOMy 3(})4)eKT ot BbimeonncaHHoro cnocoSa BHeceHna nonpaBOK o^HHaKOB fljia 
Bcex TnnoB npnnejiOB. AHanornHHO npoHBBOfljrrca n flncTaHnnoHHbie nonpaBKH ((})oto 103). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



51 




CxeMa 23. BoKOBbie nonpaBKH Ha IICO-1. Cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa (CTII) Bcer^a yxoflnr b 
CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio nepeMemeHHio npnnejibHOH ceTKH 




CxeMa 24. BoKOBbie nonpaBKH Ha IICO-1. Cpe^Haa TOHKa nonaflaHHH (CTII) Bcer^a yxoflnr b 
CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio nepeMemeHHio npnnejibHon ceTKH 




cDoto 100-A. Bnfl cSoKy Ha ropHBonrajibHbiH MaxoBHK npnnejia IICO-1. 06o3HaHeHHe HanpaB- 
jieHna cpeflHen tohkh nona^aHHa (CTII) 




cDoto 100-B. Bh^ CBepxy Ha flHCTaHnnoHHbiii MaxoBHK npnuejia IICO-1. 06o3HaHeHHe HanpaB- 
jieHHa cpeflHen tohkh nona^aHHa (CTII) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



52 




cDoto 101. Ecjih KpyTHTt Sokoboh MaxoBHK npnnejia IICO-1 no nacoBoii cipejiKe, nyjiH (cpefl- 
Haa TOHKa nonaflamui) yxoflaT BnpaBO "b jia^OHb" 




cDoto 102. Ecjih KpyTHTb Sokoboh MaxoBHK npnnejia ny npoTHB nacoBOH CTpenKH, nyjin (cpefl- 
Haa TOHKa nonaflaHHa) yxoflaT "h3 jiaflOHH 1 ' BnpaBO 




cDoto 103. Ecjih flHCTaHHHOHHbiH MaxoBHK KpyTHTb no nacoBOH CTpejiKe, nynn noiiflyT BBepx "b 
jia^OHb" 

IloCJie TOrO KaK CTpeJIOK yCTaHOBHT BepXHHM MaXOBHKOM flHCTaHHHK) flO U,eJIH H BblCTaBHT 60- 

KOByio nonpaBKy Ha BeTep, flepnBauHio nyjin h nepeMemeHHe nejin (no HeoSxoflHMOCTH), mo>kho npn- 
CTynaTb k npHnejinBaHHio. H3o6pa>KeHHe hcjih nocTynaeT nepe3 oSbeKTHB Ha ero (})OKajibHyio njioc- 
KOCTb b yMeHbiueHHOM h nepeBepHyTOM BH^e (cxeMa 25) h 6y#eT HaxoflHTbca BHyrpn npHuejia Ha 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



53 



paccToaHHH 70-100 mm ot oSbeiernBa (b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot THna npnnejia). B 3tom >Ke MecTe ycTaHOB- 
jieHbi h npHu,ejibHbie hhth (hjih ctckjio c npHnejibHOH ceTKoM). OSopannBaiomaa CHCTeMa (cxeMa 14) 
nepeBopanHBaeT H3o6pa>KeHHe nenn h aenaeT ero npaMbiM, ho yMeHbineHHbiM, ana yBejinneHHa cny- 
acaT JiHH3bi OKynapa (cxeMa 15). 




CxeMa 25. CxeMa xoaa jiyneM h nocTpoemia rooSpaaceHHa b onTHnecKOM npnnejie 
IIpH npaBHJibHO npncTpejiaHHOM opy>KHH nyna npjDKHa "naaaTb" Ha ocTpne npnnejibHoro 3jie- 
MeHTa (cxeMbi 26 h 27). 




CxeMa 26. npnnejiHBaHHe npnuejiaMH ny, IIE, IIB, IIB. Ilyjia "nanaeT" Ha ocTpne npnnejibHoro 
neHbKa. 3to TOHKa npHnejinBaHHa. none HHCToe, 6e3 TeHeM 




CxeMa 27. IIpHnejiHBaHHe npHnejiOM IICO-1. Ilyjia "naaaeT" Ha BepuiHHy ocHOBHoro yrojibHHKa 
- b TOHKy npHu,ejiHBaHHa. none npHnejia HHCToe, CTporo OHepneHHoe no KpaaM 

IIpHHejibHoe npHcnocoSjieHne h H3o6pa>KeHHe nejin HaxonaTca b (|)OKajibHOH hjiockocth oSbeic- 
THBa, no3TOMy rjia3 CTpejiKa npHcnocaSjiHBaeTca tojibko Ha ohho paccToamie, a npHnejiHBaHne 3 a- 
KJnonaeTca b coBMemeHHH ocTpna npHnejibHbix npHcnocoSjieHHH c H3o6pa>KeHHeM nejin. HeKOTopbie 
KOHCTpyKu,HH nonycicaiOT ycTaHOBKy pe3KOCTH H3o6pa>KeHHa no raa3y CTpejiKa npn noMOinn anon- 
TpniiHoro KOJibu,a. y^ajieHHe BbixonHoro 3panica Ha 85-95 mm ot jiHH3bi OKynapa no3BOJiaeT CTpenaTb b 
OHKax n npoTHBora3e, a Taioice oSecnennBaeT 6e3onacHOCTb raa3a npn OTnane bhhtobkh. 

Ilpn npaBHJibHOM npnnejiHBaHHH rna3 CTpejiKa npjDKeH HaxoanTbca CTporo Ha onrnHecKon och 
npnne.ua (cxeMa 28). 3to 3HannT, hto 3pHTejibHoe none npnne.na hojdkho SbiTb aScojiiOTHO hhctmm, 
ero nepnMeTp CTporo onepneHHbiM, 6e3 nojiyjiyHHbix (hjih, KaK eme roBopaT, jiyHOo6pa3Hbix) 3aTeM- 
HeHHH n TeHen no KpaaM. IlyjiH Bceraa ynflyr b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio aa>Ke He3HaHHTejibHOMy 
nonyjiyHHOMy 3aTeMHeHHio, npnneM ynnyT apBOJibHO najieico ot tohkh npnnejinBaHna (cxeMbi 29-31). 
Tjia3 pa3MemaeTca Ha TaKOM paccToaHnn ot OKynapa npnne.na, npn kotopom ero 3pHTejibHoe none 6y- 
aeT bhhho nojiHOCTbio, bo bck) BejiHHHHy, He 6jiH>Ke h He flanbine ot 3Toro onrHMajibHoro paccToaHna. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



54 



HHHMHUUDA act* 



npHLpUWHHM 




CxeMa 28. none npHuejia 6e3 jiyHOo6pa3Hbix h KOJibueBbix TeHeM. 

IIoMHHTe! CueflyeT CTporo coSniOflaTb cjieflyiomHe npaBHJia npHuejiHBaHHa onrHHecKHM npn- 
uejiOM: none npHuejia aojdkho SbiTb aSconiOTHO hhctmm co Bcex ctopoh, 6e3 KOJibueBbix h nojiynyH- 

HblX 3aTeMHeHHH 




CxeMa 29. IlyjiH yxofljrr b npoTHBoncmoMCHyio ot nojiynyHHOH tchh CTopoHy 



CHH3V 





riyflu nofwyr inpfc 



CxeMa 30. Tjia3 He HaxoflHrca Ha onrHHecKoii och 
JIyHOo6pa3Haa TeHb CHH3y 
IlyjiH noHflyr BBepx 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



55 






flyHOrfpOaiWI Tflrth 





CxeMa 3 1 . rna3 He HaxonHTca Ha onrHnecKOH och 

JIyHOo6pa3Haa tqhb cnpaBa 

IlyjiH noHflyr bjicbo 

Ecjih raa3 pacnojio>KeH ^antine hjih 6jiH>Ke, none 3peHHa coKpamaeTca h ero Kpaa "pa3MbiBaiOT- 
ca" (cxeMa 32). B o6meM-TO 3to He CTpaniHO, ecjin 3pHTejibHoe none pa3MbiTO no KpaaM paBHOMepHO, 
ho BecbMa HOKenaTejibHO, noTOMy hto npn "pa3MbiTOM M no Kpa»M 3pHTejibHOM none npaBHJibHOCTb 
nojio>KeHHa rjia3a Ha onrHnecKOH ocn He3aMeTHO yxonHT H3-no# KOHrpojia. 




Admto 



EiMjto 



CxeMa 32. Tjia3 Haxoflnrca Ha onrHHecKon och, ho onrHManbHoe paccToamie He Bbinep>KHBaeT- 
ca. none 3peHHa coKpamaeTca 

3pHTejibHbin nponecc npnnejiHBaHHa c ohthkoh oneHb CTpor n TpeSyeT TBepnpro HaBbiKa, npn- 
oSpeTaeMoro b xone ynopHbix TpeHnpoBOK. flna hobhhkob (3Toro cnoBa He Hanp CTecHaTbca) peico- 
MeH/iyeTca npaKTHHecKHH cnocoS ycTaHOBJieHHa nepHMeTpa nona: npH6jiH>KaTb npn npHnejinBaHHH 
raa3 k OKynapy nocTeneHHo; HaSnionaeMoe npn 3tom cy>KeHHoe 3pnTejibHoe none paciunpaeTca no Tex 
nop, noKa He CTaHeT hctko BHnHa TaK HaBbiBaeMaa "nepenHaa" ero rpaHnna. 3to h SyneT paSonee pac- 
CToaHHe ot rna3a no npHne.na ana KOHKpeTHoro CTpenKa. B TaKOM nojio>KeHHH cnenyeT nocToamio 
KOHTpojinpoBaTb 3Ty rpaHHny, htoSm OHa 6bi.ua BHAHa neTKO. B npnnejibHOM nponecce 3tot ajieMenr, 
no>KajiyH, caMbiii Ba>KHbin. HaBbiK stot mo>kho npnoSpecTH oneHb Sbicrpo, ecjin CHaTbin c bhhtobkh 
onTHnecKHH npnneji HOCHTb c coSoii h napy rhqPl nojib30BaTbca hm BMecTO Shhokjis. 

Ilponecc CTpejibSbi c onrHnecKHM npHnejiOM ropa3no TpynHee, neivt MO>KeT noica3aTbca. Crpe- 
jiaTb c ohthkoh Ta>Kejio. Co6jia3HHBniHCb HH^opManneH o nynecHbix CBoncTBax npnnejibHOH onTHKn, 
hobhhkh CTapaiOTca nocTaBHTb Ha CBoe opy>KHe npHnejibi c yBejinneHHeM noSojibiue. H nacro, k CBoeM 
nocane, KOHCTaTHpyiOT, hto c ohthkoh nonanaiOT xy>Ke, neM npocTO c OTKpbiTbiM npnnejiOM. OSbac- 
hhm, noneiviy TaK nponcxonnr. 

HeM Sojibme yBejinneHne npnu,ejia, TeM Sojibiue b ero 3pnTejibHOM none "npbiraeT" nejib n TeM 
T»>Kejiee 3a Hee "3au,ennTbca". HeM Sojibiue nejib "npbiraeT", TeM Sojibiue CTpenoK CTapaeTca n "ynn- 
paeTca". H neM Sojibiue oh CTapaeTca, TeM Sojibiue nejib "npbiraeT". EcTecTBeHHaa nynbcanna opra- 
HH3Ma ycnjiHBaeT stot nponecc. CrpejioK 3anejinBaeTca. MnmeHb "o>KHBaeT" b 3pnTejibHOM none 
npnnejia n no-CBoeMy "BMemnBaeTca" b nponecc npHnejiHBaHHa. IIopoHHbiH Kpyr 3aMbiKaeTca. 

CTpejiHTb c SojibinnM yBejinneHneM npnii,ejia MoryT TOJibKO oneHb TpeHnpoBaHHbie CHannepw, 
SoeBaa cneu,n(})HKa paSoTbi KOTopwx nonycKaeT CTpejibSy c npnMeHeHneM ynopa (HanpnMep, CTpejiKn, 
cn^amne b HenonBH>KHOH 3acane, hjih CTpejiKH aHrnreppopHCTHHecKHx rpynn). CHaMnepbi, paSoTaio- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



56 



mne b noflBH>KHbix pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHbix hjih noHCKOBbix rpynnax, He MoryT no3BOJiHTb ce6e Taicon 
pocKoniH. 

ApMeMcKHe CHaiinepcKHe npimejibi c yBejinneHHeM oSwhho 3,5-4,5 KpaT, pe>Ke c mecTHKpaT- 
hwm, npHB»3aHHbie k >KecTKoii 4)pohtoboh npaKTHKe, BbinycKaiOTca bo Bcex CTpaHax. Bo Bpeivta npo- 
niJioM BOHHbi y HeMeuKHx h (})hhckhx CHaMnepoB Ha CBepxTOHHbix BHHTOBKax "May3ep-7,92" ((})oto 
104) CToajiH npHu,ejibi c yBejinneHHeM Bcero b 2,5 pa3a ((J)oto 105). HeMHbi (a 3to Swjih yMHbie jhoah) 
CHHTanH, hto Sojibiue He Ha^o. BbiJiH y HeMeuKHx CHannepoB npHuejibi c ^ecaTHicpaTHbiM yBejiHneHH- 
eM, ho CTpenajiH c hhmh TOJibKO BHpTyo3bi. Taicon npHueji floSbiJi b icanecTBe Tpo(J)ea pyccKHH CHaM- 
nep BacHJiHH 3aHu,eB b noeflHHKe c HanajibHHKOM BepjiHHCKOH hikojiw CHannepoB. 




cDoto 104. ApceHan HeMeuKoro CHannepa. BnHTOBKa "May3ep-7,92", nncTOJieTbi "BanbTep 
nnK" h "Bajibrep n-38" 




cDoto 105. HeMeii,KHH CHannepcKHH npHueji yBejinneHHeM 2,5x 

CTpenKH c hh3khm h cpeflHHM ypoBHeM noflroTOBKH Jiyniue nona^aiOT, Hcnojib3ya npHuejibi c 
ManbiM yBenHHeHHeM. Ohthhcckhh npHueji - BenHKoe H3o6peTeHHe. C ero noMombio flanbHHe h Ma- 
jiopa3JiHHHMbie uejiH CTaHOBaTca 6jih3khmh h ^ocaraeMbiMH. B onrHHecKHH npHueji uejib xoponio 
BHflHa b cyMepKax, Kor^a HeBOopy>KeHHbiM raa30M OHa He BH^Ha BOoSme. B onrHHecKHH npHueji uejib 
HeMHoro BHflHa #a>Ke b TeMHOTe. Ho npouecc npHHejiHBaHHa c onrHHecKHM npHuejiOM oneHb CTporaii, 
npn npHu,ejiHBaHHH Ha^o SbiTb onem. coSpamibiM h oneHb BHHMaTejibHbiM. OnTHnecKHH npHueji He 
CTOJibKO oSjiernaeT npHuejiHBaHHe, CKOJibKO Mo6HJiH3yeT ycnjina TpeHnpoBaHHoro CTpejiKa Ha npHue- 
jiHBaHHe h y^ep>KaHHe opy>KHa. Hmchho b 3tom nuaHe onrHHecKHH npHueji no3BOJiaeT CTpenicaM c bbi- 

COKOH nOflrOTOBKOH peajIH30BaTb CBOH pe3epBHbie B03MO>KHOCTH. OnTHHeCKHH npHHeJI - 3TO CpeflCTBO 

peajiH3au,HH HaTpeHnpoBaHHOCTH CTpejiKa. H HeM Sojibiuyio CTeneHb HaTpeHHpoBaHHOCTH h HapaSo- 
TaHHoii ycTOHHHBOCTH HMeeT CTpenoK, TeM SojibHiee yBenHHeHHe npHuejia oh MO>KeT ce6e no3BOJiHTb. 
TonbKO npo(J)eccHOHajibHbie CHaMnepbi c xoponio nocTaBJieHHOH hbfotobkoh, HapaSoTaHHoM ycTOHHH- 
BOCTbio, npn HepBHOH CHCTeMe, ypaBHOBenieHHOH #o nonHoro 6e3pa3JiHHHa, c OTcyTCTBHeM nynbca- 
hhh h oSjia^aiomHe a^cKHM TepneHHeM, MoryT ce6e no3BOJiHTb paSoTaTb c npHuejiOM yBejinneHHeM b 
6 KpaT h Bbiuie. y TaKHx CTpenKOB MHHieHb b npHuejie Be^eT ce6a cnoKoinio h He nbiTaeTca ynpaBJiaTb 

BblCTpeJIOM. 

Ilocjie npnoSpeTeHHa onrHHecicoro npHuejia h ero ycTaHOBKH Ha ctboji CTpejncoB oneHb nacTO 
o>KHflaiOT HenpHjrmbie ciopnpH3bi. IIoflHac floporoM h pocKouiHbiH npHu,eji HenoHjrmo Be^eT ce6a b 
npouecce npncTpejiKH, Tpy/iHO ynpaBJiaeM b nonpaBKax, BbiaBJiaeTca HecTaSnjibHOCTb KyHHOCTH 6oa h 
t. r. Mano kto 3HaeT, hto npHueji npHuejiy po3Hb. OnrHHecKHe npHuejibi noflpa3flejiaiOTca Ha apMeM- 
CKne CHannepcKHe, cnopTHBHbie h oxoTHHHbH. H xots no TexHHnecKOMy npHHunny ohh ycTpoeHbi 

npHMepHO OflHHaKOBO, 3TO He OflHO H TO >Ke. 

y Bjiaflejibu,eB Hape3Horo opy>KHa, >icejiaiomHx nocTaBHTb onTHKy Ha cboh ctboji, B03HHKaer 
ecTecTBeHHbiii Bonpoc: KaKoii npHueji Bce-TaKH Jiyniue? IIpaKTHHecKHH onbiT mhoitix noKOJieHHH 
CTpejiKOB noKa3biBaeT, hto caMbie jiynniHe h caMbie Ha^e>KHbie onrHHeciaie chctcmm - Te, KOTopwe 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 57 

HcnbiTaHbi Ha bohhc 

ApMeMcKHe CHaMnepcKHe npHnejibi Ha3BaHHbix paHee THnoB (ny, IIE, IIB h IICO-1) npoeKTH- 
poBanHCb flua npHMeHeHHa b 3KCTpeMajibHbix ycnoBnax oSmeBOHCKOBoro 6oa h fljia ocoSo tohhoh, 
6e3oniH6oHHOH CTpejibSbi Ha flanbHHx flncraHnHax CHamiepcKoro npoMbicna. Ohh hmciot oneHb 
npoHHbie TOJiCTOCTeHHbie Kopnyca, npoHHbie jiHH3bi, paccHnraHHbie Ha CHJibHyio OT/iany SoeBoro opy- 
>kh», h oSjia^aiOT MHoroKpaTHbiM 3anacoM MexaHHHecKOH npoHHOCTH. Hx oneHb neTKne MexaHH3Mbi 
BepTHKanbHbix h ropH30HTanbHbix nonpaBOK roroTOBJunoTca no nepBOMy KJiaccy tohhocth. 

IlepeflHHe oSbeKTHBHbie JIHH3M CHannepcKHx npHnejiOB ^ejiaiOTca HeSojibinoro flnaivieTpa: 
CHaMnepy He Hy>KHO Sojibinoe 3pHTejibHoe none. K TOMy >Ke CHannepy He Hy>KHbi fleMacKHpyiomHe ot- 
6-necKH ot Sojibinoro CTeKJia h ero SojibinoH (J)poHTajibHbiH cnjiy3T, KOTopbiM TO>Ke fleMacKHpyeT. 
KpoHniTenHbi CHaiinepcKHx npHnejiOB roroTOBJunoTca oneHb npoHHbiMH h MaccnBHbiMn; Bee opy>KeH- 
hoh CHCTeMbi HMeeT fljia CHaMnepa nojio>KHTejibHoe 3HaneHne - neivt oh Sojibine (b pa3yMHbix npe^e- 
Jiax), TeM TOHHee 6oh. npnneji b SojibimiHCTBe cjiynaeB HaMepTBO KpennTca k opy>KHio, htoSw hc- 
KJiiOHHTb ManeHinne jno(})Tbi n maTaHna. 

IIpHnejibHbie ajieMenrbi apMeMcKHx CHaiinepcKHx npnnejiOB ^ejiaiOTca TaK, htoSw ohh KaK 
mo>kho MeHbme 3aKpbiBajin uejib h htoSm hmh KaK mo>kho Sojiee tohho mo>kho Swjio BbiSpaTb TOHKy 
npHnejiHBaHna. ^jih 3Toro nepeKpecTHa npHnejiOB ny, IIE, IIB h IICO-1 OTKpbiTbi CBepxy. B npnne- 
jiax ny, IIE, IIB nejib OTneTJiHBO Bn^Ha Ha ocTpne npHnejibHoro neHbKa. B ceTKe npnnejia IICO-1 
nejib BHflHa eme Jiynme: n CBepxy npnnejibHoro yronbHHKa, h nyrb HH>Ke ero ocTpna. K TOMy >Ke npn- 
neji IICO-1 HMeeT no^CBeTKy npnnejibHOH ceTKH. B cyMepKax 3to ycrpoHCTBO Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb. 

K BbimecKa3aHHOMy cjie^yeT ^oSaBHTb, hto CHannepcKaa TOHHaa h HaflOKHaa onTHKa (flpyron 
OHa npocTO SbiTb He MO>KeT) ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca Ha ctbojim ocoSo TOHHoro roroTOBJieHna h bmcokoh 
hhctotm BHyTpeHHen o6pa6oTKH, flaioinne BbicoKyio KynHOCTb 6oa. Bee 3to BMecTe o6pa3yeT TOHHyio 
hjih BbicoKOTOHHyio CHaMnepcKyio CHCTeMy. 

OxoTHHHbH h cnopTHBHbie npHnejibi flenaiOTca He fljia bohhbi. Ha3HaneHHe y hhx ^pyroe, h Tpe- 
SoBaHHa k npoeKTHpoBaHHio h H3roTOBJieHHio He TaKne >KecTKne. 

fl,jia oxoTHHHbHx nejien npnnejibi oSmhho roroTOBJunoTCfl c nepeflHHMH oSbeKTHBHbiMH jinnBa- 
mh Sojibinoro flnaivieTpa, KOTopbie oSecnennBaiOT yBejinneHHoe none o63opa. C TaKHM npHnejiOM Jier- 
ne CTpenaTb no Seryinen KpynHOH nejin Ha peanbHbix flHCTamiHax jiecHOH oxotm 150-200 MeTpoB. B 
Sojibinoe none npnnejia Jierne M 3axBaTbiBaTb" Serymyio nejib. npHnejibHbix neHbKOB h yrojibHHKOB b 
oxoTHHHbnx npnnejiax oSbiHHO hct: BMecTO hhx "Ha jnoSHTejia" CTaBaTca pa3JiHHHbie npHnejibHbie 
MapKn: tohkh, phckh h name Bcero cnjionmbie KpecTbi, neHTpoM KOTopbix HOBHHKaM Jierne "npHBa3bi- 

BaTbCa" K pa3JIHHHbIM MeCTaM TyjIOBHHia >KHBOTHOrO. 

Kopnyca oxoTHHHbHx npHnejiOB ^ejiaiOTca TOHKOCTeHHbiMH fljia oSjierneHna Beca. B Tex >Ke u,e- 
jiax KpenneHHa sthx npHnejiOB BbinojmaiOTca H3 nerKHx cnnaBOB. MexaHH3Mbi bbq^quks BepTHKanb- 
Hbix h Sokobmx nonpaBOK roroTOBjnnoTca TaK>Ke oSjierneHHoro Tnna h c MeHbinen CTeneHbio tohho- 
cth. B yrofly noTpeSnTejno onTHHecKne oxoTHHHbH npnnejibi ^enaiOT c nepeMeHHbiM yBejinneHHeM. y 
TaKon onTHKH noflBH>KHbie Tpymneca noBepxHOCTH paHO hjih no3flHO H3HaniHBaiOTca, noaBJiaiOTca 
jno(J)Tbi, conpa>KeHHbie c hhmh MexaHHnecKne CMemeHHa, Bbi3biBaiomHe onTHnecKne napamiaKCbi (ne- 
coBnafleHHa onTHnecKnx oceii; no stoh npnHHHe apMencKne CHannepcKHe npHii,ejibi ^enaiOTca nocTO- 
aHHoro yBejinneHHa - TOHHaa onTHKa jho(J)tob He TepnnT). 

CnopTHBHbie npHnenbi OTJinnaiOTca ot oxoTHHHbHx Sonee hhctoh oSpaSoTKOH jihh3 h noBbi- 
meHHOH TOHHOCTbio H3roTOBJieHHa nonpaBOHHbix MexaHH3MOB (HanpHMep, npHii,ejibi TO-4 h TO-6 flna 
CTpenbSbi no "SerymeMy KaSaHy"). Ho hx Kopnyca TaK>Ke TOHKOCTemibie c ManbiM 3anacoM npoHHO- 

CTH. 

BojibniHHCTBO cnopTHBHbix h oxoTHHHbHx npHnejiOB npoeKTnpyeTca nofl MajioKajinSepHbie bhh- 
tobkh n oxoTHHHbH KapaSnHbi c ManoH OTflaneH. Ilpn ocHameHHH MomHoro "3Bepo6oa" TaKHMH npn- 
nenaMH (KaK h npnii,ejiaMH HOHHoro BH^eHna) hx ycTaHaBJiHBaiOT Ha cneu,HajibHbie "nuaBaiomHe" 
aMopTH3npyiomHe KpoHHiTenHbi. 

He 3Haa Bcex sthx tohkoctch, MHorne oxothhkh h ^a>Ke CHannepw CTaBHJiH mnKapHyio onTHKy 
Ha TpexjiHHeiiHbie bhhtobkh h oxothkhbh KapaSnHbi, CTpenaiomHe SoeBbiMH naTpoHaMH. OT^ana 6oe- 
bmx CHCTeM HeconocTaBHMa c OT^aneH oxoTHHHbero opy>KHa. nocne HecKOJibKHx ^ecaTKOB BbiCTpenoB 
Sojibmaa h Taacenaa nepe^Haa oSbeKTHBHaa jiHH3a npocTO BbiJieTana Hapy>Ky H3 onpaBbi hjih pacKa- 
jibiBanacb Ha KycKH. ToHKOCTeHHbie Kopnyca npnii,ejiOB npn pe3KOM HMnyjibce OT^anH CMHHanncb, h 
npnii,eji HanHHan "flbimaTb" b KpoHinrenHe. Ot noBbimeHHOH Harpy3KH b conjieHeHnax H3amHbix Jier- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 58 

KocnjiaBHbix "(})HpMeHHbix" KpenjieHHH h b MecTax hx noca^KH Ha opy>KHH o6pa30BbiBanHCb Jiio(|)Tbi. 
IIpH SoKOBbix y/japax He>KHbie KOHCTpyKUHH 3thx a>KypHbix KpenjieHHH fle(|)opMHpoBajiHCb, cSnBaa b 
CTopoHy npHCTpejiaHHbiii npnneji. O tohhocth CTpejibSbi npn stom y>Ke He Morao SbiTb h penn. 

IIo xojjy CTpejibSbi CHaiinepaMH h oxoTHHKaMH npncTpejionHbie nonpaBKH bhocjctoi nocToamio, 
h MaxoBHKH npHuejiOB npHxoflHrca KpyTHTb Bee BpeMa. ApMeMcKHe h cnopTHBHbie npHuejibi k STOMy 
npHcnocoSjieHbi, a oxoTHHHbH - He Bcer^a. 

HepeflKH cjiynan, Kor^a, paSoTaa c pa36HTbiM OTflaneH nonpaBOHHbiM MexaHH3MOM oxoTHHHbero 
npnuejia (a oneHb nacTO - #a>Ke aScojiiOTHO hobwm h BOoSme "HecTpejiaHbiM"), cpe^Haa TOHKa nona- 
flaHHa (CTII) nepeMemaTbca no MHHieHH Hmcaic He xoneT. MaxoBHK BpamaiOT eme h eme, flo noSefl- 
Horo KOHu,a, h cpe^Haa TOHKa nonaflaHHa B^pyr pe3KO "nepenpbirHBaeT" nepe3 to MecTO b mhihchh, 
Ky/ja en npeflHa3HaneHO "jienb". 3to 03HanaeT, hto npHuejibHoe nonpaBOHHoe npncnocoSjieHHe hjih 
"pa36ojrraHo" OTflaneH, hjih He6pe>KHO CKOHCTpynpoBaHO h nnoxo H3roTOBJieHO, hjih H3HOiueHO. B 
npnuejiax IICO-1 npHHHHOH MO>KeT SbiTb nnoxaa nocTaHOBKa hjih HenpaBHJibHoe npnneraHHe (pa36y- 
xaHHe) nbuieBJiaro3amHTHbix KO>KaHbix canbHHKOB. IIonpaBOHHbiH y3eji - caMaa OTBeTCTBeHHaa nacib 
b onTHnecKHx npHuejiax, h Ha ero pa6oTy Ha^o oSpamaTb BHHMaHne b nepByio onepeflb. J\ayKQ b ap- 
MeiicKHx CHaiinepcKHx npnuejiax 3to aBJieHHe "6jiy>KflaiomeH CTII" HeT-HeT, jx& h npoaBJiaeTca H3-3a 
H3HOca MHKpoMeTpHnecKHx bhhtob. IIosTOMy 3HaiomHe CHaiinepbi nepefl BBefleHHeM nonpaBKH CHa- 
nana BbiBOflaT MaxoBHKH Ha hojib, a noTOM y>Ke BbiCTaBJiaiOT nx Ha Hy>KHyio BejiHHHHy nonpaBKH. 

ripnoSpeTaa npnueji, oSpaTHie BHHMaHne Ha HHCTOTy n npo3panHOCTb jihh3, neTKOCTb H3o6pa- 
>KeHHJi u,ejin h npHuejibHoii ceTKn (hhtch). IloflOJibnie noflep>KHTe npHueji nepefl npnnejibHbiM rjia30M. 
Ecjih rjia3 6biCTpo ycTaeT Raws npn hctkom H3o6pa>KeHHH, npnneji noflJie>KHT BbiSpaKOBKe hjih pe- 
Momy. BwcTpaa ycTanocTb rjia3a oSbacHaeTca HenpaBHJibHoii nocTaHOBKon jihh3 h HecoBna^eHHeM 
hx onTHnecKHx oceii (napanjiaKcaMH). 3aTeM 3aKpenHie npHueji HenoflBH>KHO, noBpamaHie nonpaBOH- 
Hbie MaxoBHKH b pa3Hbie ctopohw h BH3yanbHO npocjie^HTe, HacKOJibKO CHHxpoHHO nepeMemaiOTca b 
nojie npnuejia npHuejibHbie hhth. Ecjih bm KpyTHTe MaxoBHK, a nepeMemeHHe hhtch npoHexoflHT He 
cpa3y, a c 3ana3flbiBaHHeM, 3HanHT, b nonpaBOHHOM MexaHH3Me hjih "otoihjih" Kpene>KHbie h 4)hkch- 
pyiomiie BHHTbi, hjih, CKopee Bcero, CHOCHJiacb pe3b6a MracpoMeipHHecKHx bhhtob. Kpene>KHbie bhh- 

Tbl MO>KHO "3aT3HyTb", H nOJIO>KeHHe HCnpaBHTCa, HO npH HBHOCe MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHX BHHTOB TOHHO- 
CTH CTpejibSbi y>Ke He 6y#eT. y cTapwx npHuejiOB npn BpameHHH BepTHKanbHoro MaxoBHKa mo>kho 
3aMeTHTb CMemeHHe npHuejibHbix HHieii no ropn30HTy, hjih >Ke npn BpameHHH ropH30HTanbHoro Ma- 

XOBHKa HHTH CMemaKXrCa BepTHKajIbHO. 3T0 npOHCXOflHT H3-3a H3HOCa nOJI3yHKOB MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHX 

bhhtob h onpaBbi nepeKpecTba. B TaKOM anynae Hepe^KO npHueji k 3KcnjiyaTau,HH HenpnrofleH. 

Ha>KMHTe Ha Ka>Kflbiii MaxoBHK no onepeflH, BH3yajibHO KonrpojiHpya nojio>KeHHe npHuejibHbix 
HHTeii: ohh npn stom He flOJi>KHbi c^BHraTbca. MarKO, ho cnjibHO nocTynHie peSpoM jia^OHH no npn- 
u,ejiy b oSjiacTH nonpaBOHHoro MexaHH3Ma - hhth aojckhw ocTaBaTbca Ha MecTe. 

HHor^a Bee BbiiueonHcaHHbie HeraTHBHbie aBJieHHa nponcxoflaT H3-3a caMonpoH3BOJibHoro ot- 
KpyHHBaHHa Kpene>KHbix bhhtob. BbiBaeT, hto npHu,eji HanHHaeT 6e3yKopH3HeHHO paSoTaTb nocjie to- 
ro, KaK ero aKKypaTHO pa3o6paTb h npaBHJibHO coSpaTb. Ho ^ejiaTb 3to MO>KeT TOJibKO onbiTHbiii Ma- 
CTep. 

ynTHie, hto KynHOCTb 6oa fla>Ke pocKoniHO OT^ejiaHHoro oxoTHHHbero Hape3Horo opy>KHa b 
jiyniueM cjiynae paBHaeTca KyHHOCTH 6oa apMeiicKoro aBTOMaTa KajianiHHKOBa. npnSaBbTe k 3TOMy 
BbiiueonHcaHHbie norpeniHOCTH nonpaBOHHbix MexaHH3MOB oxothhhbhx onTHnecKHx npHu,ejiOB h He 
o>KHflaHTe KaKoro-TO ny^a. CHaiinep CTpejiaeT Ha 700-800 MeTpoB npoTHBHHKy Me>Kfly rjia3, oxothhk - 
no Tyme Jioca Ha 150 MeTpoB. Pa3Hbie u,ejiH - pa3Hoe opy>KHe. 3Haa BbinieonHcaHHbie HeraTHBHbie mo- 
MeHTbi, nepefl npnoSpeTeHHeM onTHnecKoro npHu,ejia copa3MepbTe Baiun u,ejiH h bo3mo>khocth. Ecjih 

BaM HeoSxOflHMO OCHaCTHTb OnTHKOH SoeByiO HJIH OXOTHHHbK) CHCTeMy C nOBblHieHHOH OTflaneH (a B 

SojibHiHHCTBe cjiynaeB TaK h SbiBaeT), BbiSnpaHTe oxothhhhh npHueji c MaccHBHbiM TOJiCTOCTeHHbiM 
KopnycoM h HeSojibiuoH nepeflHeii oSbeKTHBHoii rHJib30H. Hjih Hcnojib3yHie apMeMcKHH npHu,eji. He 
3a6biBairTe 06 OT^ane - 3to Bpar HOMep o^hh ohthkh. Ha TpexjiHHeiiHyio BHHTOBKy, oSpaTHbiii y/iap 
KOTopoM no coBpeMeHHbiM MepKaM npocTO Hy^OBHH(HbiH, mo>kho CTaBHTb TOJibKO ee "poflHbie" npnue- 
jibi ny, nE h HE. Ha stoh BHHTOBKe co BpeMeHeM "pa36HBaeTca" fla>Ke npHu,eji nCO-1, npeKpacHO h 
flOJiro paSoTaiOHiHH b oxothhhbhx CHCTeMax "Tnrp", "Bapc", "CaMra", "Apxap", "Benpb" h Ha SoeBbix 
CHCTeMax CBfl, CBT, CKC. 

Ho 3to eme He Bee. KpenjieHne npnuejia Ha opy>KHH aojdkho HCKJHonaTb ManeiiHiHe ero CMeme- 
HHa h KanaHHa. Hejib3a 3a6biBaTb, hto fla>Ke HeSojibiuoii, ho pe3KHH HMnyjibc OT^anH MajioKajinSep- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 59 

hoh bhhtobkh MeflJieHHO, ho BepHO pacmaTbiBaeT KpoHinrenH b MecTax ero conjieHeHHH, h ecuH oh 
"3aKaHanca", to npHMeHeHHe ohthkh y>Ke He HMeeT CMbicna. 

3AIIOMHHTE! KanecTBO KpomnreHHa e#Ba jih He Ba>KHee, neM KanecTBO caMoro npHnejia. 
KpoHHiTeiiH He flOJi>KeH HMeTb cjiaSwx MecT. Bojibhihhctbo opy>KeHHbix chctcm He npe#ycMOTpeHO 
fljia CTpeubSbi c onTHnecKHM npnnejiOM. IIo3TOMy npn >KejiaHHH oxoTHHKa ocHacTHTb cboio bhhtobky 
npHu,ejibHOH onTHKOH b Ka>KflOM KOHKpeTHOM anynae KpoHHiTeiiH H3roTOBJiaeTca HiTyHHO no OTflenb- 

HOMy HepTOKy OnblTHbIM 4)pe3epOBIHHKOM. KpOHIUTeHH flOJDKeH SblTb MaCCHBHbIM H HaflOKHbIM, Bbl- 

nojiHeHHbiM H3 xopomen CTanH. K ctbojibhoh KopoSKe opy>KHa oh flOJDKeH Kpennrbca Harayxo. Ha 

CTapblX Mara3HHHbIX BHHTOBKaX C HX TOJICTOCTeHHblMH CTBOJIbHblMH KOpoSKaMH 3TO CfleJiaTb HeCJIO>K- 

ho (cxeMa 8, (J)oto 94). Ho b coBpeMeHHbix aBTOMaTHnecKHx CHCTeMax, HMeiomnx tohkhc CTeHKH 
CTBOJibHbix KopoSoK, HeM SojibHie rniomaflb conpracocHOBeHHa ocHOBaHHa KpoHinreHHa c kopoSkoh, 
TeM Jiynnie. noneMy? noTOMy hto b TOHKyio CTeHKy ctbojibhoh kopoSkh npocTO HeKy^a 3aBHHHHBaTb 
TOJiCTbie BHHTbi (M6, M8), a Ha tohkhx BHHrax npHneji c KpomnTeHHOM ^ep>KHTca nnoxo. Ha (J)oto 
106, 107 H3o6pa>KeH y^anHO H3roTOBJieHHbiH MacTepoM-opy>KeHHHKOM no HHflHBH#yajibHOMy npoeKTy 
KpoHniTeiiH cpaBHHTejibHO T»>Kejioro npnne.na nCO-1, oxBaTbiBaiomnii c flByx ctopoh TOHKOCTeHHyio 
CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy bhhtobkh CBT. npHMeHeHHe KpoHniTeiiHa flOJDKHO HCKJuonaTb "cSHBaHHe" npH- 
nejia ^a>Ke npn cnjibHbix npaMbix h Sokobbix y^apax, HHane npaKTHnecKaa nemiocTb ohthkh 6y#eT 
CBe^eHa k Hyjno. H oxoTHHKy, h CHannepy npnxoflHTca paSoTaTb b >kcctkhx ycjiOBHax, opy>KHe 6y#eT 
HeoflHOKpaTHO na/jaTb h y^apaTbca hmchho npnnejiOM (no 3aKOHy noflJiocTn) o caMbie Henoflxoflamne 
npe^MeTbi. H ecjin KpomnTenH He 3aKpenjieH Ha CTBOJibHOH KopoSKe opy>KHa HaMepTBO, ero npn 6o- 
kobom yflape cflBHHeT b CTopoHy, a npn BbiCTpene ero MO>KeT npocTO CHecTH OTflanen BMecTe c npnne- 

JIOM. 

KoHCTpyKu,Ha KpoHinieHHa flOJi>KHa ^onycKaTb pa36opKy, cSopKy, HHCTKy h CMa3Ky opyacna 6e3 
CHaTHa onTHnecKoro npHnejia. (KpoMe chctcm 3aBO#CKoro H3roTOBJieHHa, b KOTopwx oneHb tohho H3- 
roTOBJieHbi nocaflOHHbie MecTa KpenjieHna npnnejia h npe^ycMOTpeHa B03MO>KHOCTb SbiCTporo chsths 
h SbiCTpoii nocTaHOBKH npHnejia hjih 3aMeHbi npnnejiOB c ^HeBHoro Ha hohhoh.) 

KpoMe Toro, KOHCTpyKnna KpoHinieHHa flOJDKHa oSecnenHBaib CBoSo^Hoe npnnejiHBaHHe ot- 
KpbiTbiM npHu,ejiOM. J\im 3Toro onTnnecKHn npnneji KpennTca cSoKy CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh (npnnejibi 
nE, nB h ny hmciot 6oKOBbie KpoHniTenHbi). Ecjih npHneji Kpennrca CBepxy CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh, 

KpOHUITeHH flOJDKeH HMeTb "OKHa", n03BOJIHK)HlHe pa60TaTb C OTKpblTbIM npHU,eJIOM ((J)OTO 88). He- 

CMOTpa Ha Bee npenMymecTBa ohthkh, HajiHHne OTKpbiToro npnnejia Ha bkhtobkc o6a3aTejibHo! On- 
THKa - 3to CTeKJio, KOTopoe MO>KeT nerKO pa36nTbca hjih TpecHyrb. H Tor^a bcs Hafle>Kfla Ha npncTpe- 
jiaHHbiii h BbiBepeHHbiH OTKpbiTbin npnii,eji. K TOMy >Ke, HMea xopomo npncTpejiaHHbiH OTKpbiTbiii 
npHu,eji, mo>kho oneHb SbiCTpo "BbiCTaBHTb" n npHCTpenaTb npnii,eji ohthhcckhh (cm. ^anee). 




cDoto 106. npHu,eji nCO-1 Ha bkhtobkc CBT (bh^ cneBa): 

1 - "nacTOHKHH xboct" - noca^OHHoe mccto npHnejia, 

2 - Kpene>KHbin bhht M4; 

3 - Kpene>KHbiH bhht M8,5, 3aBHHHHBaeTca HBHyrpn nepe3 6y(J)epHyio BTyjiKy, BbiBHHHHBaeTca 
npn HHCTKe opy>KHa; 

4 - npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH CMenieHHa Kopnyca npHnejia no CTopoHaM b stom conjieHeHHH npoKJia- 
flbiBaiOTca TOHKne MeTajiJinnecKHe npoKJia^KH 

OnTHnecKHH npnii,eji Ha coBpeMeHHOM opy>KHH nacTO CMenieH bjicbo ot och CTBOJia (nnocKOCTb 
CTpeubSbi) Ha 1-4 cm ^Jia y^oScTBa npnii,ejiHBaHHa n 3apa>KaHHa opy>KHa. Ha flncTaHnnax Sojiee 300 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 60 

MerpoB TaKoe CMemeHHe Ha pe3ynbTaTax CTpejibSbi He CKa3biBaeTca. 




cDoto 107. IIpHHeji nCO-1 Ha BHHTOBKe CBT (bh# cnpaBa). npnneji CMemeH bjicbo ot och ctbo- 
jia. IIpH 3tom CTpenKy y^oSHee nejinibca h ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb HanonHHTb Mara3HH H3 oSohmm CBepxy 
(cTpenKa 1). 2, 3 - Kpene>KHbie bkhtw M4 

Ha KpoHHiTeiiHe npnneji flOJi>KeH SbiTb 3aKpenjieH xoMyraMH b #Byx TOHKax, pacnojio>KeHHbix 
noAanbnie flpyr ot flpyra (npnnejibi IIB h ny). Ctohkh, k KOTopbiM npHBHHHHBaiOTca xoMyibi, aojdk- 
hh HMeTb oSmee ocHOBaHHe. XoMyibi-KpenjieHHa flOJDKHbi SbiTb cflejiaHbi KaK o#ho nejioe c KpoH- 
HiTeiiHOM (KpoHHiTeiiH npnnejia ny), hjih SbiTb oahhm nejibiM c KopnycoM npnnejia (npHneji IICO-1), 

HJIH >Ke SbiTb H3rOTOBJieHHbIMH C SoJIbHIOH TOHHOCTbK). HHane OHH paHO HJIH n03flHO nOfl B03fleHCTBH- 

eM BH6pau,HH HanHyr CMeinaTbca Ha TpySKe npnnejia, a fljia yxy^HieHHa mctkocth ^ocTaTOHHO h ca- 
Moro He3HaHHTejibHoro CMeineHna. 

Ha BHHTOBKe CB,3, noca^OHHoe MecTO npnnejia - "jiacTOHKHH xboct" - BbinonHeHO oneHb tohho. 

TaK >Ke TOHHO BbinOJIHeHbl "jiaCTOHKHHbl XBOCTbl" H Ha flpyTHX BHHTOBKaX, B KOHCTpyKU,HaX KOTOpblX 

npeflycMOTpeHa B03MO>KHOCTb nocTaHOBKH onTHnecKHx npHuejiOB (Bee coBpeMeHHbie MajioKajinSep- 

Hbie BHHTOBKH H SoJIbHIHHCTBO OXOTHHHbHX KapaSHHOB). Ho B JHOSOM CJiyHae KpOHHITCHH - 3TO Mexa- 

HHnecKaa nacTb onrHHecicoro npnnejia. KpoHHneHH flOJi>KeH HMeTb B03MO>KHOCTb perynnpoBKH no 
CTopoHaM fljia BbiBefleHHa nempoM 3pHTejibHoro nojia Ha uejib. 

B CTapwx h flpyrnx fljiHHHOCTBOJibHbix CHCTeMax, r^e KOHCTpyKTopoM He npe^ycMOTpeHa no- 
CTaHOBKa onTHKH (HanpHMep, ipexjinHenHaa BHHTOBKa), ocHOBaHHe KpomuTenHa (npnneji ny) hjih 

CaM KpOHHITeHH (npHU,eJI HE) HMeiOT B CBOeM KOHCTpyKHHH B03MO>KHOCTb MHKpOMeTpHHeCKHMH BHH- 

TaMH H3MeH3Tb oSinyio HanpaBJieHHOCTb onTHnecKoro npnnejia no och npn ero npncTpejiKe (cm. ^anee 
pa3fleji "npaKTHnecKaa npncTpejiKa CHaiuiepcKon bhhtobkh"). 

nocTaHOBKa n noflroHKa npnnejia - niTynHaa paSoTa. BBH^y Toro hto onTHHecKnn npnneji c 
KpoHniTeiiHOM noflroHaeTca k Ka>Kflon KOHKpeTHon BHHTOBKe, Ha ocHOBaHHH KpoHHiTeiiHa h Ha hh>k- 
Heii ero nacTH HaHOcnica ajieieiponepoM HOMep bhhtobkh. 

TaSjinna 4 

TexHHHecKne ^aHHbie onrHnecKnx npnnejiOB, BbinycKaBHinxca b CCCP 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



61 



npHnejio 

b/ 
TexHH4e 

CKHC 


CHannep 

CKHH 

nE,nE 


CHaHnep 

CKHHliy 


OxOTHH4 

HH 

npOMBICJI 

OEbril 

noiM 


CHaHnep 

CKHH 

nco-i 


CnopTH 

EHBIH 


CnopTH 

BH&IH 

TO^m 


OxOTHH4 
HH 

rrpoM&icji 

OEEIH 

TC-6m 


CnopTH 

BHHH 

TC-6c 


CnopTH 

EHBIH 

no-ioc 


JJpaMer 

p 

O&BCKTH 

E3(mm) 


30,4 


22,0 


15,0 


24,0 


22,0 


22,0 


35,0 


37,0 


43,0 


/fHaueT 

P 

OKyjiajja 

(mm) 


44,0 


24,5 


23,0 


32,0 


24,0 


24,0 


33,0 


33,0 


35,0 


/JnaMer 

P 

BBIXOflH 

oro 

spaHKa 

(mm) 


7,6 


6,0 


4,8 


6,0 


5^ 


5^ 


8,0 


6,1 


5,3 


y^ajieH 
He 

EEIXOflH 

oro 

spaHKa 

or 

OKyjiapa 

(mm) 


83,0 


72,0 


86,0 


68,0 


76,0 


74,0 


70,0 


68,0 


60,0 


YEemn 


4,0x 


3,6x 


2,5x 


4,0x 


4,0x 


4,0x 


or l,5x 


5^x 


8,0x 



PA3^EJI 2. IIPAKTHHECKA5I TEXHHKA CTPEJIBBW H3 BHHTOBKH 



Opy>KHe TOHHoro 6oa - niTyuepbi h bhhtobkh - noaBHJiocb HecKOJibKO ctojicthh Ha3a#. IIohth 
OflHOBpeMeHHO c noaBJieHHeM TOHHoro opy>KHa CTpenKH HanajiH noAMenaTb, hto npn onpeflejieHHbix 
nojio>KeHHax Tena, pyK, Hor, nocTaHOBKH rojiOBbi h t. r. CTpenbSa nojiynaeTca Jiynnie. Ha Bee 3to 
Sojibine h Sojibine oSpamanH BHHMaHHe, h ^OBOJibHO CKopo oSpHCOBanHCb ocHOBHbie npHHiiHiibi 
CTpenbSbi H3 fljiHHHOCTBOJibHoro opy>KHa, to ecTb KaK jie>KaTb, CToaTb, CH^eTb npn CTpeubSe, hto h 
neM Hy>KHO nofl>KHMaTb h npn>KHMaTb, b Kaicyio CTopoHy Ha^o OTKnoHjrrbca riis noflflep>KaHHa CTpen- 
KOBoro SanaHca, KaK Ha^o ^biniaTb h CMOTpeTb b nprnjeji. Kopone, BbipaSoTanncb npaBHJibHbie Knac- 
CHnecKHe nocTyjiaTbi tohhoh h mctkoh CTpenbSbi, oflHHaKOBbie fljia Bcex CTpejiaiomnx. K co>KajieHHio, 
Ha npaKTHKe MHorae H3 hhx BecbMa HeyfloSHbi h #a>Ke MyHHTejibHbi b HcnojiHeHHH, ho Jiynuiero noKa 
hhkto He npHflyMan. IIpaBHJibHoe nojio^emie CTpejiKa npn CTpeubSe Ha3biBaeTca H3roTOBKOH, h ot- 
CTynjieHHe ot KJiaccHnecKHx nocTynaTOB CTpenKOBbix H3roTOBOK 3aBOflHT HOBHHKa b TynnK. CTaTHne- 

CKHe BHHTOBOHHbie H3rOTOBKH, B KOTOpblX npHXOflHTCa IipeSblBaTb HacaMH, TpyflHOnepeHOCHMbI HO- 

BHHKaMH. HeT TaKoro HOBHHKa, KOTopoMy He xoTenocb 6bi cflenaTb hto-to no-CBoeMy, htoSw Swjio He 
TaK CKyHHO h MyHHTenbHO. 3a#ana HHCTpyKTopa - nocTaBHTb KypcaHTy npaBHJibHyio H3roTOBKy, to 
ecTb npn^aTb ero Teny TaKoe nojio>KeHHe, npn kotopom oh fleMcTBHTejibHO 6y#eT nona^aTb b u,ejib, a 
He TaKoe, KaKoe xoneTca KypcaHTy, npn kotopom oh caM 6y#eT He b coctojihhh noH»Tb, noneMy y He- 
ro He nojiynaeTca CTpenbSa h cjie/iyiOT HeoSbacHHMbie npoMax 3a npoMaxoM. J\a, y KypcanroB ecTb 
HHflHBHflyanbHbie aHaTOMHnecKHe h ncHxo(|)H3HOJiorHHecKHe ocoSchhocth, ho MeHaTb H3roTOBKy, 
npHHopaBJiHBaacb k hhm, mo>kho TOJibKO nocne Toro, KaK KypcaHTOM nojiyneHbi TBep^bie HaBbiKH 
npaKTHnecKOH CTpenbSbi. B jiioSom cjiynae TaKne Benin ^enaiOTca npn KOHcynbTauHH HHCTpyKTopa h 
noA ero HaSjiiOfleHHeM. C oiroiHecKHM npim,ejiOM Jierne nona^aTb, ho CTpejisrrb Ta>Kejiee. IIo3TOMy k 
TpeHHpoBKaM CTpenbSbi c onTHKOH npncTynaiOT TOJibKO nocne fl0CTH>KeHHa KypcanroM KyHHOH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 62 

CTpeJIbSbl C oSblHHbIM OTKpblTbIM npHUeJIOM. 

CTPEJIbEA JIE5KA C ynOPA 

3tot ochobhoh cnocoS CHannepcKOH CTpenbSbi Hcnojib3yeTca h npn oSyneHHH hobhhkob, h Ma- 
CTHTbiMH CHaMnepaMH. CnocoS oSecnennBaeT oneHb Sojibinyio, noHTH aScojnoTHyio ycToiiHHBOCTb 
opy>KHa h npHMeHaeTca CHaMnepaMH KompTeppopHCTHHecKHx noflpa3flejieHHH ^Jia ocoSo tohhoh h 
OTBeTCTBeHHoii CTpenbSbi b anynae, Kor^a Ha^o "oTflejinrb" TeppopncTa ot 3ano>KHHKa, He 3anenHB 
nocneflHero. 

IIpH CTpejibSe Jieaca c ynopa CTpenoK jiokht Ha >KHBOTe h, htoSm Kopnyc MeHbiue 3aBajiHBano 
BnpaBO-BJieBO, npn>KHMaeT Horn KOJieroiMH k 3eMJie. KaSnyKn nnoTHO npn>KHMaiOTca k 3eMJie Ha pac- 
CToaHHH flpyr ot flpyra b 1,5 pa3a iunpe mien. KaSnyKH npn SoeBbix CTpenbSax oSa3aTejibHO npn>KaTbi 
k 3eMJie. Bo-nepBbix, TaKHM oSpa30M CTpenoK Sonbnie KOHTaKTHpyeT c rpyHTOM, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, 
Sojibuie h rniomaflb onopw, a BO-BTopbix, b SoeBoft oScTaHOBKe He npn>KaTbiH k 3eivuie, noflHSTbiH KaS- 
nyK cpa3y CHeceT ockojikom hjih nyneii. 

Ecjih Ha CTpenKa CMOTpeTb CBepxy, oh flOJDKeH Bbirjia^eTb TaK, Kaic noKa3aHO Ha cxeMe 33. J\o- 
nycKaeTca (ecjin yace CTpenoK HHKaK He MO>KeT Se3 3Toro) crnSaHHe npaBon Horn b KOJieHe h b Se^pe, 
ho HeHaMHoro. BHHTOBKa HaxoflHTca Ha ynope no# HeKOTopbiM yraoM k och no3BOHOHHHKa h yraoM k 
jihhhh njien CTpeiiKa (cxeMa 33) HacTOJibKO, HacKOJibKO eivty 6y#eT y^oSHO nejinrbca. CxeMa 33. IIpH 
CTpejibSe jie>Ka ocb no3BOHOHHHKa CTpenKa oSpa3yeT yron a c nnocicocTbio (ocbio) CTpenbSbi; jihhhs 
mien oSpa3yeT c njiocKOCTbio CTpenbSbi yron b 

IIojio>KeHHe TyjiOBHma npn CTpejibSe jie>Ka aojdkho SbiTb pobhwm, Se3 Hanpa>KeHHH h nepern- 
Sob no ocn no3BOHOHHHKa. IIocjieAHHe Bbi3biBaiOT HeHy>KHbie Hanpa>KeHHa MycKyjiaTypw, n npn 3tom 
HapymaeTca npaBHJibHOCTb nojio>KeHHa pyK, 3aTpyflHaeTca ^bixaHne n yBejinnnBaeTca pa3Spoc nyjib. 
Ecjih CTpeiiKy Hy>KHO CKoppeKTnpoBaTb HanpaBJieHne CTpenbSbi, oh ^enaeT 3to nepeMemeHneM Hor 
BnpaBO-BJieBO. 

TpyflHaa KJieTKa CTpenKa npHnoflHjrra HacTOJibKO, HacKOJibKO 3Toro TpeSyeT BbicoTa ynopa, n 
CTpenoK npn stom onnpaeTca Ha jieBbiii noKOTb He3aBHCHMO ot Toro, KaKoe nojio>KeHHe 3aHHMaeT 

KHCTb JieBOH pyKH. 

EcTb flBa cnocoSa CTpenbSbi c ynopa. IlepBbiH 3aKjnonaeTca b tom, hto BHHTOBKa cboSoaho ne- 
>kht Ha ynope, a khctb JieBOH pyicn npH#ep>KHBaeT npnioiafl B03Jie nnena, npn^aBaa eiviy oflHOoSpa3Hoe 
ycTOHHHBoe nojio>KeHHe b nnene ((})oto 108). 3thm cnocoSoM nojib3yiOTca nyneMeTHHKH npn CTpeiib- 
Se H3 pynHbix nyjieMeTOB. Oh Taioice peKOMeH^yeTca fljia hobhhkob. Tot, kto npnoSpeji ycTOHHHBbie 
HaBbiKn npnii,ejiHBaHHa n cnycKa KypKa, CTpenaiOT c noflflep>KKOH jieBon pyKon 3a neBbe bhhtobkh 
(4)oto 109). B jiioSom cjiynae Hejib3a KnacTb BHHTOBKy HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha TBepflbiM ynop. MoK^y 
ynopoM h bhhtobkoh o6a3aTejibHO flOJi>KHO SbiTb nojio>KeHO hto-jihSo MarKoe - nianKa, pyKaBnna, 
BaTHHK n t. r. HHane npn BbiCTpene BnSpanna opy>KHa Sy^eT noflSpacbiBaTb BHHTOBKy Ha ynope h 
yBOflHTb nyjiio BBepx, npnneM ^OBOJibHO flaneKO. IIpaBHJibHoe ncnojib30BaHHe ynopa HMeeT oneHb 
SonbHioe 3HaneHHe. Run BbiacHeHna BJinaHna ynopa npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh b CBoe BpeMa opy- 
>KeHHHK-HcnbiTaTeab H. M. cDmiaTOB npoBen pafl onbiTOB. Ynopw Spanncb pa3Hon >KecTKOCTH (Ka- 
MeHb, flepH, 3eMJia), n MeHjmocb MecTO nx npnjio^eHna. CpeflHne pe3yjibTaTbi onbiTOB npn CTpejibSe 
jie>Ka Ha ^anbHOCTH 100 MeTpoB npnBefleHbi b TaSn. 5. 




cDoto 108. ripHKnaflKa ^Jia CTpenbSbi c ynopa "no-nyjieMeTHOMy" 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



63 




cDoto 109. IIpHKJiaflKa fljia CTpejibSbi c ynopa "no-BHHTOBOHHOMy" 
TaSjinua 5 



Ycjioehh CTpenEfiti 


OncnoHeHHe cpeflHen totkh nona^asHa or tohkh 

IipHIICJlimaHHHL, CM 


no BBicore 


GoKOBoe 


KaMHTOMH ynop y mrxm-rn jioTrarsom 


+15 





KonBna 




KaMfflHTiTH ynffp NKTItJjy JTO'HM'BTilMH 


+14 





KonBqauH 




KaMPH h ki h ynop y BepxHPm Jioienom 


+23 





Kojnvna 




n. « 


+7 


-2 


itMJliHOJd yilOp y HHlKHflilt J10JfctiX>lX> 

KonBna 


SeMJimoH ynop ucxffy jioxcbeimh 

KOHKOaMH 


+5 





SeMJiHHOH ynop y Eepxnero JioxeEoro 
KonBna 


+14 


-1 



KaK BHflHO H3 Ta6jiHu,bi, H3MeHeHHe 6oa bhhtobkh no BbicoTe npn npHMeHeHHH pa3JiHHHbix yno- 

POB H npHJIO>KeHHe HX B pa3JIHHHbIX MeCTaX MO>KeT 6bITb BeCbMa 3HaHHTeJIbHbIM. IIpHHeM 3TO SBJieHHe 

HaSniOflaeTca He TOJibKO npn CTpejibSe H3 SoeBbix bhhtobok, ho h h3 MajioKajinSepHbix TO>Ke. Bo Bcex 
CJiynaax npn npHMeHeHHH Sojiee >KecTKoro ynopa Son bhhtobkh noBbimaeTca. Pa3HHna 6oa no BbicoTe 
npn ynopax 6jiH>Ke k naTpoHHHKy hjih flanbiue ot Hero, k jjyjibuoMy cpe3y, cocTaBJiaeT 7-8 cm. 

B yne6HOM nponecce OTpaSoTKa npneMOB CTpejibSbi c ynopoM neHHa TeM, hto b cnoKoiiHOM 
ycTOHHHBOM nojio>KeHHH CTpenoK SbiCTpee npnoSpeTaeT npaBHJibHbie HaBbiKH npHHejiHBaHHa h cnycKa 
KypKa. H ^a>Ke onbiTHbie CTpejiKH He 6pe3ryiOT TeM, hto BpeMa ot BpeMeHH B03BpamaiOTC}i k CTpejibSe 
c ynopa. 3aneM ohh sto ,n;ejiaK)T? Ecjih nejiOBeK #oJiro cipejiaji 6e3 npHMeHeHna ynopa - cto», c KOJie- 
Ha hjih jie>Ka c npHMeHeHneM peMHa, to npn CTpejibSe c ynopa oh B^pyr aBCTBemio o6Hapy>KHBaeT 
norpenmocTH b paSoTe naubna Ha cnycKe, KOTopwe npn ^pyrnx CTpejiKOBbix H3roTOBKax eMy CTann 
npHBbiHHbi h no3TOMy He3aMeTHbi. CTpenoK c yflHBJieHHeM MO>KeT KOHCTaTHpoBaTb, hto oh flepraeT 3a 
cnycK, hjih fla^Ke tshct ero b CTopoHy, hjih >Ke cnycK He TjmeTca BOoSme. 3HaHne cbohx oihhSok cno- 
coScTByeT hx ncnpaBJieHHio. 

KaK y>Ke Swjio ynoMjmyTO, rpy^Haa KneTKa CTpejiKa npnnoflHaTa h Kopnyc onnpaeTca b ochob- 
hom Ha jieBbiii jioKOTb, ecjiH CTpejiOK CTpejiaeT cnocoSoM no#flep>KKH 3a neBbe, hjih paBHOMepHO Ha 
o6a jiokts, ecjin CTpejiOK jieBoii pyKon noflflep>KHBaeT npaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe npnioiafla b miene. 

fljia oSecneneHna nocToaHCTBa 6oa ynop flOjraceH HaxoflHibca Ha o^hom onpeflejiemiOM MecTe h 
HMeTb nocToaHHyio >KecTKOCTb, 6jiH3Kyio k >KecTKOCTH pyKH. H MecTO npnjio>KeHHa ynopa aojdkho co- 
OTBeTCTBOBaTb MecTy npnjio>KeHHa Ha BHHTOBKe jieBoii pyKH npn CTpejibSe 6e3 ynopa. IIosTOMy >KecT- 
khh ynop peKOMeH^yeTca npnKpbiBaTb CKaTKon HiHHejiH, ^epHOM jihSo neM-HnSyflb ^pyrHM MarKHM. 

Ilpn CTpejibSe cnocoSoM 3axBaTa JieBoii khctbio neBba opy>Kna CTpejiOK He CTOJibKO no#flep>KH- 
BaeT BHHTOBKy, CKOJibKO (})HKCHpyeT ee h npn>KHMaeT k MarKOMy ynopy. OSpaTHie BHHMaHne Ha to, 
hto jieBaa pyKa CTpejiKa b nepnaTKe ((})oto 109). 3to HeoSxoflHMO /uia Toro, htoSw nyjibcanna pyKH 
racHJiacb MarKoii nepnaTKon h He fleHCTBOBana Ha opy>KHe. 

IIpHKJiafl b njieno CJie^yeT npn>KHMaTb njiOTHO. OT^ana KaK Mara3HHHbix, TaK n aBTOMaTHnecKnx 
bhhtobok BejiHKa h cymecTBemia. Ecjih npnKJia^ njiOTHO npn>KaT k njieny, BHHTOBKa npn BbiCTpejie 
CHJibHO TOJiKHeT Ha3a#. TojiKHeT, ho He y^apHT. A ecjin npnioiafl He npn>KaT, to OHa y^apnT, h ^o- 
bojibho omyrnMO. IIpHCTaBJiaTb npHKJia^ b njieno CJie^yeT b paiiOHe njieneBOH BbieMKH, hh npaBee h 
hh jieBee. Pa3MemaTb npnioiafl b njiene cjihhikom hh3ko Hejib3a: OTflanen opy>KHe MO>KeT BbiSnib 
Ha3afl, bhh3 H3-nofl nnena, h onTHnecKHM npHu,ejiOM pa36nTb CTpejiKy hoc hjih nepeHoenny. TaKne 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 64 

CJiynan c HOBHHKaMH HepeflKn. Cjihhikom bmcoko npnioiafl CTaBHTb TO>Ke He Ha^o - 3to Hey#o6HO. 

IIpHKJiafl CTaBHTCa H He CJIHHIKOM HH3KO, H He CJIHHIKOM BblCOKO. 

MecTO ynopa npHKJia^a b njieno OKa3biBaeT Sojibiuoe BJinamie Ha nojio>KeHHe cpeflHeM tohkh 
nonaflaHHa. Ecjih npnioiafl ynnpaeTca b mieno BepxHeM nacibio, 6oh opyacna noHnacaeTca; npH ynope 
HiDKHefi nacTbio HaSjnoflaeTca noBbinieHHe 6oa. IIo3TOMy nojio>KeHHe npiiKJia^a b ruiene aojdkho SbiTb 
nocToaHHbiM no BbicoTe. "HrpaTb" npraoiaflOM BBepx-BHH3 Hejib3a: npH stom HaSjnoflaeTca pa36poc no 
BbicoTe, npnneM cymecTBeHHbin. A- 1151 AOCTH>KeHH» nocToaHCTBa 6oa ipeSyeTca oflHOo6pa3Haa H3ro- 
TOBKa k cipejibSe. HapymeHne 3Toro OflHOo6pa3na Be^eT k H3MeHeHnio chji, flencTByiomnx Ha opy>KHe 
npn BbiCTpejie, n TeM caMbiM k H3MeHeHHio cpeflHen tohkh nona^aHHa. 

BbiBaeT (h oneHb nacre), hto HenpaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe npHKna^a b miene (oSmhho HH3Koe) 
Bbi3biBaeT pa36poc He TOJibKO no BepTHKann, ho h no roprooniajiH. OSbacHaeTca sto aBJieHne TeM, 
hto BHSpnpyiOHiHH npn BbiCTpejie ctboji bhhtobkh nojiynaeT CMemeHHyio TOHKy onopw, OTnero 3th 
BnSpaHHH pe3KO ycnjiHBaiOTca. IIpH npaBHJibHO onpeflejiemiOM MecTe ynopa npHKJia^a b mieno Kyn- 
HOCTb 6oa opy>Kna BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeTca KaK hh b neM He SbiBano. 

Ilpn CTpejibSe c ynopa mnpoKaa nocTaHOBKa jioktch HapymaeT ycTonnnBOCTb opy>KHa. Ilpn 
stom CTpejiOK H3JinniHe HanparaeTca n yroMJiaeTca. Ilpn y3Kon nocTaHOBKe jioktch rpy^Haa KJieTKa 
npe3MepHO OKHMaeTca, npn stom 3aTpyflHaeTca flbixamie. Bee 3to yxy^maeT KanecTBO CTpejibSbi. He- 
KOTopwe CTpejiKn nocToaHHO CMemaiOT jieBbin jioKOTb, OTpbiBbi nyjib npn stom 6y#yT HaSjnoflaTbca 

BBepX H BHH3. 

Hobhhkh flOBOJibHO nacio H3-3a 6oa3HH BbiCTpejia b momcht cnycKa KypKa HHCTHHKTHBHO no#- 
HHMaiOT npnioiafl npaBbiM rnienoM, npn stom otpmbw nojiynaiOTca bjicbo n bhh3. B Ty >Ke CTopoHy 
nyjin yxoflaT, ecjin hobhhok npe3MepHO "HaBannBaeTca" Ha npHKna^ meKOH. 

BbiBaeT, hto H3-3a 6oa3HH BbiCTpejia hobhhok npn cnycKe KypKa hhcthhkthbho OTHHMaeT meKy 
ot npHKJia^a, h ^ejiaeT oh sto paHbiue, neM yzjapHHK pa3o6beT Kanciojib h cpaSoTaeT nopoxoBOH 3a- 
pafl. IlyjiH npn stom yxofljn BnpaBO. 

CTPEJIbEA JIE2KA BE3 ynOPA C IIPHMEHEHHEM PEMHH 

B SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe noflxoflanniH ynop HaiiTH HenpocTO. Hochtb ero c co6oh - TJDKejio. B 
npaKTHKe no#BH>KHoro 6oa b cocTaBe pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHon hjih erepcKO-noncKOBoii rpynnw npneno- 
caSjiHBaTb BHHTOBKy fljia CTpejibSbi Ha ynope flOJiro, ^a h B3»Tb ero b noflBH>KHOM oraeBOM KOHTaKie 
Her^e. IIosTOMy CHaiinepbi CTapoM (j)opMaHHH, kotopwm npHxoflHJiocb CTpejunb c no6e>KKaMH h nepe- 
6e>KKaMH, na^aa, noflHHMaacb ^Jia MmoBeHHoro pbiBKa MeTpoB Ha 40-50 h CHOBa na^aa, MraoBeHHO 
H3roTaBJiHBaacb pjm CTpejibSbi, ncnoBeflyiOT cnopTHBHbin cnocoS CTpejibSbi jie>Ka c peMHa. YnopoM 
fljia TaKoro cnocoSa cipejibSbi cjiy>KHT oSbiKHOBemibiH 6pe3eHTOBbin oSmeBoncKOBoro (J)opMaTa opy- 
>KenHbin peMeHb. 

H3roTOBKa ^Jia TaKon CTpejibSbi OTJinnaeTca ot CTpejibSbi c ynopa. Pa3yMeeTca, OTcyTCTByeT caM 
ynop. BnHTOBOHHbin peMeHb, nrpaiomnn ero pojib, oxBaTbiBaeT pyKy CTpejiKa Me>K#y jioKieM h njie- 
hom. PeMeHb BbiSnpaeTca TaKoii fljiHHbi, htoSm npn roroTOBKe oh Swji HaTaHyT h Bee opy>KHa npnxo- 
flHJica Ha Hero (1 Ha (})oto 1 10 h (})oto 1 1 1 - cnpaBa h cjieBa). BmiMaTejibHO nocMOTpnTe Ha 3th (})oto- 
rpac|)HH. LJeHTp Ta>KecTH opy>KHa npnxoflHTca Ha jieByio pyKy b nepnaTKe, a oSmaa onopa opy>KHa - Ha 
JieBbin JioKOTb. Opy>KHe, ecTecTBeHHO, tsuqt Bnepefl, ot CTpejiKa. Ho yiiTH eMy Bnepefl npenaTCTByeT 
peMeHb, nepexjiecTHyibiH 3a pyKy Bbinie jiokts (2 Ha (})oto 110, 111). Ilpn ajihhhom peMHe opy>KHe 
6yjiQT BbiflBHHyTO Bnepefl, npn cjihhikom kopotkom oho 6y#eT npe3MepHO ynnpaTbca b njieno h He 
BnHHieTca b H3roTOBKy. 

Ha comyToii pyKe c HaTaHyibiM peMHeM onTHManbHOH ^jihhm, BbiSpaHHoii ^Jia KOHKpeTHoro 
CTpejiKa, BHHTOBKa MO>KeT "cToaTb" xoTb flBa naca HenoflBH>KHO, KaK Ha ynope. 

KpenjieHne peMHa k opy>KHio npoH3BOflHTca OT^ejibHbiM peMeniKOM (3 Ha (})oto 110, 111). Moat- 
ho TaioKe Hcnojib30BaTb niTaTHbin peMeHb b ero HiTaTHOM KpenjieHHH, nepeSpocHB 3a jiokotb h noflo- 
inaB ^0 HeoSxoflHMoii fljiHHbi ((})oto 112). npn stom jieBaa pyKa y#ep>KHBaeT BHHTOBKy, 3axBaTbiBaa 
ee 3a bwtohkh Ha jio>Ke. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



65 




cDoto 110. H3roTOBKa jie>Ka c peMHeivt: 

1 - Bee opyacna npnxoflHTca Ha HaTaHyrbift peMeHb; 

2 - peivteHb nepexnecTHyT Bbinie jioktji; 

3 - y3eji KpenneHHa peMHa 




cDoto 111. H3roTOBKa jie>Ka c peMHeivt: 

1 - Bee opy>KHa npnxoflHrca Ha HaTaHyrbift peivieHb; 

2 - peivieHb nepexjiecTHyT h 3aTaHyr Bbinie jiokt»; 

3 - y3en KpenneHHa peMHa 




cDoto 1 12. Hcnojib30BaHHe npn CTpeubSe jie>Ka HiTaTHoro py>KeftHoro peMHa: 

1 - BbiTOHKH Ha Jioace; 

2 - MecTO nempa T»>KecTH, r^e opy>KHe 3axBaTbiBaeTca pyKoft 




cDoto 113. IIpH CTpeubSe jie>Ka c peMHeM noKOTb y#ep>KHBaiomeft pyKH flOJiaceH HaxoflHTbca 
CTporo nofl bhhtobkoh; 

1 - nojio>KeHHe neBoro noiera 

TaKaa H3roTOBKa OKa3anacb eflHHCTBeHHO npaBHJibHoft, ho b Heft ecTb cboh HeyfloScTBa. Ilo- 
CMOTpHTe, KaK Kpyro, no# yrnoivi CTporo 90°, CTporo BepTHKanbHO nofl bhhtobkoii nocTaBJieHa neBaa 
pyKa CTpenKa ((J)oto 113). Bot TaK OHa h ctoht npn CTpeubSe, He OTKJiOHaacb hh BnpaBO, hh bjicbo. 
3to HeyfloSHO h #a>Ke MynnTejibHO. HtoSw pyKe Jierne SbiJio no#flep>KHBaTb BHHTOBKy TaKHM o6pa- 
30m, peivieHb no omymeHHaM CTpejiica noflTaraBaeTca hjih onycKaeTca. OTKnoHeHHa pyKH ot BepTraca- 
jih HeflonycTHMbi - b KaKyio CTopoHy otkjiohhtcji pyKa, Ty^a onpeflejiHrca h pa36poc. 

Bhhtobkh SanaHCHpyiOTca TaKHM o6pa30M, hto mccto npHJio>KeHHa ynopa aojkkho cootbct- 
CTBOBaTb npHJio>KeHHio 3axBaTa neBoft pyKoft 6e3 ynopa. MecTO 3axBaTa bhhtobkh jieBoft pyKoft Bce- 
r/ia npoeKTnpyeTca b6jih3h nenrpa T»>KecTH. Ha BHHTOBKax 3to MecTO o6o3HaneHO BbiTOHKaMn Ha jio- 
ace (7 Ha (})oto 112). Ilofl 3thm mcctom neBaa pyKa huotho 3axBaTbiBaeT neBbe. KaK bh^ho Ha 
(J)OTorpa(})Hax, neBaa noflflep^HBaioinaa pyKa - b nepnaTKe. KaK y>Ke yKa3biBanocb, nepnaTKa racnT 
KOJieSaHna nyjibca - 6e3 MarKoro 3axBaTa ohh CTaHOBaTca BecbMa omyrnMbi. CTpejiKn-cnopTCMeHbi 
fljia HeftTpajiH3au,HH nyjibca Ha neByio pyKy Ha^eBaiOT TOJiCTbie MexoBbie pyKaBnnbi MexoM BHyTpb. 

B JieBoft pyKe BHHTOBKa flOJi>KHa jie>KaTb He Ha nanbnax, a Ha jia^OHH, KOTopaa flOJDKHa SbiTb no- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 66 

BepHyra neTbiptMa nanbuaMH BnpaBO. IIpH 3tom BHHTOBKa yflep>KHBaeTca xBaTOM Sojibiuoro nanbua 
cueBa, a ocTanbHbix neTbipex - cnpaBa. Ecjih BHHTOBKa jiokht Ha nanbuax "b CTopoHe" ot jia^OHH, to 
3to Bbi3biBaeT ee "cBanHBaHHe" BnpaBO. B Ty >Ke eropoHy noMflyr OTpbiBbi. 

Ecjih JieBbiii noKOTb, npHHHMaiomHH ochobhoh Bee bhhtobkh h npmioflHaTOH rpy^HOH kjictkh, 
npe3MepHO noflaTb Bnepefl, ctboji bhhtobkh npHno#HHMeTca. Ecjih ero no^aTb Ha3a#, oh onycTHi- 
ca.;IIo3TOMy cipejiOK caM BbiSnpaeT ero onTHManbHoe nojio>KeHHe. IIocKOJibKy JieBbiii jioKOTb Haxo- 
flHTca CTporo nofl bhhtobkoh, a npmaiafl npH>KaT k mieny, to rpy^Haa KJieTKa nojiynaeTca ecrecTBeH- 
ho npiinoflHaTOH. OcHOBHaa onopa, Kaic y>Ke yKa3biBanocb, Ha JieBbiii JioKOTb, npaBbin JioKOTb 
noAflep>KHBaeT rpy^Hyio KJieTKy c npaBoii CTopoHbi, ho ycnune Ha Hero npnjiaraeTca HanojiOBHHy 
MeHbinee, HeM Ha JieBbiii JioKOTb. BHHTOBKa y^ep>KHBaeTca tojibko jieBoii pyKoii h rnienoM hhhb KoeM 
CJiynae ycHJinaMH npaBoii khcth h npaBoro npeflnjienba! B npoTHBHOM anynae noii^yr HeKonipojiH- 
pyeMbie OTpbiBbi no ropH30HTanH. 

IIo BceM BbinieyKa3aHHbiM npHHHHaM yroji Me>Kfly ocbio opy>KHa no CTBOJiy n ocbio cipejiKa no 
ero no3BOHOHHHKy yBejinnnBaeTca ((})oto 114, cxeMa 33). 3tot yroji Sojibine, HeM npn CTpejibSe c 
ynopoM. 3to Bnojme ecTecTBeHHoe aBJieHne, n CTpejiKn oSmhho TaK n CTpejunoT c pa3BopoTOM Kopny- 
ca n Hor BJieBO k njiocKOCTn CTpejibSw. Ha (J)oto 115 npeflCTaBJieHa oSbiHHaa, ecTecTBeHHaa nsroTOBKa 
fljia CTpejibSw jie>Ka c peMHeM. Ilpn npaBHJibHO npnHaTon H3roTOBKe n onopHOM jieBOM jioKTe, Haxo- 
flameMca CTporo nofl bhhtobkoh, CTpejiKa He ^ojdkho "BanHTb" BnpaBO h bjicbo. Ilpn 3tom npaBbin 
JioKOTb HaxoflHTca ^ajibiue ot hjiockocth CTpejibSw, cnpaBa ot npHKna^a, n onopHoe ycnjine rpy^HOH 
KneTKH Ha Hero He3HaHHiejibHO. Ilpn JieBOM jioktc (KOTopbiM TaK h hopobht yMra bjicbo, a BHHTOBKy 
noflaTb BnpaBo), cflBHHyTOM BJieBO, Kopnyc 3aBanHBaeTca BnpaBO, n npaBbin JioKOTb npHHHMaeT Ha 
ce6a noBbiiueHHoe ycHJine. Ilpn 3tom npaBaa pyKa BKniOHaeTca b y#ep>KaHHe bhhtobkh. Ot Bcero sto- 
ro BHHTOBKa HanHHaeT "njiaBaTb" no ropH30HTajin h "oipbiBaTb" nyjin BnpaBO-BJieBO. 




m 

cDoto 114. yBejiHHeHHbiii yroji Me>Kfly ocbio opyytaw no CTBOJiy h ocbio no3BOHOHHHKa CTpejiKa. 
Bnfl CBepxy h c3a#H 




cDoto 115. HopManbHaa H3roTOBKa ^Jia CTpejibSw jie>Ka c peMHeM 

HHCTpyKTopw, paSoTaiomne c KypcaHTaMH, 06 3tom 3HaiOT h nocToamio nonpaBJiaiOT Hepafln- 
Bbix. KypcaHTy Mano oSbacHHib, 3aneM n noneiviy Hy>KHO ^ejiaTb hmchho TaK, a He HHane. HHCTpyKiop 
o6a3aH "nocTaBHTb" KypcaHTy npaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe pyK, Hor, Kopnyca h jioKieii, h nocTaBHTb TaK, 

HT06bI KypcaHT 3anOMHHJI 3TO MblHieHHOH naMSTblO. 

3axBaT jieBOH pyKon neBba SoeBbix bhhtobok HMeeT TeHfleHHHio cbe3>KaTb Bnepefl no npnnnHe 
jno(})Ta Meacfly y#ep>KHBaiomeH pyKoii h peMeniKOM KpenjieHHa. Ha cnopTHBHbix BHHTOBKax pyKa npn 
CTpejibSe HenocpeflCTBeHHO ynnpaeTca b y3eji KpenneHHa peMHa h TaKHM o6pa30M 4)HKCHpyeTC». Ha 
SoeBbix CHCTeMax TaKoro y3Jia He npeflycMOTpeHO, nosTOMy CTpejiKy npHxoflHTca 3tot He>KejiaTejib- 
Hbiii MOMeHT Bee BpeMa KOHipojinpoBaTb. Ot nojio>KeHHa oxBaTbiBaiomen neBbe khcth 3aBHCHT, Sy#eT 
jih HBroTOBKa BbicoKoii hjih hh3koh. "Cbe3>Kaiomaji" Bnepefl noflflep>KHBaiomaa pyKa ^ejiaeT h3ix)tob- 
Ky Hn>Ke. npn cjihhikom hh3koh roroTOBKe Sbicrpo ycTaeT 3peHHe. CTpejiOK b TaKOM nojio>KeHHH 
HaBanHBaeTca Ha rpy^Hyio KJieTKy h cflaBJiHBaeT ee. npn 3tom CTaHOBHica Tpy^HO flbiinaTb. npn 
cjihhikom BbicoKoii H3roTOBKe yBejiHHHBaeTca CHJiy3T fljia BCTpenHoro nopa>KeHHa. CTpejiOK npe3Mep- 
ho HanparaeTca h SbiCTpee ycTaeT. Mbiiunbi jieBon pyKH, noflflep>KHBaiomeH opy>KHe, nojiynaiOT ^o- 
nojiHHTejibHoe Hanpa>KeHHe, hto yxy^niaeT MeTKOCTb CTpejibSw. 

npn CHJibHOM HaTa>KeHHH peMHa pe3KO yBejiHHHBaeTca flencTBne nyjibcannn Ha opy>KHe - oho 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 67 

HanHHaeT SyKBanbHO "noflCKaKHBaTb" #a>Ke b oneHb tojictoh pyKaBHne. KpoMe Toro, pyica HanHHaeT 
3aTeKaTt. 

IIpH cjiaSoM HaTa>KeHHH peMHa CTpenoK HcnwTbiBaeT omymeHHe "nycTOTbi opy>KH» bhh3". 
Opy>KHe Bee BpeMa npoBanHBaeTca b 3Ty nycTOTy, h b pe3ynbTaTe y hobhhkob HeB03MO>KHO BbipaSo- 
TaTb npaBHJibHbie HaBbiKH cnycica KypKa. 

KaK CKa3an 3acny>KeHHbiH MacTep cnopTa no CTpejibSe B. IHaiviSypKHH: "Py>KeHHbiH peMeHb cbji- 
3biBaeT b oflHO nejioe BHHTOBKy h CTpejiKa". Ho jieBaa pyKa, 3aB33aHHaa peMHeM Ha BHHTOBKy, flOJDKHa 
SbiTb HeHanpjDKeHHoM: Tor^a OHa BMecTe c peMHeM 3aMeHHT TBepflbin ynop, npnneM KanecTBO CTpejib- 
6w Sojiee-MeHee TpeHnpoBaHHoro CTpejiKa c peMHeM 3aMeTHO Bbiuie, neM c TBepflbiM ynopoM. KaK y>Ke 
ynoMHHanocb, BHHTOBKa npn CTpejibSe "noflCicaKHBaeT" Ha ynope: Ha >KecTKOM b Sojibineii CTeneHH, Ha 
MarKOM - b MeHbiuen. IIo3TOMy, KaK sto hh napaflOKcanbHO, y onbiTHbix CTpenKOB CTpenbSa c npnMe- 
HeHneM peMHa #aeT jrynniHe pe3yjibTaTbi, neM c npHMeHeHneM ynopa. K TOMy >Ke "c peMHa" Jierne h 
y^oSHee cTpejiaTb no SerymHM neji»M. CHannepw, npHBbiKnine CTpejiaTb c peMHa, KaK npaBHJio, CTpe- 
jiaTb c ynopoM He jhoSst h, ecun ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb, #a>Ke b cnoKOHHon, HeMaHeBpeHHon oScTaHOBKe 
CTpenaiOT c peMHa. 

Ho TaKaa H3roTOBKa HMeeT h cboh HeflOCTaTOK - cnerKa noBbimeHHbiH cnjiysT. noaTOMy npn 60- 

eBOH HeoSxOflHMOCTH nOHH>KeHHOrO CHJiy3Ta BCe CTpeJUHOT B OHeHb HH3KOH H3rOTOBKe, nOJIO>KHB BHH- 
TOBKy Ha to, hto HaHflyr Ha MecTe coSwthh. 

CTPEJIbEA C KOJIEHA C nPHMEHEHHEM PEMHH 

TaKon BHfl H3roTOBKH BbiHy>KfleHHO npHMeHaeTca b Tex cjiynaax, Kor^a CTpejurrb H3 nojio>KeHHa 

JIOKa HeB03MO>KHO - B pa3BajIHHaX, Ha CTpOHKaX, H3 BblCOKOH TpaBbI H MeJIKHX KyCTOB. 

CyTb cnocoSa CTpenbSw c KOJieHa 3aKjnonaeTca b tom, hto CTpenoK ch^ht Ha CBoen npaBOH ho- 
re, BepHee, Ha KaSnyKe npaBoro SoTHmca ((})oto 116). Onopa Beca Tena pacnpe^ejiaeTca Ha stot Ka6- 
jiyK h npaBoe kojicho ((J)oto 117), OTCTaBJieHHoe h pa3BepHyroe no^ yrnoM 60-80° k nnocKOCTH 
CTpejibSbi. npaKTHnecKH KOJieHO OTCTaBJiaeTca ot JieBOH onopHOH Horn Ha paccToaHne, paBHoe nony- 
TopHOH mnpHHe njien. OSmaa rniomaflb onopw npn stom nonynaeTca ^ocTaTOHHO Sojibmon. Ha ne- 
Byio Hory npnxoflHTca Bee JieBOH pyKH, y#ep>KHBaiomeH BHHTOBKy. PeMeHb coeflHHaeT b o#ho nejioe 
CTpejiKa h opy>KHe, h npHHnnn ero npHMeHeHna tohho TaKoft >Ke, KaK n npn CTpejibSe b nojio>KeHHH 
jie>Ka. Bee bhhtobkh npHHHMaeTca Ha HaT»HyrbiH peMeHb. Ho b nojio>KeHHH c KOJieHa peMeHb oSmhho 
nyTb-nyTb OTnycKaiOT h KHCTb JieBOH pyKH nepeMeinaeTca fljia noflflep>KKH opy>KHa 6jiH>Ke k ^ynbHOMy 

Cpe3y BHHTOBKH. Ho 3TO 3aBHCHT OT HHflHBHflyajIbHblX aHaTOMHHeCKHX OCoSeHHOCTeH CTpejiKa. fiOJIb- 

niHHCTBO CHannepoB npnBbiKaiOT CTpenaTb h ne>Ka, h c KOJieHa c peMHeM oflHHaKOBon fljiHHbi h c 3a- 
xBaTOM jio>Ka JieBOH pyKoft b oflHOM h tom >Ke MecTe. Ha jieBbifi noKOTb peMeHb Ha^eBaeTca tohho Ta- 
khm >Ke o6pa30M, KaK h b nojio>KeHHH ne>Ka. H pacnojio>KeH jieBbiii jioKOTb nofl bhhtobkoh CTporo 
BepTHKanbHO, tohho TaK >Ke, KaK oh pacnojio>KeH npn CTpejibSe ne>Ka ((J)oto 118). TojieHb JieBOH onop- 
hoh Horn, KOTopaa npHHHMaeT Ha ce6a Bee Been nepe^Hen nacTH cncTeMbi CTpenoK - opy>KHe, Haxo- 
flHTca b njiocKOCTH CTpejibSbi CTporo BepTHKanbHO nofl JieBOH pyKon, y#ep>KHBaiomeH BHHTOBKy, 06- 
pa3ya c Hen npaMyio h CTporo BepTHKanbHyio jihhhio. OTKJiOHeHne ot stoh BepTHKajin noBJieneT 3a 
coSoh ropH30HTanbHbiH pa36poc. 




cDoto 116. npn CTpejibSe c KOJieHa CHannep ch^ht Ha KaSnyKe npaBoro SoTHHKa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



68 




cDoto 117. Onopa Ha npaBoe kojicho, pa3BepHyToe npHMepHO Ha 60-80° ot hjiockocth CTpejibSbi 




cDoto 118. IIpH CTpenbSe a KOJieHa BHHTOBKa, noKOTb, kojicho, roneHb h KaSjiyK Haxofljrrca Ha 

OflHOH BepTHKajIbHOH JIHHHH 

Ecjih nocMOTpeTb Ha CTpejiKa, CTpejiaiomero c KOJieHa cSoKy (c|)oto 117), to bh^ho, hto jieBaa 
onopHaa roneHb nocTaBJieHa npHMepHO BepTHKanbHO. 3to >KejiaTejibHoe, ho He o6a3aTejibHoe nojio- 
>KeHne. IIo aHaTOMHnecKHM ocoSeHHOCTaM CTpejiKa neBaa Hora MO>KeT SbiTb BbmBHHyra Bnepefl hjih 
^a>Ke cuerKa noflTaHyra Ha3a#, jieBaa CTynroi pa3BepHyTa BnpaBO k hjiockocth CTpejibSbi HacTOJibKO, 
HacKOJibKO 3to y^oSHO fljia KOHKpeTHoro CTpejiKa. OSwhho noKOTb CTpejiKa nocTaBJieH Ha KOJieHHyio 
naiueHKy, ho no KOHKperabiM aHaTOMnnecKHM ocoSemiocTJiM ero mo>kho CMecTHTb Bnepefl hjih Ha3a# 
OT KOJieHHOH HanieHKH HaCTOJIbKO, HaCKOJIbKO 3TO y#o6HO CTpejiaiomeMy. 

Kopnyc CTpejiKa noBepHyT BnojioSopoTa k hjiockocth CTpejib6bi. IIo bo3mo>khocth rojiOBy CTpe- 
jiok ^ep>KHT npaMO. Kopnyc cjienca HaKJiOHeH Bnepefl. IIpaBaa pyKa, oxBaTbiBaiomaa meiiKy jio>Ka hjih 
jiOKamaa na nncTOJieTHOH pyKoaTKe, jioktcm onymeHa bhh3 h HaxoflHica b TaKOM coctojihhh, o6pa3ya 
ecTecTBeHHbiii ajm CTpejiKa yroji c TyjiOBHmeM b 20-40° ((})oto 119). 



1 


VI 




I 






1 ■ 


1 





cDoto 1 19. B nojio>KeHHH c KOJieHa npaBaa pyKa onymeHa nofl yrjiOM 20-40° 
KaK y>Ke ynoMHHanocb, CTpejiOK ch^ht Ha KaSjiyKe npaBoro SoTmnca. CnopTCMeHbi b nojio>Ke- 
hhh c KOJieHa noflKnaflbiBaioT no# noflbeM npaBoii Horn cneu,HajibHbin BaiiHK. CHaMnepaM b SoeBoM 
oScTaHOBKe nojio>KHTb Sy^eT Henero, noaTOMy ohh TpeHnpyiOTca cn^eTb c ynopoM Ha poBHyio Hecra- 
SaeMyio nofloniBy SoTHHKa hjih HenocpeflCTBemio Ha noflbeMe npaBoM Horn. 3to HeyfloSHO h Henpn- 
3tho, ho HHoro Bbixofla HeT. IIo HHCTpyKu,HH ynop KaSjiyKa npoH3BOflHTC» b npaByio aroflHny, ho He- 
KOTopwe CTpejiKH CTpejiaiOT c ynopoM KaSjiyKa b kohhhk: KOMy KaK y^oSHee h kto KaK ycTOHHHBee 
ce6a nyBCTByeT. 

B nojio>KeHHH c KOJieHa CTpejiOK aojckch ypaBHOBecHTb ce6a c opy>KHeM: Macca chctcmm cipe- 
jiok - opy>KHe, KOTopaa TJiHeT Bnepefl, flOJi>KHa ypaBHOBecHTbca c Maccon, KOTopaa TaHeT Ha3a#. 
CTpejiKa, KOTopbiii ropSnTca, noTaHeT Bnepe#; cooTBeTCTBeHHO, oipbiBbi noiiflyT bhh3. Y cipejiKa, ko- 
Topbiii cnflHT npe3MepHO np»MO h OTKHHyBniHCb Ha3a#, OTpbiBbi noH^yT BBepx. CjieflOBaTejibHO, b no- 
3e CTpejiKa, paSoTaiomero Ha KOJieHe, aojdkho SbiTb nojiHeiiniee paBHOBecne. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 69 

IIpH CTpeubSe c KOJieHa npnneji OTflajiaeTca ot raa3a CTpejiKa h nojio>KeHHe npHKna^a aojdkho 
SbiTt HecKOJitKO Bbinie Toro, KOTopoe 6bi.no jie>Ka. npn stom Ha^o npaBHJibHO no#o6paTb HaTa>KeHHe 
peivma, KOTopbiM coSnpaeT BoeflHHO Bee sjieMenibi H3roTOBKH, pacnojio>KeHHbie Bbinie noaca. B stom 
CJiynae CTpenoK, paSoTaa c KOJieHa, nona^aeT TaK >Ke, KaK oh nona^aeT, CTpejraa b nojio>KeHHH jie>Ka. 

Jinn pa3yHHBaHHa nojio>KeHHa c KOJieHa Hy>KHO Tepnemie. IIojio>KeHHe Tejia oneHb CTaTHHHO h 
HenpHBbiHHO. y hobhhkob 3aTeKaeT h Sojiht npaBaa Hora, Ha KOTopon ohh ch^at, h jieBaa pyKa, y#ep- 
>KHBaiOHiaa BHHTOBKy. HacTynaeT npoTHBHoe HanpjDKeHne b cnHHe: ee Bee BpeMa xoneTca cornyib. 
HHCTpyKTopbi 3acTaBJiaiOT hobhhkob "cH^eTb" Ha KOJieHe c bhhtobkoh h paSoTaTb BxojiocTyio MHHyT 
no 40-50, 3aTeM pa3peniaiOT BCTaTb h pa3MaTbca. HopMaTHB CTaporo BpeMeHH npeflnHCbiBan no#ro- 
TOBJieHHOMy CHaiinepy Bbicn^eTb Ha KOJieHe o^hh nac, npn HenocpeflCTBemiOM y#ep>KaHHH nejin 
MyniKOH hjih npHuejibHbiM neHbKOM onTHnecKoro npnnejia. 

IIpH CTpeubSe c KOJieHa BHHTOBKa flOJi>KHa jie^KaTb Ha jieBoii pyKe, KaK Ha no^nopKe, h y#ep>KH- 
BaTbca ot ^BH>KeHHa Bnepefl HaTJDKeHneM peMHa. JleBOH pyKon BHHTOBKa 3axBaTbiBaeTca h y#ep>KHBa- 
eTca tohho TaKHM >Ke o6pa30M, KaK h b nojio>KeHHH jie>Ka. JleBaa pyKa #0Ji>KHa 3aHHMaTb HacTOJibKO 
ecTecTBeHHoe nojio>KeHHe h CHaiinep HacTOJibKO ecTecTBeHHO aojckch SbiTb copneHTHpoBaH HBroTOB- 
koh Ha nejib, hto nonpaBOHHbie ^BH>KeHHa jieBoii pyKoM BnpaBO-BJieBO HCKJHonaiOTca. ^jih 3Toro CTpe- 
jiok HaBOflHT BHHTOBKy Ha nejib, 3aTeM 3aKpwBaeT rna3a h noKanHBaeT bhhtobkoh BnpaBO-BJieBO. IIpH 

3TOM eCTeCTBCHHblM HaT3>KeHHeM MblHIU, H CB330K Opy>KHe yCTaHaBJIHBaeTCJI B KaKOM-TO nOJIO>KeHHH B 

CTopoHe ot MHHieHH. CTpenoK OTKpwBaeT raa3a h npoBepaeT ce6a. Ecjih BHHTOBKa, ^onycTHM, "cmot- 
Pht" BnpaBO, CTpenoK pa3BopaHHBaeTca nocTaHOBKOH Hor h Kopnyca bjicbo h CHOBa npoBepaeT ce6a. 
H TaK ^0 Tex nop, noKa BHHTOBKa He OKa^eTca HaBefleHHOH Ha nenb ecTecTBeHHbiM o6pa30M. 

TaKoe nojio>KeHHe CTpenoK CTapaeTca 3anoMHHTb MbiiueHHO-npocTpaHCTBeHHon naivurTbio h b 
flajibHennieM npHHHMaTb ero aBTOMaTHHecKH, He pa3flyMbiBaa. 

OSinaa "6ojie3Hb" hobhhkob npn OTpaSoTKe nojio>KeHHJi c KOJieHa - H3JiHHiHee Hanpa>KeHHe nue- 
na h npaBOH pyKH. Hanpa>KeHHe miena Bbi3biBaeT ero yrniOTHeHne, a 3to b cboio onepeflb Bbi3biBaeT 
OTpbiBbi CTpejibSbi BJieBO. Bojiee Toro, HeKOTopwe CTpejiKn #a>Ke "no#pa6aTbiBaiOT" rnienoM b npn- 
Kna/i. CTpenKa Hy>KHO HayHHTb #ep>KaTb npaBoe mieno nofl KOHTponeM. fljia 3Toro HHCTpyKTop, Haxo- 
flacb no3aflH CTpenKa, oinynbiBaeT ero mieno B03Jie 3aTbuiKa npHKna^a. Hanpa>KeHHe mmhih, ecjin oho 
ecTb, npoinynbiBaeTca npn 3tom oneHb xoponio. HHCTpyKTop npnynaeT CTpenKOB k TOMy, hto KaK 6bi 
xoponio hh CToana BHHTOBKa, ho ecjin Hanpa>KeHbi npaBoe mieno hjih pyKa, CTpejunb Hejib3a. 

CTpejiaa c KOJieHa, CTpejiOK y#ep>KHBaeT BHHTOBKy HanpaBJieHHeM Ha nejib He CTOJibKO ycHJina- 
mh jieBOH pyKH, CKOJibKO npaBHJibHOH, ypaBHOBenieHHOH H3roTOBKoii. JleByio pyKy, Ha KOTopon noKO- 
HTca BHHTOBKa, HanparaTb Hejib3a. Ilpn npaBHJibHOH H3roTOBKe BHHTOBKa jie>KHT Ha JieBOH pyKe, KaK 
Ha noAyniKe. Hanpa>KeHHOCTb b JieBOH pyKe hjih b njienax - npn3HaK HenpaBHJibHoii hbfotobkh. 

3anoMHHTe! Mbininw JieBOH pyKH h rnieneBoro noaca npn CTpejibSe c KOJieHa aojdkhm SbiTb pac- 
CJiaSjieHbi. ManeHiune HanpjDKeHHa Mbimn JieBOH pyKH, rnieneBoro noaca h ocoSchho npaBoro njiena 
HeMeflJieHHO npnBOflaT k OTpbiBaM. Ecjih TOJibKO CTpejiOK noHyBCTBOBan Hanpa>KeHHOCTb Bbinienepe- 
HHCJieHHbix rpynn Mbinin, Ha^o OTCTaBHTb BbiCTpeji h paccjiaSnTbca, c^ejiaB HecKOJibKO rjiySoKnx 

BflOXOB-BblflOXOB. 

CTpejibSa c KOJieHa, no>KajiyH, caMoe Ta>Kejioe h TexHHHHoe nojio>KeHHe CTpejibSbi. Ho yMeTb 
paSoTaTb c KOJieHa CHaiinepy HeoSxo/niMO. B 6010 Bcer^a nona^aiOTca MecTa, r/ie Her/ie Jienb (flony- 
cthm, bm Haxoflniecb no noac b peKe hjih b SojiOTe) h He Ha hto nojio>KHTb BHHTOBKy /uia ynopa, a 
CTpejiaTb Ha/io. H b nojiHbin pocT BCTaTb Hejib3a, h onepeTbca He Ha hto. H noTOM, CTpejibSa c KOJieHa 
npn onpeflejieHHOH HaTpeHHpoBaHHOCTH Mano OTJinnaeTca no mctkocth (a HHor^a h BOoSme He otjih- 
naeTca), KOTopaa ^ocTHraeTca, CTpejiaa jie>Ka - c ynopoM hjih 6e3 ynopa. IIosTOMy HHCTpyKTopw Ha 
CTapwx 5KyKOBCKHx (naMaTH Mapniana 5KyKOBa) Kypcax CTaBHJin KypcaHTaM H3roTOBKy CTpejibSbi c 
KOJieHa caMbiM >KecTKHM n HeniaflHbiM o6pa30M. y CTapwx HHCTpyKTopoB SbiTOBan BepHbin npneivi: 
ecjin y KypcaHTa ynopHO He nojiynanacb CTpejibSa c KOJieHa, c ero bhhtobkh ySHpann peMeHb n 3 a- 
CTaBJiajiH paSoTaTb 6e3 peMHa, oSpaniaa BHHMaHHe Ha npaBHJibHOCTb nocTaHOBKn JieBOH pyKH, jieBoro 
jiokts, Kopnyca n nponero, ^oSHBaacb aScojiiOTHOH ecTecTBemiocTH H3roTOBKn, b KOTopon CTpejiOK 
6bui HacTOJibKO ypaBHOBenieH, hto ero He TaHyjio hh BnpaBO, hh BJieBO, hh Bnepefl, hh Ha3a^. Pe3ynb- 
TaTbi pe3KO noflCKaKHBajin. ^ejio Swjio b tom, hto hobhhkh, nonyBCTBOBaB, KaK TBep^o BHHTOBKa cto- 
ht Ha peivrne, SyKBajibHO "noBHcann" Ha HeM, ynnpaacb b BHHTOBKy h no^aBaa ee Bnepefl. Ilpn 3tom 
ohh hhcthhkthbho pa3rpy>KajiH CTynHio npaBOH Horn, Ha KOTopon hm Hy>KHO SbiJio Bbicn^eTb npefl- 
nncaHHbie HHCTpyKiopoM 40 MHHyT. Ho neHTp tjdkccth CMentanca Bnepefl, 3aTeKana h HanHHana 60- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 70 

jieTb Tenept y>Ke jieBaa Hora, npHHaBinaa Ha ce6a Ta>KecTb He tojibko pyKH c opy>KHeM, ho h Kopnyca. 
CTpenoK HaHHHan 3aBajiHBaTbca Bnepefl-BnpaBO, Tepajiacb ycTOHHHBOCTb, b noncKax KOTopon hobhhok 
HaHHHan ropSnTbca, OTnero "noBHcan" Ha bkhtobkc eme Sojibiue. 

IIocTaBHB KypcaHTy npaBHJibHyio H3roTOBKy 6e3 peMHa h >KecTOKO npnynHB k hqPl KypcaHTa, 
HHCTpyKTop 3aTeM "cBa3biBan" flocTaTOHHbiM HaTa>KeHHeM peMHa Bee sjieMembi 3toh npaBHJibHOH H3- 
totobkh BoeflHHO. Pe3yjibTaTbi Smjih nopa3HTejibHbiMH. 

CTPEJIbEA CTOH 

XoneT Toro CHaiinep, hjih hct, CTpejunb ctos b SoeBoii oScTaHOBKe eivty paHO hjih no3#HO npn- 

RQTCH. B03HHKHeT HeoSxOflHMOCTb CTpeJISTb CT03 H3 BblCOKHX KyCTOB, H3 nOflBajIbHblX H HepflaHHblX 

okoh, H3 pa36nTbix 3flaHHH, r^e HeB03MO>KHO 6jih3ko noflOHTH k OKHaM. He roBopa o tom, hto Ha yne- 
HHax npHxoflHTca paSoTaTb Ha oSbeKiax He3aBepuieHHoro CTpoHrejibCTBa, 3ara>KeHHbix #o TaKoM CTe- 
neHH, hto TaM He to, hto Jienb, a #a>Ke HeKy^a npeiaiOHHTb kojicho. Ha oxoTe b necy BOoSine hhkto He 

JIO>KHTCa. 

nojio>KeHHe CToa - HanSojiee Tpy^Hoe fljia CTpejibSbi. Oho TpeSyeT ot CTpejiKa ^baBOJibCKoro 
TepneHHa, caMOoSjia^aHHa h Bbi#ep>KKH. npn cipejibSe H3 nojio>KeHHJi cto» BHHTOBKa Sojibiue "xoaht" 
no CTopoHaM, BBepx h bhh3. Oh npnuaraeT MHoro CTaTHnecKHx ycnjiHH fljia yzjep^aHHa opy^na b 
paiiOHe tohkh npHuejiHBaHHji. CTpenoK c Ta>KejiOH bhhtobkoh b coBOKynHOCTH npeflCTaBJiaeT CHCTeMy 
noA Ha3BaHHeM CTpenoK - opy>KHe, h htoSm 3Ty CHCTeMy MeHbHie Kanajio, Ha^o nocTaBHTb ee TaKHM 
o6pa30M, hto6m OHa Haxoflnnacb b ecTecTBeHHOM paBHOBecHH h ee He "TJiHyjio" b KaKyio-TO onpe/ie- 
jieHHyio CTopoHy. HejiOBeK He >Kejie3HbiH, h BHHTOBKa b ero pyKax TaK hjih miane 6y#eT KOJieSaTbca. 
Ho npaBHJibHOH roroTOBKoii 3th KOJieSaHna mo>kho cbccth k MHHHMyMy, a 3aTeM h BOBce c/iejiaTb 
CJiynaHHbiMH. 

npn CTpejibSe CToa CTpejiOK BbiHjoK^eH y#ep>KHBaTb Ta>Kejiyio BHHTOBKy. H hto6m eMy Jierne 
SbiJio sto ^eJiaTb, oh noflflep>KHBaeT ee jieBoii KHCTbio b6jih3h neHTpa T»>KecTH, a jioKOTb jieBon pyKH 
ynnpaeT ce6e b 6ok, b peSpa ((J)oto 120). nocKOJibKy Ta>KecTb opy^na tahct CTpejiKa Bnepefl, oh ot- 
KJiOHaeT Kopnyc nyrb Ha3a# n b CTopoHy 3aTbiJiKa - sto scho 3aMeTHO Ha (})oto 121, 122. OTKJiOHeHne 
sto HannHaeTca ot np»>KKH Ha noace. Horn nocTaBJieHbi pobho n CHMMeTpHHHO TaK, htoSm Bee ch- 
CTeMbi CTpejiOK - opy>KHe npnxoflHJica nopoBHy Ha Ka>Kflyio H3 hhx. JioKOTb JieBoii y#ep>KHBaioineH 
pyKH nocTaBJieH CTporo no# BHHTOBKy ((J)oto 123). npn HecoSjnofleHHH 3Toro ycjiOBna HannHaiOTca 
OTpbiBbi BnpaBO-BJieBO H3-3a yMeHbHieHHa ycTOHHHBOCTH opy>KHa no roprooHiajin. CTpejiOK pa3Bep- 
Hyr k MHHieHH npHMepHO b neTBepTb oSopoTa ((J)oto 120). Horn nocTaBJieHbi KaSjiytcaMH npniviepHO Ha 
HinpHHy njien, hockh pa3BepHyTbi CHMMeTpnnHO TaK, KaK sto 6y#eT y#o6HO fljia KOHKpeTHoro CTpeji- 
Ka. Cjihhikom mnpoKO paccTaBJiHTb Horn Hejib3a: npn stom ohh "pacKpenoniaiOTca" b oSjiacTH Ta3a n 
HanHHaeTca "BnxjiaHne" Ta30Boii oSjiacTbio. Cjihhikom 6jih3ko Horn CTaBHTb TO>Ke He peKOMeH^yeTca 
- sto coKpamaeT oSmyio njioina^b onopw. Horn aojckhm SbiTb aScojiiOTHO pacnpaMneHbi; comyTbie 
Horn TO>Ke "pacKpenoinaiOTca", n sto MrHOBeHHO CKa3biBaeTca Ha ycToinniBOCTH. 




cDoto 120. CipejibSa ctoji. JioKOTb JieBoii noflflep>KHBaioineH pyKH ynnpaeTca b Kopnyc b oSjia- 
cth peSep, CTpejiOK pa3BepHyT b neTBepTb oSopoTa k MHHieHH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



71 




cDoto 121. CTpenoK nporHyjica Ha3a# "k 3aTbiJiKy' 




cDoto 122. CTpenoK nporaynca Ha3a# "k 3aTbiJiKy' 




cDoto 123. IIpH CTpeubSe ctoji noKOTt no/mep>KHBaiomeH pyKH flOJDKeH HaxoflHTbca CTporo nofl 

BHHTOBKOH 

CnHHoii CTpenoK flOJi>KeH HeMHoro nporHyTtca He tojibko b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio bhh- 
TOBKe, ho HeMHoro Ha3a^ h "k 3aTbuiKy" (c|)oto 121, 122). 3aneM Bee 3to Hy>KHO ^ejiaTb h ^ejiaTb 
HMeHHO TaK, KaK 3^ecb onncaHO? CTpenoK c HaBe#eHHOH Ha uejib bhhtobkoh flOJi>KeH SbiTb aSconiOT- 
ho cSanaHCHpoBaH, htoSw ero noMeHbiue TaHyno Ky^a-TO b o#Hy CTopoHy (ry^a noiiflyT h OTpbiBbi) h, 
cooTBeTCTBeHHO, noMeHbuie Kanajio. B sthx >Ke uejiax rojiOBa CTpenKa CTaBHrca no bo3mo>khocth 
npaMO, He cjihhikom HaiaiOHaacb Bnepefl h He cjihhikom OTiaiOHaacb Ha3a#. TojiOBa - sto CBoeo6pa3- 
Hbiii npoTHBOBec. H,eHTp Ta>KecTH CHCTeMbi CTpenoK - opy>KHe flOJDKeH HaxoflHTbca r^e-TO nocpeflH 
miomaflH onopw. IIpaBHJibHaa roroTOBKa ^Jia CTpenbSbi ctos no3BOJiaeT CTpenKy HaxoflHTbca b CTaTH- 
necKOM paBHOBecHH. Ecjih TaKoro paBHOBecna HeT, CTpejncy npHxoflHrca HanparaTb KaKHe-JinSo ot- 
^ejibHbie rpynnw Mbiuiu,, h sto Be^eT k npe>KfleBpeMeHHOH ycTanocTH. IIojio>KeHHe paBHOBecna - 3to 
ocHOBHaa h Hafle>KHaa 6a3a ^na CTpeubSbi ctos. IIo3TOMy-TO neBbiM noKOTb h flOJDKeH HaxoflHTbca 
CTporo nofl bhhtobkoh (c|)oto 123). 

B nojio>KeHHH ctoji npHuejibHbie npHcnocoSjiemui npnSjiH^aiOTca k rjia3y, h BHHTOBKa ecTe- 
CTBeHHbiM o6pa30M ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca 3aBbiuieHHe. IIpH stom npHKJiafl ynnpaeTca He b njieneByio hm- 
Ky, a b njieneBOH Syrop hjih MecTO npaBee ot Hero, r^e nueno nepexo^HT b pyKy, B03Jie Snuenca (xot» 
HeKOTopbiM CTpenKaM y^oSHee CTpenaTb, ynnpaa npHKua^ b njieneByio aMKy, TaK, KaK ohh CTpejuum 
jie>Ka h c KOJieHa). IipHKJiafl nonHOCTbio npHJio>KeH h nnoTHO npn>KaT k nneny, npnneM oh ropa3#o 
Sojibine npHnoflHaT, HeM npn CTpeubSe c KOJieHa h Jieaca. IIpH stom TaK hjih HHane C03flaeTca Sonbuioe 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 72 

HeyfloScTBO yjiepwamw bhhtobkh jicboh pyKoM. Opy>KHe npHxoflHrca noflflep>KHBaTb jieBoft pyKoft 
oneHb bwcoko, h ajikhbi pyKH jibho fljia 3Toro He xBaTaeT. IIpH oSwhhom 3axBaTe ueBba jieBoii pyKoM 
H3roTOBKa nojiynaeTca HacTOJibKO hjbkoh, hto CTpenKy npHxoflHTca HaraSaTb ronoBy ^Jia Toro, htoSm 
3araaHyTb b nprnjeji ((})oto 124). IIojio>KeHHe He cnacaeT #a>Ke BbicoKaa nocTaHOBKa nprnjejia. Xot» 
HeKOTopwe CTpejiKH b CHJiy cbohx aHaTOMHnecKHx ocoSeHHOCTeM (KopoTKaa iuea, fljiHHHbie pyKH) TaK 
h CTpenaiOT, npHHeM ^OBOJibHO ycneuiHO. CTpejiKH c fljiHHHbiMH pyKaMH oneHb ycTOHHHBO yflep>KH- 
BaiOT BHHTOBKy 3axBaTOM 3a Mara3HHHyio KopoSicy. 3axBaTOM jicboh pyKH nofl Mara3HH h nepexBaTOM 
peMHa nepe3 Hero CTpenaiOT ctos H3 bhhtobkh CBfl, ((J)oto 125). ^TroSbi npHnoflHaTb BHHTOBKy b ne- 
boh pyKe, Ha cnopTHBHOM opy>KHH npe/iycMOTpeHbi h pa3peuieHbi npaBHJiaMH copeBHOBaHHH cneuH- 
anbHbie npHcnocoSneHHa: TaK Ha3biBaeMbie "rpHSKH-maMiiHHbOHbi". Ha CHamiepcKOM SoeBOM opy>KHH 
TaKHe npncnocoSjieHHa HHKaK He npeflycMOTpeHbi: ohh yTJDKejiaiOT oSiuhh sec, yBejiHHHBaiOT raSapn- 
tm opy>KHa h Bbi3biBaiOT pa3flpa>KeHHe HananbCTBa. IIo3TOMy ncnoKOH bckob CHaMnepbi ynnjiHCb CTpe- 
jiaTb, y^ep>KHBaa BHHTOBKy Ha nanbuax coMKHyToii rorrepHH (c|)oto 126): hmchho Ha huotho npn>Ka- 
twx flpyr k flpyry nanbuax c ynopoM SojibuiHM nanbueM b cnycKOByio CKoSy. TaKoft npneivi 
npHMeHajiH h pyccKne, h (})HHHbi, h HeMu,bi. IIpH 3tom BHHTOBKa npHnoflHHManacb Bbinie Ha 10 CM, HTO 
iio3boji5ijio CTpenKy CTaBHTb ronoBy pobho h He HaKJiOHHTb ee Bnepefl, cSHBaa paBHOBecne. HoBHHKaM 
TaKoft cnocoS Bcer^a Ka3anca xhjiwm, HeycTOHHHBbiM h aHeKflOTHHHbiM. IIo3TOMy b CTapwe BpeMeHa 
HHCTpyKTop npefljiaran hm H3o6pecTH nocpefln ronoro nojinroHa HTO-HnSyflb nojiynine, a Kor^a y Tex 
HHnero Jiynniero He nojiynanocb, HaKa3biBan coMHeBaiomnxcji. 




cDoto 124. Hn3Kaa npHKna^Ka npn y^ep^aHnn, bhhtobkh 3a neBbe. Hcnojib30BaHHe peMHa fljia 

SoJIbHieH yCTOHHHBOCTH 




cDoto 125. CrpejibSa ctoji H3 bhhtobkh CBfl, c y^ep>KaHHeM opy^na no# Mara3HH. JleBbiii jio- 
KOTb onnpaeTca "Ha peSpa", peMeHb nepexjiecTHyr nepe3 Mara3HH 




cDoto 126. y#ep>KaHHe opy>KHa Ha BbiraHyTbix nanbuax 

BepTHKanbHoe nojio>KeHHe npeflrnienba no# bhhtobkoh - ycnoBHe BecbMa TpyflHOBbinojiHHMoe. 
IIo3TOMy HeKOTopbie CTpejiKH, hto6w npn^aTb JieBoii pyKe Jiynniyio onopy, no^aiOT neBoe 6e#po Bne- 
pefl. HeKOTopwe crnSaiOT cjienca npaByio Hory b KOJieHe. Ho npn TaKon H3roTOBKe nenrp tjdkccth 
Sojibine npnxoflHTca Ha jieByio Hory h CTpenoK SbiCTpee ycTaeT. 

npaBaa pyKa npn CTpenbSe cto» oSwhho onymeHa jioKTeM bhh3 Ha 25-30° (cm. (})oto 122), TaK, 
KaK sto Sy^eT y^oSHO KOHKpeTHOMy CTpenKy. HeKOTopwe CTpejiKH, ynnpaiomne npnKJiafl b pyKy 
MQtKjiy njienoM h SnnencoM, #ep>KaT ee npnnoAHjrron k 3eMJie no# yraoM 90°, ho 3to Bbi3biBaeT ^o- 
nonHHTejibHoe yTOMneHHe. TaKoii cnocoS npHMeHaeTca npn CTpenbSe b 6poHe>KHJieTe. 

CTpenoK, KOTopbiM CToa npHHan cSanaHCHpoBaHHyio H3roTOBKy, aojckch o6a3aTejibHO npoBe- 
pHTb ce6a b npaBHJibHOH CTaTHHHOH opHeHTau,HH. Jinn 3Toro oh 3aKpbiBaeT raa3a, paccnaSjiaeT Kopnyc 
h noKanHBaeT BHHTOBKy BnpaBO-BJieBO, noKa OHa ecTecTBeHHbiM Hanpa>KeHHeM Mbiniu, h cb»30k He 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 73 

ocTaHOBHTca b KaKOM-TO ecTecTBeHHOM pjm Hee nojio>KeHHH. HivieHHO 3to ecTecTBeHHoe nojio>KeHHe 
opy>KHa oneHt hchho ajih CTpejibSbi TeM, hto npn HeM bhhtobky He "TjmeT" hh BnpaBO, hh bjicbo. Ec- 
jih opy>KHe Ky^a-TO "TaHeT", to OTpwBbi o6a3aTejibHO Sy^yr b stom HanpaBJieHHH. Otkpmb nocne npo- 
BepKH raa3a, CTpenoK nepeMemeHHeM CTynHeM ^OBopanHBaeT Ha uejib CHCTeMy CTpenoK - opy>KHe. J\o- 
BopanHBaTb Ha uejib Hy>KHO TOJibKO nepeivtemeHHeM CTynHen h hh b KoeM cjiynae He CKpynHBaHHeM 
Kopnyca, a TeM Sojiee ycHJinaMH pyK huh nuen. IIpaBHJibHO BbiSpaHHoe nojio>KeHHe CTpenoK 3anoMH- 
HaeT MbiHieHHO-opHeHTau,HOHHOH naMaTbio, a 3aTeM, no Mepe HaTpeHnpoBaHHOCTH, npnHHMaeT ero 
aBTOMaTHnecKH, He pa3flyMbiBaa. 

Ilocjie Toro KaK hobhhok npnoSpeTeT flocTaTOHHyio ycTOHHHBOCTb b npouecce HecKOJibKnx Tpe- 
hhpobok, eMy pa3pemaiOT Hcnojib30BaTb ^Jia CTpeubSbi ctos b KanecTBe ynopa bkhtobohhwh peMeHb. 
OSbiHHO Hcnojib3yeTca inraTHbiH ehhtobohhwh peMeHb, nepeSpomeHHbiH nepe3 noKOTb TaKHM >Ke 06- 
pa30M, KaK h npn CTpenbSe jie>Ka (c|)oto 127). Ilpn stom Ha HaTaHyrbin peMeHb npnxoflHTca Ta>KecTb 
opy>KHa. PeMeHb mo>kho "oTnycTHTb" h nepeSpocHTb nepe3 mieno n cnnHy (c|)oto 128). Ilpn TaKOM 
cnocoSe HaTaHyTbiii peMeHb racnr KOJieSamia bhhtobkh. 3tot npneM nacTO npnMeHaeTca npn BeTpe c 
jieBOH CTopoHbi, KOTopwH 3HaHHTejibHO "noKanHBaeT" CTpenKa BnpaBO. 




cDoto 127. CTpenbSa ctos c npHMeHeHneM niTaTHoro peMHa 




cDoto 128. BapnaHT Hcnojib30BaHHa peMHa. yfljiHHeHHbin peMeHb nepeKHHyT 3a cnmiy (bh^ 
CJieBa) 

B OTjiHHHe ot nojio>KeHHH ne>Ka h c KOJieHa, r^e CTpenKy b o6meM-TO npoTHBonoKa3aHO npHMe- 
H»Tb CHJiy, ocoSeHHO k JieBOH pyKe, Ha KOTopoM BHHTOBKa flOJi>KHa jie>KaTb, KaK Ha onope, npn CTpenb- 
6e CToa npnxoflHTca "ynnpaTbca". BHHTOBKy b nojio>KeHHH ^Jia CTpenbSw ctos Ha^o #ep>KaTb. HaKJiOH 
Kopnyca Ha3a# Ha^o KOHTpojinpoBaTb. flua 3Toro hjokho npnuaraTb cnjiy. OiuhSkoh hobhhkob aBJia- 
eTca to, hto BMecTO cnoKOHHoro npHJio>KeHHa chjibi ohh HannHaiOT HanparaTbca. KaK TOJibKO CTpenoK 
Hanan HanparaTbca, TyT >Ke noaBJiaeTca flpoacb. B TaKOM cnynae BbiCTpen Ha#o OTCTaBHTb h ot^ox- 
HyTb. 

Ha <J)OTorpa(})Hax HacToamero nocoSna CTpenoK H3o6pa>KeH b neTHeM oSMyHflnpoBaHnn. 3to 
CflenaHO cnennanbHO fljia HarjiaflHOCTH noKa3a OT^ejibHbix momchtob H3roTOBOK. Ha caMOM >Ke flene 
Bee - n bhhtobohhhkh, h CHaMnepbi, h CTpenKH-cnopTCMeHbi - CTpenaiOT b SoeBbix yCJIOBHSX n TpeHH- 
pyiOTca b rape o^eTbiMn b TOJiCTbie BaTHbie KypTKH. noneMy? Tojictwh BaTHHK 3aMeTHO CHH>KaeT 
ecTecTBeHHbie KOJieSaHna Tena n racnr nyjibcau,nio, KOTopaa OTpnu,aTejibHO BJinaeT Ha MeTKOCTb 
CTpenbSw. KpoMe Toro, Tyro noflnoacaHHbin noacHbiM peMHeM BaTHHK b 3HanHTejibHOH CTeneHH no- 
BbiniaeT oSmyio ycTOHHHBOCTb npn CTpenbSe cto». K TOMy >Ke Ha noacHOH peMeHb Ha^eBaiOT noflcy- 
mok, Ha KOTopbiii mo>kho npn CTpeubSe ctos onepeTb noKOTb JieBOH pyKH. Ha cnopTHBHbix copeBHOBa- 
hh»x Bee 3to 3anpemaeTC», a b SoeBoM npaKTHKe npHMeHHMO Bee, hto nojie3HO. 

BHHTOBOHHbie H3roTOBKH fljia CTpenbSw jie>Ka, c KoneHa, cto» - o^hh h Te ace h fljia CHannepoB, 
h fljia CTpenKOB-cnopTCMeHOB. Pa3HHua TOJibKO b tom, hto b cnopTHBHoii npaKTHKe opy>KHe noflroHa- 
eTca no^ CTpenKa, a npn SoeBbix CTpejibSax CTpenoK npnHopaBJinBaeTca nofl opy>KHe, H3roTOBJieHHoe 
nofl pa3Mepw CTpenKa co cpeflHecTaTHCTHHecKoii aHaTOMHeM, c MHHHManbHOH opToneflHHHOCTbio. 

A npn nocTaHOBKe onTHnecKHx npimejiOB CTpenoK BOoSme npHHopaBJiHBaeTca KaK MO>KeT: ero 
rna3 "npHB33aH" Ha paccToaHHH 6- 8 cm ot OKynapa npHu,ejia h flOJi>KeH HaxoflHTbca Ha ero oimiHe- 
ckoh och. nocMOTpHTe Ha 4)OTorpa4)HH: CTpenKy SbiJio 6w Hennoxo 3ac})HKCHpoBaTb ronoBy nieKon Ha 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 74 

npHKna^e, ho npnneji ctoht cjihihkom bmcoko h ronoBy npHxoflnrca (})HKCHpoBaTb noflSopoflKOM. 
IHea ot 3Toro oneHb ycTaeT. K TaKOMy nojio>KeHHio ronoBbi hjokho tojibko npHBbiKHyrb. Ha bmhtobkc 
CB,3, fljia 3Toro h npeflycMOTpeHa cnennanbHaa "meKa". 

IIpaBHJibHaa H3roTOBKa - 3to ocHOBa MeTKoM CTpeubSbi, CBoeo6pa3Hbin 4)yHflaMeHT TOHHoro bbi- 
CTpena. H no3TOMy H3roTOBKa flOJi>KHa Sbitb oflHOo6pa3HOH. Ecjih CTpenoK 3MnnpHHecKn, nyTeM npo6 
h oihhSok nofloSpan ce6e KOMnneKC y^anHbix nojio>KeHHH nacTen Tena flua CTpeubSbi jie>Ka, CToa, c 
KOJieHa, to oh flOJi>KeH 3anoMHHTb, KaK oh 3to flenan, h Bnpeflb npHHHMaTb TaKoe y^aHHoe nojio>KeHHe 
aBTOMaTHHecKH. H ecnH oh 3aHan nojio>KeHHe fljia CTpeubSbi, ^onycTHM, jie>Ka coBceM He Taic, KaK 3a- 
HHMan ero Ha npeflbiflymen TpeHnpoBKe, nycTb He yflHBJiaeTca, hto He MO>KeT nonacTb b to MecTO, Ky- 
j\& nona/iaji paHbnie. 

HAPABOTKA YCTOHHHBOCTH 

CTpejiKH tohho 3HaK)T noHaTne, KOTopoe Ha3biBaeTca "ycTOHHHBOCTb opy>KHa". Hto sto TaKoe? 
3to cnocoSHOCTb CTpejiKa y#ep>KHBaTb opy>KHe npHnejibHbiMH npncnocoSjieHHaMH b paiioHe tohkh 
npHu,ejiHBaHHa 6e3 OTKnoHeHHH, h neivt flOJibiue, TeM Jiyniue. YcTOHHHBOCTb HapaSaTbiBaeTca fljiHrejib- 

HblMH TpeHHpOBKaMH BXOJIOCTyK). HToSbl He pa36HBaTb MexaHH3M Opy>KHa, B naTpOHHHK BKJiaflblBaeT- 

ca yneSHbiH naTpoH hjih CTpenaHaa rnjib3a. Ka>KflbiH xojioctoh cnycK BbinojiHaeTca KaK BbiCTpen 6oe- 
bmm naTpoHOM! noHanajiy CTpenKaM BOoSme He flaKxr naTpoHOB h 3acTaBJiaiOT OTpaSaTbiBaTb 
npaBHJibHyio H3roTOBKy b nojio>KeHHH jie>Ka #Jia fl0CTH>KeHHa TBep^bix HaBbiKOB b npHnejiHBaHHH h 
cnycKe KypKa. HapaSoTKa ycTOHHHBOCTH HeoSxoflHMa #a>Ke b TaKOM, Ka3anocb 6bi, KanHranbHOM no- 
jio>KeHHH CTpeubSbi, KaK ne>Ka. IIpH CTpeubSe c KOJieHa 6opb6a 3a ycTOHHHBOCTb B03pacTaeT. Ho no- 
HacToameMy CTpejiKa HannHaeT "KanaTb" b nojio>KeHHH CToa. 

KaK y>Ke 6bmo CKa3aHO, b SoeBoM oScTaHOBKe CHaMnepy He MHHOBaTb CTpeubSbi hh c KOJieHa, hh 
CToa. MHoroBeKOBOH npaKTHKoM ycTaHOBJieHO, hto CTpejibSa CToa - H3 bhhtobok h nncTOJieTOB - Jiyn- 
nie nojiynaeTca y jnoflen c xopouio pa3BHTbiM nyBCTBOM paBHOBecna - KaBanepncTOB, 4)exTOBanbmH- 
kob, MopaKOB h jieTHHKOB. 3th nioflH HyBCTByiOT KpeHbi h cnocoSHbi BoenpHHHMaTb h omymaTb 6a- 
jiaHC opy>KHa, ero KOJieSaHna h OTKnoHeHHa b He>KejiaTejibHyio CTopoHy. Bonee Toro, jhoah c 
pa3BHTbiM BecTnSyjiapHbiM annapaTOM noflC03HaTejibHO, hhcthhkthbho h SbiCTpo BbinpaBJiaiOT sth 
HeHy>KHbie OTKnoHeHHa. B CTapwe BpeMeHa apncTOKpaTbi fljia BbipaSoTKH SanaHca 3acTaBJiajiH cbohx 
ManojieTHHx cbiHOBen xoahtb c 3anojiHeHHbiM ^OBepxy CTaKaHOM BOflbi Ha BbrraHyroH pyKe, npHHeM 
HeuiaflHO noponH hx 3a Ka>Kflyio Kainno BOflbi, nponHTyio Ha non. ^obojibho SwcTpo ManbHHKH TpeHH- 
poBanHCb xoflHTb c 3anojiHeHHbiMH j\o KpaeB CTaKaHaMH Ha flByx BbiTaHyrbix pyKax, 3aTeM CTaKaHbi 
CTaBHJiH Ha TbiJibHbie noBepxHOCTH KHCTeii BbiTaHyTbix pyK, a 3aTeM ^a>Ke Ha nuenn h Ha ronoBy. H 
TOJibKO nocne Toro KaK iohmh OTnpbicK cboSo^ho h SbiCTpo co BceM sthm xo3aHCTBOM Mor nepexo- 
flHTb H3 KOMHaTbi b KOMHaTy, eMy flaBanH b pyKH orHecTpenbHoe opy>KHe. npn OTpaSoTaHHOM SanaHce 
BbiconaHHiero ypoBHa HaBbiKH npaBHJibHoro npHnejiHBaHna h cnycKa KypKa npHBHBaiiHCb oneHb 
SbiCTpo. He TaK ^aBHO TaKHx cnocoSax chjioboh HapaSoTKH ycTOHHHBOCTH eme noMHHJiH. CTapbie 
HHCTpyKTopw paccKa3biBanH aBTopy, KaK #o h nocne bokhm b cneumKOJiax HKB,H, 3acTaBJiajin Kyp- 
caHTOB TaHu,eBaTb Banbc... co CTyjiOM Ha BbiTaHyTbix pyKax, npHHeM CTyn y#ep>KHBajica 3a nepe^HHe 
ho>kkh b BepTHKanbHOM nojio>KeHHH. nocjie Mecau,a TaKHx ynpa>KHeHHH CTpenbSa H3 nncTOJieTa h 
bhhtobkh b jnoSbix caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix h HeyfloSHbix nojio>KeHHax Ka3anacb fleTCKOH 3a6aBOH. B 
Haiue BpeMa paBHOBecne OTpaSaTbiBaeTca jhoSmmh ^ocTynHbiMH cnocoSaMH. nonpoSyHTe napy Meca- 
u,eB noKaTaTbca Ha CKeirrSopfle - flOCKe Ha ponHKax - h bm yBH^HTe, KaK yjiyniuHJiocb KanecTBO 
CTpeubSbi. noxoflHTe napy MecaueB no oSbiHHOMy 6yMy Ha nonoce npenaTCTBHii: pe3yjibTaTbi CTpenb- 
6bi Sy/iyT pacTH ropa3flO SbiCTpee, HeM npn oSbiHHbix TpeHHpoBKax 6e3 Mo6HJiH3au,HH BHyrpeHHHx 
pe3epBOB. ,H,jia CTpeubSbi CToa Hy>KHa cnna. JIioSoh KOMnneKC raHTenbHOH rHMHacTHKH OKaaceT caMoe 
SnaroTBopHoe BJinaHne Ha KanecTBO CTpeubSbi. H Bce-TaKn rjiaBHbin (})aKTop npn BbipaSoTKe CTpenKO- 
boh ycTOHHHBOCTH - HepHOBaa TpeHnpoBOHHaa paSoTa h neneHanpaBJieHHoe TepneHne. 



PA3^EJI 3. nPAKTHHECKOE nPHI^EJIHBAHHE H CnYCK KYPKA 
3A^EP^CKA ^BIXAHHH nPH CTPEJIBBE 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 75 



CTpeJIKH-BHHTOBOHHHKH np0H3B0fl3T BblCTpeJI Ha BblflOXe, HCnOJIb3ya flJIJI 3TOrO flblXaTeJIbHyK) 

nay3y (npoMe>KyTOK b 1-2 ceKyH^bi) MOK^y b^oxom h bmaoxom. rioneMy bhhtobohhhkh ^ejiaiOT 
HMeHHO TaK, a He miane? HtoSm Jiynme sto noHSTb, npHMHTe H3roTOBKy jie>Ka c ynopoM. HaBeflHie 
BHHTOBKy Ha uejib. BfloxHHTe. Bw nonyBCTByeTe, hto npn B^oxe rpy^Haa KJieTKa yBejiHHHJiacb b 06b- 
eMe h nprnioflHajiacb. BMecTe c Heft npHnoflHajica h npHKJia^ opy>KHa, cooTBeTCTBeHHO onycTHJiacb 
MyniKa. IIpH Bbi^oxe rpy^Haa KJieTKa coKpamaeTca b oSbeivie h Myniica noflHHMaeTca. TaKoe nponcxo- 
flHT KaK npn CTpenbSe c ynopa, TaK h npn CTpejibSe c peMHa. Tot, kto CTpejiaeT H3 nncTOJieTa, mtokct 
CTpenaTb h Ha B^oxe, h Ha nojiyBbi^oxe, ho crpejiaiomHft Jie>Ka H3 bhhtobkh MO>KeT nojiHOHemio bm- 
CTpejiHTb TOJibKO Ha Bbifloxe. B MOMeHT flbixaTenbHoft nay3bi, Ha Bbi^oxe, b opraHH3Me HanmiaeT 
HaKanjiHBaTbca yraeKHCJiOTa, fleftcTByiomaa Ha Mbimubi paccjiaSjiaiome. IlyjibcauHa b momcht flbixa- 
TenbHoft nay3bi HaHMeHbiuaa. ripn BbmoxHyroM B03flyxe h coKpamemioft rpy^Hoft KJieTKe Kopnyc 
CTpenKa paccjiaSneH caMbiM ecTecTBeHHbiM o6pa30M. 

IIo3TOMy CTpenoK npHHHMaeT H3roTOBKy no uejiH TaKHM o6pa30M, htoSm npn Bbi^oxe MyniKa 
hjih flpyrne npHuejibHbie npHcnocoSjieHHa ecTecTBeHHbiM #BH>KeHHeM noflBOflHJiHCb nofl uejib. 

npnpofla nana jhoajim pa3Hbie opraHH3Mbi. y HeKOTopwx HHflHBHflyyMOB Ha nonHOM Bbi^oxe KaK 
pa3 h co3flaeTca Hanpa>KeHHoe cocToamie Kopnyca. 

OcoSeHHO Bbipa3HTejibHO 3to npoaBJiaeTca y SoftHOB-pyKonaiHHHKOB. IIosTOMy b TaKHx cjiynaax 
peKOMeH^yeTca, Bbi^oxHyB H3 jierKnx B03#yx, cjienca (Ha o^Hy neTBepTb hjih HanojiOBHHy) B^oxHyTb 
h 3a/iep>KaTb ^bixaHHe. Hejib3a 3a#ep>KHBaTb ^bixaHne pe3KO. 3a#ep>KKa flbixaHHa npoHBBOflHica Mar- 
Koft ocTaHOBKoft flbixaHH» Ha nojiHOM Bbifloxe, nojiyBbifloxe hjih nojiyB/ioxe. 

CTpejiOK MO>KeT h flOJi>KeH HaTpeHHpoBaTbca 3a^ep>KHBaTb ,3,bixaHHe Ha 10-15 ceKyHfl, HeoSxo- 
flHMbix fljia BbiCTpejia. Ilepefl BbiCTpejiOM peKOMeH^yeTca c^ejiaTb HecKOJibKO raySoKHx, cnoKoftHbix 

BflOXOB H BblflOXOB, HToSbl oSoraTHTb OpraHH3M KHCJIOpOflOM. 

B MOMeHT BbiCTpejia nojio>KeHHe MyniKH h flpyrnx npHuejibHbix npHcnocoSjieHnft OTHOCHTejibHO 
uejiH aojdkho SbiTb CTaSnjibHbiM, to ecTb oflHOo6pa3HbiM. TaKoe CTaSnjibHoe nojio>KeHHe npn CHaft- 
nepcKoft CTpejibSe MO>KeT SbiTb TOJibKO b nepnofl flbixaTejibHoft nay3bi. IIo3TOMy 6y#eT oniHSoHHbiM 
HHor^a npHMeHaeMbift cnocoS yiOHHeHHa h BepTHKanbHoft KoppeKinpoBKH npHuejiHBaHHJi 3a#ep>KKoft 
flbixaHHa b pa3JiHHHbie MOMeHTbi. fl,onycTHM, npn CTpejibSe jie>Ka MyniKa OTHOCHTejibHO uejiH Haxo- 
flHTca Bbime hjih Hn>Ke h CTpejiOK nbiraeTca CKoppeKinpoBaTb TOHKy npHuejiHBaHHa Bbime HH>Ke, B^bi- 
xaa hjih Bbiflbixaa. HoBHHKaM stot cnocoS He peKOMeH^yeTca. TaK HHor^a ^ejiaiOT tojibko onbiTHbie 
MacTepa, b coBepmeHCTBe BJia^eiomHe Texmncoft CTpejibSw. 

y HanHHaioniHx CTpejiKOB c HenpaBHJibHbiM ^bixaHneM npn CTpejibSe CB»3aHa uejiaa cncTeMa 
ouihSok h npoMaxoB. 

Ecjih cipejiOK BOoSme He 3a#ep>KHBaeT flbixaHHe npn BbiCTpejie BonpeKH HacTaBJieHnaM hh- 

CTpyKTOpa, CO CTOpOHbl BHflHO, KaK CTBOJI erO BHHTOBKH "flblHIHl" BBepX H BHH3. OTpblBbI npH 3TOM 

Hflyr no BepTHKajin c Sojibinoft BejiHHHHoft. 

,H,bixaHHe CJie^yeT 3a#ep>KHBaTb HenocpeflCTBeHHO nepefl BbiCTpejiOM, 3a 5-6 ceKyHfl ^o Hero, 
nocjie Toro KaK H3roTOBKa BbiBepeHa, CTpejiOK "yjieacajica", npeflBapnTejibHO HaBeji opy>KHe Ha nejib h 
BCMOTpejica b Hee. OiuhSkoh HanHHaiomnx CTpejiKOB nacTO SbiBaeT to, hto ohh 3a#ep>KHBaiOT flbixa- 
Hne, He "BCMOTpeBniHCb" b nejib, a HHor^a ^a>Ke He "yjie>KaBniHCb". ripn stom b caMOM Komi,e BbiCTpe- 
jia y hhx KOHnaeTca B03flyx, hobhhok HannHaeT 3a^bixaTbca h noSbiCTpee ^aBHT Ha cnycK. 3to Be^eT k 
HeMHHyeMbiM npoMaxaM. fljia HHCTpyKiopa npn3HaKOM paHHeft 3a^ep>KKH flbixaHna KypcamoM aBJia- 

eTCa TO, HTO CTBOJI BHHTOBKH, KOTOpblft npH HOpMajIbHOft paSOTe flblXaHHS TO>Ke "flblUIHT" BBepX-BHH3, 

a noTOM ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca Ha 5-6 ceKyHfl ^Jia BbiCTpejia, He "flbiniHT" c caMoro Hanana, a nepefl bw- 
CTpejiOM HaSjiiOAaiOTca MejiKne cyAopo>KHbie KOJieSaHna CTBOJia. 

y hobhhkob SbiBaeT h flpyraa KpaftHOCTb: ohh cjihuikom no3#HO 3a^ep>KHBaiOT flbixaHHe, nepefl 
caMbiM BbiCTpejiOM, Kor^a opy>KHe enie He "BbipoBHajiocb" h He "ycToajiocb" ^Jia BbiCTpejia flOJi>KHbiM 
o6pa30M. OipbiBbi npn stom HaSjuo^aiOTca no BepTHKann, name Bcero BBepx. HHCTpyKTop 3aMenaeT 
TaKyio omnSKy KypcaHTa, oSpaniaa BHHMaHHe Ha OTcyrcTBHe ocTaHOBKH KOJieSaHnft CTBOJia BBepx- 
bhh3 nepefl BbiCTpejiOM hjih >Ke Ha oneHb He3HanHTejibHyio ero ocTaHOBKy. 

IIInpoKO pacnpocTpaHeHHbift nopoK HanHHaiomnx CTpejiKOB - fljiHiejibHaa 3a^ep>KKa flbixaHHa 
npn BbiCTpejie. Kor^a CTpejiOK oneHb ^ojiro 3a#ep>KHBaeT ^wxaHne, 3aTarHBaa BbiCTpeji, to b KOHne 
kohu,ob eMy He xBaTaeT B03flyxa, HacTynaeT KHCJiopoflHoe rojiOflaHne, h CTpejiOK CTapaeTca nocKopeft 
Ha>KaTb Ha cnycK h noKOHHHTb c BbiCTpejiOM. Pe3yjibTaTOM name Bcero SbiBaeT npoMax. ripn bccm 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 76 

3tom CTpenoK He3aMeTHO fljia ce6a HanparaeTca, hto Bbi3biBaeT noBbimeHHyio yroMJiaeMOCTb. 

Jinn HopManbHoro BbiCTpena Hy>KHO He Sojiee 5-6, MaKCHMyM 8 ceKyH^. Ecjih CTpenoK He mtokct 
yjio>KHTbca b 3to BpeMa, 3HanHT, hto-to eMy MeiuaeT. ripoK^e Bcero HHCTpyKTop aojckch npoBepHTb 
npaBHJibHOCTb H3roTOBKH: npn npaBHJibHOH "yjioKaBHieiica" h HaTpeHnpoBaHHOH, HapaSoTaHHoM H3- 
roTOBKe, Koryra Bee, hto Morao nepeSoneTb, nepe6ojie.no hhhc KaKoft ctopohw He Sojiht, He TaHeT h 
He flaBHT, CTpenKy hhhto He aojdkho MeuiaTb. B TaKOM cnynae HHCTpyKTop CTpoSocKonoM hjih 3a>KH- 

MOM BHHTOBKH B npHCTpeJIOHHbffl CTaHOK C KOHTpOJIbHbIM npHUeJIHBaHHeM npOBepaeT npaBHJibHOCTb 

npHuejiHBaHHa KOHKpeTHoro CTpenKa. 

TaKne npoBepKH HHor^a BbiaBJiaiOT onem, HHTepecHbie "ciopnpH3bi". Ha naivtaTH aBTopa o#hh h3 
CTpenKOB ynopHO nejiHJica MyniKoM BpoBeHb c njienaMH rpy^HOH mkhichh. OKa3anocb, y Hero npe3- 
MepHO pacnjibiBanacb rpHBKa nejiHKa, h oh nosTOMy Bee BpeMa Span KpynHyio MyniKy. B ^pyroM cny- 
nae CTpenoK paSoTan no KpynHoft MHmeHH c npocBeTOM n Span oneHb KpynHbin npocBeT. C KpynHbiM 
npocBeTOM HaMHoro Tpy^Hee Bbiflep>KaTb ero o#HOo6pa3Hyio BejinnnHy, h noaTOMy ^aHHbiH CTpejiOK 
Bee BpeMa, KaK roBopnTca, "nrpaji npocBeTOM", pa36pacbiBaa nyjin no BepTHKann. 

CTpenKy Ha3HaHaiOTca flonojiHHTejibHbie ynpa>KHeHna Ha BbipaSoTKy ycTOHHHBOCTH h paBHOBe- 
cna (cm. paHee). Ilpn noBbimeHHon HepBHon B036yflHMOCTH oneHb nojie3HO nuaBaHne: oho ycnoKan- 
BaeT HenoBeKa, KaK HHKaKaa ^pyraa npone^ypa, h yBejinnnBaeT o6beM jierKnx. 

OSpamaeTca BHHMaHHe Ha paSoTy nanbna Ha cnycKe. ,H,jiHTejibHa» 3a#ep>KKa flbixaHna MO>KeT 
SbiTb CB»3aHa c TeM, hto naneu, npocTO He "TaHeT" 3a cnycK (cm. ^anee pa3fleji "Texmnca cnycKa Kyp- 
Ka"). 

y hobhhkob name Bcero npHHHHon fljinrejibHOH 3a#ep>KKH flbixaHna aBJiaeTca Manaa CTpejiKOBaa 
ycTOHHHBOCTb BCJieflCTBHe HeflOCTaTOHHOH HaTpeHnpoBaHHOCTH. IIo3TOMy HanHHaioinero CTpenKa 3a- 
CTaBJiaiOT 3aH»Tb H3roTOBKy fljia nojio>KeHHa Jieaca c bhhtobkoh h, coS-mo^aa Bee npaBHJia npnnejiHBa- 
HHa, Bbiflep>KHBaTb MyniKy b Ha3HaneHHOH TOHKe npHu,ejiHBaHHa, He OTpbiBaacb ot opy>KHa h He OTpbi- 
Baa npnioiafl ot miena b Tenefflie naca. Bee 3to nponcxoflHT 6e3 xonocTbix mejrncoB. CTpenoK 
TpeHnpyeT TOJibKO 3a^ep>KKy ^bixaHna, BbinojiHaa ee b momcht coBMemeHHa MyniKH c >KejiaeMOH toh- 
koh npHu,ejiHBaHHa. Ilpn stom oflHOBpeMeHHO yTOHHaeTca h BbinpaBJiaeTca nsroTOBKa. CTpenoK npn- 
BbiKaeT k noBbimeHHbiM Harpy3KaM h onpe^ejiaeT, hto oh BbinojiHJiJi b H3roTOBKe npaBHJibHO, a hto 
HenpaBHJibHO h hto eMy sbho Memano. J\im HHCTpyKTopa oneHb Ba>KHO, htoSm KypcaHT noHaji Heo6- 
xoAHMOCTb Bcero 3Toro h flejian Bee sto co3HaTejibHO. Co3HaTejibHbin 3nry3na3M CTpenKa M H3HyTpH" b 
TaKHx cjiynaax Ba>KHee, neM KOMaHflnpcKne nonpaBKH "cHapy>KH". 

HeKOTopbie CTpejiKH, ocoSeHHO CTpejiaa ctoji, npn 3a#ep>KKe flbixaHHa HenpoH3BOJibHO Hanpa- 
raiOT Mbinm,bi njieneBoro noaca, >KHBOTa, Spionmoro npecca, men n #a>Ke .nima. KaK y>Ke 6bi.no yKa3a- 
ho, npn CTpejibSe ctos Ha^o npnuaraTb cnoKOHHyio cnny, a HanparaTbca Hejib3a. Hanpa>KeHHe oahoh 
rpynnw Mbiniu, pecJwieKropHO BJieneT 3a coSon H3JinniHee n SeccMbicneHHoe Hanpa>KeHHe flpyrnx 
Mbinm,. 3to cboaht Ha HeT KoopflHHannio flBH>KeHHH npn npHu,ejiHBaHHH h cnycKe KypKa. H3JiHniHee 
Hanpa>KeHHe Bbi3biBaeT noBbimeHHyio yroMnaeMOCTb CTpenKa. 

Kor^a CTpenoK Hanpa>KeH, oh oSbiHHO ^enaeT SbiCTpbin raySoKHH b^ox nepefl BbiCTpenoM h 
SbiCTpwH Bbiflox nocjie BbiCTpena. H #a>Ke Bbipa>KeHHe jiHu,a TaKoro CTpenKa Hanpa>KeHHoe h 03a6o- 
neHHoe. 

Jinn cSpoca Hanpa>KeHHa cyniecTByeT oneHb xopomnii npaKTHHecKnii npneM: "cn^a, Ha B^oxe, 
noflH»Tb pyKH nepe3 ctopohw KBepxy jia^OHaMH BHyrpb, oflHOBpeMeHHO BbiTaHyTb Bnepefl Horn. 3a- 
TanB flbixaHne Ha 2-3 ceKyH^bi, cnjibHO noTaHyTbca. 3aTeM, noBepHyB jia^OHH Bnepefl h paccjiaSnB 
Mbiinnbi, Ha Bbifloxe onycTHTb pyKH bhh3 h noflTaHyTb Horn b ncxoflHoe nojio>KeHHe" (®.H. 5KaMKOB. 
HananbHaa noflroTOBKa CTpejiKa-cnopTCMeHa). 

nPAKTHHECKOE ^PH^EJIHBAHHE 

BceM CTpenKaM, h CHannepaM TO»ce, nenHTbca HeoSxoflHMO c OTKpbiTbiMH raa3aMH. Henpnii,ejib- 
HbiH jieBbiii rjias 3a>KMypHBaTb n npnmypHBaTb 3anpemaeTca. rioneMy? IIoTOMy hto Mbimnbi npHniy- 
peHHoro rjia3a HanparaiOTca, n pe(J)JieKTopHO sto Hanpa>KeHHe nepe^aeTca Ha OTKpbiTbin rjia3, koto- 
pwn h 6e3 Toro Hanpa>KeH. IIosTOMy npn 3a>KMypHBanHH HenpHu,ejibHoro raa3a ocTpoTa 3peHHa 
npaBoro raa3a yMeHbinaeTca B^Boe. 

B nponecce npHu,ejinBaHna rjia3 Hen36e>KHO ycTaeT. IIo3TOMy b nenax c6epe>KeHHa octpotm 
3peHHa fljia HanSojiee OTBeTCTBeHHoro MOMenra npHu,ejiHBaHHe pa3flejiaeTca Ha ^Ba nepnofla. Bo Bpe- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 77 

Ma nepBoro nepnofla, Kor^a CTpenoK eme He Hanaji BbiSnpaTb cnycK, npoBepaeTca npaBHJibHOCTb H3- 
totobkh h He3HaHHTejibHtiMH abh^chhjimh pyK, jioKTeM, Hor h TyjiOBHma CHaiinep ycTparoieT pa3JiHH- 
Hbie MenKHe Hey^oScTBa. 3tot noflroTOBHTejibHbiH nepnofl 3aHHMaeT nojiOBHHy Bcero BpeMeHH npn- 
u,ejiHBaHHa, HHor^a h Sojibine. B sto BpeMa CTpenoK, He Hanparaa 3peHHa, npocTO cmotpht b 
npHuejibHbie npncnocoSjieHHa, htoSm rjia3 npHBbiK k ocBemeHHio h npHMepHO c^OKycnpoBajica Ha 
nejin. BTopoM nepnofl - 3to Hanajio o6pa6oTKH BbiCTpena KaK TaKOBoro, Kor^a CTpenoK 3aTanji flbixa- 
Hne, ycHJiHJi ^aBJieHHe Ha cnycK h ero raa3 Hanaji hctko KOHTpojinpoBaTb nojio>KeHHe MyniKH Ha tohkc 
npHuejiHBaHHa, to ecTb Hanaji "BCMaTpHBaTbca" b nejib, h nouuio, coSctbchho, y#ep>KaHHe MyniKH b 
>KejiaeMOH tohkc npHnejiHBaHHa #o MOMeHTa BbiCTpena. 

CTpenKaM cueflyeT noMHHTb, hto caMOKoppeKTHpoBKa npn noMomn 3pHiejibHOH nofl3opHOH 
TpySbi Bbi3biBaeT na^eHHe octpotw 3peHHa. IIpHHeM neTKOCTb na^aeT KaK b "cTpanaioineM", npHnejib- 
hom raa3y, TaK h b HenpHnejibHOM, kotopwm HaSjnoflanH b oniHHecKHH npnSop. B CTpenKOBOM cnop- 
Te 3to He HMeeT nprninHnHajibHoro 3HaneHHa. Ho b SoeBoii npaKTHKe, Kor^a CHaMnep neBbiM, Henpn- 
u,ejibHbiM raa30M iioctojihho HaSjnoflaeT b nepncKon, CTepeoTpySy hjih apTHJuiepHHCKyio Syccojib, sto 
CKa3biBaeTca Ha tohhocth CTpejibSbi caMbiM HenocpeflCTBemibiM o6pa30M. 

CHaMnep aojdkch 3HaTb, hto fljiHiejibHoe HaSjnofleHHe b oniHHecKHH npnSop oneHb yiOMJiaeT 
3peHHe. Ho 3to eme He Bee. npn ycTanocTH rjia3a H3MeHaeTca ero (|)yHKnHOHajibHoe cocTOjnnie h cre- 
neHb BoenpnaTHa. H3MeHeHHa 3th HacTOJibKO 3HaHHTejibHbi, hto #a>Ke aBJiaiOTca npHHHHoii CMeineHHa 
cpeflHeM tohkh nona^aHHa. Eme Sojibine cpeflHaa TOHKa nona^aHHa CMemaeTca npn pe3KOM nepexo^e 
raa3a ot oflHoro npnSopa k ^pyroMy, HMeiomnx pa3Hoe yBejiHneHHe. nocMOTpnTe b apTHJiJiepniicKyio 
Syccojib, HMeiomyio flecaTHKpaTHoe yBejinneHHe, h cpa3y >Ke nocne 3Toro nonpoSyHie npHnejiHTbca 
H3 npnnejia nCO-1, HMeiomero yBejinneHHe 4,3x. HaSjnoflaTb b Syccojib hjih nepncKon HeoSxoflHMO - 
HHane MoryT ySnib, npHHeM ^OBOJibHO SbiCTpo. Ho npn TaKOM HaSjnofleHHn CHannepy Hy>KHO nonaine 
"oTflbixaTb rjia3aMH M , HMea b 3pHTejibHOH naMaTH 3anenaTJieHHyio "3pHTejibHyio KapTHHKy" otbct- 
CTBeHHoro HaSniOflaeMoro ynacTKa c HanSojiee Ba>KHbiMH opHeniHpaMH. KcTaTH, sto none3HO b tom 
miaHe, hto CHaMnepy cpa3y CTaHOBaTca bh^hh H3MeHeHHa, npoHcmeflnnie Ha jiaH^Hia^Te. no3TOMy, 
ecnH ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb, nycTb HaSniOflaeT HanapHHK, a CHaiinep jihhihhh pa3 He nopTHT 3peHne. 

B SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe CHaiinep CTpejiaeT c oSohmh OTKpbiTbiMH rjia3aMH, TaK KaK npn stom co- 
xpaHaiOTca npenMymecTBa SnHOKynapHoro 3peHH». BnHOKyjiapHOCTb ocTporo 3peHna Ha flHCTaHnnax 
flo 800 MeTpoB 3HaHHTejibHO oSnernaeT BH3yanbHoe onpeflejieHHe paccToaHHa #o nejin. KpoMe Toro, 
BTopoM, HenpHu,ejibHbiH, rjia3 no3BOJiaeT yjiaBJiHBaTb H3MeHeHHa Ha none 6oa. 

HeKOTopbie HHflHBHflyyMbi Bce-TaKH He MoryT CTpejunb c neBbiM OTKpbiTbiM rjia30M. Ohh tobo- 
P»t, hto nocne /uiHTejibHoii h Hanpa>KeHHoii 3pHTejibHOH paSoTbi y hhx HannHaeT ^BOHTbca b raa3ax. 

3to fleiicTBHTejibHO TaK. Ho npHHiypHBaTb HenpHHejibHbiH raa3 Bee paBHO Hejib3a. Ero Jiynnie 
npHKpbiTb HeninpoKoii BepTHKanbHOH nojiocKOH Sejioii (a en^e Jiynnie CBeTJio-3ejieHOH) 6yMarH. npn 
3tom CTpenoK "oTKJiiOHaeT" HenpHu,ejibHbiH raa3 ot npou,ecca npHHejiHBaHHa, ho coxpaHaeT ero 6hho- 
KynapHOCTb, h CBeTonpHHHMaiOHiHH SanaHC oSohx rjia3 ocTaeTca o^HHaKOBbiM. 

3ATiirHBAHHE ^PH^EJIHBAHHH (3AIJEJIHBAHHE) 

Ecjih flonro u,ejiHTbca, rjia3 CTpenKa oneHb SbiCTpo ycTaeT. (I)H3HOJiorHHecKHH HopivtaTHB, OTny- 
HieHHbiH Ha BbiCTpen c MOMeHTa 3a#ep>KKH flbixaHHa, - 8, MaKCHMyvt 10 ceKyH^. nocne npe3MepHO 
fljiHTenbHoro (Sojiee 10 ceKyHfl) "BCMaTpHBaHHa" b u,ejib h KOHTpona MyniKH b TOHKe npHu,ejiHBaHHa 
HacTynaeT TaK Ha3biBaeMoe "nporpeccnpyiomee yTOMJieHHe rjia3a". 

3anoMHHie! 3a o^Hy MHHyry HenpepbiBHoro npHHejiHBaHHa ocipoTa 3peHHa na^aeT B^Boe. ,H,Ba- 
Tpn 3au,ejieHHbix BbiCTpena yTOMJiaiOT 3peHne h CHH>KaK)T ero ocTpoTy HaMHoro Sojibnie, neM MHoro- 
nacoBaa CTpenbSa npn He3aT3HyTbix BbiCTpenax. 

no OKOHHaHHH "3au,ejiHBaHHa" rna3 ycTaeT HacTOJibKO, hto nnoxo pa3JiHnaeT nojio>KeHHe MyniKH 
h npyrnx npHu,ejibHbix npHcnocoSjieHHH. CTpenoK 3Toro He 3aMenaeT, h6o ero 3pHTejibHaa naMaTb 
coxpaHaeT b co3HaHHH "npHnejibHyio KapTHHKy" bo Been apKOCTH Ha 2-3 ceKyHHbi. 

npHHHHbi 3au,ejiHBaHHa b ochobhom Te >Ke, hto h npn fljiHTejibHoii 3a^ep>KKe flbixaHHa (cm. pa- 
Hee). H nocjieflCTBHa Te >Ke caMbie. 3au,ejiHBaHHe h fljiHiejibHaa 3a^ep>KKa ^bixaHna conpa>KeHbi flpyr c 
npyroM. MeTOflbi ycTpaHeHHa 3Toro HenpcTaTKa Te >Ke caMbie. Ecjih HHCTpyKiop Ha3HanHJi KypcaHTy 
"yjie>KaTbca" o^hh nac, He OTpbiBaa npHKna^a ot njiena, to 3a^ana KypcaHTa - TpeHnpoBaTb cobmcctho 
c 3a/iep>KKOH flbixaHHa h KOHTpojib 3peHHa 3a npHu,ejibHbiMH npHcnocoSjieHHaMH no CJieflyionten cxe- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 78 

Me: KOHTponb H3roTOBKH h ycTpaHeHHe ee mcjikhx HeraTHBHbix momchtob (b stot momcht 3peHHe ot- 
flbixaeT); MoSHJiroainia k BbiCTpejiy, 3a#ep>KKa flbixaHHa (b 3to BpeMa 3peHHe "BCMaTpHBaeTca" b uejib 
h neTKO KOHTpojinpyeT nojio>KeHHe MyniKH b tohkc npHuejiHBaHHJi). IIo HCTenemiH 8 ceKyH^ - b^ox h 
OTflbix raa3aM. H Taic Ha npoTa>KeHHH naca 6e3 xonocTbix mejiHKOB. Xoponio, ecjiH Ha npoTa>KeHHH 
3Toro naca pa^OM c KypcaHTOM 6y#eT HaxoflHTbca Kio-HnSyflb c nacaivtH ^Jia OTcneTa BbinieyKa3aHHbix 
8 ceicyHfl. IIocTeneHHO BpeMa coKpamaeTca. IIojib3y ot 3Toro oSynaiomero npneivia Tpy^HO nepeoue- 

HHTb. 

3au,ejiHBaHHe - BecbMa ra^Koe aBJiemie, KOTopoe BpeMeHaMH npoaBJiaeTca #a>Ke y MacTepoB c 
MHorojieTHHM CTa>KeM. J\jm ero yMeHbiueHHa CTpejiKH pa3yHHBaiOT TaK Ha3biBaeMbiH npneivi CTpejibSbi 
b TeMne. ^Ito sto TaKoe? CTpejibSa b TeMne - 3to Kor^a CTpenoK npnynaeTca ^ejiaTb BbiCTpen b onpe- 
flejieHHbiii OTpe30K BpeMeHH - hh Sojibiue h hh MeHbme. B stot onpeflejieHHbiH momcht flOJDKHa 
HanaTbca MoSHJiroauHa opraHH3Ma, 3a#ep>KKa flbixaHHa, flOJDKeH "BCMOTpeTbca" npHuejibHbiH raa3 h 
cpaSoTaTb najieu, Ha cnycKe. H Kor^a Bee 3th cocTaBJiaiomHe BbiCTpena Sy/iyi "npHyneHbi" cpaSaTbi- 

BaTb B OflHH H TOT >Ke OTpe30K BpeMeHH, npHHeM He 0C06eHH0 SoJIbHIOH, OHH HaHHHaiOT pec})JieKTopHO 

3aBHceTb flpyr ot flpyra. Ilpn 3ana3flbiBaHHH hjih HecpaSaTbiBaHHH KaKOH-jniSo H3 sthx <J)yHKHHH ee 
"noflCTerHBaiOT" ^pyrae cocTaBJunoiinie, h BbiCTpen nponcxoflHT Ha ypoBHe aBTOMaTH3Ma. IIpaKTHHe- 
CKne CHaiinepbi npnynaiOTca ^ejiaTb BbiCTpen 3a 2 ceKyH^bi, OTCHHTbiBaa b yMe "RBajmarb #Ba - #Ba- 
jmajb flBa" - 3to h Sy^yT 2 ceKyH^bi. 3a sto BpeMa CHaftnep ^ejiaeT BbiCTpeji Ha noflC03HaTejibHOM 
ypoBHe, He flyMaa, KaK oh amhiht, BCMaTpHBaeTca, Mo6HJiH3yeTca h ^aBHT Ha cnycK. IIpH HapaSoTaH- 
hom TeMne BbiCTpena Bee npoiicxoflHT caMO coSoii. 

MOPrAHHE HJIH EOiBHb BWCTPEJIA 

Ecjih CTpenoK npn npHu,ejiHBaHHH MopraeT oSbiHHbiM o6pa30M, KaK sto ^ejiaiOT Bee HopManbHbie 
jnoflH, Ha pe3yjibTaTax CTpejibSbi sto He oipa^aeTca. Ho cpe^n hobhhkob pacnpocTpaHeHa 6ojie3Hb 

6033HH BbiCTpena, OCoSeHHO H3 SoeBblX Mara3HHHbIX BHHTOBOK C CHJIbHOH OTflaneH. Hhcthhkthbho 

KypcaHTbi nepefl BbiCTpenoM 3a>KMypHBaiOT rjia3a h, pa3yMeeTca, npeKpamaiOT ijejiHTbca. OneHb nacTO 
ohh npn stom ^epraiOT 3a cnycK, OKOHHaTejibHO cSnBaa HaBOflKy opy>KHa. Ot 3Toro hx HaflO OTynnTb, 
oSbacHaa, hto, Kor^a BHHTOBKa ^epHynacb h TOJiKHyna b njieno, nyna y>Ke Haxo^HTca b mkhichh. A 
rpoxoT BbiCTpena BOoSme fljia 3flopoBba HHKaKoii onacHOCTH He npeflCTaBJiaeT. H, KCTaTH, oneHb hh- 

TepeCHO CMOTpeTb oSoHMH OTKpblTblMH TJia3aMH Ha BHHTOBKy H B CTOpOHy MHHieHH B MOMeHT BblCTpe- 

na. (A 3to fleiiCTBHTejibHO HHrepecHo!) 

Ilocjie nero HHCTpyKTop TpeSyeT ot "MopryHOB" #ojio>KHTb, Ky^a CMOTpena MyniKa b momcht 

BbiCTpena (OTMeTHTb BblCTpeJl). CaMbIM HeHCnpaBHMbIM H3 "MOpryHOB" HHCTpyKTOp KOBapHO h He3a- 

MeTHO noflKJiaflbiBaeT TpemipoBOHHbie naTpoHbi c necKOM BMecTO nopoxa. IIoHeMy c necKOM? IIopox b 
naTpoHe nepecwnaeTca h niejiecTHT Ha cnyx, h necoK - TO>Ke. YnopHO MopraiomeMy KypcaHTy, o>kh- 
^aiomeMy BbiCTpena, npn HecpaSoTaBiiieM naTpoHe cboh coScTBemibiH He^ocTaTOK CTaHOBHTca 
Haraa^HbiM. Ilocjie nero HHCTpyKTop 3acTaBJi»eT Kypcama paSoTaTb TOJibKO TpeHHpoBOHHbiMH He- 
CTpejiaiomHMH naTpoHaMH, BpeMa ot BpeMeHH noflKnaflbiBaa cpe^n hhx naTpoHbi SoeBbie. TaKHM 06- 
pa30M KypcaHTOB npnynaiOT He oSpamaTb BHHMaHHa Ha rpoxoT BbiCTpena h OT^any BOoSuie. 

nOJIO^CEHHE rOJIOBW nPH nPHI^EJIHBAHHH 

IIpH CTpenbSe c OTKpwTbiM npHu,ejiOM, npn kotopom jihhhji npHu,ejiHBaHHa pacnojio>KeHa ^ocTa- 
tohho hh3ko, ronoBa CTpenKa pacnonaraeTca TaK, htoSm He yTOMnaTb raa3a. KaK y>Ke Swjio ynoMaHy- 
to, npn HH3KOH H3roTOBKe raa3a SbiCTpee yTOMJiaiOTca. rioneMy? IIoTOMy hto ronoBa cjihhikom 
HaiaiOHeHa Bnepefl h CTpenoK cmotpht b npHuenbHyio jihhhio ncnoflJioSba, "BbiBopanHBaa" raa3 He- 
ecTecTBeHHO CHH3y BBepx, OTnero yTOMJiaiOTca rjia3Hbie Mbiniu,bi h pec})JieKTopHO BMecTe c hhmh 
ycTaiOT Bee ocTanbHbie chctcmw BoenpnaTHa raa3a. IIosTOMy h npn hh3koh, h npn Bcex ^pyrnx H3ro- 
TOBKax bo Bcex nojio>KeHHax - h c KOJieHa, h ctos - ronoBa flOJDKHa SbiTb no bo3mo>khocth pa3BepHyra 
jihli,om nepneH^HKyjiapHO jihhhh npHu,ejiHBaHHa. IIpH CTpenbSe c KOJieHa h ctos oneHb HOKenaTejibHO 
BbiTarHBaTb ronoBy Bnepefl. IIpH 3tom npe3MepHO HanparaiOTca Mbiniu,bi jiHu,a h men. IIocTaBbTe ro- 
jiOBy TaK, hto6m BaM SbiJio yfloSHO BH^eTb cnerKa pacnjibiBniHHca u,ejiHK, neTKyio poBHyio MyniKy h 
neTKyio MHineHb. IIpHJio>KHTe ronoBy meKoii k npHKJia^y h cnerKa HaiaiOHHTe ee BnpaBO, htoSm 
yfloSHee Swjio y^ep>KHBaTb raa3 Ha npiiuejibHOH jihhhh, ho npe3MepHO HaiaiOHaTb rojiOBy BnpaBO He 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 79 

peKOMeH^yeTca. ^obojibho nacTO hobhhkh, npHHaB npaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe, mchjhot nojio>KeHHe ro- 
jiobbi Ha npHKJiafle ot BbiCTpejia k BbiCTpejiy. OflHOo6pa3He HapyniaeTca, pa36poc yBejiHHHBaeTca. 

IIpH CTpenbSe CToa HeKOTopwe CTpenKH cjihhikom OTKn^biBaiOT ronoBy Ha3a#. Ot 3Toro raa3a 
BbiHy>KfleHbi npHmypHBaTbca. HeKOTopbie noBopannBaiOT ronoBy h cmotp»t HCKOca, HeecTecTBeHHO 
Hanparaa npHnejibHbiii rjia3. 

HenpaBHJibHaa nocTaHOBKa ronoBbi yTOMJiaeT raa3a, Be^eT k 3aTarHBaHHio BbiCTpena h CHH>Ke- 

HHK) TOHHOCTH CTpeJIbSbl. HeKOTOpbie CTpeJIKH MeHSIOT nOJIO>KeHHe nOCTaHOBKH TOJIOBbl B MOMeHT 

npHu,ejiHBaHHa, neM TOJibKO yxy^niaiOT ycnoBHa BbiCTpena. 

3a#ana HHCTpyKTopa - oflHOBpeMemio cneflHTb 3a #BH>KeHHeM najibna KypcaHTa Ha cnycKe h 3a 
TeM, HToSbi ero ronoBa He OTpbiBanacb ot npHKna^a h He CMemanacb bo BpeMa npHnejiHBaHHa. 

J\jih 3Toro Ha CTpejiaiomHH naneu, KypcaHTa Ha^eBaeTca fljiHHHbiii 6yMa>KHbiH KOJinanoK, pa6o- 
TaioniHH KaK yKa3Ka. 

cD.H. 5KaMKOB b CBoeM HHCTpyKUHH "HananbHaa noflroTOBKa CTpejnca-cnopTCMeHa" npHBen 
oneHb xopouiHH, HcnbiTaHHbiH cnocoS 4)HKcau,HH ronoBbi Ha npHKna^e: "^Jia Toro HTo6bi coxpaHHTb 
OflHOo6pa3He nojio>KeHHa ronoBbi 6e3 Hanpa>KeHH}i Mbiniu, npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh, mo>kho nocry- 
nHTb cjieflyiOHiHM o6pa30M: OTKHHyrb ronoBy ot npHKna^a b CTopoHy h Ha3a#, 3aTeM, noBepHyB no#- 
SopoflOK k npHRjia^y, Ha^aBHTb Ha Hero CBepxy h onycTHTb ronoBy b Hy>KHoe nojio>KeHHe, OflHOBpe- 
MeHHO paccjiaSnB Mbiinnbi men. IIpH stom Ha meKe o6pa3yeTca CKJia^Ka, KOTopaa He no3BOJiHT ronoBe 
onycKaTbca bhh3 npn paccnaSjiemibix Mbinmax". 

HanoMHHM, hto onTHnecKHH npnneji HaxoflHTca Bbinie OTKpbiToro Ha 3-5 cm. IIo3TOMy CTpejiOK 
(J)HKCHpyeT ronoBy Ha npHKJiafle He meKOH, a noflSopoflKOM. Ha bkhtobkc CBJ\ pjm o#HOo6pa3HOH 
4)HKcau,HH ronoBbi npeflycMOTpeHa cnenHanbHaa KO>KaHaa "meKa" (cm. paHee). Ha TpexjiHHeHHbix 
BHHTOBKax CHaftnepbi npH^ejibiBaiOT cnennanbHbie flepeBaHHbie BbiCTynaiomHe HaKJia^KH Ha rpeSHe 
npHKJia/ia. 

Pe3HHOBbie Harjia3HHKH Ha npnnejie nCO-1 cnocoScTByiOT oflHOo6pa3HOH nocTaHOBKe ronoBbi. 
Ha npnnejiax ny TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok TaKne Harjia3HHKH CTaBjrrca caMOCTOjrrejibHO. KpoMe Bce- 
ro nponero, ohh roSaBJiaiOT ot CBeTOBbix Sjihkob, MeiuaiomHx BOcnpnaTnio CTpejiKa. 

TEXHHKA CnyCKA KYPKA 

KaK 6w npaBHJibHO CTpenoK hh npnHaji H3roTOBKy, KaK 6bi npaBHJibHO hh flbiman, KaK 6bi y^an- 
ho hh y^ep>KHBaji nejib Ha MyuiKe, ho ecjin cnycK KypKa npoH3BefleH Hey^aHHO, Bee noH^eT HacMapKy. 
noneMy? noTOMy hto cnycK KypKa TpeSyeT cnen,H(|)HHecKoro npHJio>KeHHa (|)H3HHecKHx ycnnHH. B 
cnopTHBHbix CHCTeMax opy>KHa ycnjine cnycKa KypKa cocTaBJiaeT ot 40 flo 150 rpaMMOB. J\im yMeHb- 
nieHHa ycHJina Ha cnycKe npHMeHaiOTca pa3JiHHHbie xHTpoyMHbie ocjiaSjunomne h niHejuiepHbie ch- 
CTeMbi, KOTopwe flenaiOT cnycK KypKa nerKHM h kopotkhm. B SoeBoM npaKTHKe 3to HenpHMeHHMO. 
Ycjuine cnycKa Ha SoeBbix CHaiuiepcKHx CHCTeMax cocTaBJiaeT He MeHee 1 ,5 KHJiorpaMMa. TaK flHKry- 
eTca TpeSoBaHHaMH Ha#e>KHOCTH paSoTbi opy>KHa b SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe. no TeM >Ke npHnmiaM cbo- 
SoflHbiH xofl cnycKa y SoeBbix bhhtobok Bcer^a ^jinHHee, neM y cnopTHBHbix. 

fl,jia npeoflOJiemia BbiiueyKa3aHHoro ycnjina cnycKa b 1 ,5 Kr (a HHor^a h Bbinie) CTpenoK flonaceH 
npHJio>KHTb TaKoe >Ke ycHJine Ha yKa3aTenbHOM, CTpenaiomeM nanbii,e. Ho htoSm He HanparaTb npa- 
Byio pyKy (KaK SbiJio yKa3aHO, HanparaTb npaByio pyKy h npaBoe nueno hh b KoeM cnynae Hejib3a), 
CTpenoK BbiHy>KfleH M Bii,enHTbca" nanbii,aMH npaBOH pyKH b iueiiKy npHKna^a Mara3HHHOH TpexjiHHeH- 
hoh bhhtobkh hjih b nHCTOJieTHyio pyKoaTKy aBTOMaTHHecKoro opy>KHa. TaKHM o6pa30M CTpenoK 3a- 
(})HKCHpyeT CTaSnubHoe nojio>KeHHe khcth pyKH Ha opy>KHH h "BbiKniOHHT" (oh o6a3aH BbiianoHHTb) 
bck) ocTanbHyio nacTb npaBOH pyKH H3 npou,ecca cnycKa KypKa. 

Ho 3to eme He Bee. CTpenoK flOJi>KeH HCKniOHHTb B03flencTBHe khcth pyKH Ha npouecc h pe- 
3ynbTaTbi cnycKa KypKa. fleno b tom, hto BbinieyKa3aHHbie 1,5 Kr Ha cnycKe pacnpeflenaiOTca h Ha 
yKa3aTenbHbiH, CTpejunomHH naneii,, h Ha ocTanbHbie nanbHbi, y^ep>KHBaiOHiHe pyKy Ha npHKna^e. Co- 
3flaeTca CBoeo6pa3Hoe paBHOBecne, KOTopoe cymecTByeT flo Tex nop, noKa KypoK He cnymeH. KaK 
TOJibKO KypoK cnymeH, BbinieyKa3aHHbie 1,5 Kr Ha cnycKe npona^aiOT, a Ha ocTanbHbix nanbii,ax, c>kh- 
Maiomnx nieiiKy jio>kh hjih nHCTOJieTHyio pyKoaTKy, ohh ocTaiOTca. nponcxoflHT MraoBeHHaa pe3Kaa 
pa36anaHCHpoBKa chji, OTnero CTpejiaioniaa KHCTb "B3flparnBaeT" Ha npHKJia^e, h 3to B3flparHBaHHe 
nepe^aeTca Ha BHHTOBKy n "cSHBaeT" ee. Bee BbiHieonHcamioe Ha3biBaeTca "npoBanoM" cnycKa c no- 
CJie/iyiomHM "cfleprHBaHneM" opy>KH», KOTopoe 3HaHHTejibHO yBOflHT nyjiio ot nejin. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



80 



HtoSw TaKoro "cfleprHBaHHa" He 6bi.no, CTpenoK o6a3aH 3anoMHHTb cneflyioiuee npaBHJio: TOJib- 
ko yKa3aTejibHbiii najieu tsuqt 3a cnycK, a Bee ocTanbHbie (icpoMe MH3HHu,a) Jinnib y#ep>KHBaiOT KHCTb 
pyKH Ha opy>KHH h He npHHHMaiOT ynacTna b cnycKe KypKa. J\jih Toro htoSm Bee 3to Sbijio Jierne npo- 
flenaTb, cymecTByiOT cneun(|)HHecKHe npneivibi 4)HKcau,HH khcth CTpejunoiueii pyKH Ha npHKJiafle opy- 

>KH3. ,Z],JI5I CTpeJIbSbl H3 Mara3HHHbIX BHHTOBOK, HMeiOIHHX KJiaCCHHeCKyiO (J)OpMy npHKJiafla, H flJUI 
CTpeJIbSbl H3 BHHTOBOK aBTOMaTHHeCKHX, HMeiOIHHX nHCTOJieTHyiO pyKOJITKy, 3TH npneMbl HeCKOJIbKO 
pa3JIHHHbI. 

B jiioSom H3 3thx cjiynaeB yKa3aTejibHbin, CTpejiaioiuHH naneu, HaKJia^biBaeTca Ha cnycKOBoii 
KpiOHOK citiSom Ha cycTaBe Me>Kfly nepBoii h BTopoii (J)ajiaHraMH (7 Ha (J)oto 129). 3to o6a3aTejibHoe 
ycnoBHe, noflTBep>KfleHHoe MHoroBeKOBoM npaKTHKoM. Ecjih TaK He flenaTb, a Ha>KHMaTb Ha cnycK 
nepBoii hjih BTopoii noflyiueHKaMH nanbueB, BHHTOBica npn cnycKe Sy^eT xoTb h HeHaMHoro, ho cSh- 
BaTbca BnpaBO hjih BJieBO. HanpaBJieHHe Ha>KHMa Ha cnycK ^ojdkho nponcxoflnrb CTporo no och KaHa- 
na CTBOJia (2 Ha (})oto 129). flua Toro HTo6bi sto Jierne nojiynnjiocb h KHCTb CTpejunoiueii pyKH He 
M B3flporHyjia" npn cnycKe, Hy>KHO BbinojmaTb npaBHJibHbin xBaT jio>kh khctbio CTpejuiioiueH pyKH. 




cDoto 129. IIpHHLi,Hn y/iep>KaHHa CTpejunoiueii pyKH Ha opy>KHH: 

1 - yKa3aTejibHbin naneu tsuqt 3a cnycK comyTbiM cycTaBOM; 

2 - HanpaBJieHHe Ha>KHMa Ha cnycK 

IIpH paSoTe H3 Mara3HHHoii (b ^aHHOM cjiynae H3 TpexjiHHenHoii) bhhtobkh jia^OHb npaBOH py- 
KH njiOTHO jio>KHTca cnpaBa h CBepxy Ha nieiiKy npHKJia^a ((J)oto 130). HMeHHO hiiotho jio>KHTca, ho 
He npn>KHMaeTca c npHMeHemieM chjim (7 Ha (})oto 130). Eojibiuoii naneu npaBoii pyKH njiOTHO, ho 
onaTb >Ke 6e3 npHMeHeHHa chjim jio>KHTca Ha nieiiKy jio>kh cjieBa h CBepxy. Tenepb BHHMaHHe! 







cDoto 130. IIojio>KeHHe npaBoii jia^OHH Ha nieiiKe npHKJia^a BHHMAHHE! HanHHaa ot tohkh 1 
h flanee CTpejiaioiuHH naneu, He aojckch njiOTHO KacaTbca jio>kh! 

CpeflHHH h 6e3biM>iHHbiH najibubi noflynienKaMH nepBbix (J)ajiaHr co cpeflHeii chjioh npn>KarM k 
nieiiKe jio>kh (7, 2 Ha (})oto 131). Mn3HHeu (5 Ha (})oto 131) Ha nieiiKy jio>kh He flaBHT. Ero 3a#ana - 
CBoSoflHO jie>KaTb Ha npHKJia^e h He MeiuaTb npoueccy. Ero mo>kho #a>Ke BOoSiue "oTKJiiOHHTb". Cn- 
jiOBoe BKJiiOHeHHe MH3HHua Hen36e>KHO Bbi3biBaeT ropH30HTajibHoe CMeiuemie opjoKna: y Koro BnpaBO, 
y Koro BJieBO. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 81 




cDoto 131. IIpaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe nanbueB Ha nieiiKe jio>kh. MroHHeu, He flOJDKeH BKniOHaTbca 
a yflep>KaHHe pyKH Ha opy>KHH 

y pa3Hbix CTpenKOB pa3JiHHHaa fljiHHa nanbueB. IIosTOMy nojio>KeHHe khcth Ha Hierace jio>kh 
Hy>KHO BbiSpaTb TaKHM, HToSbi BbiTaHyTbiH, ho He HanpjDKeHHbiH yKa3aTejibHbiH najieu, cbohm nepBbiM 
cycTaBOM ecTecTBeHHO jitokhjics Ha cnycKOBoii KpionoK. 3to nojio>KeHHe khcth Ha npHRjia^e Hy>KHO 
3anoMHHTb, 3ac})HKCHpoBaTb h cflejiaTb nocToaHHbiM fljia KOHKpeTHoro CTpenica. H3MeHeHHe nojio>Ke- 

HH3 KHCTH CTpeJIJHOIHeH pyKH npHBOflHT K pa36anaHCHpOBKe CnyCKOBblX yCHJIHH H HeKOHTpojinpye- 
MblM OTpblBaM. 

HanHHaa ot CBoero ocHOBHoro cycTaBa (7 Ha (J)oto 129), CTpejunomHH naneu, He flOJDKeH nnoTHO 
KacaTbca hichkh jiojkh. KacaHHa CTpejiaiomero nanbua b 3tom MecTe npn ero paSoTe Ha cnycKe o6»3a- 
TenbHO Bbi30ByT He3HanHTejibHbie CMemeHHa opy>KHa h otpmbm b caMbix Henpe#CKa3yeMbix HanpaB- 
jieHHax. 

IIpH CTpeubSe H3 SoeBbix aBTOMaTHnecKHx chctcm c hhctojicthoh pyKoaTKoM npHHunn (})HKca- 
hhh CTpejiaiomeH pyKH HecKOJibKO hhoh. Oh cxo>k c xBaTKOH pyKoaTKH npn CTpeubSe H3 SoeBoro nn- 
CTOJieTa. IIpH paSoTe c hhctojicthoh pyKoaTKOH nepBoe ycnoBHe, KOTopoe o6a3aHO HeyKOCHHTenbHO 
coSniOflaTbca, - HeflonycTHMOCTb KacaHHa CTpejiaiomHM yKa3aTejibHbiM nanbueM Kopnyca bhhtobkh. 
MoK^y CTpenaiOHiHM nanbueM, npHKna^OM h ctbojibhoh kopoSkoh opy>KHa flOJi>KeH SbiTb jho(|)t (7 Ha 
(})oto 132), KaK h npn paScrre c hichkoh Jioaca Mara3HHHOH bhhtobkh. BojibHioii naneu, npaBOH pyKH 
flOJDKeH SbiTb nnoTHO npn>KaT k noBepxHOCTH pyKoaTKH. Ero ^aBJieHHe Ha noaneflmoio nponcxoflHT 
CTporo nepneH^HKyjiapHO ee huockocth (7 Ha (})oto 133). CpeflHHH h 6e3biM3HHbiH nanbHbi flomKHbi 
cbohmh nepBbiMH noflynieHKaMH nnoTHO ^aBHTb nepneH^HKyjiapHO Ha noBepxHOCTb pyKoaTKH (2, 3 Ha 
(J)oto 133). 3a#ana MH3HHua - npocTO jie>KaTb Ha pyKoaTKe h He MeuiaTb (4 Ha (J)oto 133). "BianoHe- 
Hne" MH3HHu,a o6a3aTejibHO "bkjiiohht" nueno h noTaHeT BHHTOBKy Ky^a-TO b CTopoHy. IiHCTOJieTHaa 
pyKoaTKa flOJDKHa SbiTb huotho, co cpeflHen chjioh "noca>KeHa" b jia^OHb CBepxy bhh3, htoSm He SbiJio 
jho(J)tob Me>KAy opy>KHeM h BepxHeii noBepxHOCTbio khcth (7 Ha (})oto 134). CnycKOBaa CKoSa ^oiDKHa 
onnpaTbca Ha cpeflHHH naneu, (2 Ha (})oto 134). TaKoe nojio>KeHHe pyKH Ha npHKna^e CTpenoK aojdkch 
3anoMHHTb - 3to nojio>KeHHe 4)HKcau,HH jia^OHH Ha nncTOJieTHOH pyKoaTKe. IIpH oxBaTe nHCTOJiemoH 
pyKoaTKH Hejib3a, htoSm pyKa SbiJia onymeHa HH>Ke, TaK KaK TepaeTca TOHKa 4)HKcau,HH. PyKa, Haxo- 
flamaaca Ha pa3Hbix BbicoTax OTHOCHTenbHO cnycKOBoro KpionKa, Hen36e>KHO 6y#eT npoBOHHpoBaTb 
paSoTy CTpejiaiomero nanbua b pa3Hbix HanpaBJieHHax no BepTHKann, h 3to Hen36e>KHO CKa>KeTca Ha 

MeTKOCTH CTpeJIbSbl. 




cDoto 132. 06a3aTejibHbiH 3a3op (jho(|)t) Me>Kfly yKa3aTejibHbiM, CTpejiaiomnM najibueM h Kopny- 

COM BHHTOBKH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



82 




cDoto 133. XBaT nHCTOJieTHOH pyKoaTKH CB,3,: 

1, 2, 3 - ^aBJieHHe Sojibinoro, cpeflHero h 6e3biMaHHoro nanbueB nponcxoflHT CTporo nepneH^H- 
KyuapHO noBepxHOCTH pyKoaTKn; 

4 - MH3HHeU, CBoSoflHO JIOKHT Ha pyKOflTKe 




cDoto 134. XBaT nncTOJieTHOH pyKoaTKH CBJ\-\,2 - b sthx MecTax He aojdkho SbiTb jiio(})tob 

IIpH CTpenbSe H3 Mara3HHHOH bhhtobkh b nojioaceHHH ne>Ka h c KOJieHa npaBaa pyKa flOJDKHa 
noKOHTbca Ha Hienice jio>Ka ehhb KoeM cnynae He ynacTBOBaTb b HaBefleHHH opy>KHa. B nojio>KeHHax 
jie>Ka h c KoneHa HaBefleHne opy>KHa npoH3BOflHTca npaBHJibHO copHenrHpoBaHHon h3ix)tobkoh c ono- 
poM bhhtobkh Ha peMeHb h jieByio pyKy. B nojio>KeHHH ctoji TaK hjih HHane npaBaa pyKa Bbmy>KfleHa 
BKniOHHTbca b y#ep>KaHHe opy>KHa KaK h npn H3roTOBKax jie>Ka h c KoneHa, HaBefleHne bhhtobkh npo- 
H3BOflHTca npaBHJibHOH opHeHTau,HeH ycTOHHHBOH, cSanaHCHpoBaHHOH H3roTOBKH. Ponb npaBOH pyKH 
CBOflHTca k TOMy, HToSbi njiOTHee y#ep>KHBaTb npHKna^ b nnene. IIpH 3tom OHa MO>KeT co cpeflHeii ch- 
jioh "npHJio>KHTbca" k opyacnio cnpaBa HaneBO. 

ABTOMaTHnecKHe CHCTeMbi b CB33H c ocoSeHHOCTaMH hx TexHHHecKoro ycTpoftcTBa xyace c6a- 
jiaHcnpoBaHbi h He TaK y^oSHbi b y^ep>KaHHH, KaK oSbiHHbie Mara3HHHbie bhhtobkh. IIo3TOMy npn 
CTpenbSe H3 bhhtobkh CB,3, j\jih ee y^ep>KaHHa npnxoflHTca noflKmonaTb npaByio pyKy #a>Ke b nojio- 
>KeHHH jie>Ka, He roBopa y>Ke CTpenbSe c KOJieHa. HanpaBJieHne ycnjina npaBon pyKH npn 3tom 
flOJDKHO njiOTHee npn>KHMaTb npnioiafl k njieny. 

BbiiueonHcaHHbie cnocoSbi paSoTbi npaBon pyKH Ha npracjiafle h CHJiOBoe B3anMOflencTBne 
najibH,eB CTpejunoiuen pyKH b 3HaHHTejibHon CTeneHH CHH>KaiOT OTpnuaTenbHoe B03flencTBne "npoBa- 
na" cnycKa 3aMeneHO, hto Tyrne cnycKH HMeiOT MeHbinne "npoBanbHbie" nocneflCTBHa. IIo3TOMy 
CTpenKH CTapaiOTca 3anojiHHTb xop, cnycKOBoro KpionKa nocne "npoBana" pa3JiHHHbiMH npncnocoSjie- 

HfflMH: nOCTaHOBKOH flOnOJIHHTeJIbHblX npjOKHHOK, pe3HHOK H T. p,. B CnOpTHBHOH npaKTHKe 3TO 

onpaB^aHO. B SoeBoM peanbHOCTH TaKne ^oSaBJieHHa b MexaHH3M npHBOA>rr k CHH>KeHHio Ha#e>KHOCTH 

Opy>KHa. Il03T0My CTpeJIOK flOJDKeH BbipaSoTaTb CBOH CoScTBeHHbffl "aHTHnpOBajIbHblH" (|)H3HOJIOrH- 

necKHH MexaHH3M, KOTopbiM Sy^eT HaxoflHTbca Bcer^a npn HeM. CTpenKH, paSoTaBiune H3 SoeBbix cn- 
CTeM, 3HaiOT, KaK HenpocTO ocTaHOBHTb naneu, Kor^a meirrano Bbinino H3 3auenjieHna c SoeBbiM bbi- 
CTynoM KypKa. CnycKOBon KpionoK y>Ke hhhto He y#ep>KHBaeT, h oh "npoBanHBaeTca" Ha3a# BMecTe c 
yKa3aTejibHbiM naiibueM. 

HtoSw TaKoro He nponBonuio, HaTpeHnpynTecb ^aBHTb Ha cnycKOBoii KpionoK crnSaHneM TOJib- 
ko nepBoro cycTaBa CTpenaiomero najibua, He craSaa ocTanbHyio ero nacTb. IiOTpeHnpyiiTecb 3to ^e- 
jiaTb, nocTaBHB no# naneu, BMecTO cnycKa kohhhk nyjin. y CTpenKa, HaTpeHnpoBaBiueroca cnycKaTb 
KypoK TaKHM o6pa30M, naneu, nocne cnycKa He crnSaeTca n He "cpbiBaeTca" Ha3a#, a npocTO "ynnpa- 
eTca caM b ce6a". 

CneflyeT 3HaTb, hto oflHOBpeivteHHoe Ha^arae Ha cnycK h menKy npHKJia^a nonTH B^Boe yTa>Ke- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 83 

jiaeT cnycK, He roBopa y>Ke o CMemeHHH opy>KHa. 

CjiynaeTca, hto naneu Ha Ta>KejiOM cnycKe SoeBoro opy>KHa "He TaHeT". 3to 03HanaeT, hto npn 
3axBaTe npaBoii pyKoM 3a Hieracy jio>kh hjih nncTOJieTHyio pyKOjrncy CTpejiOK hto-to "nepe>Kaji". Ecjih 
HaSjnoflaeTca TaKoM HeflOCTaTOK, Hy>KHO H3MeHHTb nojiOMceHHe khcth npaBoii pyKH Ha opy>KHH. TaKoe 
nojio>KeHHe noflSnpaeTca HHflHBHflyaiibHO fljia KOHKpeTHoro CTpenKa. HHor/ia npn stom CTpenKH c ko- 
POtkhmh nanbuaMH npHMeHaiOT TaK Ha3biBaeMtiH Sokoboh xBaT npaBOH pyKon 6e3 3axBaTa SojibuiHM 
najibueM 3a niemcy jio>kh hjih nncTOJieTHyio pyKoaTKy c jieBoii CTopoHbi. Jla^OHb npaBOH pyKH BMecTe 
c SojibiHHM najibueM nnoTHO npHJio>KeHa k opy>KHio c npaBOH ctopohw (1 Ha (})oto 135). TaKoe nojio- 
>KeHHe npaBOH pyKH Ha npHKJia^e CHHTaeTca npaBHJibHbiM, ho npn stom Bee paBHO Hy>KHO nnoTHO 
npH>KHMaTb noflynienKH cpe/uiero h 6e3biMflHHoro nanbHeB c jieBOH CTopoHbi npracjiafla! 




cDoto 135. Eokoboh XBaT nncTOJieTHOH pyKoaTKH. BojibinoM naneu mo>kho nojio>KHTb Ha pwnar 

(})HKCaTOpa KpblHIKH CTBOJIbHOH kopoSkh - 1 

HeKOTopbie CTpejiKH (ocoSemio >KeHmHHbi) c SojibiHHM ycnexoM npHMeiraiOT HfleoMOTopHbiii 
cnocoS cnycKa KypKa. Ohh oneHb apKO npeflCTaBJiaiOT ce6e, hto Kaicaa-TO CHJia ^aBHT Ha CTpejunomHH 
yKa3aTejibHbiH naneu, CHapy>Kn, n caivtn He3aMeTHO pjm ce6a TaKHM o6pa30M npon3BOflJiT cnycK KypKa 
^a>Ke Ha T»>Kejibix SoeBbix CHCTeMax. 

CnycKH SoeBbix CHCTeM oneHb Hey/ioSHbi h HenpnBbiHHbi ^Jia CTpejiKOB-cnopTCMeHOB. Ha pa3- 

HblX BHHTOBKaX OflHOH CHCTCMbl OHH pa3Hbiei C npOT3>KKaMH, "jieCeHKaMH", TyTHM XOflOM. OhH TaKH- 

mh nojiyHHJiHCb npn H3roTOBJieHHH, h perynnpoBaTb hx Hejib3a. PaSonne noBepxHOCTn Hienrajia n 60- 
eBoro BbiCTyna KypKa /urn noBbimeHna hbhococtohkocth ueMeniHpoBaHbi. Ilpn nx mjin(})OBKe 
Hafl(J)HJieM cjioh ueMema CHHMaeTca, h3hoc Tpyiunxca noBepxHOCTen yBejiHHHBaeTca, n b caMbiii He- 
noflxoflamnn momcht BHHTOBKa HannHaeT OTKa3biBaTb. To, hto roflnrca b cnopTHBHon npaKTHKe, He- 
npneMJieMO b SoeBOM npnMeHeHHn. 

C oneHb HeyfloSHbiMH cnycKaMH SoeBoro opy>KHa CTpenKy TaK hjih HHane npnxoflHTca SopoTbca 
"oflHH Ha oflHH". Ecjih y bhhtobkh onem. fljiHHHbiii h npoT»>KHbiH cnycK, 6e3 npeflynpe^eHHa (He- 
Sojibiuoro flonojiHHTejibHoro ycnjina nepefl cpbiBOM KypKa c menTana), to nepefl npnuejibHon 3 a- 
flep>KKOH flbixaHna xofl flOJi>KeH SbiTb npeflBapnrejibHO BbiSpaH no KpanHen Mepe HanojiOBHHy. 3to 
C3kohomht CTpejiKy Maccy HepBHOH 3HeprHH, (})H3HHecKHx chji, a rjiaBHoe - BpeMeHH, OTnymeHHoro 
oScToaTejibCTBaMH coSwthh Ha BbiCTpeji. IIpH npnuejinBaHnn npeflBapmejibHO "BbiSpaHHbin" cnycK 

"flO>KHMaeTCa" B HeoSxOflHMblH MOMeHT. Pa3yHHTb 3TO COBCeM HeCJIO>KHO - Ka>KflbIH CTpeJIOK flOBOJIbHO 

SbiCTpo npnBbiKHeT k CBoeMy opy>KHio, ero SanaHcy h oco6eHHOCT»M cnycKa. Pa3yMeeTca, npeflBapn- 
TejibHO Hy>KHO noTpeHnpoBaTbca BxojiocTyio. 

Tenepb BHHMaHne! ripncTynaeM k caMOMy Ba>KHOMy sjieMemy cnycKa KypKa. 3anoMHHTe: b mo- 
Mem "flo>KHMaHHa" cnycKa ero xor #0Ji>KeH SbiTb njiaBHbiM n nocToamibiM, HeB3npaa Ha "mepoxoBa- 
tocth" ot TpeHHa MexaHH3Ma. fl,jia 3Toro ycnjine, npHJiaraeMoe najibueM Ha cnycK, aojdkho SbiTb no- 
CToaHHbiM. CTpejiaioniHH naneu, flOJi>KeH nyBCTBOBaTb sto ycnnne, 3HaTb sto ycnjine caMOCToaTejibHO, 
"oT^ejibHO ot rojiOBbi" n noMHHTb ero MbinienHon naMaTbio! 3thm H3BecTHbiM eMy ycnjineivi CTpejia- 
iouihh naneu flOJiaceH caMOCToaTejibHO cpaSaTbiBaTb Ha cnycKe. 

HtoSw yKa3aTejibHbin naneu 3Han cnycKOBoe ycnjine n CTeneHb ero npnjio>KeHHa, cnycKOBon 
npouecc Hy>KHO c^ejiaTb Harjia^HbiM ^Jia CTpejiKa. ,H,jia 3Toro Ha CTpejiaiouiHH naneu Ha^eBaiOT y>Ke 
H3BecTHbiii KOHHnecKHH fljiHHHbiii 6yMa>KHbiH KOJinaHOK, HrpaiouiHH pojib yKa3KH. CTpejiOK, ^ep>Ka 
BHHTOBKy nepefl coSoh h HHKy^a He uejiacb, BbiSnpaeT h3jihihhhh (cBoSoflHbiii) xofl cnycKa h, Kor^a 
oh "flo>KHMaeT" cnycK, cmotpht Ha flBH>KeHHa KOHHHKa KOJinanKa, KaK Ha CTpejiKy npnSopa. 

Ilpn npaBHJibHOM, paBHOMepHOM npnjio>KeHHH oflHHaKOBoro no BejiHHHHe ycHJina Ha cnycK 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 84 

ABH>KeHHa KOJinanKa 6y#yT paBHOMepHbiMH, npn HenpaBHJibHOM, c npHJio>KeHHeM pa3JinHHoft chjim - 
CKaHKOo6pa3HbiM. ^BH>KeHHe yKa3KH no3BOJiaeT ^ejiaTb Harjia^HbiM /uia CTpenKa ycrnine nanbna Ha 
cnycKe. IIpH conpa>KeHHH chjiobbix omymeHHft Ha naubne c hx HaraaflHOCTbio 3anoMHHaHHe hx mbi- 
iueHHOH naMaTBio npoHCxoflm oneHb s^ckthbho. B noflC03HaHHH CTpenKa (J)opMHpyeTca CBoeo6pa3- 
hbih "MaaK" MbinieHHbix omymeHHft, h b HeoSxoflHMbiH MOMeHT rpynna "cTpejunoinnx Mbinin," aBTO- 
MaTHHecKH, noflC03HaTejibHO npHBOflHTca k 3TOMy "MaaKy" h cpaSaTbiBaeT ropa3#o Jiynme, neM no# 
KOHTpojieM co3HaHHa. Jifls CHaftnepa 3to Ba>KHO. Ectb noroBopKa: "CTpenoK ^yviaeT rjia3aMn". y Tpe- 
HnpoBaHHoro CTpenKa raa3 "cnycKaeT c nemi" yjio>KeHHyio b no#co3HaHHe CBoeo6pa3Hyio nporpaMMy 
BbiCTpena, KOTopaa cpaSaTbiBaeT b nojio>KeHHbift eft OTpe30K BpeivteHH. 

Xopouio HaTpeHHpoBaB paSoTy najibneB Ha cnycice, BepHHTecb k omymeHHio cocroaHHa npaBoft 
pyKH. IIpoKOHTpojiHpyftTe, HanparaeTe bm ee hjih hct. Bo3mo>kho, TpeHnpya cnycK, bh 3a6buiHCb h 
HananH "noflpaSaTbiBaTb" npaBoft pyKoft Ha npnicjiafle. B CBoe BpeMa npo 3tot KOBapHbift momcht, ko- 
Topbift HHor^a npoaBJiaeTca fla>Ke y MacTepoB, oneHb xopouio Hanncaji MacTep cnopTa MOK/iyHapofl- 
Horo KJiacca K). Ky^paniOB b CTaTbe "CTpejibSa H3 nojio^eHna jie>Ka": 

"Hy>KHO CTapaTbca, htoSm npn Ha>KHMe Ha cnycKOBoft KpionoK paSoTa yica3aTejibHoro nanbna He 

BbI3bIBajia H3MeHeHHft yCHJIHH BCeft KHCTH. ^OBOJIbHO HaCTO HeyBepeHHblft Ha>KHM Ha CnyCK npHBOflHT 

k He3aMeTHOMy ^Jia CTpejiKa BKniOHeHnio b paSoTy khcth npaBoft pyKH h, hto xy>Ke, Mbimu, npaBoro 
miena. 3to BJieneT 3a coSoft HBMeHeHHe MbinienHbix omyinennft. Ka>KeTca, hto >KMeuib Ha cnycKOBoft 
KpiOHOK, a Ha caMOM flene Bee Sojibine OKHMaenib nieftKy npHKna^a. IIpH stom onniSKa HepeflKO pac- 
npocTpaHaeTca h Ha npaBoe mieno, KOTopoe npn BbiCTpene hjih He3aflOJiro £0 Hero HannHaeT He3a- 
MeTHO noflTanKHBaTb npnioiafl bhhtobkh. B sthx ycjiOBHax ruioxoft BbiCTpen Hen36e>KeH". 

K BbinieH3Jio>KeHHOMy ctoht TOJibico floSaBHTb - TaKaa oninSKa npoaBJiaeTca He tojibko b nojio- 
aceHHH Jieaca, ho h c KOJieHa h npn CTpejibSe ctos. B HeKOTopbix opyaceftHbix CHCTeMax no Mepe Haacn- 
Ma Ha cnycK npnxoflHTca npHJiaraTb HapacTaioinee ycnune H3-3a OKaTna cnycKOBoft npy>KHHbi. B stom 
CJiynae ycnjine Ha>KHMa Ha cnycK aojdkho yBejinHHBaibca njiaBHO, 6e3 pwbkob h 6e3 3aMeflJieHHa 
cnycKOBoro nponecca. CnycK KypKa aojckch nponcxomrib He Sojiee HeM 3a 6-7 ceKyHfl. 

COIIPJDKEHHE BH3YAJIbHOrO nPHIJEJIHBAHH5I H CnYCKA KYPKA 

IIpHHejiHBaHHe h cnycK KypKa Hepa3flejniMbi h npeflCTaBJiaiOT coSoft nponecc H3 HecKOJibKnx 
cocTaBJunoinnx, cneflCTBHe KOToporo - BbiCTpen. XapaKTepHoft ocoSemiocTbio 3Toro nponecca aBJiaeT- 
ca to, hto CTpenoK flonycKaeT npn BbiCTpene Maccy oihhSok, aScojiKxrao hx He 3aMenaa. y pa3Hbix 
CTpenKOB ohh pa3JiHHHbi. 3a#ana HHCTpyKTopa - BbuiBHTb 3th ohihSkh y KOHKpeTHoro CTpenKa, c#e- 
naTb hx Haraa^HbiMH h npHBecTH ero k caMOCTO»TejibHOMy h co3HaTejibHOMy hx ycTpaHemno 

Cyrb MeTKoro BbiCTpena 3aKniOHaeTca b tom, hto nponeccbi 3a#ep>KKH flbixaHna, npnnejinBaHna 
h cnycKa KypKa B3aHMOCB»3aHbi h flOJDKHbi BbinojiHaTbca OflHOBpeMemio, KaK e^HHoe nejioe, b o#hh h 
tot >Ke npoMe>KyTOK BpeivteHH. J\im npeflOTBpaineHna HenpaBHJibHoro 3ayHHBaHna, BJieKymero ycToft- 
HHBbie ohihSkh, h noTepb yneSHoro BpeivieHH HHCTpyKTop o6a3aH npaBHJibHO nocTaBHTb KypcaHTy 
B3anMOfleftcTBHe Bcex cocTaBJunomHx npHu,ejibHO-cnycKOBoro npou,ecca, KOTopbift 3aKJiiOHaeTca b 
CJieflyionieM: nocne Toro KaK Kypcanr npHHan Heo6xoflHMyio H3roTOBKy, "yjie>Kajica", 3a#ep>Kaji ^bi- 
xaHne h "Hamynan" MymKoft hjih npHu,ejibHbiM neHbKOM TOHKy npHuejiHBaHHa, oh HanHHaeT "ao>kh- 
MaTb" cnycK. Bo Bpeivia nojio>KeHHbix Ha "no>KaTHe" cnycKa 5-8 ceKyH^ (He Sojiee) 3a^ana CTpejiKa co- 
ctoht b tom, HToSbi npn KOJie6jnoH(eftca b paftoHe >KejiaeMoft tohkh npHu,ejiHBaHHa MyniKe 
npoH3BecTH poBHoe, 6e3 pwbkob, "flo>KaTHe" cnycKa, opneHTHpyacb Ha MbinienHyio "cnycKOByio" na- 
M»Tb CTpejiaioniero najibii,a. To, hto MyniKa "xoaht" b6jih3h tohkh npHuejiHBaHHa, CTpejiKa He aoji>k- 
ho SecnoKOHTb. HejiOBeK - He npHuejibHbift CTaHOK, h HaMepTBO "nocTaBHTb" BHHTOBKy He MO>KeT ^a- 
ace onbiTHbift MacTep. fla>Ke y MacTepa BHHTOBKa Sy^eT He3HanHTejibHO KOJieSaTbca: 10 mhkpoh 
BnpaBO-BJieBO, y Koro Sojibnie, y Koro MeHbnie. 3to 3aBHCHT ot TpeHnpoBaHHOCTH. 3a^ana HanHHaio- 
niero CTpejiKa - HapaSaTbiBaTb CTpejiKOByio ycToftnHBOCTb. 

MyniKa (hjih npHu,ejibHbift neHeK) o6a3aTejibHO 6y#eT xo^HTb no TaK Ha3biBaeMoft npHnejibHoft 
BOCbMepKe. Ecjih TOJibKO MyniKa He Bbinnia 3a npe^ejibi MHmeHH, nyjia TO>Ke He Bbift^eT 3a sth npeAe- 
jiw (cxeMbi 34, 35 fljia CTpejibSbi "nofl sSjiohko", nofl o6pe3 rpy^Hoft MHmeHH, no cepe^HHe pocTOBoft 
MHmeHH hjih no cepeflHHe rpy^Hoft MHmeHH c ohthhcckhm npnnejiOM). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



85 




CxeMa 34. IIpHnejiHBaHHe "nofl o6pe3" c npeBbiiueHHeM TpaeKTopHH. CTpejibSa c OTKpwTbiM no- 
CToaHHtiM npHnejiOM, flHCTaHu,Ha 100 m. 

IIpH poBHoii MyniKe, KOTopaa He Bbixoflm KOJieSaHHaMH 3a npe^ejibi MHineHH, TOHKa nona^aHHa 
TO>Ke He BbiH^eT 3a npeflejibi MHHieHH 




CxeMa 35. IIpHnejiHBaHHe no nenipy. Ecjih npn cipejibSe c oniHHecKHM npHnejiOM, npncTpe- 
jiaHHbiM no nempy, panoH KOJieSaHHn 1 npHnejibHoro neHbKa He bbixoaht 3a raSapmbi MHmeHH, toh- 
Ka nona^aHHa TO>Ke He BbiH^eT 3a 3th raSapmbi 

IIo Mepe HaTpeHHpoBaHHOCTn ycTOHHHBOCTb yjiynmaeTca h panoH "xo^eHHa" MyniKH h npn- 
nejibHoro ajieMema onTHKn Ha MnmeHn Bee Sojibiue coKpamaeTca. IIo Mepe HapaSoTKn HaBbiKOB ^bi- 
xaHHa, npnu,ejiHBaHHa h cnycKa KypKa yjiynmaeTca KyHHOCTb, a oneflOBaTejibHO, h MeTKOCTb CTpejib- 
6bi. 

3anoMHHTe! Ilpn TpeHnpoBOHHon CTpejibSe b HananbHWH nepnofl oSyneHHa Hejib3a raaTbca 3a 
pe3yjibTaTaMH. Hy^ec He SbiBaeT. IlycTb MyniKa xo^ht b panoHe tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa. Bw He CMO>Ke- 
Te ee ocTaHOBHTb. Bama 3a#ana - He 3anenHTbca n #o>KaTb cnycK He no3flHee nojio>KeHHbix Ha BbiCTpen 
8 ceKyHfl. IIpHHeM #o>KaTb cnycK pobho h 6e3 pwbkob. PaSoTairre Ha npaBHJibHOCTb nponecca, a pe- 
3yjibTaT noaBHTca no Mepe HapaSoTKH ycTOHHHBOCTH. YcTOHHHBOCTb HapaSaTbiBaeTca ^OBOJibHO 
SbiCTpo. Hejib3a ToponHTb coSbmia. BbiCTpee Bee paBHO He nojiyHHica. 

Ecjih TaK He ^enaTb, npnBHBaiOTca Bpe^Hbie HaBbiKn, KOTopwe noTOM HCKopeHHTb ^OBOJibHO 
Tpy^HO. HanSojiee nacTO BCTpenaiomaaca omnSica (npnneM He tojibko y hobhhkob, ho #a>Ke y H3BecT- 
hwx MacTepoB) - "jiOBJia" tohkh npHnejiHBaHHji. HeTepnejiHBbie CTpenKH CTapaiOTca "noflJiOBHTb" mo- 
MeHT, Kor^a poBHaa MyniKa, SjijoK^aiomaa r^e-TO b6jih3h >KejiaeMOH tohkh npHnejinBaHHa, coBMema- 
eTca c Hen. He >Kejiaa ynycTHTb TaKon SjiaronpnaTHbiH momcht, CTpenoK pe3KO #epraeT 3a cnycK h... 
"Bbi^eprHBaeT" nyjno 3a npe/iejibi MnmeHn. rioneMy TaK npoHCxoflm? ,H,ejio b tom, hto, noKa cnycKO- 

BOH MexaHH3M CpaSaTblBaeT, BHHTOBKa "npOXOflHT" Hy>KHyiO TOHKy Ha MHHieHH H OTKJIOHaeTCa flanb- 

nie. KpoMe Toro, npn pe3KOM ^BH>KeHHH nanbna Ha cnycKe CTpenoK CMemaeT BHHTOBKy. 

OnbiTHbin HHCTpyKTop BbiaBJiaeT "^epryHOB" CTapnHHbiM npneMOM. Oh noflKJia^biBaeT KypcaHTy 
Bee Te >Ke TpeHHpoBOHHbie naTpoHbi c necKOM. Ilpn cnycKe KypKa 6e3 BbiCTpena pe3Koe OTKnoHeHne 
CTBOJia b CTopoHy CTaHOBHTca Harjia^HbiM fljia caMoro CTpejunomero. fla>Ke npn CTpejibSe naTpoHOM 
BbiHieonncaHHaa oiunSKa jierKO o6Hapy>KHBaeTca npn BH3yanbHOM HaSjnofleHHn 3a opy>KHeM: KOHeu, 
CTBOJia HenocpeflCTBeHHO nepefl BbiCTpejiOM pe3KO h 3aMeTHO otxoaht b CTopoHy. 

J\im Toro hto6w npnyHHTb CTpejiKa He flepraTb 3a cnycK h njiaBHO paSoTaTb nanbneM Ha cnyc- 
kobom KpiOHKe, KypcaHTa "oTJiynaiOT" ot CTpejibSw no mhhichh h 3-4 3aH»THa 3acTaBJiaK)T paSoTaTb 
BxojiocTyio, 6e3 naTpoHa no SejiOMy jiHCTy SyMarn, Ha kotopom He o6o3HaHeHa TOHKa npHnejinBaHna. 
KypcaHT nejiHTca MyniKon nocpe^HHe Sejioro jiHCTa, oSpamaa BHHMaHHe Ha Heflonymefflie "pbibkob" 
3a cnycK. HHCTpyKTop BHyniaeT KypcaHTy, hto #a>Ke 3HaHHiejibHoe OTKnoHeHne poBHon MyniKH ot 
pacneTHon tohkh npnnejiHBaHHa npn paBHOMepHOM cnycKe KypKa 6e3 pwbkob He "BbiSpocnr" nyjno 3a 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 86 

npeflenbi MHineHH, a Majieniuee flepraHne 3a cnycK Bbi30BeT 3HaHHTejibHbiH OTpwB. 

IIPE^EBPEMEHHOE nPEKPAIIJEHHE nPHIJEJIHBAHHfl 

KaK y>Ke 6bi.no yKa3aHO, npHnejiHBaHne h cnycK Kypica - eflHHbiii nponecc. H ecjiH ero pa3opBaTb 
h BbinojiHaTb no 3JieMenraM, 3to Be^eT k HeKonrpojiHpyeMbiM npoMaxaM. OflHa H3 HanSojiee nacTO 
BCTpenaiomHxca hmchho y CHaMnepoB npnnejibHO-cnycKOBbix oihhSok - nepeKJnoneHne BHHMaHHa Ha 
cnycK KypKa. IIoHMaB nejib Ha npHuejibHbiH neHeK onrnHecKoro npnnejia h npHroTOBHBHiHCb Bbicrpe- 
jiHTb, CHannep nepeKJuonaeT BHHMaHHe Ha cnycK KypKa. Eahhwh nponecc npHnejinBaHna h cnycKa 
npn 3tom pa3AeJiaeTca. KoHrpojia 3a nojio>KeHHeM npHnejibHbix npncnocoSjieHHn He npoHCxoflnr, h6o 
CTpenoK 3aH»T SopbSoH co cnycKOM. B 3pnTejibHoii naMaTH CTpenKa (JmKCHpyeTca H3o6pa>KeHHe npn- 
u,ejibHOH KapTHHKH, KOTopoe Sbijio flo Hanana cnycKa, h CTpejiOK npHHHMaeT ero KaK peanbHoe. cDaK- 
THnecKH b MOMeHT cnycKa KypKa CTpenoK y>Ke npeKpamaeT nejinrbca. HHor^a TaKoe cjiynaeTca b tot 
MOMeHT, Kor/ja KypoK copBanca c Hienrajia, CTpenoK 3to nonyBCTBOBaji h paccjiaSnjica. 

TaKne ohihSkh npHBOfljrr k HeKOHTpojiHpyeMbiM OTpbiBaM npn oSmen KyHHoM crpejibSe. Ecjih 
HaSniOflaTb 3a kohhom CTBOJia npn TaKoft oninSKe, mo>kho 3aMeTHTb, hto ctboji, KOTopwii nyTb-nyrb 
KOJieSanca npn npnnejiHBaHHH ecTecTBeHHbiM o6pa30M, nepefl caMbiM BbiCTpenoM B^pyr nnaBHO "no- 
nieji" b KaKyio-JinSo CTopoHy Ha HecKOJibKO MHJiJiHMeTpoB. 

Cpe^CTBO 6opb6bi c TaKHM HeflOCTaTKOM - npnyHHTb CTpenKa coxparorrb npnnejibHoe nojio>Ke- 
Hne nocne BbiCTpena. 3to nojie3HO h fljia TpeHHpoBaHHbix CTpejncoB, y KOTopwx hct-hct, jx& h noaBJia- 
eTca "6ojie3Hb" - OTCTaBjnrrb opy>KHe cpa3y we nocne BbiCTpena. IIpH 3tom CTpenoK HanHHaeT "po- 
HaTb" opy>KHe, He #o>KaB cnycK. IIo3TOMy HHCTpyKTopbi npnynaiOT KypcaHTOB ^ejiaTb "oTMeTKy" 
BbiCTpena - 3aMenaTb h 3anoMHHaTb, r#e Ha mhihchh (hjih OTHOCHTenbHO ee) Haxoflmiacb MyniKa b 
MOMeHT cnycKa KypKa KaK npn BbiCTpejie, TaK h npn xojioctom cnycKe KypKa. 

CaMbiM jiyHHiHH cnocoS npeoflOJieHna BbiuieonHcaHHbix HeflOCTaTKOB - HaTpeHnpoBaTb paSoTy 
cnycKa no MbimenHOH naMaTH TaK, KaK SbiJio onncaHO Bbime. CnycK KypKa, HaTpeHHpoBamibiH flo hh- 
CTHHKTa n nponcxoflaniHH Ha ypoBHe noflC03HaHna, oSeperaeT CHaiinepa ot MHornx ohihSok h no- 
rpenmocTen npn CTpejibSe b peanbHbix SoeBbix yanoBnax. 

PABOTA MBIUIEHHBIX TPYnn nPH 3AT5fflyTOM BBICTPEJIE 

Bee nponeccbi npnnejinBaHna B3aHM0CB33aHbi, tohho TaK >Ke B3anMOCBa3aHbi h ouihSkh npn 
BbiCTpene. Ecjih CTpenoK He HaTpeHnpoBaH b aBTOMaTH3Me cnycKa KypKa, oh Bbmy>KfleH BbinojmaTb 
ero nofl KOHTponeM co3HaHHa, h npn 3tom cnycK KypKa 3aTarHBaeTca no BpeMeHH. 3aTaHyTbin no Bpe- 
MeHH cnycK Bbi3biBaeT 3anejinBaHne co bccmh ero HeraTHBHbiMn nocjieflCTBHaMn - yTOMJieHneM rjia3 n 

CHH>KeHHeM OCTpOTbl 3peHH3, OKOHHaHHeM flblXaTeJIbHOH nay3bl H KHCJIOpOflHbIM TOJIOflaHHeM. 

ripHHHHOH 3aMeflJieHHoro h 3aTaHyroro cnycKa MO>KeT SbiTb h cjihiukom ocTopo>KHaa paSoTa 
nanbneM Ha cnycKe. TaKoii ocTopo>KHbiH no^xofl rpaHHHHT c HeyBepeHHOCTbio. CTpenoK nbrraeTca KaK 
mo>kho 6onee pobho n nnaBHO cnycTHTb KypoK h nosTOMy cjihiukom MeflJieHHO Ha>KHMaeT nanbneM Ha 
cnycKOBon KpionoK. IIpH 3tom BHHMaHHe CTpejiKa nepeiaiiOHaeTca Ha paSoTy cnycKa, n oh ocjiaSjiaeT 
KOHTpojib 3a npnnejiHBaHHeM (cm. paHee). 06Hapy>KHB 3to h CHOBa nepeioiiOHHB BHHMaHHe Ha cnycK, 
CTpejiOK, He BJia^ea HaBbiKaMH cnycKa KypKa no MbimenHOH naMaTH, 3aMeflJiaeT hjih BOoSme ocTaHaB- 
jiHBaeT cnycKOBon nponecc, neM eme Sojibine 3aTarnBaeT BbiCTpeji. 3aTeM HacTynaeT 3au,ejiHBaHHe co 
BceMH ero nocjieflCTBHaMH. 

IIpHHHHOH 3aT3HyToro cnycKa MoryT nocjiy>KHTb: HenpaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe khcth CTpejiaio- 
meii pyKn Ha npHKna^e, Kor^a CTpejunoinnii naneii, "He TaHeT" 3a cnycK (cm. paHee); OTcyTCTBne 3a30- 
pa Me>K^y CTpejiaiomnM nanbneM h npracjiaflOM, Kor^a naneii, nbiTaeTca TaHyTb 3a cnycK, a eMy "HeKy- 
fla TaHyrb", TaK KaK oh npn>KaT k npnioiafly n eMy HeT cboSoabi MaHeBpa; HeoflHOKpaTHO ynoMSHyTaa 
cyflopo>KHaa paSoTa ^pyrnx rpynn Mbiniu,, KpoMe Tex, KOTopbie ^ojckhm cpaSaTbiBaTb b Hy>KHbiH mo- 

MeHT. 

OneHb nacTO fla>Ke onbiTHbie CTpejiKH, HanaB BbiSnpaTb cnycK h nonyBCTBOBaB, hto ycTOHnn- 
BOCTb opy>KHa TepaeTca, OTnycKaiOT cnycK h, He ocjiaSjiaa "BCMaTpHBaHna" b npHii,ejibHyio jihhhio, 
B^bixaiOT h BbiflbixaiOT B03flyx, nocjie Hero CHOBa TaHyr 3a cnycK. y HHCTpyKTopoB sto Ha3biBaeTca 
"nrpaTb cnycKOM". fl,ejiaTb 3Toro Hejib3a, noTOMy hto npnTynjiaeTca 3peHne, a npn yroMneHHOM hjih 
ycTaBHieM 3pHTejibHOM BoenpnaTHH CTpejiKy xoneTca nocKopee "flo>KaTb" cnycK n 3aKOHHHTb BbiCTpeji. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 87 

3to npHBOflHT k ptiBKaM Ha cnycKe h OTpwBaM. 

3anoMHHTe! Y CTpejiica SbiBanxr cocToaHna, Kor^a "BbiCTpen He H#eT". HanpHMep, ecjin CTpenoK 
hto-to He BbinojiHHJi H3 npnBefleHHbix 3flecb KJiaccnnecKHx CTpenKOBbix nocTyjiaTOB. Ho HHor^a TaKoe 
CJiynaeTca no HeH3BecTHbiM npnHHHaM - CTpenoK coctoht h3 >khboh nnoTH, KOTopaa He Bcer^a noflnn- 
HaeTca co3HaHHio. B TaKnx cnynaax, ecjin sbho He nojiynaeTca, Jiynnie OTCTaBHTb BbiCTpen, He TpaTHTb 
naTpoH Ha TpeHHpoBKe h He ^eMacKnpoBaTb ce6a 3pa b SoeBoM oScTaHOBKe. IIpaBHJio "oTCTaBJiaTb Bbi- 
CTpen, KOTopwii He hrqt", Ha^o coSjiiOflaTb He TOJibico npn paSoTe naTpoHOM, ho h npn TpeHHpoBKe 

BXOJIOCTyK). 

TaK y>K ycTpoeH nejiOBenecKHn opraHH3M, hto b HeM Bee pecjwieKropHO BKjnonaeTca b oSmyio 
6opb6y fljia npeoflOJieHna nero-TO, Haxoflameroca CHapy>KH opraHH3Ma. IIo3TOMy-TO SoiinaM- 
pyKonaniHHKaM oneHb Tpy/jHO OBJia^eTb npoc^eccneH CHannepa. H ecjin pyKonaniHHK peniHJi bo hto 
6w to hh CTano HayHHTbca nona^aTb (hmchho nona^aTb, a He npocTO CTpenaTb) H3 CHannepcKOH bhh- 
tobkh, eMy cjie^yeT nocToamio KompojinpoBaTb paccjiaSjiemioe cocroaHHe rpynn Mbiniu,, He yracT- 
ByiomHx b HenocpeflCTBeHHOM nponecce cnycKa Kypica. To ecTb Hejib3a #ep>KaTb b Hanpa>KeHHOM co- 
CToaHHH naubnbi, njieneBOH noac, Mbimnbi pyK h mien. Hejib3a ,3,ep>KaTb H3roTOBKy b Hanpa>KeHHOM 
cocToaHHH - ot 3Toro HapymaeTca ee OflHOo6pa3He, CHH>KaeTca ycroHHHBOCTb, Myniica HanHHaeT ycn- 
jieHHO xoflHTb, h CTpejncy npHxoflHTca Bee BpeMa yroHHaTb npnnejinBaHne, hto npnBOflHT k 3aTaraBa- 
hhk) cnycKa, a cneflOBaTejibHO, onaTb k 3anejiHBaHHio. B SoeBoii oScTaHOBKe 3to Be^eT k nocToamibiM 
npoMaxaM, h6o TaM Ha^o cpa3y paSoTaTb no nejin, a npnnejinBaHHe HeKor^a yTOHHaTb: nenb He ctoht 
Ha MecTe n Bee BpeMa yxoflnr. 

O tom, hto KypcaHT "noflpaSaTbiBaeT" ^pyrnMH rpynnaMH Mbiniu,, HHCTpyKTop MO>KeT cy#HTb no 

yCTOHHHBOMy OTKJIOHeHHK) CpeflHeH TOHKH nOnaflaHHa BHH3. O CyflOpO>KHOM COKpameHHH HeHy>KHbIX 

rpynn Mbiniu, mo>kho cy^HTb no TOMy, hto cpe#Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa OTKnoHaeTca bhh3 Ha 3Hann- 
TenbHyio BejiHHHHy. TaKoe SbiBaeT, Kor^a KypcaHT cy#opo>KHO "noflpaSaTbiBaeT" nnenoM "HaBCTpeny 
BbiCTpeny" npn crpejibSe H3 Mara3HHHbix bhhtobok c oneHb Sojibinon OTflanen. TaKoe SbiBaeT, Kor^a 
hobhhkh SoaTca BbiCTpejia. 

Boa3Hb BbiCTpena, rpoxoTa n cnnbHOH OTflann #ep>KHT hobhhkob b Hanpa>KeHHH, npnneM b 
npe3MepHOM. ripn o>KHflaHHH cnnbHoro y#apa b nneno h 3ByKOBoro y#apa no ymaM y HOBHHKa 
Hanponb yjieTynnBaeTca H3 roiiOBbi Bee, neMy ero ynnjiH. B o>KHflaHHH 3Toro CTpanmoro aBJiemia ho- 
bhhok hjih cnnniKOM MeflJieHHO n HeyBepeHHO TaHeT 3a cnycK, Tepaa BH3yanbHbiH KOHTponb 3a Mym- 
koh, hjih, HaoSopoT, co CTpaxy flepraeT 3a cnycK, Bbi3biBaa cSHBamie bhhtobkh, KOTopoe noaneflyio- 
men OT^anen "cMa3biBaeTca" h He 3aMenaeTca CTpenKOM. 

O tom, hto KypcaHT Sonrca BbiCTpena h o>KHflaeT ero, HHCTpyKTop cyflHT no Hanpa>KeHHOCTH h 
CKOBaHHOCTH H3roTOBKH, npnioiaflbiBaa jia^OHb k mee, nuenaM n MbimnaM npaBOH pyKH CTpenKa. 
KpoMe Toro, y CTpenKa, o>KHflaiomero BbiCTpena, oneHb Hanpa>KeHHoe Bbipa>KeHHe Jinna, KOTopoe 
MmoBeHHO ncne3aeT nocne BbiCTpena. OneHb nacTO crpejiKH HannHaiOT niypnTb raa3a, He TOJibKO ne- 
Bbiii, ho h npaBbiii, h HenpoH3BOJibHO 3aKpwBaTb nx npn BbiCTpene. BbiBaeT, hto HcnbiTaHHbin hh- 
CTpyKTopcKHH npneM - noflKnaflbiBaTb TpeHHpoBOHHbie HecTpenaioniHe naTpoHbi BnepeMeniKy c 6oe- 
BbiMH flua HaraaflHOCTH ^aHHoro nopoKa - He cpaSaTbiBaeT. Tor^a HHCTpyKTop npnynaeT KypcaHTa 
(J)H3HHecKH paSoTaTb c BbiCTpenoM KaK c TaKOBbiM. flna 3Toro BHHTOBKa KJia^eTca Ha ynop h KypcaHT 
npnHHMaeT H3roTOBKy c npnflep>KaHHeM npHKna^a jieBon pyKoii y nuena (4)oto 108). 3a^ana KypcaHTa 
- Bee BpeMa HaBOflHTb BHHTOBKy Ha nenb h y/iep>KHBaTb ee Ha MyniKe c OTKpbiTbiMH raa3aMH, oneHb 
nnoTHO npn>KHMaa npnioiafl k nneny. HHCTpyKTop 3apa>KaeT BHHTOBKy SoeBbiM naTpoHOM, KOMaH^yeT 
KypcaHTy. "IIpHKJiafl npn>KaTb, CMOTpeTb Bnepefl, HH>Ke noaca He HanparaTbca!" 3aTeM HHCTpyKTop, 
nojiynnB ot KypcaHTa no#TBep>KfleHHe tom, hto tot npnii,ejiHJica, octopo>kho, He cflBnraa h He Cflep- 
rnBaa opy>KHe, npn ynope CBoero Soubmoro najibna b cnycKOByio CKoSy, caM nponBBOflnr cnycK Kyp- 
Ka. 3aflana KypcaHTa - BoenpmraTb Heo>KHflaHHbiH rpoxoT BbiCTpena n y^ap npHKJia^OM b nneno c ot- 
KpbiTbiMH rna3aMH h yBH^eTb nepefl coSon Bee, hto npoH3omjio. H ySe^HTbca b tom, hto CTpanmoro 
Hnnero HeT. Ilocjie naTH TaKnx BbiCTpenoB HHCTpyKTop npeflnaraeT KypcaHTy BCTaTb, noxoflHTb h 
pa3M»Tbca, 3aTeM MaHeBp noBTopaeTca. nocne Tpex-neTbipex TaKnx 3axoflOB b TeneHHe nonoBHHbi ^Ha 
KypcaHTy Ha^oeflaeT nofloSHaa oneKa, h oh HannHaeT CTpenaTb caMOCToaTenbHO. J\o HOBHHKa ^oxo- 
flHT, hto BbiCTpen - 3to oSbiHHoe TexHHHecKoe aBJieHne h SoaTbca ero He ctoht. Bonee Toro, HHCTpyK- 
Top BHymaeT oSynaeMOMy, hto BbiCTpen - 3to cneflCTBHe ero npeflBapnTejibHon oSpaSoTKH (npHu,ejin- 
BaHna, 3a^ep>KKH ^bixaHna, cnycKa) n He Sonee Toro. Ha^o paSoTaTb Ha^ BbiCTpenoM, roTOBHTb ero, a 
He o>KHflaTb, noKa oh nponBon^eT. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 88 

JJjir 3aKpenjieHHa npnoSpeTeHHbix HaBbiKOB HHCTpyKTop cjieflm 3a TeM, hto6m KypcaHT npn 
Ka>K/iOM BbiCTpene rqjislji OTMeTKy, Ky/ja cmotpht MyniKa Ha MHineHH b momcht BbiCTpena. KpoMe to- 
ro, KypcaHT nocne BbiCTpejia hjih TpeHnpoBOHHoro xonocToro cnycKa o6a3aH Ha 1-2 ceicyHflbi coxpa- 
H»Tb HenoflBH>KHoe nojio>KeHHe h b flajibHeiiHieM npHBbiKHyTb k 3TOMy. 

OflHH H3 HanSojiee pacnpocTpaHeHHbix nopoKOB y pyKonaniHHKOB, OBJiafleBaiomnx CTpejibSoM 
H3 bhhtobkh, - nocnenniaa, TopomniBaa h cyeTJiHBaa paSoTa CTpejunomero nanbua Ha cnycKe, #a>Ke 
npn xopoiuo BbinonHeHHOM npHnejiHBaHHH. IIphhhhoh TOMy name Bcero cjiy>KHT HenpaBHJibHO no- 
CTaBJieHHoe flbixaHHe. CTpejiOK hjih 3a/iep>KHBaeT ero cjihhikom paHO, BCJie#CTBHe nero eivty He xBaTaeT 
flbixaHHa h oh cneniHT OKOHHHib BbiCTpen SbiCTpbiM Ha>KaTHeM Ha cnycK, hjih >Ke 3a^ep>KHBaeT flbixa- 
HHe Ha Bfloxe, c^ejiaHHOM Sojibiue neM Hy>KHO, - npn 3tom TepaeTca ycToinniBOCTb h cipejioic HanHHa- 
eT "noflJiaBJiHBaTb" TOHKy npHnejiHBaHHa h "noflflepraBaTb". 

IIpH cjihhikom fljiHiejibHoii 3a#ep>KKe flbixaHHa npoHexoflHT 3au,ejiHBaHHe, HHor^a #o TaKoM eie- 
neHH, hto y CTpeJiKa TeMHeeT b rjia3ax, h oh cneniHT nocKopee /io>KaTb cnycK, y>Ke He KOHipojinpys 
BbiCTpeji. 5KejiaHHe noSbicrpee #o>KaTb cnycK HacTynaeT npn Hanpa>KeHHH mlihiii, Jinna, pecjwieKiopHO 
BJieKymnx h Hanpa>KeHHe mliuiii, rjia3a, h, cjieflOBaTejibHO, ero npe>KfleBpeMeHHyio ycTanocTb. 3anoM- 
HHTe! IIpH "BCMaTpHBaHHH" raa3a b jihhhk) npHHejiHBaHHa npn o6pa6oTKe BbiCTpejia Ha/io oSocTpmb 
3pHTejibHoe BHHMaHHe h hh b KoeM onynae He HanparaTb 3peHne IIpH oSocTpemiOM Ha 10 ceKyHfl 3pn- 
TejibHOM BHHMaHHH raa3 He yroMJuieTca. Hanpa>KeHHe 3peHHa - 6eccMbicjieHHaa TpaTa HepBHoii 3Hep- 
thh. Bbi floSbeTecb ropa3#o jryniuHx pe3yjibTaTOB b cipejibSe, ecjiH c HanajiOM 3a#ep>KKH ^bixaHna 
(3to 6y#eT CHrHanoM no BceM CHCTeMaM opraHH3Ma Hanane npHnejibHO-cnycKOBoro nponecca) 
oSocipHTe 3pHTejibHoe BHHMaHHe npHuejibHoro rjia3a h oflHOBpeMemio BKJHOHHie paSoTy CTpejiaio- 
mero nanbua Ha cnycKe no ero MbimeHHon naMaTH. H HHKor^a 6e3 HeoSxoflHMOCTH He CTpejuiHie npn 
HeflocTaTOHHoii ocBemeHHOCTH - KaK y>Ke Sbuio cKa3aHO, 3pHiejibHoe yTOMJieHne Be#eT k >KejiaHHio 
noSbicipee KOHHHib c BbiCTpejiOM - sto Bbi3biBaeT pbiBOK 3a cnycK, KOTopwii npnBOflHT k npoMaxy. 

BHHMAHHE! Pbibkh 3a cnycK y hobhhkob HeKonrpojinpyeMO h HeynpaBJiaeMO nponcxoflaT 
nocjie TJDKejioii paSoTbi, Kpocca, 3aHaTHH no pyKonanmoMy 6010 n nocjie npneMa nnmn. no3TOMy 
nepBOHaHanbHbie CTpejiKOBbie TpeHnpoBKH >KejiaTejibHO npoBOflHTb b nepBon nojiOBHHe flHa. 

y pyKonaniHHKOB npncyTCTByeT eme o#hh HeflOCTaTOK, He no3BOJiaiomHH hm nojiHonemio pa- 
SoTaTb co CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkoh. Eoiinbi-onepaTHBHHKH, ynpa>KHaBHiHeca paHee b ckopocthoh 
CTpejibSe H3 nncTOJieTa, cpa3y >Ke nocjie BbiCTpejia OTKH^biBaiOT yKa3aTejibHbin naneu, Bnepefl. J\o- 
BOJibHO nacTO ohh 3to flejiaiOT, KaK TOJibKO nonyBCTByiOT, hto KypoK copBanca c nienTana. J\&, npn 
ckopocthoh HHTyHTHBHOH CTpejibSe H3 nncTOJieTa sto noxBanbHO. Ho fljia CHaiinepcKOH BHHTOBKH - 
HeT. Pe3KHM ^BH>KeHHeM nanbna Bnepefl CTpejiOK He3HaHHiejibHO CMemaeT opy>KHe, nacTO npn 3tom 
eme h "noflpaSaTbiBaa" naubnaMH khcth, neM eme Sojibiue ycyrySjiaeT nojio>KeHHe. OcoSemio sto 
CKa3biBaeTca npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh BCC, y KOTopoii y^apHHK ^BH>KeTca HacTOJibKO Me^JieHHO, 
hto opy>KHe ycneBaeT CMecTHTbca eme j\o BbiJieTa nyjin H3 KaHana CTBOJia. BnponeM, TaKoe CKa3biBa- 
eTca n Ha ^pyrnx BHHTOBKax. 

KaK npaBHJio, 3Ta oninSKa HaSjiiOflaeTca y HepBHO-B036yflHMbix cipejiKOB, npHBbiKHinx k mitio- 
BeHHOH OTMo6HJiH3au,HH fljia KOHKpeTHbix SoeBbix fleiiCTBHH. y hhx HacTO HaSjHOflaeTca h npe3MepHaa 
nocneniHOCTb npn cnycKe KypKa. 

Jlynniee cpe^CTBO npoTHB TaKoii ohihSkh - ^aTb CTpejiKy 20 naTpoHOB, htoSw oh He enema no- 
CTpejiaji b coScTBeHHoe y/iOBOJibCTBHe. A noTOM paccKa3aTb eMy, noneMy y Hero He nojiynaeTca 
CTpejibSa, 3acTaBHTb ero coxpaHaTb HenoflBH>KHoe nojio>KeHHe h3fotobkh, opy>KHa h CTpejiaiomero 
nanbua Ha ceKyH^y nocjie BbiCTpejia (npnyHHib CTpeJiKa nocjie BbiCTpejia OTCHHTaTb b yMe "flBaflu,aTb 
flBa"), h hto6w CTpejiOK o6a3aTejibHO OTMeTHJi, r^e CToajia MyniKa Ha MHHieHH b momcht BbiCTpejia. 
BpeMa ot BpeMeHH ^Jia Harjia^HOCTH flocTHmyroro HHCTpyKTop noflKJia/ibiBaeT Kypcamy Hecrpejia- 
lomne TpeHHpoBOHHbie naipoHbi. 

CBAJIHBAHHE OPY^CHa B CTOPOHY 

B npouecce h3fotobkh n npnii,ejiHBaHHa (ocoSeHHO b HecTaH^apTHbix ycjiOBnax) CTpejiOK TepaeT 
opneHiaHHio no ropH30HTy h HaKJiOHaeT opy>KHe B^ojib och CTBOJia BnpaBO hjih bjicbo. 3to HaBbiBaeT- 
ca CBanHBaHneM opy>KHa. 

npn CBanHBaHHH opy>KHa nyjin OTKnoHaioTca b Ty CTopoHy, Ky#a oho CBaneHO. noneMy TaK 
npoHexoflHT? KaK y>Ke H3BecTHO, htoSm nonacTb b TOHKy npHu,ejiHBaHHa Ha OTflaneHHOH flncTaHu,HH, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 89 

nyna CHanajia no CBoeii TpaeKTopHH noflHHMaeTca BepTHKanbHO BBepx, a noTOM onycKaeTca BepTH- 
KanbHO bhh3 h na^aeT b >KejiaeMyio TOHKy. Ecjih opy>KHe HaKJiOHeHO, flonycTHM, BnpaBO, npeBbiiueHHe 
TpaeieropHH nyjiH 6y#eT HaioiOHeHO TO>Ke BnpaBO, h npn noHH>KeHHH TpaeKTopHH nyna onycTHTca 

BHH3, CMeCTHBHIHCb Bnpa-i BO. TaKHM 06pa30M, He3HaHHTeJIbHbie HaKJIOHbl (CBajIHBaHHa bhhtobkh) 

Bbi3biBaiOT omyTHMbie CMemeHHa nyjin ot tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa. IIpHHeM neivt flanbine flHCTaHnHa 
CTpeubSbi, TeM Sojibine CMemeHHe nyjiH (cxeMa 36). AHajiorHHHbiH nponecc nponcxoflHT h npn pa6o- 
Te c onTHnecKHM npnnejiOM. 






f \ 




CxeMa 36. TpaeKropna nynn: 

1 - npn pobhom opy>KHH; 

2 - npn "cBaneHHOM" BnpaBO opy>KHH 

OHIHEKH, ^OnyCKAEMWE B nPHHEJIHBAHHH OnTHHECKHM nPHHEJIOM 

Bonee-MeHee TpeHHpoBaHHOMy CHaMnepy onrnHecKHH npHneji oSjiernaeT npnnejiHBaHHe. Ho- 
BHHKaM >Ke HeoSxoflHMO 3HaTb 06 oninSKax, KOTopwe HanSonee nacTO ^onycKaiOTca HaHHHaiomHMH 
CHaMnepaMH. 

KaK y>Ke ynoMHHanocb, npn caMOM He3HaHHTejibHOM CMemeHHH npnnejibHoro raa3a ot onrHne- 
ckoh och npHne.na b 3pHTejibHOM none B03HHKaiOT nojiyjiyHHbie 3aTeMHeHna. He 3aMenaa nx, CTpenoK 
nbiTaerca coBMecTHTb npnnejibHbin neHeK (yrojibHHK) c >KejiaeMon tohkoh npnnejiHBaHna, n y Hero 
C03flaeTca njijno3na, hto 3Toro He npoHCxoflnr. CTpenoK nbiTaerca BbinpaBHTb HecoBnafleHne, ho hji- 
jno3na ocTaeTca, a Ha caMOM ^ene npHnejiHBaHHe nponcxoflnr c norpeniHOCTbio, paBHon BejinnHHe 
CMemeHHa neHbKa, npnneM b npoTHBonojio>KHyK) CTopoHy. Hanpniviep, rjia3 CMemeH ot onrHnecKOH 
ocn BJieBO, 3aTeMHeHHe nojiynnjiocb TO>Ke cneBa, Ka>KeTca, hto neHeK CMemeH BJieBO, a Ha caMOM ^ene 
CTpeubSa yxoflHT BnpaBO. 3Ta OHinSica nonynaeTca b tom cjiynae, ecjin CTpenoK He HaynHJica neTKO 
BH^eTb 3pHTejibHoe nojie npHne.na no nepnivteTpy. 

Cjieflyioniaa omnSKa - CTpenoK CHanana HaBOflHT npnnejibHbiH neHeK Ha nejib, a 3aTeM y>Ke bh- 
paBHHBaeT neTKOCTb 3pHTejibHoro nona no KpaaM. IIoKa oh 3to CflenaeT, neHeK yxoflnr ot nejin, h Bee 
HannHaeTca CHanana. IIpH 3toh ohihSkc CTpenoK HannHaeT nepeMemaTb h ronoBy Ha npHKna^e, MeHaa 
nojio>KeHHe npnnejibHoro raa3a h ycyrySnaa CHryannio. 3anoMHnre! IIojio>KeHHe ronoBbi Ha npnKJia- 
#e #ojdkho 6biTb oflHOo6pa3HbiM h ero Henb3a Merorrb. Hejib3a "TepeTb" npniaiafl noflSopoflKOM npn 
nepe3apaflKe opy>KHa h npnnoflHHMaTb ronoBy - 3to He TOJibKO Bpe^Haa, ho h oneHb onacHaa ^Jia 6oe- 
boh oScTaHOBKH npHBbiHKa (cm. ^aiiee). Hejib3» HapyiuaTb oflHOo6pa3Ha npaBHJibHOH npHKJia^KH h 
flonycKaTb CMemeHna npnnejibHoro raa3a. cDraccHpoBaHHoe nojio>KeHHe ronoBbi Ha npHKna^e Hejib3a 
Merorrb n no toh npHHHHe, hto 3to SwcTpo npHTynnaeT 3peHne. Rim (JmKcanHH ronoBbi Ha bhhtobkc 
CBJl cnennajibHO npeflycMOTpeHa KoacaHaa "meKa". 

HanSojiee pacnpocTpaHeHHaa oiunSKa HanHHaiomHx CTpejiKOB coctoht b tom, hto nocjie ynop- 
hoh SopbSbi 3a y^ep>KaHHe nejin Ha ocTpne npHnejibHoro sjieMenra BHHMaHne CTpenKa nepeionoHaeT- 
ca Ha cnycK KypKa, h KOHTponb 3a "KapTHHKon" b none npHu,ejia TepaeTca. 3to xapaKTepHO h ^jih pa- 
6otw c OTKpbiTbiM npHu,ejiOM, ho npn CTpenbSe c ohthkoh npoaBJiaeTca eme Sojibnie. Bo3HHKaiOHiHx 
nojiyjiyHHbix 3aTeMHeHHH h TeHeii CTpenoK npocTO He 3aMenaeT. B ero 3pnTejibHon naMaTH (JmKcnpy- 
eTca none npHu,ejia TaKHM, KaKHM oho Swjio ao MOMeHTa nepeKmoneHHa BHHMaHHa Ha cnycK, no3TOMy 
h Bee nponne CMenteHna TaK>Ke npoxofljrr mhmo BHHMaHHa CTpenKa. 3anoMHHTe! Ilponecc cnycKa 
KypKa Ha^o HaTpeHnpoBaTb #o aBTOMaTH3Ma TaK, htoSw oh npoxo^HJi caM no ce6e, Ha ypoBHe noflco- 
3HaHHa. Bee BHHMaHHe - TOJibKO Ha Konrpojib y^ep>KaHHa hctkocth nojia npnii,ejia no KpaaM h nejin Ha 
ocTpne npHu,ejibHoro sjieMenra. 3peHneM Ha^o cxBaTbiBaTb cpa3y Bee: nenb, neHeK n none npnnejia no 
KpaaM. 3to He TaK y>K h cjio>kho. 

BbinieonHcaHHbie npneMbi npHu,ejiHBaHHa c onTHnecKHM npHu,ejiOM OTpaSaTbiBanre BxojiocTyio, 
6e3 naTpoHa. riponecc 3tot no-CBoeMy Tpy/ieH. 

OBmHE nPHHI^HnBI CTATHHECKHX TPEHHPOBOK CTPEJIBBBI H3 

BHHTOBKH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 90 



K BejiHKOMy pa30HapoBaHHio jnoSHTejieii nocTpejiaTb H3 flajibHoSoiiHOH bhhtobkh Ha OTflaneH- 
Hbie flHCTaHUHH, Ha^o He TOJibKO BbiCTpenHTb, ho h nonacTb, Ky^a nejiHJica. flua Toro htoSm nonacTb, 
Hy>KHa CTpenKOBaa ycTOHHHBOCTb, ^Jia HapaSoTKH KOTopoM HeoSxoflHMO TpeHnpoBaTb npaBHJibHOCTb 
H3roTOBKH, 3a#ep>KKy flbixaHHa, "BCMaTpHBaHHe" b npnnejibHyio jihhhio h aBTOMaTH3M cnycKa KypKa. 
,U,jia hobhhkob Bee 3to (})H3HHecKH HeyfloSHO, SojibHO, CKyHHO h HeHHTepecHO. K co>KajieHHio, flpyroro 
nyTH HeT. CHaiinepcKHH npoMbicen - 3to HCKyccTBO TepnejiHBbix. Bee BbinieonHcaHHbie npneivibi H3ro- 
tobkh, npHuejiHBaHHa h cnycKa KypKa OTpaSoTaHbi HauiHMH npe^KaMH Ha npoTa>KeHHH ctojicthh, 
npHHeM, ecTecTBeHHO, Smjih OToSpaHbi TOJibKO Te npneivibi, KOTopwe paSoTaiOT b npaKTHnecKOH 
CTpeubSe. ripneMbi CTpejibSbi H3 TOHHoro Hape3Horo fljiHHHOCTBOJibHoro opy>KHa Jierjin b ocHOBy 

CnOpTHBHOH CTpeJIbSbl H3 BHHTOBKH, npHHCM JiyHHIHX MCTOflOB HHKTO He npHflyfctajI. IIpHeMbl CTpeJIb- 

6bi H3 SoeBoii h MajioKajniSepHOH bhhtobok aScojiiOTHO oflmiaKOBbi. H3roTOBKa fljia CTpejibSbi H3 
bhhtobok pa3Hbix KannSpoB npaKTHnecKH oflHa h Ta >Ke. Ba30H h CBoeo6pa3HbiM (J)yHflaMeHTOM fljia 
MeTKoro BbiCTpena H3 bhhtobkh jiBJiaeTca oSbeivt npaKTHnecKHx HaBbiKOB, npnoSpeTeHHbix CTpejiKOM b 
npHHaTHH npaBHJibHOH H3roTOBKH, npHnejiHBaHHH h cnycKe KypKa. BbiCTpen - JiHHib pe3yjibTaT cobo- 
KynHOCTH 3thx HaBbiKOB. H neM npaBHJibHee coSjnofleHbi KnaccHHecKHe CTpejiKOBbie nocTynaTbi, ot- 
paSoTaHHbie HaniHMH npeflKaMH, TeM TOHHee h pe3ynbTaTHBHee 6y#eT BbiCTpen. 

Ba3a fljia MeTKoro BbiCTpena HapaSaTbiBaeTca ynopHbiMH TpeHHpoBKaMH BxojiocTyio. CTpenoK 

B3BOflHT HIHeJIJiep, KypOK H T. fl. H npOH3BOflHT XOJIOCTOH CnyCK C npHUeJIHBaHHeM TaK, KaK SyflTO B 

CTBOJie HaxoflHTca SoeBoM naTpoH. 3a o^Hy TpeHHpoBKy TaKHx xonocTbix cnycKOB flenaeTca 150-200 
(BOBce He flua skohomhh naTpoHOB). flejio b tom, hto ro chx nop hhkto He HaynHJica CTpejiaTb, pa6o- 
Taa oflHHM JiHHib peanbHbiM SoenpnnacoM. IIpH BbiCTpene omymeHHa CTpenKa h npHnejibHaa KapTHH- 
Ka M CMa3biBaiOTca" 3ByKOM BbiCTpena, OTflaneM, BcnbiniKOH h abimom. IIpH "xojioctom BbiCTpene" 6e3 
naTpoHa Bcex sthx aBJieHHH, "cTHpaiomnx" BnenaTJieHHJi ot BbiCTpena, He nponcxoflHT, h CTpenoK 
cnocoSeH 3aMeTHTb h 3anoMHHTb (Ha CTpenKOBOM cneHre "oTMeTHTb"), Ky^a Ha MHHieHH CMOTpena 
MyniKa b MOMeHT cnycKa KypKa. A cneflOBaTejibHO, no 3toh OTMeTKe CTpenoK n ero HHCTpyKTop MoryT 
noHaTb Ty hjih HHyio omnSKy hjih norpenmocTb CTpenKa (a b CTpenKOBon npaKTHKe ohh nocToaHHbi n 
Hen36e>KHbi) n npnHSTb Mepw k ee jiKKBH^annH. IIosTOMy CTpenoK 3a BpeMa TpeHnpoBKn npoH3BO#HT 
BbinieyKa3aHHoe ko-uhhcctbo xojioctmx BbiCTpenoB, Bbinojmaa Ka>Kflbin H3 hhx TaK, KaK 6y#TO oh 
CTpenaeT SoeBbiM naTpoHOM. Ilpn 3tom CTpenoK HapaSaTbiBaeT CTpejiKOByio ycTOHHHBOCTb - ochobhoh 
6a3HC fljia MeTKoii CTpejibSbi. Bpeivta ot BpeMeHH - nepe3 2-3 xojioctmx mejiHKa - CTpenoK CTpenaeT 
SoeBbiM naTpoHOM fljia npoBepKn Toro, nero oh ^ocTHr, paSoTaa BxojiocTyio. TaK TpeHnpoBanHCb 
CTpejiKn-BHHTOBOHHHKH Ha npoTa>KeHHH CTOJieTHH. TaK ynpa>KHajiHCb n 3HaMeHHTbie SypcKne CTpeJIKH 
y peKH TpaHCBaaub, h (})HHCKHe "KyKyniKH", h HeMeinaie CHannepbi 3HaMeHHron SepjiHHCKOH CTpejiKO- 
boh niKOJibi. TaK TpeHHpoBanH coBeTCKHx CHannepoB, 3acTaBJiaa hx HacaMH ne>KaTb b CHery Ha Mopo3e 
hjih no ropjio b Sojiothoh >KH>Ke. He Smjio flpyroro Bbixo^a, h ^pyrax cnocoSoB TpeHHpoBKH h #o chx 
nop He npH/iyMajiH. 

ncHxo(})H3HOJiorHHecKHe ocoSeHHOCTH nejiOBeKa 3acTaBJiaiOT c coSoh CHHraTbca. Ha npoT»>Ke- 
hhh MHoroBeKOBoro onbiTa paSoTbi c omecTpejibHbiM opy>KHeM Smjio ycTaHOBJieHO, hto Hejib3a Tpe- 
HnpoBaTbca b npaKTHnecKOH CTpejibSe Ka>Kflbiii #eHb - pe3yjibTaTbi ot 3Toro He pacTyr. KanecTBO 
CTpejibSbi ynnpaeTca b KaKOH-TO HeBn^HMbin Sapbep h He H3MeHaeTca, HeB3npaa Ha CTapaHne CTpeji- 
kob. npaKTHKa noKa3biBaeT, hto CTpejiKOBbie TpeHHpoBKH Hy>KHO npoBOflHTb nepe3 fleHb, c npoflOJi>KH- 
TejibHOCTbio HenocpeflCTBeHHoro CTpejiKOBoro nponecca He Sojiee 2,5-3 nacoB. noneiviy? noTOMy hto 
paSoTa CTpejiKa - 3to CTaTHnecKne Harpy3KH, HeecTecTBeHHbie fljia >KHBoro opraHH3Ma. TaKne Harpy3- 
kh nnioc oSocTpeHne 3pHTejibHoro npnnejibHoro BHHMaHHa TpeSyiOT noBbinieHHoro paexo^a HepBHOH 
3HeprHH. Becb 3tot nponecc HeHopManeH ^Jia >KHBoro opraHH3Ma, no3TOMy CHamiep nocjie nojmo- 
neHHOH TpexnacoBOH TpeHHpoBKH nyBCTByeT ce6a H3MOHaneHHbiM. Bojiee 3 nacoB npoflOJi>KaTb TpeHH- 
poBKy Hejib3a - HHane HacTynaeT oneHb CKBepHoe h H3BecTHoe npaKTHnecKHM HHCTpyKTopaM aBJieHne 
"3aTpeHHpoBaHHOCTH", to ecTb CTOHKoro OTBpameHHa k CTpejiKOBOMy nponeccy h ko BceMy, hto c hhm 

CB33aH0. 

Ha CTpejiKOByio TpeHHpoBKy h noflroTOBKy k Hen peanbHO yxo^HT nojiflHa. OcTaBHineca nojiTO- 
pa flHa ^0 CJieflyiomeH TpeHHpoBKH KypcaHTy Bcer^a ecTb HeM 3anojiHHTb: H3yneHHeM MaTepnajibHOH 
nacTH opy>KHa, TeopHH SajuiHCTHKH, npaKTHnecKOH MacKnpoBKH, HapaSoTKOH SanaHca Ha KanaiOHiHx- 
ca SpeBHax, aBHau,HOHHbix jionnHrax h ^pyrax npHcnocoSjieHHax, oSmen (})H3HHecKOH noflroTOBKOH, 
TpeHHpoBKon b noji3aHHH no-njiacTyHCKH (3to oneHb npHroflHTca CHaiinepy) h ocoSchho TpeHnpoB- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 91 

KOH HaSjIIOflaTeJIbHOCTH. 

B nepBOHaHajibHbiii TpeHnpoBOHHbiii nepnofl, KOTopbin fljiHTca He MeHee Mecana, HHCTpyKTop 
3acTaBJiaeT KypcaHTOB Bee RQjiarb npaBHJibHO. Y KypcaHTa, npeflOCTaBJiemioro caMOMy ce6e, nocne 
npnoSpeTeHHa nepBOHaHanbHbix 3HaHHH, ecTecTBeHHO, HaSniOflaeTca onpeflejieHHbiH pocT pe3ynbTa- 
tob no cpaBHeHHio c HyueBbiM ypoBHeM. Ecjih 3Toro KypcaHTa He KypnpoBaTb, He KOHTpojinpoBaTb ero 
TpeHHpoBOHHyio paSoTy h He "cTaBHTb" eivty CTpenbSy, pocT pe3yjibTaTOB cpa3y >Ke npeKpamaeTCJi. 
3to npoHexoflHT noTOMy, hto KypcaHTy Bee nepeHHCJieHHbie b HacToameM nocoSnH nojio>KeHHa h 
ycjiOBHa TexHHKH MeTKoft CTpeubSbi Ka>KyTca HacTOJibKO npocTbiMH, hto oh npeKpamaeT oSpamaTb 
BHHMaHHe Ha hx BbinonHeHHe. (3to noHjrmo - Ka>KflbiH H3 Hac, npo3aHHMaBiHHCb neM-jinSo napy 
He^ejib, yBepaeTca b tom, hto oh b 3toh OTpacnn y>Ke Bee 3HaeT.) Hobhhok BepnT b ceKpeTbi, 3Haa ko- 
Topbie, oh MO>KeT CTaTb HacToaiHHM CHannepoM. CeKpeTbi CTpenKOBoro MacTepcTBa - sto Macca onn- 
caHHbix b HacToameM nocoSrai Mejionen, B3aHMOCBa3aHHbix flpyr c flpyroM. Mano 3HaTb Bee 3to - Bee 
sto Ha#o yMeTb h SbiTb b coctojihhh flenaTb b HaType, a fljia 3Toro Ha^o >khtb BceM sthm h flonrHMH 
HacaMH nyBCTBOBaTb HenpnaTHbie ycnjina, npHJiaraeMbie /uia CTpenKOBoro npouecca. T^e HeT Mbinien- 

HblX yCHJIHH, TaM HeT MblHieHHOH naMSTH. r#e HeT MHOrOKpaTHblX nOBTOpeHHH 3THX yCHJIHH, TaM HeT 

HeoSxoflHMbix HaBbiKOB. HaBbiK po>KflaeT pe3yjibTaT. B CHaiinepcKOH npaKTHKe KpnrepHH ohchkh 
OflHH - nonan hjih He nonan. Tot, kto OKa3auca Ha BOHHe, aojckch yvteTb nona^aTb. HHane nona^yr b 
Hero. 

H CHannepbi-HOBKHKH, h OTHbi-KOMaHflHpbi flOJDKHbi 3HaTb h noMHHTb, hto CHaMnepcKHH npo- 
Mbicen - He peMecno, a BOHHCKoe HCKyccTBO. CHaMnepcKHH CTaTyc npocTO He MO>KeT SbiTb ^pyrHM. 
CTpejiOK-peMecjieHHHK He BbinonHHT 3ap,sny, 3acBeTHTca h 6y#eT ySnr. PeanbHbiH pe3ynbTaT MO>KeT 
flaTb TOJibKO HacToaniHH CHannep, noflroTOBJieHHbiH TaK, KaK nojio>KeHO. IIosTOMy CHannep roTOBHTca 
He npOCTO 03HaKOMHTeJIbHbIMH 3aH3THaMH, a Hanpa>KeHHbiMH TpeHHpoBKaMH, Ha KOTopwe TaK HJIH 
HHane npn^eTca He >KaneTb BpeMeHH, yCHJIHH h SoenpmiacoB. 

TEXHHKA CHAHIIEPCKOH CTPEJIBEBI B COCTABE IIO^BH^KHOH rPYnilBI 

IIo TaKTHnecKOH cneHH(|)HKe flencTBHH b cocTaBe Manon noflBH>KHOH rpynnw (pa3Be#Ka h noncK) 
CHannep "npnBa3aH" k KOMaH^npy rpynnbi n b ochobhom fleMcTByeT cornacHO ero yKa3aHH3M. Orae- 
Baa cneii,H(})HKa Manon noflBH>KHOH noHCKOBoii rpynnw xapaKreproyeTca BHe3anHbiM noaBJieHHeM ne- 
jien n HeoSxoflHMOCTbio npnHHMaTb nono>KeHHa ^Jia CTpenbSbi c xo/iy, no/inac b caMbix Hey/ioSHbix h 
HenpeflCKa3yeMbix MecTax. B TaKnx ycnoBnax Ha otkpwtom MecTe CHannep flna CTpenbSbi MrHOBeHHO 
nepeMemaeTca H3 BepxHero ypoBHa b hh>khhh h npHHHMaeT nojio>KeHHe flna CTpenbSbi ne>Ka. KaK sto 
^ejiaeTca npaKTnnecKH, noKa3aHO Ha (J)oto 136-138. H3 SeroBoro nono^eHna CHannep racHT CKopocTb 
npbi>KKOBbiM flBH>KeHHeM ((})oto 136), aMopTH3Hpya Ha nonycorHyTbix Horax. Ka>KflbiH H3 Hac ^ejian 
HMeHHO TaK, Kor^a npbiran b fljiHHy. ripn noraiueHHOH ckopocth (hmchho npn Hen) CTpenoK Sbicrpo, 
ho MarKO onycKaeTca Ha KoneHH npn corayTon cnHHe, npHrayBHiHCb, htoSw yMeHbHiHTb cnnysT ot 
BCTpenHoro oraa npoTHBHHKa. IIojio>KeHHe ne>Ka npHHHMaeTca CHanana c aMopTH3an,neH Ha npaByio 
pyKy ((J)oto 137), flanee H#eT y>Ke H3BecTHaa, onncaHHaa paHee, H3roTOBKa ne>Ka c ynopoM Ha jieBbiii 
jiOKOTb, c peMHeM, nepexnecTHyTbiM 3a neByio pyKy Bbinie jiokts. IIpaBaa pyKa b 3tot MOMeHT BCTaB- 
naeT npHKJiafl b npaBoe nueno. riocne nero H3roTOBKa npHHHMaeT 3aKOHHemiyio (})opMy ((J)oto 138). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



92 




cDoto 136. H3 SeroBoro nojio>KeHHa CHafinep racHT CKopocTb npw>KKOBbiM #BH>KeHHeM 




cDoto 137. IIojio>KeHHe jie>Ka npHHHMaeTca c aMopTH3au,HeH Ha npaByio pyKy 




cDoto 138. 3aKOHHeHHaa H3roTOBKa fljia CTpenbSbi jie>Ka 

CymecTByeT h flpyroM BapnaHT npHHaTHa H3roTOBKH ^Jia CTpenbSbi jie>Ka c xo#y. Oh Sojiee 
SbiCTp h y^oSeH ^Jia SojibiHHHCTBa CTpenKOB, h b CTapwe BpeivteHa no3TOMy 6bm HanSojiee nacTO npn- 
MeHaeM. 3aKjnoHaeTca oh b tom, hto nocne Toro KaK CKopocTb ot Sera noranieHa npbi>KKOBbiM flBH>Ke- 
HHeM ((})oto 136), CTpenoK Marico CTaHOBHTca Ha kojichh, 3aTeM, nporayB cnHHy Bnepefl ((})oto 139), 
oneHb MarKO h HecnjibHO na^aeT np»MO Ha >khbot h jieBbm noKOTb, aMopTH3Hpy» npaBoii pyKoM, ofl- 
HOBpeMeHHO BCTaBJiaa npHKJiafl b njieno h y>Ke b na^eHHH CTapaacb npHrorrb H3roTOBKy k CTpejibSe. 
KaK 3to hh noKa>KeTca CTpaHHbiM, na^eHHe c kojich hhhkom Ha 3eMJiio TaKHM cnocoSoM, c npornyTOH 
Bnepefl cnHHOH, nponcxoflHT Marne h SbiCTpee, neivt mtokct noKa3aTbca. IIpoHecc 3tot onncaH b 6oe- 
bom HacTaBJieHHH fljia CHannepoB HKB^I, h npHHien hmchho OTTy^a. IiOTpeHHpyiiTecb, h y Bac 6y#eT 
nojiynaTbca. Cnoco6 3tot no-CBoeivty npaierHHeH b HcnojiHeHHH h no3TOMy KyubTHBHpoBajica MHorn- 
mh apMeMcKHMH CHaiinepaMH, HecMOTpa Ha OTpHuaTejibHoe OTHonieHHe k HeMy HanajibCTBa. JIqjio b 
tom, hto, CToa Ha KOJieHax c nporHyroH Bnepefl cnHHOH, CTpenoK HMeeT noBbiiueHHbiH CHJiyaT h Sojiee 
noflBep>KeH nopa>KeHHio nynaMH h ocKOJiKaMH. Ho no6e>KflaeT tot, y Koro nynnie nojiynaeTca, h no6e- 
flHTejien He cyfljrr. BbiiueonHcaHHbiH BapnaHT SbiCTporo npHHaTHa H3roTOBKH jie>Ka npnrofleH He 
TOJibKO npn nepe6e>KKax, ho h npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH BHe3anHO H3 nojio>KeHHa ctos npHHaTb H3roTOBKy 
fljia CTpenbSbi jie>Ka. fl,jia 3Toro corHHTe paccTaBJieHHbie Horn b KOJieHax h SwcTpo, ho MarKO onycTH- 
Tecb Ha hhx. Ba>KHO, htoSm ninpHHa nocTaBJieHHbix KOJieHeM SbiJia ninpe mien. IIporHHTecb cnHHOH 
(>khbotom) Bnepefl. IiOflaiiTe Bnepefl Ta3. Marico yna^HTe Ha >khbot h JieBbiii noKOTb. HayHHrecb 3to 
flenaTb c bhhtobkoh b jieBOH pyKe, BHHTOBOHHbiM peMHeM, nepexnecTHyTbiM 3a jieByio pyKy h ^enaTb 
sto oflHHM ^BH>KeHHeM - xoTb c MecTa, xoTb c nofl6e>KKOH. Bbi noHMeTe, hto jiynnie h SbicTpee c#e- 
jiaTb y>Ke Hejib3a. 3to He TOJibKO jiHHHoe MHeHHe aBTopa. Pa3yMeeTca, aBTop He OTBepraeT h ycTaBHbie 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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npneMfei npHHaTna H3roTOBKH jie>Ka, npaierHKyeMbie b apMHH. 




cDoto 139. ycKopeHHbiii BapnaHT npHHaTna H3roTOBKH fljia CTpejibSw ne>Ka. IIoracHB npbi>KKO- 
bmm ^BH>KeHHeM CKopocTb, CHaMnep MarKO onycicaeTca Ha kojichh h npornSaeT cnHHy Bnepefl 

CymecTByeT h eme o^hh cnocoS aMopTH3annn npn nepexo^e b nojio>KeHHe jie>Ka - aMopTroanna 
c ynopoM Ha bkhtobohhwh npnioiafl ((J)oto 140). IIpHMeHaeTca oh npn na^eHnn cpe^n ocrpbix CTpon- 
TenbHbix h ropHbix oSjiomkob. Pa3yMeeTca, jihhihhh y#ap fljia CHannepcKon aBTOMaTHnecKon bhhtob- 
kh HOKenaTejieH, noTOMy hto npn stom mo>kho cShtb HaBOflKy onrHHecicoro npnnejia, ho HHor^a 
jiyniue no>KepTBOBaTb bhhtobkoh, neM pa36nTbca BMecTe c HeM. ^Jia npoHHoft TpexjiHHeHHOH bhhtob- 
kh TaKne y^apbi He HMeiOT 3HaneHHa. 




cDoto 140 Ilepexofl b nojio>KeHHe fljia crpejibSbi jie>Ka c onopoft Ha bhhtobohhbih npnioiafl 
IIpHHaB nojio>KeHHe jie>Ka (nMeeTca b BH^y cjiynaH CTpenbSbi Ha pobhom MecTe), CHaMnep npo- 
h3bo#ht KaKoe-TO KOJiHHecTBO npnnejibHbix BbiCTpenoB CMOTpa no oScTaHOBKe. Ho flouro ocTaBaTbca 
Ha 3tom MecTe Hejib3». He no3>Ke HeM nepe3 30 ceicyHfl k 3TOMy MecTy npncTpejiaeTca npoTHBHHK. 
Cmwcji TaKTHKH ManoH rpynnw b ee hoabh>khocth. no3TOMy npn^eTca hjih nepenoji3TH, hjih nepeSe- 
>KaTb fljia CMeHbi no3Hu,HH. KaK sto Jiynnie c^ejiaTb? nonpoSynre noflHaTbca H3 nojio^eHna jie>Ka 
oSbiHHbiM cnocoSoM. y jnoSoro 3to nonyHHTca MeflJieHHO, Heyiano>Ke, a raaBHoe, bm noflHHMeTecb c 
Toro >Ke MecTa, Ha KOTopoe ynann. H npoTHBHHK, KOTopbin 3aceK Baine na^eHHe h CTpejibSy, 3HaeT, 
hto bm noflHHMeTecb HMeHHO TaM. no3TOMy, noflHaBHiHCb b tom MecTe, Ky^a ynann h OTKy^a CTpena- 
jih, bm HaTKHeTecb Ha ny>Kyio nynio. HtoSm TaKoro He CJiynnnocb, hjokho noflHaTbca b CTopoHe ot 
npHMeTHoro h onacHoro MecTa, c^ejiaB sto SbiCTpo. Jlynme Bcero npoBecTH nepeicaT c nocjieflyioinnM 
BbixoflOM Ha Horn. JJjm 3Toro b tom >Ke nojio>KeHHH ne>Ka ((J)oto 141) pe3KO nepeKaTHTecb BJieBO ot 
ce6a, npiDKHMaa jieBoii pyicon BHHTOBKy k neBOMy mieny ((J)oto 142). Kor^a bm nepeKaTbiBaeTecb co 
cnHHbi Ha npaBbiM 6ok, nofl>KHMaHTe no,zj ce6a hjdkhioio, npaByio Hory ((})oto 143) n, noflHHMaa Kop- 
nyc (7 Ha (})oto 144), BbiHOCHTe Bnepefl, BnpaBO, no xo#y flBn^eHna neByio, Bepxmoio Hory (2 Ha (})oto 
144). OflHOBpeMeHHO 3axBaTbiBanTe KHCTbio npaBon pyicn kojicho corayTon Horn (3 Ha (})oto 144) n 
C03flaBanre onopy Ha nojiycornyTbin noKOTb npaBon pyKH (4 Ha (J)oto 144). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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cDoto 141. IIojio>KeHHe jieaca 




cDoto 142. Bwxofl H3 nojio>KeHHa jie>Ka b nojio>KeHHe ctos. IlepeKaT c >KHBOTa Ha 6ok h cnHHy 




cDoto 143 IlepeKaT co cnnHbi Ha npaBbiii 6ok. IIoflO>KMHTe npaByio Hory no# ce6a 




cDoto 144. noflteM Kopnyca 

1 - noflHaTb Kopnyc; 

2 - neByio Hory BbmecTn Bnepe# no xo^y nepeKaTa; 

3 - 3axBarHTb npaBoe kojicho; 

4 - noflHaTb Kopnyc onopoM Ha nojiycorayTbiH npaBbiii noKOTb 

Ecjih bm TaK CRQiiaQTQ, CHJia HHepu,HH nepeKaTa noflHHMeT Bam Kopnyc nepe3 onopHbiM nojiyco- 
rHyrbiH noKOTb ((})oto 145). Ecjih c^enaTb 3to ^ocTaTOHHO 3HeprnHHO, KaKOH-TO HeBeflOMOH chjioh Bac 
"flOBepHeT" h nocTaBHT Ha Horn (<|)oto 146). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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cDoto 145. Bwxofl BnpaBO n BBepx 




1 

cDoto 146. CHaiinep noflHHMaeTca c KOJieHa Ha Horn 

Ecjih bm xoTHTe, hto6m 3to nojiynnjiocb Jiynnie n pe3yjibTaTHBHee, b momcht 3axBaTa npaBoii 
pyKoii 3a npaBoe kojicho (3 Ha <|>oto 144) pe3KO noflanre npaBoe kojicho Bnepefl npn 3aKpenomeHHOM 
nojiycorHyTOM npaBOM noiere (4 Ha (})oto 144). OflHoro ^oSaBOHHoro ycnjina 3Toro KOJieHa 6y#eT ^o- 
CTaTOHHO, HToSbi Bac pe3KO "Bbi^epHyjio" BnpaBO h BBepx (c|)oto 145) 3tot momcht pa3ynHBaeTca c 
Ka>KflbiM CTpenKOM HHflHBHflyanbHO. Kto-to oneHb npocTO "Bbi^eprHBaeT" ce6a kojichom, a fljia Koro- 
to Haflo npn^aTb CHanana HHepnnio fljia Maccw 6e#pa h KOJieHa, htoSw "yxBaTHTbca" 3a Hee B jiioSom 
cnynae Taicon cnocoS noflbeMa H3 nojio>KeHHa jie>Ka b nojio>KeHHe cto» SeroM ^Jia pa3ynHBaHHa oneHb 
Hecjio>KeH 

BcaKoro po#a noncKOBbie MeponpnaTHa h rqPlctbiw Manon noflBH>KHOH rpynnw BOoSme 3ana- 
CTyio npoHexoflaT b ycnoBHax orpaHnneHHoii bh^hmocth, nepeceneHHoii mccthocth h rycroii pacrn- 

TeJIbHOCTH B TaKHX yCJIOBHSX npOTHBHHK MO>KeT npOSBHTbCa C JIIOSOH, CaMOH HeO>KHflaHHOH CTOpOHbl 

Ha KopoTKOH flHCTaHHHH, h 6oh npHHHMaeT CKopoTeHHbiH "kobSohckhh" BapnaHT Kor^a aBTop cnpo- 
chji SbiBHiero coTpyflHHKa CMEPIUa, hto Ha#o flenaTb CHaiinepy b TaKHX cnynaax, CTapbiii BOJiKOflaB 
OTBeTHJi: "BbiKpyHHBaTbca". IIpH TaKHX oScroaTejibCTBax Bee HanHHaiOT OTCTpejinBaTbca 6e3 KOMaH- 
ffbi, h CHaiinepy c ero ajikhhoh HenoBopoTHoii bhhtobkoh npnxoflHTca Tpy^HOBaTO. Oh HannHaeT 
"BbiicpyHHBaTbca" b SyKBanbHOM CMbicne 3Toro cuoBa. flonycTHM, nenb SbiJia cnepe#H, h CHaiinep pa- 
SoTan no Heii jie>Ka (c|)oto 146). Ilpn BHe3anHOM noaBJieHnn nejiH, ^onycTHM, cnpaBa, nepeopHenrH- 
poBaTbca oSbiHHbiM cnocoSoM Ha Hee oneHb flonro. IIosTOMy CHaiinep nepeicaTbiBaeTca Ha neBbiii 6ok 
h paSoTaeT no npaBoii nejin TaK, Kaic noKa3aHO Ha (})oto 147. Ilpn noaBJieHnn nejin c flpyroii ctopohm 
^eiicTBHa CHaiinepa aHanornnHbi (c|)oto 148). Ilpn stom mo>kho nerKO "nepeKHHyTbca" Ha ^pyroii 6ok 
fljia nopa>KeHH» BHe3anHoii nenn, noaBHBineiica c npoTHBonojio>KHoii ctopohm. Ha kopotkhx flHcraH- 
nnax, #o 200 MeTpoB, mo>kho He nepecTaBJiaTb npnneji, a nejinrbca b npoTHBHHKa TaK>Ke cSoicy, cner- 
Ka M Bpe3aacb" npnnejibHbiMn npncnocoSjieHHaMn b ero cnjiysT. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



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cDoto 147. IlepeHOC oraji pe3KO BnpaBO b nojio>KeHHH ne>Ka 




cDoto 148. Pe3KHH nepeHOC orHa bjicbo b nojioaceHHH jie>Ka 

Ecjih npoTHBHHK BHe3anHO noaBHJica C3a^H, CHaftnep, HaxoflKBHiHiica p,o stoto b nojio>KeHHH 
jie>Ka, nepeBopanHBaeTca Ha cnHHy h npHHHMaeT nojio>KeHHe CH/ia, npn 3tom pe3KO noBepHyBiiiHCb 
bhhtobkoh Ha3a# ((})oto 149). flua Toro hto6w BHHTOBKy He Kanano, qPl npH^aiOT ycTOHHHBoe nojio- 
>KeHHe ynopoM jieBoro jiokts b Kopnyc (7 Ha (})oto 149). IIpH 3tom neByio pyKy CTapaiOTca nocTaBHTt 
no bo3mo>khocth nepneHflHKynapHO, htoSm BHHTOBKy noMeHbHie TaHyjio b CTopoHy (oSmhho b npa- 
Byio). Horn >KejiaTejibHO nocTaBHTb KaSnyicaMH nouinpe, htoSw Kopnyc He Kanano BnpaBO-BJieBO. 




Ik. 



cDoto 149. CTpenbSa cn^a: 

1 - ynop JieBoro jioktji b Kopnyc 

IIpH noflBH>KHOH CHamiepcKOH paSoTe nacTO npHMeHaeTca TaK Ha3biBaeMbiii "SeflyHHCKHH cno- 
co6 CTpenbSbi" ((})oto 150). Oh 3aKJiiOHaeTca b tom, hto CTpenoK ch^ht Ha aroflnnax, npaBaa Hora no- 
florHyra, a nojiycorHyraa neBaa Hora onnpaeTca Se^poM Ha Sothhok npaBOH Horn (1 Ha (})oto 134). 
H3roTOBKa oneHb HH3Kaa, CTpenoK noHTH ne>KHT Ha BHHTOBKe. JleBbiii jioKOTb onnpaeTca Ha neBoe ko- 
jieHO TaK, KaK y^oSHO fljia KOHKpeTHoro CTpenKa. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



97 







cDoto 150. BeflyHHCKHH cnocoS CTpejibSbi: 

1 - 6e#po onnpaeTca Ha Sothhok npaBoii Horn. 

OSpaTHTe BHHMaHHe, hto Ha Bcex npnBefleHHbix k ^aHHOMy pa3flejiy (^OTorpacjmax CHaiinep pa- 
SoTaeT c peMHeM, b flocTaTOHHon CTeneHH Ha-raHyTbiM h nepexjiecTHyrbiM 3a neByio pyKy MOK^y jiok- 
TeM h njienoM. H npn TpeHHpoBKax, h npn SoeBon paSoTe 3HaK>mne CHannepbi mucosa He 6y#yT nr- 
HopHpoBaTb MeTOflHKy CTpeubSbi c npHMeHeHHeM peMH». H3Jio>KeHHbie b HacToameM nocoSnn 
cnocoSbi CTpeubSbi c npHMeHeHHeM py>KeHHoro peMHa npn^aiOT opy>KHio TaKyio >Ke ycTonnnBOCTb, 
KaK h npn CTpejibSe c ynopa. Ho npn MaHeBpeHHbix SoeBbix flencTBnax b ycnoBnax BHe3anHOCTH, cko- 
poTenHOCTH h HenpeflCKa3yeMOCTH npnMeHeHne ynopa HCKjnonaeTca - ero npocTO Her^e 6y#eT B3aTb. 
A niTaTHbiii BHHTOBOHHbiH peMeHb Bcer^a HaxoflHTca npn opy>KHH. IIo3TOMy #a>Ke npn nepe6e>KKax 
CHannepbi CTapaiOTca stot peMeHb c jieBon pyKn He CHHMaTb, htoSm He TepaTb BpeMeHH ^Jia ero 
"HaicpyHHBaHHa" npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH HeMeflJieHHon CTpejib6bi. 

Ot HeMeu,KHx erepen npHmen TaK Ha3biBaeMbin erepcKnn cnocoS CTpeubSbi. Cyrb ero BH^Ha Ha 
(})oto 151. Hockh npn stom cneflyeT nnoTHO npn>KaTb k rpyHTy. CnocoS stot npnMeHaeTca npn 
CTpenbSe b HeBbicoKOM KycTapHHice n b pa3BanHHax. 




cDoto 151. HeMenKHH cnocoS CTpeubSbi 

TEXHHKA CTPEJIbEM no ^BH^KYmHMCil IJEJMM 



KaK H3BecTHO, npn CTpeubSe no flBn^ymnMca nejuiM Ha^o SpaTb HeoSxoflHMoe ynpoK^eHne, 
ycTaHOBHB MyniKy hjih npnnejibHbin neHeK Bnepe^n flBn^eHna nenn hjih npon3Befla HeoSxoflHMyio 
nonpaBKy noBopoTOM SoKOBoro MaxoBHKa. Ho 3Toro fljia tohhoh CTpeubSbi no SerymnM nejuiM jibho 
HeAOCTaTOHHO. BbiSpaB HeoSxoflHMoe ynpoK^eHne, Hy>KHO y^ep>KHBaTb ero flo MOMeHTa BbiCTpena, 
noKa nyjia He noKHHeT KaHan CTBOJia. 3to Ha3biBaeTca "cTpenaTb c noBOflKon opy>KHa". J\ji% y/iep>Ka- 
HHa HeoSxoflHMoro ynpoKfleHHa CTpenKy Hy>KHO bccth BHHTOBKy BMecTe c flBH>KeHHeM nenn h flenaTb 
3to nuaBHO, MarKO h 6e3 pmbkob. 

^onycTHM, Ha flncTaHnnn 350 MeTpoB nepeSeraiomaa cueBa HanpaBO no (J)poHTy pocTOBaa nenb 
(4 m/c) 3a BpeMa nojieTa nyjin k Hen (0,5 c) npoxoflnr paccToaHne 2 MeTpa, KOTopwe b npoeicnnn 6y- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 98 

^yr 3aHHMaTb OKpyrneHHO 6 flejieHHH niKajiw SoeBbix nonpaBOK npnnejia IICO-1. GneflOBaTejibHO, 
CTpenoK npHu,ejiHBaeTca no Serymen nejin iuecTOH phckoh niKanbi Sokobmx nonpaBOK, "ca>Kaa" nejib 
Ha 3Ty pncKy h npHBa3biBaa noanemiioio nyib Bnepefl, 6jiH>Ke k nepe^HeMy Kpaio nejni. LJejib npn Ta- 
kom npjmejiHBaHHH floiDKHa "6e>KaTb k ocHOBHOMy yrojibHHKy BHyTpb npnnejia, a He Hapy>Ky" - p,o- 
CJiOBHoe Bbipa>KeHHe onbiTHoro HHCTpyKTopa (cxeMa 37). B TaKOM nojio>KeHHH npnnejibHOH KapTHHKH 
CTpenoK Be^eT BHHTOBKy BMecTe c nejibio, noica He BbicTpenHT. 

10 




CxeMa 37. CipejibSa no Serymen nejni. CeTKa npnnejia IICO-1 

KaK oh 3to flenaeT npaKTHnecKH? JJjir Toro htoSm CTpejiaTb c no#BH>KHOH bhhtobkoh, Ha^o 
CMenjaTb CHCTeMy CTpejiOK - opy>KHe. Ecjih bh nonbiTaeTecb nepeMemaTb BHHTOBKy TOJibKO #Bn>KeHH- 
eM pyK, y Bac npocTO minero He nojiyHHica. Ecjih Sy^eTe ^BnraTb njienaMn h >khbotom, opy>KHe 
HanHeT "npbiraTb" no BepTHKann. OnbiTHbie CTpenKH CTapon BbiyniCH nepeMemaiOT BHHTOBKy no ropn- 
30HTanH TaK Ha3biBaeMbiMH "flBH>KeHHaMH canora". IIpH oSmhhoh H3roTOBKe ne>Ka c peMHa npnnejib- 
Tecb b KaKyio-HHSyflb Tomcy Ha jihhhh MHHieHeii, nocjie nero noflairre hocok npaBoii Horn ot ce6a, a 
hocok jieBoii Horn - k ce6e. Ilpn ycnoBHH, ecjin Horn nnoTHO npn>KaTbi KaSnyicaMH h HOCKaMH k 3eM- 
jie, bw yBH^HTe, KaK BHHTOBKy "noBejio" no ropH30HTy cnpaBa HaneBO. noflanre hocok npaBoii Horn k 
ce6e, a JieBoii - ot ce6a, h BHHTOBKa noH^eT cueBa - HanpaBO. IIpHHeM 3to #BH>KeHHe 6y#eT miaBHbiM, 

0flH006pa3HbIM H 6e3 pblBKOB. IIOTpeHHpyHTeCb B 3TOM, H aMHUHTyfla flBH>KeHHa BHHTOBKH 3HaHH- 

TenbHO yBenHHHTca. TaKoro ropnBOHiajibHoro OTpe3Ka #BH>KeHHa opy>KHa ^Jia npHnejibHoro BbiCTpena 
Sojiee HeM ^ocTaTOHHO. HanoMHHM, hto #Jia TpemipoBaHHoro CHannepa c xopomo HapaSoTaHHOH Tex- 
hhkoh cnycKa KypKa no MbimeHHon naMara, TeM Sojiee ecjin cnycK HapaSoTaH b aBTOMaTH3Me TeMna, 
fljia npnnejibHoro BbiCTpejia, HanHHaa c 3a#ep>KKH ^bixaHHa, xBaTaeT 2-3 ceKyH/i. J\ji% CTpejibSbi c no- 
flBH>KHbiM opy>KHeM BOBce He Hy>KHO fljiHTenbHoe conpoBO>KfleHHe nejni, Sojiee Toro, oho Bpe^HO, h6o 
MyniKa (neHeK) HanHHaeT CMemaTbca no BepTHKajin. BbiCTpen no Serymen nenn flOJi>KeH SbiTb cflejiaH 
SbiCTpo. IIonpoSyHTe HapaSoTaTb BbiCTpen b Teivtne (b 3a#aHHOM OTpe3Ke BpeMeHH) no Seryineii nenn: 
KaK TOJibKO bw 3axBaTHJin nejib (b HameM cnynae Ha mecTyio pncKy ot npnnejibHoro yrojibHHKa), chh- 
TanTe npo ce6a "flBamjaTb #Ba, jjpajmaTb msa, RBajmajb flBa"; b sto BpeMa pa3BopoTOM hockob, ynn- 
paiomnxca b 3eMJiio, Be^me opy>KHe BMecTe c nejibio; 3a 3to >Ke BpeMa TpeHHpoBaHHbiii CTpejiaiomnii 
najieu, caM BbiSepeT cnycK! H #a>Ke Kor^a rpoxHeT Bbicrpeji hjih nponBoiifleT xojioctoh TpeHHpoBOH- 
Hbiii mejiHOK, He ocTaHaBJinBairre noBOflKy opy>KHa! npnynHTecb ^ejiaTb Bee sto OflHOBpeMemio, ofl- 

HHM KOpOTKHM flBH>KeHHeM, H HeM KOpOHe nO BpeMeHH SyfleT npOHCXOflHTb 3TOT KOMnJieKC flBH>KeHHH, 

TeM Jiyniue 6y#eT nojiynaTbca. 3to HMeHHO tot cjiynan, Kor^a CTpejiOK ^yviaeT rjia3aMH, a Bee 
ocTanbHoe cpaSaTbiBaeT Ha TpeHHpoBaHHbix pecJwieKcax, noflC03HaTejibHO. 

^jiHTejibHoe conpoBO>KfleHHe nejin npnBOflHi k pa3flejibHOMy BbinojmeHHio BbiCTpejia no 3Jie- 
MemaM, hto b cboio onepeflb Be^eT k nepeiaiiOHeHHio BHHMaHHa c npHHejiHBaHna Ha cnycK. 3anoMHH- 
Te' CTpejiOK npHu,ejiHBaeTca oSocTpeHHbiM 3pnTejibHbiM BHHMaHHeM, h ecjin oho ynuio, KaK roBopar, 
ot npnii,ejiHBaHHa "Ha KypoK", tohhoh CTpejibSw He Sy^eT. 

IIpHLi,ejiHBaHHe He o6a3aTejibHO npoBOflHTb conpoBO>KfleHHeM nejin (b HameM cjiynae - Ha iue- 
ctoh pncKe). TpeHHpoBaHHbie CTpejiKH CTpejiaiOT no 6eryn(HM nejiaM oneHb SbiCTpo, noHTH MmoBeH- 
ho, floroHaa nejib npHu,ejibHbiM yrojibHHKOM h neperoHaa ee Ha BejiHHHHy (b HameM cjiynae) iuecTH 
pncoK. KaK TOJibKO CHaiuiep "flomaji" nejib npnnejibHbiM yrojibHHKOM, oh HannHaeT "flo>KHMaTb" 
cnycK, a KaK TOJibKO "floroHaeT" ee niecTOH (b HameM cjiynae) phckoh, cnycK #o>KHMaeTca. IIpH 3tom 
cnocoSe H3-3a roprooniajibHOH HHepu,HH opyacna ocTaHOBHTb ero npn BbiCTpejie npaKTHnecKH HeB03- 

MO>KHO. 

OcTaHOBKa opy>KHa cpa3y nocjie BbiCTpejia - HanSojiee pacnpocipaHeHHaa oninSKa. CTpejiaTb no 
SeryiHHM u,eji»M HenpocTO n BecbMa Ta>Kejio. Bopacb c bhhtobkoh h c caMHM coSoh, CTpejiOK ocTa- 
HaBJiHBaeT opy>KHe n "SpocaeT" cnycK HHor^a cpa3y >Ke, ecjin nonyBCTByeT, hto KypoK copBanca c 
menTajia. IIpH BbiCTpejie, cflejiaHHOM H3 HenoflBH>KHoro opy>KHa, nejib "ySeraeT" ot nyjin Ha 1,5 MeTpa 
Bnepefl. 

B HameM cjiynae npn CTpejibSe no poctoboh nepeSeraiomeH (J)Hrype Ha flHCTamniH 350 MeTpoB 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 99 

(3to peajitHaa flncTaHnna b SoeBbix ycnoBnax) nejinrbca mo>kho c otkpmtmm npHnejiOM n (nocToaH- 
hwh) hjih 3 1/2 (oimiHecKHH), nenacb Bnepe#H noaca (Jmrypbi, hjih mq c npHnejiOM "6", BH3yanbHO 
npHB33biBaa #BH>KeHHe npHnejiHBaHna no ropH30HTy h nenacb BnepeflH KaSnyKOB uejiH. npn stom bh 
nona^aeTe b noac nejin (cxeMa 38). Pa3yMeeTca, HyacHO SpaTb HeoSxoflHMoe ynpeayieHHe. 




CxeMa 38. npnHejiHBaHHe c OTKpwTbiM npHnejiOM no Serymeft nenn Ha ^HCTaHnHH 350 m c 
npnu,ejiOM "6" c npnBJBKon MyniKH k jihhhh ropn30HTa: 

1 - flBH>KeHHe nejin; 

2 - flBH>KeHHe bhhtobkh; 

3 - npeBbimeHne TpaeKTopnn; 

4 - jihhhji ropn30HTa. 

Ilocjie BbiCTpena He ocTaHaBJinBanre noBOflKy opy>KHa! 

HeKOTopbie CTpenKH npn noBO#Ke bhhtobkh innpoKO paccTaBJiaKxr Horn, npn stom npHHinin 
noBOflKH H3MeHaeTca: npn paSoTe hockom npaBOH Horn "ot ce6a" opy>KHe pa3BopanHBaeTca He bjicbo, 
a BnpaBO. HeKOTopwe CTpenKH "flOBopannBaiOT" opy>KHe b noBOflice 3a nenbio paSoTOH KOJieHen no 
npnHnnny "Ha ce6a - ot ce6a". Y koto KaK Jiynine nojiynaeTca. Ilpn Bcex 3thx cnocoSax Ba>KHO co- 
xpaHHTb CTaSnjibHon, HeTpoHyron n 3aKpenoineHHon cncTeiviy CTpenoK - opy>KHe b rnieneBOM noace, 
jieBOM noKTe n BceM y3Jie "cTpenoK - BHHTOBKa", "cBa3aHHOM" py>KenHbiM peivmeM. 

3HaneHne chocoShocth CHannepa SbiCTpo n yBepeHHO nopa>KaTb Serymne nejin Tpy^HO nepe- 
oneHHTb, ocoSeHHO npn npoBefleHnn cnennajibHbix onepannn, Kor^a HenoflBH>KHbix nejien, no cyme- 
CTBy, npaKTnnecKH He SbiBaeT. 

Ilpn CTpenbSe CToa no Serymnivt nejiaM ee conpoBO>KfleHHe n noBO#Ka opy>KHa 3a uejibio ocy- 
mecTBJiaiOTca CKpynnBaHneM Kopnyca b noace. Ilpn stom coxpaHaeTca b 3aicpenomeHHOM cocToaHnn 
Bca BepxHaa nacTb Kopnyca, a HMeHHO, njieneBon noac c ynopoM noKTa b Kopnyc cSoicy n BepTracajib- 
Hoe nojio>KeHHe jieBon pyKn, y#ep>KHBaiomeH BHHTOBKy. 

PaSoTa CTynHen Rim nepeMemeHHa opy>KHa no roproonry b nojio>KeHHH jie>Ka npnisieHaeTca He 
TOJibKO npn CTpenbSe no SerymHM nejiaM. TaKoM npneivi npHMeHaeTca npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH nepeHecTH 
oroHb c OflHOH nejin Ha ^pyryio hjih npn CTpenbSe no SbiCTpo B03HHKaiomHM h SbiCTpo Hcne3aiomHM 
b pa3Hbix MecTax nejiaM. 

CaMa no ce6e CHannepcicaa CTpenbSa no SerymHM nejiaM - 3aafljibin cnopT. Eme b 70-e ro^bi 
MHorne BoncKOBbie CTpejibSnma Swjih oSopyflOBaHbi ycTaHOBKaMH ^Jia OTpaSoTKH CTpeubSw no ne- 
jiaM, flBH>KymHMca c pa3HbiMH CKopocTaMH, nofl pa3HbiMH yraaMH n Ha pa3Hbix flHCTaHnnax. Eme 
paHbme, b 60-x h 50-x ro^ax, CTpejibSa H3 bhhtobkh h aBTOMaTa no #BH>KymHMca MHmeHaM SbiJia b 
nopa^Ke BerneM. J\ayKQ Ha ypoBHe ,Z],OCAAcD TaKne TpeHnpoBKH npoBOflHUHCb e>KeflHeBHO. Cennac Ta- 
Kaa CTpeubSa y>Ke CHnraeTca "BbicuiHM muiOTa^eM". 

OCOBEHHOCTH nPHIJEJIHBAHHJI OTKPMTMM nPHIJEJIOM 

Ilpn npaBHJibHOM npHu,ejiHBaHHH OTKpwTbiM npHu,ejiOM MyniKa (7 Ha cxeMe 39) flOJi>KHa Haxo- 
flHTbca b nenrpe npope3H nejiraca (2 Ha cxeMe) CTporo no BepTHKann (ocb A Ha cxeMe), a ee BepniHHa 
ycTaHOBJieHa CTporo no ypoBHio rpnBKH nennKa (ocb B Ha cxeMe). 3to Ha3biBaeTca poBHon MyniKOH. 
Bee SoeBoe opy>KHe ycTaBHbiM o6pa30M npHCTpenaHO no nempy, to ecTb nyna ^0Ji>KHa "na/iaTb" Ha 
kohhhk MyniKH (7 Ha cxeMe 40). Ho sto b H^eane. B peanbHOCTH rna3 nenoBeKa He b cocToaHHH neTKO 
BH^eTb Tpn npe^MeTa, Haxoflamneca o^hh 3a ^pyrnM, to ecTb npope3b, MyniKy h u,ejib. OflHa H3 sthx 
ToneK Bcer^a Sy^eT pacnjibiBnaTOH. MHoroBeKOBOH npaKTHKon ycTaHOBJieHO, hto jiynniHe pe3ynbTaTbi 
CTpenbSbi flocTHraiOTca Tor^a, Kor^a pacnjibiBnaTbi npope3b h rpnBKa, a MyniKa n u,ejib bh^hh othct- 
jihbo. B peanbHOCTH y noflaBJiaioniero SojibniHHCTBa CTpenKOB TaK h nonynaeTca (cxeMa 41). Ha ropn- 
30HTanbHbie norpenmocTH 3Ta o^HHaKOBaa c flByx ctopoh pacnjibiBnaTOCTb npope3H He BunaeT, h 
CTpenoK hhcthhkthbho h npaBHJibHO BbiCTaBJiaeT MyniKy nocpeflHHe. Ha BepTHKanbHbin >Ke pa36poc 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



100 



BJiiweT: y o^Horo CTpenKa "ropHBOHranbHaa pacnnbiBHaTOCTb" rpHBKH uejiHKa (7 Ha cxeMe 41) Sojib- 
nie, a y jspyroTO - MeHbine. Pa3HbiM jnoflaM npnpofla #ajia pa3Hoe 3peHHe. BaneflCTBHe 3Toro MyniKa 
SepeTca hjih Bbinie, hjih HH>Ke. IIo3TOMy b apMHH KOHKpeTHbiii HOMep opy>KHa 3aKpennaeTca 3a koh- 

KpeTHblM BOeHHOCJiy>KamHM. 



5 




CxeMa 39. Yctpohctbo OTKpbiToro npHuejia. PoBHaa MyniKa: 

1 - MyniKa; 2 - npope3b; 3 - rpHBKa; 4 - Kopnyc uejiHKa; A - BepTHKanbHaa ocb; B - ropHBOHranb- 
Haa ocb 




CxeMa 40. npHuejiHBaHHe otkpmtmm npHuejiOM "no nenrpy": 
1 - TOHKa npnnejiHBaHHji coBna^aeT c tohkoh nona^aHna 




CxeMa 4 1 . HeTKaa MyniKa, neTKaa uejib n pacnjibiBinneca npope3b n rpnBKa uejiHKa 

BbicoTy MyniKn npn pacnjibiBnaTon rpnBKe nennKa Hy>KHO SpaTb r#e-TO nocpeflHHe stoh pac- 
njibiBmenca ropn30HTajibHon nonocKn, a npn nocneflyiomeH CTpejibSe coSmoflaTb hmchho 3to ee no- 
jio>KeHHe. 

Ilpn CTpenbSe Ha paccToaHHH 100 MeTpoB no poctoboh (h #a>Ke no rpy^HOH) MnmeHH bm erne 
CMO>KeTe neTKO BbiSpaTb MyniKOH OTKpbiToro npnne.na TOHKy npHuejiHBaHHa Ha cnnysTe MnmeHH. IIpH 
oneHb xopomeM 3peHHH bm CMO>KeTe 3to c^ejiaTb no poctoboh MnmeHH, CTpenaa #a>Ke Ha 200 MeTpoB 
(n3BecTHaa KOMaH^a - uejibca b noac). A Ha flHCTaHHHH 300 MeTpoB npHuejiHTbca hctko b noac BaM 
Sy^eT y>Ke npoSjieMaTHHHo: uejib cojibeTca c MyniKOH. 

IIo3TOMy flua Jiynmen rapaHTHH nona^aHna BaM npn^eTca CTpenaTb nofl uejib, htoSm OHa SbiJia 
Ha MymKe hjih ^a>Ke Bbime c HeSojibniHM npocBeTOM Me>Kfly MymKon h uejibio. flua nero HeoSxoflHM 
npocBeT? HepHaa MyniKa cjinBaeTca c TeMHOH uejibio, n CTpenoK M Bpe3aeTca" MymKoii b nejib h 3ana- 
CTyio npocTO "TepaeT" ee. Hannnne HeSojibiuoro, "Ha bojiocok", npocBeTa no3BOJiaeT KOHTpojinpoBaTb 
nojio>KeHHe MyniKn OTHOCHTejibHO nenn h He M Bpe3aTbca" MyniKOH b uejib. TaK Jiynme KOHTpojinpo- 
BaTb nojio>KeHHe n,ejin OTHOcnrejibHO MymKH. HtoSm nyjin He nonuiH cjinmKOM hh3ko, npHueji Ha^o 
noflHaTb, h BaM npH^eTca oSpaTHTbca k TaSjiHuaM npeBbimeHHa cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnii fljia KOHKpeTHO- 
ro o6pa3ii,a opy>KHa (cm. #anee). IIpH CTpenbSe H3 CBfl Ha 200 MeTpoB c OTKpbiTbiM npHuejiOM no bm- 
cyHyBmenca H3 OKona ronoBe, uejiacb "nofl ronoBy" c npocBeTOM (cxeMa 42), Ha^o nocTaBHTb npHueji 
"3". Ha flHCTaHHHH 200 MeTpoB npeBbimeHHe TpaeKTopHH npn stom cocTaBJiaeT 17 cm (cm. Ta6nHuy 
npeBbimeHHH no BHHTOBKe CBfl,). Ecjih bm 6y#eTe uejiHTbca b Ka^MK, nofl noflSopoflOK - nona^eTe b 
nepeHOCHiiy. Ha flHCTami,HH 150 MeTpoB uejibTecb tohho TaK >Ke - nona^eTe Ha 1 cm Bbime (cm. TaSjiH- 
uy), 3(J)(J)eKT Sy^eT tot >Ke. Ha ^HCTaHUHH 100 MeTpoB, ecjiH bm 6y#eTe uejiHTbca tohho TaK >Ke, no# 
o6pe3 c npHuejiOM "2", bm nona^eTe npoTHBHHKy Ha 3 cm HH>Ke nepeHOCHHM. TaKoii npneM Hcnojib3y- 
eTca b CKopoTenHbix yjiHHHbix 6oax, Kor^a uejiH BHe3anHO BbicoBMBaiOTca H3-3a yKpbiTHH Ha KopoT- 

KHX flHCTaHHHaX. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 101 




CxeMa 42. CrpejibSa no rojiOBe otkpmtmm npHnejiOM c npocBeTOM c npnB>i3KOH MyniKH k ropn- 
30HTy yKptiTHa: 

1 - npocBeT 

IIpH TaKHx oScToaTeubCTBax "nenjiaHTecb" MyniKoii 3a ropH30HT yKpwTHa h ocoSo He "BbinejiH- 
BaHTe": Bbme3Jia nejib Ha# MymKoM - "no>KHMaHTe" cnycK. DiaBHoe, npn stom 3a cnycK He nepHyrb. 
OTpeneTHpyiiTe stot MOMeHT npn CTpenbSe no cnopTHBHon nncTOJieTHon MnmeHH N° 4, nocTaBJieH- 
hoh Ha flHCTami,HH 200 m. flnaMeTp 3toh MnmeHH 25 cm, h oh TaKHM b CBoe BpeMa BbiSpaH He cny- 
nanHO - 3to anaMeTp ronoBbi nenoBeKa. 

IIpH CTpenbSe Ha nHCTami,HH 300 MeTpoB no poctoboh nejin bh MO>KeTe "npHBJi3aTbca" kohhh- 
kom MyniKH no ropH30HTy h KaSnyKaM npoTHBHHKa. IIpH stom cmiysT poctoboh mhhichh SyneT npe- 
KpacHO h OTHeTJiHBO BH^eH CBepxy MyniKH (cxeMa 43). Ho htoSm Bama crpejibSa He nonrna cjihhikom 
hh3ko, nocraBbTe npnneji "5". CornacHO TaS-nnne npeBbimemiH cpenHHx TpaeKTopnH Ha bkhtobkc 
CB,3, (cm. TaSjinny ^anee) c npnnejiOM "5", Ha yKa3aHHon flHCTaHnnn c tohkoh npHHejiHBaHHa no ro- 
pH30HTy (no KaSnyKaM) npeBbimeHHe TpaeKTopnH SyneT 70 cm, to ecTb nyjia nonaneT Kyna-TO b 

npa>KKy Ha >KHBOTe. IIpHLI,eJI "5" Ha 3TOH OpHCHTHpOBOHHOH, npH6jIH3HTeJIbHO "npHKHHyTOH" nHCTaH- 

hhh c npnuenoM no KaSnyKaM - oneHb xopomaa Bemb. Ha paccToaHHH 250 MeTpoB nyna nonaneT TO>Ke 
Ha 70 cm Bbinie KaSnyKOB, Ha 200 h 350 MeTpoB - Bbinie Ha 64 cm, to ecTb npaKTHnecKH Tyna, Kyna 
Hanp. H na>Ke Ha nHCTami,HJix 150 h 400 MeTpoB no nojiynpHmyBmeMyca nepeSeraiomeMy npoTHBHH- 
Ky CTpejiaiiTe no ero KaSnyKaM c npnuenoM "5" - nonaneTe eMy Bbinie KOJieH. Bee 3to oneHb xopomo, 
npaKTHHHO n SbiCTpo nonynaeTOi npn MaHeBpeHHOM SbiCTpoTenHOM Soe b ropone n b Jiecy, Korna HeT 
BpeMeHH ycTaHaBJiHBaTb npnuen, a Hanp jiOBHTb MyniKoii uenb h noname Ha>KHMaTb Ha cnycK. TaKHM 
oSpa30M mo>kho CTpenaTb H3 jiioSoro fljiHHHOCTBOJibHoro opy>KHa. Pa3yMeeTca, nna 3Toro 3apaHee 
Hy>KHO noname 3arn»nbiBaTb b TaSnnnbi npeBbimeHna TpaeKropnii. 




CxeMa 43 . npnnennBaHne "b Horn no KaSnyKaM" npn CTpenbSe npaMbiM BbiCTpeiiOM c npnnenoM 
"5-c nncTaHnnn 300 m c "npnB»3KOH" MyniKH no jihhhh roproonra: 

1 - JIHHH3 rOpH30HTa 

no hh3khm (rpyaHbiM h nneneBbiM) uenaM CTpenairre tohho TaK >Ke, uenacb no ropn30HTy nofl 
u,ejib c npocBeTOM. Ha hh3koh u,ejiH 3amHTHoro UBeTa oneHb TpynHO BbiSpaTb Tomcy npHuenHBamui 
"no u,eHTpy", u,enacb MyniKoM OTKpbiToro npimena. npn stom ycTaHaBnHBairre npimen "II" (iioctojih- 
HbiM) - oh oSbiHHO cooTBeTCTByeT flHCTaHii,HH 300 MeTpoB. Ecjih Bbi nonaneTe Bbinie hjih HH>Ke Ha 10 
cm, sto 3HaneHHa He HMeeT. DiaBHoe, htoSm bh nonanH xoTb Ha 1 cm Bbinie jihhhh ropn30HTa yKpbi- 
THa, 3a KOTopbiM HaxoflHTca uejib (cxeMa 44). 




CxeMa 44. npHuejiHBaHHe no ropn30HTy c npocBeTOM npn SoeBbix CTpejibSax no hhbkhm (rpyn- 
hmm h njieneBbiM) nejuiM npaMbiM BbiCTpeiiOM c npimenoM "II" (nocToaHHbiii) 

Bo Bcex BbimeonHcaHHbix cnynaax npocBer HHKorna He SepnTe SojibniHM - oh ^ojiaceH SbiTb ene 

BHfleH. 

OTKpbiTbiii npimen Hano yBa>KaTb n Hanp yMeTb c hhm paSoTaTb. npn pasSHTOH (hjih "cShtoh") 
onTHKe OTKpbiTbiii npimen - 3to nocnenHaa Hane>Kna. BpeMa ot BpeMeHH TpeHnpynrecb CTpenaTb c 
hhm. KaK noKa3biBaeT npaKTHKa, y CTpeiiKa, npnroe BpeMa paSoTaiomero c onTHnecKHM npnnejiOM, 
3peHne noflnac Hy>KHO 3aHOBO npncnocaSjiHBaTb k paSoTe c "oTKpbiToii" Mynncon. npn stom HHor^a 
HaSniOflaiOTca Heo>KHnaHHbie Bemn: CHannepbi pa3ynHBaiOTca ^ep>KaTb poBHyio MyniKy. norpenmocTH 
ot 3Toro BHAHbi Ha cxeMax 45-47. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 102 




CxeMa 45. "Kpymiaa" MyniKa. IlyjiH yiipyj BBepx 




CxeMa 46. "Mejncaa" Mymica. IlyjiH ynflyr bhh3 




CxeMa 47. IIpH Sokobom CMemeHHH MyniKH nyjin non/iyr b CTopoHy CMeineHna 
Ha MHornx CTapwx CHCTeMax (TpexjinHenHaa BHHTOBKa BbinycKa #o 1930 ro#a, HeMenKaa bhh- 
TOBKa "May3ep 7,92", anoHCKaa "ApHcaKa") ^Jia Sojiee TOHHoro npnnejinBaHna npHMeromncb Tpe- 
yrojibHbie ocTpoKOHenHbie MyniKH n, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, TpeyrojibHbie npope3H (cxeMa 48). ^eftcTBH- 
TejibHO, ocTpoKOHenHOH MyiiiKOH Jierne BbiSpaTb TOHKy npHu,ejiHBaHHa HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha nejin h 
M 3aKpenHTbca" 3a Hee, ho TaKoe Moryr scJ^eKTHBHO ^ejiaTb xopoiuo oSyneHHbie CTpejiKH c OTJinnHbiM 
3peHHeM. y CTpenKOB c oSbiHHbiMH flaHHbiMH npH TpeyrojibHOH MyniKe nojiynaeTca eme Sojiee noBbi- 
iueHHoe paccenBaHHe no BbicoTe, TaK Kaic hm Tpy^HO KOHTpojinpoBaTb ocTpyio BepniHHy MyniKH Bpo- 
BeHb c pacnnbiBineHca rpnBKon nejinKa. 



CxeMa 48. TpeyronbHaa MyniKa 

B HeKOTopwx cjiynaax Hcnojib3yiOTca TaK Ha3biBaeMbie flnonrpHHecKne npnnejibi. Cyrb ^non- 
TpnnecKoro npnne.na coctoht b tom, hto CBepxy pacnjibiBinnnca nennK c nojiyKpyrjion npope3bio KaK 
6w HaKpbiT TaKHM >Ke pacnjibiBniHMca nennKOM c TaKoii >Ke npope3bio. nojiynaeTca Kpyraoe OTBep- 
CTHe, paBHOMepHO pacnjibiBineeca no KpaaM (cxeMa 49). IIocpeflHHe 3Toro OTBepcTna neTKO Bn^HMaa 
MyniKa y^ep>KHBaeTca nerKO n tohho. Tjia3 CTpenKa hhcthhkthbho CTaBHT MyniKy CTporo b nenrp ,h,h- 
onrpnnecKoro OTBepcTna (flnonrpa) n (JmKcnpyeT npn 3tom tojibko #Be neTKO Bn^HMbie tohkh - Myni- 
Ky n nejib. ToHHOCTb CTpejibSbi c flnonrpnHecKHM npnnejiOM HeconocTaBHMO Bbime, neM c OTKpbiTbiM 
npnnejiOM. Ho y flnonrpnnecKoro npnne.na ecTb HeflOCTaTOK - npn njioxoM ocBemeHnn (#a>Ke b nac- 
MypHyio norofly) b ero ManeHbKoe OTBepcrne CTaHOBHTca Hnnero He bh^ho. nojioaceHne He cnacaiOT 
CMeHHbie flnonTpw Sojibinnx pa3MepoB. K TOMy >Ke b SoeBbix ycnoBnax, Kor^a B3flbi6jieHHaa 3eMJia h 
>KHflKaa rpa3b na^aiOT CBepxy bhh3 b caMbie HenpeflCKa3yeMbie MOMenrbi, flnonrpnHecKne OTBepcTna 
nerKO 3acopaiOTca n Tpy^HO BbinnmaiOTca. no3TOMy b BapBapcKnx ycnoBnax Poccnn flnonrpHHecKne 
npnnejibi Ha SoeBOM opy>KHH He npn>KHJiHCb. K TOMy mq b 3tom npnnejie yMeHbmeHO none 3peHna, 
hto CHH>KaeT CKopocTb HaBOflKH h ocoSemio HeBbiroflHO npn CTpenbSe no flBn^yinnMca uejiHM. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 103 




CxeMa 49. ^HompHHecKHH npnneji 

Ha MeTKocTb CTpejibSbi b 3HaHHiejibHon CTeneHH BJinaeT ocBemeHHe nejin. ripn CTpejibSe c ot- 
KpbiTbiM hjih flHonTpHHecKHM npnnejiOM, ecjiH cojnine cbctht, flonycTHM, c npaBoii ctopohm, Ha npa- 
boh CTopoHe MyniKH MO>KeT nojiyHHTbca otSjicck, KOTopbift CTpenaiomHH npHHHMaeT 3a CTopoHy 
MyniKH. IIpH 3tom nocjieflHaa 6y#eT OTKJiOHeHa bjicbo, OTnero h nyjin otkjioh»tc» bjicbo. IIo 3toh >Ke 
npHHHHe, ecjiH cojnine ctoht bmcoko hjih "cbct Bbinie", nyjin noHflyr mcice. IIpH apKOM cojihchhom 
ocBemeHHH TeMHbie nejin Ka>Kyrca MeHbine. IIpH 3tom MyniKoii OTKpbiToro npnnejia Tpy^Hee "3ane- 
nHTbca" 3a nemp nejin, a ecjiH CTpejiaTb "nofl o6pe3", to, HecMOTpa Ha B3aTbiH npocBeT MOK^y Myni- 
koh h nejibio, nyjin Bee paBHO noii^yr 3HaHHiejibHO Bbinie. OnTHnecKne npnnejibi, no3BOJi5nomne HeT- 
ko BH^eTb raSapHTbi nejin npn jiioSom ocBemeHHH, jinnieHbi sthx HeflOCTaTKOB. 



PA3^EJI 4. nPAKTHHECKAfl BAJIJIHCTHKA CHAHIIEPCKOH CTPEJIBBW 

,H,a>Ke oneHb mctkhh CTpenoK, yMeiomHH 6e3ynpenHO MacKHpoBaTbca, HHKor^a He CTaHeT CHaM- 
nepoM, ecjiH oh He H3ynHT, no>KajiyH, caMbiii OTBeTCTBeHHbiH pa3#eji CHannepcKoro MacTepcTBa, a 
HMeHHO - npaKTHnecKyio SanjiHCTHicy, TaSjinnbi h pacneTbi aji» CTpejibSbi. Tot, kto Bee BpeMa CTpejiaji 
TOJibKO Ha CTpejibSnme, npn CTaH^apTHbix OTMepeHHbix paccToaHHax, HannHaeT "Ma3aTb", CTpejiaa 
^a>Ke Ha otkpmtom nojinroHe no nejiaM, noaBJiaiomHMca Ha npoH3BOJibHbix flHCTaHniiax, He roBopa 
y»ce o CTpenbSe no flBH^ymnMca n BHe3anHO noaBJunoinHMca nejiaM. Ilpn Hajinnnn ^a>Ke cjiaSoro Be- 
Tepica HannHaiOTca HeKOHTpojinpyeivibie npoMaxn. Ilpn CTpejibSe b ropax, Ha pa3Hbix BbicoTax, CBepxy 
bhh3 hjih CHH3y BBepx nyjin jio>KaTca coBceM He Ty^a, icy^a Hy>KHO CTpejiKy. CTpejiOK, npncTpejiaB- 
ihhh BHHTOBKy paHO yTpoM, HanHHaeT flejiaTb npoMax 3a npoMaxoM b noji^eHb jieTHero flH». EcTb eme 
HeMano oScTOjrrejibCTB, npn KOTopwx npoHCxofljn SecKOHenHbie HeoSbacHHMbie npoMaxn, npnneM 
flOBOJibHO rpySbie h HeKOHTpojinpyeivibie. TaK CTpejiaiOT Te, kto npeHeSperaeT CHannepcKHMH TaSjin- 

U,aMH H SajIJIHCTHHeCKHMH pacneTaiviH. 

,3,HCTaHnHH CTpejibSbi, npHHaTbie b oSineBOHCKOBoii npaierHKe, fljia CTpejiKOB-cnopTCMeHOB He- 

npHBblHHbl. KopOTKHMH CHHTaiOTCJI paCCTOJIHHa flO 200 MeipOB, 6JIH3KHMH - flO 600, CpeflHHMH - flO 

1000, a flanbHHMH - flo 2000 MeTpoB. PeanbHbie flHCTaHUHH CHaiinepcKOH CTpejibSbi - p,o 1200 MeTpoB. 
IIonacTb ^a>Ke H3 oneHb xopomen bhhtobkh b pocTOByio uejib Ha Sojiee OTflaneHHOH flHCTaHiniH npo- 
SjieMaTHHHO. JleTamaa nyjia - (})H3HHecKoe Tejio b #BH>KeHHH, Ha KOTopoe ^encTByiOT 3aKOHbi (})H3hkh 
h MaTeMaTHKH. Pa3JiHHHbie (})aKTopbi, B03fleiiCTByiomHe Ha nyjiio, Bee BpeMa CTapaiOTca yBecTH ee mh- 
mo nejiH. Ilpn BefleHHH peanbHoro 6oa CHannep Bbmy>KfleH CHHiaTbca co MHorHMH oSbeierHBHbiMH 
npHHHHaMH, BJinaiomnMH Ha TOHHOCTb CTpejibSbi. npeHeSperaTb hmh Hejib3a. Pa3JinHHbie chjim, CMe- 
maiomne nyjiio b CTopoHy ot nejin, peanbHbi, h c hhmh npHxoflHica CHHTaTbca. 06 3tom Ha^o 3HaTb, 
KaK HeoSxoflHMO 3HaTb h CHannepcKne SamiHCTHHecKHe Ta6nHn;H, a Taioice yMeTb SbiCTpo npoH3BO- 
flHTb HeoSxoflHMbie nonpaBOHHbie SarniHCTHHecKne pacneTbi. B npoTHBHOM cjiynae Hen36e>KHbi He- 
onpaBflaHHbie npoMaxn. Ka>Kflbin npoMax paSoTaeT npoTHB CHannepa. LJejib flOJi>KHa SbiTb nopa>KeHa 
OflHHM eflHHCTBeHHbiM BbiCTpejiOM. OaKTop nopa>KeHHa nejin c nepBoro BbiCTpejia e^Ba jih He Ba>KHee 
nopa>KeHHa nejin BOoSme. HopManbHaa h yBa>Kaiomaa ce6a nejib cpa3y >Ke CKpoeTca h Sojiee b 3tom 
MecTe He noica^eTca. A ecjin b tom MecTe hto-to h noKa>KeTca, to 3to Sy^eT npHMaHKa, noflCTaBJieH- 
Haa npoTHBHHKOM. KpoMe Toro, nopa>KeHHe nejin c nepBoro BbiCTpejia ^aBHT npoTHBHHKy Ha ncnxmcy 
h fleMopanH3yeT ero. IIpoMax, noMHMO Bcero nponero, ^eiviacKHpyeT CHaiuiepcicyio no3Hu,Hio Sojibine, 
neM nona^aHHe b nejib, n6o BHHMaHne npoTHBHHKa He nepeioiiOHeHO Ha 3(})4)eKT CHannepcKoro nona- 
flaHHa. IIo3TOMy Ka>Kflbin BbiCTpeji #0Ji>KeH SbiTb noflroTOBJieH h npocHHTaH. 

YnoMHHaHHe o Ta6jiHu,ax n HeoSxoflHMOCTH cnmaTb nyrb jih He Ha xo#y y MHornx Bbi3biBaeT 
OTKpoBeHHyio cicyicy h HenpeoflOJiHMyio JieHb, 3anacTyio BOoSine OTSnBaa oxoTy k CHaiinepcKOMy 
npoMbicjiy. Ho, He 3Haa ochob SamiHCTHKH, CHannepoM He CMO>KeT CTaTb ^a>Ke otjikhhwh CTpejiOK. 

OnPE^EJIEHHE HCXO^HWX ^AHHWX RJW CTPEJIbBW. nOHHTHE 

TWCHHHOH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 104 



^jia nopa>KeHHa nejin HeoSxoflHMO BbiSpaTb ycTaHOBKy npHnejibHbix npncnocoSjieHHH, hcxoa- 

HblMH flaHHblMH flJia KOTOpOH aBJiaKxrca: 

- no BepTHKanH - paccToamie flo nejin c BHeceHHeM nonpaBOK Ha TeMnepaTypy B03flyxa, npo- 
flOJibHbiM Berep, aTMOC(|)epHoe flaBJiemie, yron MecTa nejin h bh# Soenpnnaca (jiencaa hjih Ta>Kejiaa 
nyna); 

- no ropn30HTajin - nojio>KeHHe uejiH no ropn30HTy OTHOcnrejibHO tohkh npHnejiHBaHna n ropn- 
3onrajibHbie nonpaBKn Ha flepnBannio, Sokoboh BeTep h #BH>KeHHe nejin no (J)poHTy. 

06a BH^a nonpaBOK - BepTHKanbHbix n ropH30HTanbHbix - oneHb Ba>KHbi. ToHHOCTb onpeflejieHna 
paccToaHHH ^0 nejiH HMeeT peiuaiomee 3HaneHHe fljia ee nopa>KeHHa. OHa flOJDKHa SbiTb TeM Soubnien, 
neM Sojibme ^ajibHOCTb CTpenbSbi. Ho fljia HanHHaiomHx CTpenKOB Ha ^HCTaHnnax j\o 600 MeTpoB 
CTpenbSbi no pocTOBOH nejin Sojibiuee 3HaneHHe HMeeT npaBHJibHaa HaBOflKa no roprooHianH (noTOMy 
hto peanbHaa SoeBaa nejib - nejiOBeK - no BbicoTe Hecon3MepnMO Sojibiue, neM no ninpnHe). K TOMy 
>Ke, npHBa3aBmncb k cncTeivie ropn30HTajibHbix nonpaBOK n HaynnBnincb npaBHJibHO onpe/iejiaTb pac- 
CToaHne j\o nenn, HanHHaiomnM CHannepaM 6y#eT Jierne 3aTeM paSoTaTb co CHannepcKHMn TaSjinna- 

MH. 

HTaK, o ropn30HTajibHon HaBOflKe opy>KHa. J\im ycnenmon noflroTOBKn hcxoahmx ^aHHbix koh- 
KpeTHoro BbiCTpena, BBefleHHa ropn30HTajibHbix nonpaBOK n onpeflejieHHa ^ajibHOCTH CHannepy ane- 
j\yQT neTKO yacHHib noHSTne TaK Ha3biBaeMon TbicaHHoft. TbicanHaa - 3to eflHHnna H3MepeHna pac- 
CToaHHH no ropn30HTy. CaMa no ce6e TbicanHaa - sto oneHb xopomee n npaKTHHHoe H3o6peTeHne, 
KOTopoe aBJiaeTca pacneTHon ochoboh b MOK^yHapoflHOH cTpenKOBon n apTHJuiepniicKOH npaKTHKe 
apMHH Bcex CTpaH Mnpa. IIoHaTHe TbicanHon ncnojib3yeTca fljia BBefleHHa ropn30HTajibHbix nonpaBOK, 
KoppeKTHpoBamui oraa no ropn30HTajin npn cipejibSe H3 CTpejncoBoro opy>KHa n apTHJiJiepnncKHx 
cncTeM, a TaK>Ke fljia onpeflejieHHa paccToaHHH n ^ajibHOCTH j\o nejien. 

KaK o6pa3yeTca 3Ta caMaa TbicanHaa? Ycjiobho ropn30HT BOKpyr Hac BMecTO npnBbiHHbix 360° 
pa36nT Ha 6000 paBHbix nacreM. Yroji, HaKpbiBaiomnH 1/6000 ropn30HTa, Ha3biBaeTca oahoh mecTH- 
TbicaHHOH, hjih npocTO OflHOH TbicaHHOH. TaKaa cooTHOCHTejibHaa BejiHHHHa BbiSpaHa He cnynaHHO. 
BbinieynoMaHyTaa o^Ha TbicanHaa - nocToaHHaa Hen3MeHaeMaa yraoBaa BejiHHHHa, npnBa3aHHaa k 
MeTpHnecKOH cncTeivie H3MepeHHH. Ha jhoSom paccToaHHH ot CTpejnca j\o nejin 3Ta caMaa o^Ha Tbican- 
Haa cocTaBJiaeT OflHy TbicanHyio nacTb 3Toro paccToamia, pa3BepHyryio B03Jie nejin no c|)poHTy (cxeMa 
50). Ha paccToaHHH 100 MeTpoB ot CTpejnca o^Ha TbicanHaa no ropn30HTy 3aHHMaeT paccToaHne 10 
cm, Ha 200 m - 20 cm, Ha 300 m - 30 cm, Ha 400 m - 40 cm h TaK ^anee. Ha flncTaHUHH 1 km o#Ha ra- 
caHHaa paBHa 1 MeTpy. 



IflOJO 




CxeMa 50. OflHa TbicanHaa flncTaHu,HH, pa3BepHyTaa no (J)poHTy 

TbicaHHbie 3anHCbiBaiOTca h HHTaiOTca cooTBeTCTBeHHO TaK: 

OflHa TbicaHHaa - 0,01 - HOJib, Honb o^hh; 

mecTb TbicaHHbix - 0,06 - HOJib, HOJib niecTb; 

25 TbicaHHbix - 0,25 - HOJib, flBaflnaTb naTb; 

130 TbicaHHbix- 1,30 - OflHH, TpH^naTb; 

1500 TbicaHHbix - 15,00 - naTHa/maTb, HOJib HOJib. 

H3MepeHne yrnoB b TbicaHHbix M05Ker npon3BOflHTbca yraoMepHbiM KpyroM apTHJuiepniicKOH 
SyccojiH, ceTKoii SHHOKna h nepncKona, HiKanoii Sokobbix nonpaBOK h jiHMSaMH MaxoBHKa CHaiinep- 
CKoro npHu,ejia, a TaK>Ke noflpynHbiMn npe^MeTaMH. Byccojib HMeeT niKajiy Ha Kpyre, pa3flejieHHyio Ha 
SojibHine fleneHHa b 1-00 h Manwe b 0-20. Ehhokjib h nepncKon HMeiOT ceTKH, pa3flejieHHbie Ha Sojib- 
nine ^ejieHHa b 0-10 (flecaTb TbicaHHbix) h Manwe b 0,05 (naTb TbicaHHbix). npHnejibi nyjieMeTHbie h 
CHaiinepcKHe hmciot ^ejieHHa b 0,01 (o^Hy TbicanHyio). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



105 



OIIPE^EJIEHHE PACCTOilHHH no yrJIOBOH BEJIHHHHE MECTHWX 
nPE^METOB (C HCnOJIb30BAHHEM TblOIHHOH) 

J\rs onpeflejiemia ^HCTaHnHH CTpejibSbi 3thm cnocoSoM HeoSxoflHMO tohho 3apaHee 3HaTb hih- 
pHHy hjih BbicoTy npe^MeTa (nejin), ro KOToporo onpe^ejiaeTca paccToamie, onpeflejinib no HMeio- 
mHMca onTHnecKHM npnSopaM yrjiOByio BejiHHHHy 3Toro npe^MeTa b TbicanHbix, nocne nero bwhhc- 
jiHTb paccToamie, nojib3yacb (})opMyjiOH 

fl = (Bx loooyy 

iTje J\ - flHCTaHu,Ha j\o nejin; 

1000 - nocToaHHaa Hen3MeHaeMaa MaTeMaranecKaa BejinnHHa, npncyiCTByiomaa Bcer^a b 3toh 
4)opMyne; 

y - yrjiOBaa BejiHHHHa nejin, to ecTb, roBopa npome, CKOJibKO oflHOTbicanHbix flejieHHH Ha niKane 
onTHnecKoro npnnejia hjih ^pyroro npnSopa 3aHMeT nejib; 

B - MeTpHnecKaa (to ecTb b MeTpax) H3BecTHaa ninpHHa hjih BbicoTa nejin. 

Onpe#ejiaa paccToamie TaKHM cnocoSoM, Ha#o 3HaTb hjih npe#CTaBJiaTb ce6e JiHHeiiHbie pa3Me- 
pbi nejin, ee iunpHHy hjih BbicoTy. JiHHeiiHbie ^amibie (paBMepw) npeflMeTOB h nejieii (b MeTpax) b ne- 
xothoh oSmeBOHCKOBOH npaKTHKe npHHaTbi cjieflyiomne (TaSji. 6). 

TaSjiHua 6 



Upe^MCT 


Bucora-H 

P WA, 


niHpsHa,H 

± ' \AA/ 


nexoTHHeq: b noHHBnxpocr 


1.7 


0,5 


nepeGeraioniHH iipwuyE iuhhcb 


1.5 


0,5 


pa3EepHVTEm 6okom 


U 


0.4 


TejierpatJiHEiH ctoh6: flepeESHHbiH 


6.0 


- 


6eTOHHBIH 


8.0 


- 


OflH09TaKHEIH flOM, CCpBIH 


5.0 


- 


OflHH aiax KpynHOEBHejiEHoro n<Hra 


3.0 


- 


^CTBipeXOCHBIH E3TOHI TOESpHEIH 


4.0 


14- 15 


naocaxHpcKHH 


4.0 


20,0 


ARTOibraTTmm - rpy-soiei w 


2,0-3,0 


5.0^0 


jiencoEaa 


U 


3.E^^ 


TonoBa: 6e3 ksckh 


0,25 


0,2 


eksckc 


0,30 


0,30 


CipOHTeJIbHblH KUpLUll 


f T 


AnHHa 25 cm Toperi 12 cm 


TomnHBao-/ cm 



HanpHMep, Hy>KHO onpeflejimb paccToaHne flo nejin (rpy^Haa hjih pocTOBaa MHiueHb), KOTopaa 
noMecTHJiacb b ppa ManeHbKHx SoKOBbix OTpe3Ka niKanbi oniHHecKoro npnnejia IICO-1, hjih paBHa 
TOJimHHe npnnejibHoro neHbKa npnnejia ny, hjih paBHa TOJimHHe MyuiKH OTKpbiToro bhhtobohhofo 
npnnejia. IIInpHHa rpyflHoii hjih pocTOBoii mhihchh (nexoTHHeu, b nojiHbiii poct), KaK bh^ho h3 TaSji. 
6, paBHa 0,5 m. IIo BceM npoMepaM BbiuieyKa3aHHbix npHnejibHbix npncnocoSjieHHii (cm. ^anee) nejib 
3aKpbiBaeTca yrjiOM 2 TbicanHbix. GneflOBaTejibHo: 

fl=(0,5 x 1000)/2=250m. 

Ho ninpHHa >khboh nejin MO>KeT SbiTb flpyroii. IIo3TOMy CHaiinep oSbiHHO H3MepaeT iunpHHy 
njien b pa3Hbie BpeMeHa ro#a (no OflOK^e) h TOJibKO Tor^a npnHHMaeT ee KaK nocToaHHyio BejiHHHHy. 
Ha/io BbiMepnTb h 3HaTb ocHOBHbie pa3Mepw HejiOBenecKoii (Jmrypu, JiHHeiiHbie pa3Mepw ochobhoh 
SoeBoii TexHHKH, aBTOTpaHcnopTa h Bcero, k neMy mo>kho "npnBa3aTbca" Ha CTopoHe, 3aHaToii npo- 
thbhhkom. H oflHOBpeMeHHO ko BceMy 3TOMy cjie^yeT OTHOCHTbca KpnTHHecKH. HecMOTpa Ha Jia3ep- 
Hbie flajibHOMepw, onpeflejieHne flanbHOCTen b SoeBoii npaKTHKe apMHH Bcex CTpaH npoH3BOflHTca no 
BbimenpHBefleHHOH (})opMyjie. O Hen 3HaiOT Bee h Bee eio nojib3yiOTca h nosTOMy >Ke CTapaiOTca BBe- 
cth npoTHBHHKa b 3a6jiy>KfleHHe. HeoflHOKpaTHO Smjih cjiynan, Kor^a Tejierpac})Hbie ctojiSm HOHbio 
CKpbiTHO HapamnBajiHCb Ha 0,5 m - ^HeM 3to flaBano npoTHBHHKy omnSKy b pacneTax no flanbHOCTH 
50-70 MeTpoB HeflOJieTa. 



yrJIOBWE BEJIHHHHW B TWCaHHWX nO^PyHHWX IIPE^METOB H 

nPHCnOCOBJIEHHH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



106 



fljia H3MepeHHa yraoBbix BejiHHHH HeneM b TbicanHbix Hcnojit3yiOTca HanSojiee ynoTpeSnTejib- 
Hbie npeflMeTbi, KOTopwe b SoeBoM npaierHKe nacTO OKa3biBaiOTca no# pyKon. TaKHMH npe^MeTaMn h 
cpeflCTBaMH aBJiaiOTca fleTann OTKpbiTbix npnnejiOB, npnnejibHbie hhth, MapKH, ceTKH onrnHecKnx 
npnnejiOB h flpyrnx onrnHecKnx npnSopoB, a TaK>Ke npe^MeTbi noBceflHeBHoro oSnxofla, Bcer^a HMe- 
loinneca y BoeHHOCJiy>Kamero, - naTpoHbi, ciihhkh, oSbiHHbie MacniTaSHbie MeTpnnecKne jimhchkh 
(cxeMbi 51-55). 




CxeMa 5 1 IIpoMepbi b TbicanHbix fleTanen OTKpbiToro BHHTOBOHHoro npnne.na 
KaK y>Ke Swjio ynoMaHyro paHee, MyniKa no mnpnHe 3aKpbiBaeT b npoeicnnn Ha nenb yron b 2 
TbicaHHbix. IIo BbicoTe MyniKa 3aicpbiBaeT 3 TbicanHbix. Ba3a npnne.na - mnpnHa npope3H - 3aKpbiBaeT 6 

TbICaHHblX. 




CxeMa 52. YrjiOBbie BejinnnHbi npnnejibHbix HHren onrnnecKoro npnne.na ny, IIE n IIB 

KaK 6bino ynoMjmyTO paHee, npnnejibHbin neHeK no ninpnHe 3aicpbiBaeT b npoeicnnn Ha nenb 

yron b 2 TbicaHHbix roproonrajibHbie hhth 3aKpbiBaiOT yraw no CBoen TOJimnHe TaK>Ke Ha 2 TbicanHbix 

Ba3a npnnejia A - paccTOjnrne MOK^y hhtjimh - 3aicpbiBaeT 7 TbicanHbix 




CxeMa 53 IIpoMepbi b TbicanHbix ceTKH onrnnecKoro npnneji, IICO-1: 

A - ochobhoh yrojibHHK fljia CTpeubSbi #o 1 000 m, 

B - Tpn flonojiHHTejibHbix yronbHHKa ^Jia CTpeubSbi Ha flHCTaHnnn 1 100, 1200, 1300 m; 

B - ninpHHa HiKanbi Sokobmx nonpaBOK ot 10 h #o 10 TbicanHbix cooTBeTCTByeT 0-20 (RBajmaTb 

TbICaHHblx), 

T - ot nenrpa (ocHOBHoro yrojibHHKa) BnpaBO-BJieBO p,o nn(|)pbi 10 cooTBeTCTByeT 0,10 (flecaTb 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



107 



TbicaHHbix) BwcoTa KpanHen BepTHKajibHoM phckh y nnc^pbi 10 paBHa 0,02 (ppe TbicanHbix); 

J\ - paccToaHHe MOK^y flByMa ManbiMH ^ejieHnaMH paBHO 0,01-1 (o#Ha TbicanHaa), BbicoTa o#- 
hoh ManoM pncKH Ha nncane SoKOBbix nonpaBOK paBHa 0,01 (o#Ha TbicanHaa), 

E- nn^pbi Ha ^anbHOMepHOH uiKane 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 cooTBeTCTByiOT paccToaHHaM 200, 400, 600, 
800 h 1000 m, 

5K - u,H(})pa 1 ,7 noKa3biBaeT, hto Ha 3tom ypoBHe niKanbi no BbicoTe bxoaht cpeflHHH pocT nejio- 
BeKa 170 cm 




CxeMa 54. IIpoMepbi b TbicanHbix cctkh Shhokjis h nepncKona 

Ot ManoH pncKH ^0 SojibiuoH pncKH (Manbie flHCTaHu,HH) HaicpbiBaeTca yron 0,05 (rorrb Tbican- 
hwx); 

ot SojibiuoH pncKH flo SojibiuoH pncKH HaKpbiBaeTca yron 0,10 (flecaTb TbicanHbix). 
BbicoTa Manon phckh - 2,5 TbicanHbix. 

BblCOTa SoJIbHIOH pHCKH - 5 TbICJIHHblX. 

IlepeKJiaflHHbi KpecTHKOB - 5 TbicanHbix. 

IIpH nojib30BaHHH noflpynHbiMn cpeflCTBaMH ^Jia onpeflejieHna yrjiOBbix bcjikhkh hx noMemaiOT 
Ha paccToaHHe 50 cm ot rjia3a. 3to paccToaHne BbiBepeHO Ha npoTa>KeHHH MHornx ^ecaTHJieTHH. Ha 
paccToaHHH 50 cm ot rjia3a bkhtobohhwh naTpoH h cmiHKH 3aKpbiBaiOT b npoeicnHH Ha nejib yrjibi, 
yKa3aHHbie Ha cxeMe 55. 



jtaf 




>M 




CxeMa 55 

1 caHTHMeTp oSbiHHOH MacniTaSHon jiKHeiiKH (jryHine, ecuH OHa cflenaHa H3 npo3paHHoro MaTe- 
pnajia) Ha paccToaHHH 50 cm ot raa3a 3aicpbiBaeT yron 20 TbicanHbix; 1 mhjijihmctp, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, 2 
TbicaHHbix (cxeMa 56). 



^^^^^1 I I I 

IS MM 



CxeMa 56 

IIpeflycMOTpHTejibHbie cTpejiKH 3apaHee onpeflejiaKxr ce6e yraoMepHyio flncTaHUHio b 50 cm fljia 
B03MO>KHoro onpeflejieHHa ^HCTaHnHH no yrnoBbiM BejiHHHHaM noflpynHbix npe^MeTOB. OSwhho ajih 
3Toro OTMepaiOT 50 cm Ha bkhtobkc h flenaiOT pncKy. 



nPHMEPW OnPE^EJIEHHil ^AJIbHOCTH no yrJIOBWM BEJIHHHHAM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 108 

Eme pa3 BepHeMca k y>Ke penieHHoM 3ap,sne: rpy^Haa uejib yMecTHJiacb b ppa ManeHbKHx OTpe3- 
Ka niKajiw roprooHranbHbix nonpaBOK npHuejia IICO-1. Onpeflejinrb paccroaHHe. 

Pewenue. IIInpHHa uejiH 0,5 m (nexoTHHeu,), o#hh OTpe30K niKanbi - 1 TbicanHaa (cxeMa 57). 

A = (0,5 x 1000)/2 = 250 m. 

CueflOBaTejibHO, ecuH uejib (nexoTHHeu,) noMecTHJiacb b jxsa OTpe3Ka niKanbi npHuejia IICO-1, 
paccToaHHe flo Hee 250, ecuH b o#hom OTpe3Ke - 500 m, b nojiOBHHe OTpe3Ka - 1000 m. 

MUI*|IA]lM|lll 
™ A 

A 

CxeMa 57. Ilpimeji nCO-1: 

1 AGJieHHe = 1 TbicaHHaa 

3AIIOMHHTE! 3Ta 3a#ana Bbi^ana yace roTOBoe penieHHe, npHMeHHMoe b 6ok>. He 3a6yflbre! 
U,ejib b oflHOM OTpe3Ke - flHCTaHHHa 500 m, b flByx OTpe3Kax - 250 m, b nojiOBHHe OTpe3Ka - 1000 m. 

3adana. Onpe^ejiHTb no OTKpbiTOMy npHuejiy flHCTaHHHio flo uejiH, ecuH uejib nojiHOCTbio 3 a- 
KpbiBaeTca MyniKoii no ninpnHe. 

Peuienue. IIInpHHa Mynncn (cm. paHee) 2 TbicanHbix, ninpnHa uejiH (nexoTHHen) 0,5 m (cxeMa 
58). 

J\ = (0.5 x 1000)/2 = 250 m. 

CneflOBaTejibHO, ecjin nenb no ninpnHe paBHa ninpnHe MyniKn - ^HCTaHnna 250 m; ecjin nenb no 
ninpnHe B^Boe MeHbme ninpnHbi MyniKn - flHCTaHnna 500 m. 3to TO>Ke y>Ke roTOBoe penieHHe, n ctoht 
ero 3anoMHHTb (/urn skohomhh BpeMeHH b 6oio). 



t,-4i 




CxeMa 58 

3adana. OnpeflejiHTb no OTKpbiTOMy npnnejiy flHCTaHHHio CTpejibSbi no nepeSeraiomeMy nexo- 
THHny, KOTopbin no CBoen BbicoTe paBeH BbicoTe MyniKn. 

Peuienue. BbicoTa MyniKn (cm. paHee) paBHa 3 TbicanHbiM. BbicoTa nepeSeraiomero npHrayBine- 
roca nexoTHHna 1,5 m (cxeMa 59). 

J\ =(1.5 x 1000)/3 = 500 m 

CneflOBaTejibHO, ecjin nepeSeraiomnn nexoTHHen no BbicoTe 6y#eT b rb& pa3a Sojibine BbicoTbi 
MyniKn, flHCTami,Ha j\o Hero 6y#eT 250 m. Ecjih b j\b& pa3a MeHbiue - 1000 m. 3to TO>Ke roTOBoe penie- 
HHe, h ero Ha^o 3anoMHHTb. 




CxeMa 59 

fljia onpefleneHHa flHCTaimHH j\o uejiH npn CTpejibSe c npimejiaMH ny, IIE h IIB cjie^yeT 3 a- 
noMHHTb cjieflyiomne roTOBbie peniemia. 

3adana. IlepeSeraiomHH nexoTHHeu, 3aKpbiBaeTca BbipaBHHBaiomeH hhtbio npHuejia ny (2 th- 
caHHbix) ^0 KOJieH (0,5 m) (cxeMa 60). 

Peuienue: 

fl =(0.5 x 1000)/2 = 250 m 




CxeMa 60 

3adana. IlepeSeraiomHH nexoTHHeu, 3aKpbiBaeTca BbipaBHHBaiomeH hhtbio ro noaca (0,8 m) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 109 

(cxeMa 61). 

Peuienue 

fl, =(0.8 x 1000)/2 = 400 m 




CxeMa 61 

3adana. nepeSeraiomHH nexoTHHeu, 3aKpwBaeTca BbipaBHHBaiomeH hhtbio ao mien (1,2 m) 
(cxeMa 62). 

Peiuenue: 

R =(1.2 x 1000)/2 = 600 m 




CxeMa 62 

3adana. nepeSeraiomnH nexoTHHeu, 3aKpbiBaeTca BbipaBHHBaiomeH HHTbio nc-JiHOCTbio (1,5 m) 
(cxeMa 63). 

Peuienue: 

fl =(1.5 x 1000)/2 = 750 m 




CxeMa 63 
OnPE^EJIEHHE ^AJIBHOCTH no BA3E OIITHHECKHX nPHIJEJIOB ny, nE, nB 

PaccToaHHe Me>Kfly BbipaBHHBaiomHMH hhtsmh npHnejiOB ny, IIE, nB Ha3biBaeTca 6a30H npn- 
uejia (A Ha cxeMe 52). B npoeicniiH Ha nenb 6a3a npHuejia HaKpbiBaeT yroir b 7 TbicanHbix (0,07) (cxe- 
Ma 52). TaKoft npoMep BbiSpaH He cjiynaHHO. C noMombio HexHTpoii (J)opMyjibi no 6a3e npnnejia Moac- 
ho BecbMa tohho, c yBepeHHOCTbio njiioc-MHHyc 10 MeTpoB, onpeflejiaTb flncTaHUHH #o nejieii. 
cDopMyna BbinncjieHHa npn 3tom cjie^yiomaa: 

J\ = (uinpMHa uejiH (cm) x kojihhcctbo uejieii b 6a3e)/7 x 10 

npHMep. B 6a3y npHne.na yiaiaflbiBaeTca Tpn pa3a rpy^Haa MHmeHb H3BecTHOH HinpHHbi 50 cm. 

fl =(50 x 3 x 10)/7 = 210 m 

no nojiy6a3e paccToaHHe onpeflejiaeTca no toh >Ke (})opMyjie, ho b HHCJiHrejie BMeero 10 flOJi>KHa 
CToaTb u,H(})pa 100, a b 3HaMeHaTejie - u,H(J)pa 35 bmccto 7. 

npnMep. B nojiy6a3y onrHnecicoro npnu,ejia o#hh pa3 yKJia^biBaeTca "flBH>Kymaaca (jmrypa" 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 110 

(ninpHHa 50 cm). 

fl, =(50 x 1 x 100)/35 = 143 M(oKpyrjieHHO 150 m). 

JIjis onpefleneHHa paccToaHna no TOJimHHe Sokobmx BbipaBHHBaiomHx HHTen nojib3yiOTca toh 
>Ke (})opMyjiOH, ho b ee 3HaMeHaTejie noflCTaBJiaeTca nn(})pa 20. 3adcma. B TOJimHHy hhth yKJia^biBa- 
Kxrca flBe "rojiOBHbie (jmrypbi" mnpnHon 30 cm. Onpeflejinrb paccToaHne. Peuienue: 

J\ =(100 x 2 x 30)/20= 300 m 

BHHMaHHe! 3to TO>Ke roTOBoe pemeHne. 

OIIPE^EJIEHHE ^AJIbHOCTH no CETKE BHHOKJM H nEPHCKOnA 

3adana. nepeSeraioinnn nexoTHHeu, noMecTHJica b nojiOBHHy Manoro ^ejieHna roprooHTajibHon 
niKanbi. 3Ta nojiOBHHa ^ejieHna cocTaBJiaeT 2,5 TbicanHon, mnpnHa nexoTHHna - 0,5 m (cxeMa 64, no- 
3nnna A). Peuienue: 

A =(0.5 x 1000)/2,5 = 200 m 




CxeMa 64 3adana. nepeSeraioinnn nexoTHHeu, noMecTHJica no BepTHKann MOK^y nepTOHKon n 
KpecTHKOM, hto cooTBeTCTByeT 5 TbicaHHbiM. BbicoTa nexoTHHna 150 cm (cxeMa 64, no3nnna B). Pe- 
uienue: 

R =(1.5 x 1000)/5 = 300 m 

EMCTPOE OnPE^EJIEHHE ^HCTAHIJHH ^O IJEJIH ^AJIbHOMEPHOH 

niKAJioii nPHi^EJiA nco-i 

B onTHnecKOM CHannepcKOM npnnejie IICO-1 npe^ycMOTpeHa nncana onpe#ejieHHa paccToamiH, 
npnBa3aHHaa k cpe^HeMy pocTy nejiOBeica 170 cm. IIpHMepbTe pocT nejiOBeica ot Hn>KHero ropn30HTa 
niKanbi ^0 BepxHero, n u,n(J)pa, nofl KOTopon oh nojiHOCTbio noMecTnrca, 6y#eT 03HanaTb npn6jiH3n- 
TejibHyio flanbHOCTb, ±50 MeTpoB. 

IIpHMep. nexoTHHeu, b nojmbin pocT nojiHOCTbio noMemaeTca nofl nn^poii 4. CneflOBaTejibHO, 
flHCTaHUHa paBHa 400 MeTpaM (cxeMa 65). 




CxeMa 65 

Bojiee tohho no 3toh micajie flncTaHnnio momcho BbinncjinTb onaTb 5Ke no BbimenpnBefleHHon 
(})opMyjie flanbHOCTH, ecun H3BecTHa TOHHaa BbicoTa nejin. flonycTHM, BbicoTa nejin 180 cm n OHa no- 
MemaeTca no# nn^pon 4. Tor^a no (})opMyjie flanbHOCTH 

R =(1.8 x 1000)/4 = 450 m 

PaccToaHne no (J)opMyjie flanbHOCTH mo>kho onpeflenaTb c ncnojib30BaHneM noflpynHbix 
cpeflCTB, yflepacHBaa nx, KaK ynoMHHanocb Bbime, Ha paccToaHnn 50 cm ot raa3a. HanpHMep, nyna 
BHHTOBOHHoro naTpoHa Sy^eT 3aicpbiBaTb npn TaKOM y#ep>KaHHH 1 5 TbicanHbix no 4)ponry. flonycTHM, 
nyna nojiHOCTbio 3aKpwBaeT rpy30BHK TA3-53 cpeflHen rpyBonoflbeMHOCTn, npnMepHaa ^jinHa koto- 
poro 6 MeTpoB. IIo H3BecTHoii (})opMyjie BbinncnaeM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 111 

fl =(6 x 1000)/15 = 400 m 

OnpefleneHHe paccToaHHa no ceTKe Shhokjui h nepncicona npoH3BOflHTca He Taic nacTO h ^aeT 
pe3yjibTaT c SojibniHMn norpeniHOCTJiMH. 

IIpHMep. fl,Byx3Ta>KHbiH pa3pynieHHbiH aom 6e3 nepflaica (6 m no Ta6ji. 6) noKpwjica flByMa 
SojibinnMH fleneHHaMH ceTKn Shhokjiji (20 TbicaHHbix). 

fl =(6 x 1000)/20 = 300 m 

J\im SbiCTporo onpefleneHna paccToaHHH no ^khbbim nejuiM b coBpeMeHHOM no#BH>KHOM 6010 
nojie3HO 3apaHee onpeflejinrb n Bbiynnrb no roTOBbiM pemeHnaM flamioro nocoSna OTHomeHne pa3- 
MepoB nejin k yrnoBon BejinnnHe onpeflejieHHbix fleTanen npnnejibHbix npncnocoSjieHnn, yrjiOBbix 
npoMepoB ceTOK onTnnecKHx npnnejiOB, HaSjnoflaTejibHbix npnSopoB n noflpynHbix cpe^CTB, Hanpn- 
Mep, ninpnHbi BbipaBHHBaiomeH hhth KOHKpeTHoro CHannepcKoro npnnejia, rjiySnHbi npope3n OTicpbi- 
Toro npnnejia, BbicoTbi MyniKH n t. r. Cjie#yeT 3HaTb, hto b HacToaineM nocoSnn npnBefleHbi ycpeA- 
HeHHbie flaHHbie pa3MepoB npnuejibHbix npncnocoSjieHnn. HecMOTpa Ha TmaTenbHyio noflromcy no# 
oSmnii CTaH^apT, opy>KHe n onrnnecKne npnnejibi nponBBOflnjincb n nponBBOfljrrca Ha pa3Hbix 3aBO- 
flax, b pa3Hoe BpeMa, pa3HbiMH jnoflbMH h Ha pa3HOM oSopyflOBaHnn. Bhhtobkh oflHoro h Toro >Ke th- 
na Moryr HMeTb xoTb h He3HaHirrejibHbie, ho Bee >Ke OTKJiOHeHHa b pa3Mepax ninpHHbi h BbicoTbi Myni- 
KH, mnpHHbi h rjiySnHbi npope3H OTKpbiToro npimejia; npimejibi IIY, IIE, IIB oneHb nacTO HMeiOT 
pa3Hyio BenHHHHy 6a3bi, h #a>Ke coBpeMemibie npimejibi IICO-1 HHor^a no HeoSbacHHMbiM npHHHHaM 
He cooTBeTCTByiOT cbohm npHHejibHbiM ceTKaM. IIo3TOMy Bee BbiHieonncaHHoe Hy>KHO CTporo BblBe- 
paTb Ha TpeHHpoBOHHbix CTpenbSax, npncTpejiHBaacb c KOHKpeTHbiM npimejiOM. CHannepy CJie#yeT 
cocTaBJiaTb cboio "KOJiJieKu,Hio" jiHHeiiHbix pa3MepoB peanbHbix npeflMeTOB, pacnojio>KeHHbix Ha pe- 

ajIbHblX JiaHflHia(J)TaX KOHKpeTHblX MeCT SoeBblX CoSblTHH. 

TJIA30MEPHOE OIIPE^EJIEHHE PACCTOHHHH nPH ^EOHIJHTE BPEMEHH 

OcHOBHbiM cnocoSoM onpeflejiemia paccToamiii b MaHeBpeHHOM 6010 npn flec})HLi,HTe BpeMeHH 
6bui, ecTb h eme flOJiro 6y#eT HaTpeHHpoBaHHbiH rjia30Mep. HaBbiK b SbiCTpoM h tohhom onpeflejiemiii 
paccToaHHa Ha raa3 mo>kho npnoSpecTH TOJibico b pe3yjibTaTe ycTOHHHBbix nocToamibix TpeHHpoBOK 
jhoSmmh flocTynHbiMH cnocoSaMH, Hcnojib3ya fljia 3Toro Ka>KflbiH y^oSHbiH cjiynan. 

BcnoMoraTejibHbie cnocoSw: HenocpeflCTBemibiii npoMep mccthocth (Kompojib - npoBepKa Tpe- 
HHpoBKH onpefleneHHa flHCTaHu,HH Ha rjia3); onpefleneHHe paccToamiii no yrjiOBbiM BejiHHimaM (cm. 
paHee) npeflMeTOB h u,ejieii h onpeflejieHHe paccToamiH no KapTe. 

Onpe^ejiHTb paccToamie Ha raa3 mo>kho no CTeneHH bh^hmocth h Ka>KymeHca BejiHHHHe npe#- 
MeTOB hjih u,ejieH, no OTpe3icaM MecTHOCTH, xopomo 3aneHaTJieBinnMca b naMaTH, hjih iryreM coneTa- 
Hna Toro n flpyroro cnocoSoB. 

Jljm onpeflejieHna paccToaHHii no CTeneHH bh^hmocth h ica^ymeiica BejinnnHe npeflMeTOB hjih 
nejien rjia30MepmnKy cjie^yeT HMeTb cboio (nHflHBHflyajibHyio) naMjrricy, b KOTopoM aojdkho SbiTb 
yKa3aHO, KaK eMy bhahh pa3JiHHHbie npeflMeTbi h u,ejiH Ha pa3Hbix paccToamiax. Cboio coScTBeHHyio, 
BbiBepeHHyio no# CBoe 3peHne naMaTKy Ha^o HMeTb noTOMy, hto y pa3Hbix jHOfleii ocTpoTa 3peHna h 
CTeneHb BoenpHaTHa pa3JiHHHbi. 

Hn>Ke npHBOflHTca TaKaa npHMepHaa naM^TKa, cocTaBJieHHaa ^Jia rjia30Mepn(HKa c HopManbHbiM 
3peHneM npn SjiaronpnaTHbix ycjiOBnax noroflbi n ocBenteHna. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



112 



PaCCTOflHHe. M 


BB^HMOCTb 


1000-900 


1 M *~^ — 1 


lYH^KI-HHyrJIHHHTh MfXOTHHIia iYV Ki*HJ\HmiH HJIH PiH >' H >HH KJ 1 HCI'H \t H t*p fit HHH /KHhMHH yiHiyphl 




(hcjioe eica h jkheothofd) pacnn&iEaioTCH h Tpyjnao pasuHHHHEi. Ha cipoeHHSx saMerH&i 
nHTHa okoh. BHflH&iobmHH KOHiyp jjepeEa h hhjEhkh nacTE crEOJia. Bbhhei 6ojn,niHe 


crojiGw, MOJtHopayrjiaa.ert rojicruie m>ai_H>pKM. MuaLHomjiHHMrt KOJiottuy uexm'tim' 

KOJIOHHBI aETOMObHUeH H TSHKOB . 


EOO-700 


OnpeflenHercH o6nmH kohtvd jeheoh inHryroi SaMeiH&i nEHjECHHH Hor h tojiobbi 6erym;ero 
hjih Hffynjero HenoEeKa. Ha CTpoeHHH EEmenHKyrca neHHtie Tpyfai; mcoeho paarjufleit 
nepfflaiHoe okho. Ha jjepeBbax 3aMerrHbi6oiibmHe cvt&h BmiBBiHe6ojiEmHie ctoji6bih 
noflnopKH. oaMETHEi koji&h npoBonffiHoro aarpajEfleHHH 


600-500 


TT — -1 -m. M 


4£TKO EEIfleJIHIOTCa KOHTypEI jEHEOH ^HTypti; paSJIHHHMEI JJEHJEEHHH pyK H HOr. MOXHO 

pasrjiHfleTB KpynHBie fleTanH crpo^iHa: Kp&uiEm^ ABepH, OKHa, 3a6op. Ha flepeEtax hctko 
EH^HEi cyHEa. Othctuhbo pasnBraaiOTca kohbb npoEcaioHHoro 3arpaxHeHHH. 


400 


Ha jeheoh fjiHrypepaaiiH'iaiaTCH e o6nrax lepaax ronoEHOHyCop, ofles^a, o6yE&. Ha OKHax 
crpoeHHa saMCTHBi nepanxeTBipaM. Ha flepeEESx saMerHBiBeTBH. PasnHHaicrrcH oHepraHHH 
TajEejiBEt oGpasnpE nexoraero opyxHa: nynaaera, MHHOMera, npoTHBOTaHK&Boro pyxES, 
6e30TKaiHoro opyjpaH. 


300 


PaamnaercH OEan JiHqa HejioECKa h ns ctheic ottchkh ORexppi. SaMerHEi MejncHe flerama 


ciputtma. KapHMii, hjjihmhhkh EoaoL"ro4HEiJt: ipyGbi. Mo^ujopayjiMiHib uoputuy /jepeua- 
ens, cocHa, 6epe3a, JiHna. PasnHHaioTCK nerKHE oCpasqEinexoTHcroopyiEHH: EHHTOEKa, 
aETOMaT. 


200 


M<hkho pasrnafleTt e obnnax neprrax jnano HejioseKa h flerajna oflejKflbi h coapxxeHHa: 
noacaoHpeMeHB, iuieHeEEiepeMHH, <popMy rcaioEHcroy6opa. Ha cipoehhhmojeho 
pasrnHflerE OTflejiBHBie 6peEHa h flocKH^pa^HTEie okhs. Ha flepeEtax saweTHEi hhcteh. 
SaueTHa npoEonoKa Ha kohesx npceanoiHoro sarpa^jjeHHH. 


100 


■» w 


MojtHopaajiHHurb itpiEi JiMua HejioEenta. 1'Jia^a, Hoc.por^ EtiaHbi jturrHp^K, jj,eiajiJ4 
CHapxxeHHB h EoopyjEeHHH. Ha CTpoeHHHMOXHopaarnHfleTb OTjjejiEHEieKBpnHHH.pesHEle 
h nenHEie yKpameHHH, ofoanHEmyfoca nnyKaTypKy. Ha flepeEtax MOXHopasrjia^eiE ^opuiy 
h he er nHcrbeE , Kopy CTECtna Bhhhbi OTflejiEHbie hhth nposojioTHoro sarpaiEfleHHH. Bhahbi 
EbiciynaionDaie flerajna nexoTooro opyxHH. 



Mo>kho pa3JiHHHTt HepTbi jiHu,a nejiOBeKa: rjia3a, hoc, pot, bh^hw khcth pyK, ^eTajiH CHapa>Ke- 
hh» h BOopy>KeHHa. Ha CTpoeHHH mo>kho pa3rjiafleTb OTflejitHbie KHpnHHH, pe3Hbie h nenHtie yicpame- 
HHa, oSBajiHBinyioca niTyKaTypKy. Ha ^epeBbax mo>kho pa3raafleTb (})opMy h ubct jiHCTbeB, Kopy 
CTBOJia Bh^hm OTflejibHbie hhth npoBOJiOHHoro 3arpa>KfleHHa. Bh^hm BbiCTynaiomHe fleTajin nexoTHO- 
ro opy>KHa. 

npn onpeflejieHHH paccToaHHH no CTeneHH bh^hmocth npeflMeTOB Hy>KH0 HMeTb b BH^y, hto 
TOHHOCTb onpefleneHHa paccToaHHH, iiomhmo octpotm 3peHHa, 3aBHCHT TaK>Ke ot pa3MepoB h acHOCTH 
onepTaHHa npeflMeTOB, hx OKpacKH cpaBHHTejibHO c oicpy>KaiomHM (})ohom, ocBemeHHOCTH npeflMeTOB 
h npo3paHHOCTH B03flyxa. TaK, HanpHMep: 

- MenKHe npeflMeTbi (KycTbi, KaMHH, SyropKH, OT^ejibHwe (})Hrypbi) Ka>KyTca flajibine, HeM Haxo- 
flamneca Ha tom >Ke paccToaHHH KpynHbie npeflMeTbi (nee, ropa, HacejieHHbiM nyHKT, KOJiOHHa bohck); 

- npeflMeTbi apKoro u,BeTa (Senoro, opaH>KeBoro) Ka>KyTca 6jiH>Ke, HeM TeMHoro (cHHero, nepHO- 
ro, KopHHHeBoro); 

- HOHbio CHJibHO h apKO ocBemeHHbie npeflMeTbi Sy^yr Ka3aTbca 6jiH>Ke npeflMeTOB HeapKHX h 
CJiaSo ocBemeHHbix. OcoSeHHO 3to KacaeTca npeflMeTOB, HMeiomHx CBeTJiyio OKpacKy; 

- OflHOo6pa3Hbiii, 0flH0u,BeTHbiH (})oh MecTHOCTH (nyr, naniHa, CHer) Bbi^ejiaeT h Kaic 6bi npn- 
6jiH>KaeT Haxoflamneca Ha HeM npeflMeTbi, ecjin ohh HHane OKpanieHbi, a necTpbiii, pa3HOu,BeTHbiH (})oh 
MecTHOCTH, HaoSopoT, MacKHpyeT h KaK 6w y^anaeT hx; 

- b nacMypHbiii fleHb, b j\okj\i>, b cyMepKH, b TyMaH Bee paccToaHHa Ka>KyTca yBejiHneHHbiMH, a b 
CBeTJibiii, cojiHenHbiH fleHb, HaoSopoT, coKpameHHbiMH; 

- npe^MeTbi, apKO ocBemeHHbie, c Bbi^ejiaiomeHca OKpacKoft, npe^MeTbi, pacnojio>KeHHbie HH>Ke, 
3pHTejibHO BOcnpHHHMaiOTca 6jiH>Ke Ha 1/8 peajibHOH flHCTaHu,HH; 

- b ropHoii MecTHOCTH pejibec}) ocoSeHHO oSMaHHHB - Bee C03flaeT hjijho3hio 6jih30Cth, Bee npn- 
6jiH>KaeTca, npHneM HaMHoro. HHor^a Ka>KeTca, hto ao KaKOH-jinSo ropbi hjih CKajibi MeTpoB 800, a Ha 
caMOM flene h/ith k Hen npnxoflHTca naca ^Ba. AHajiorHHHaa KapTHHa b CTenn h Ha oneHb ninpoKOM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 113 

none. IIo3TOMy Ha ^HCTaHnnax 500 MeTpoB h ^anee Hy>KHO CBepaTbca no KapTe, TaM paccToaHne Tina- 
TejibHO BbiMepeHO h BbiBepeHo; 

- b ropofle c MHoro3Ta>KHOH 3acTpoiiKOH Bee flHCTampiH Ka>KyTca Kopone npHMepHO Ha 1/8, oco- 
SeHHO npn CTpejibSe CBepxy bhh3, npn yraax MecTa nejin Sojiee 15°. HaoSopoT, npn CTpejibSe CHH3y 
BBepx npn Tex >Ke yrnax MecTa nejin flncTaHUHH Ka>KyTca /uinHHee TO>Ke Ha 1/8 ot peanbHbix. AHano- 
rHHHaa KapTHHa HaSjiiOflaeTca h b ropax. 

YnHTbiBaa Bee 3th ocoSchhocth, rjia30MepmHK flOJiaceH yMeTb bhochtb cooTBeTCTByiomHe no- 
npaBKH npn onpeflejieHHH paccToaHHH. 

OnpefleneHHe paccToaHHH no OTpe3KaM mccthocth, 3aneHaTJieBHiHMca b naiviaTH rjia30MepmHKa, 
npnMeHHMO TOJibKo Ha Sojiee-MeHee pobhoh MecTHOCTH. TaKHM OTpe3KOM MO>KeT cjiy>KHTb KaKoe-JinSo 
npHBbiHHoe paccToaHHe, c KOTopbiM rjia30Mepn(HKy npnxoflnjiocb nacTO HMeTb ^ejio h KOTopoe no- 
3TOMy npoHHO yKpennjiocb b ero 3pnTejibHon naiviaTH, Hanpniviep, OTpe30K b 100, 200,400 MeTpoB. 

OTpe30K 3tot hjokho MbicneHHO (rjia30M) OTKJiaflbiBaTb b raySHHy H3Mepaeivioro paccToaHna 

CTOJIbKO pa3, CKOJIbKO OH yjIO>KHTCa. Ilpn 3TOM CJie^yeT yHHTblBaTbl 

- hto c yBejinneHneM paccToaHna Ka>Kymaaca BejinnHHa OTpe3Ka nocTeneHHO coKpamaeTca; 

- hto BnaflHHbi (oBparn, jiomHHbi, peHKH n t. n.), nepeceKaiomne onpeflejiaeivioe paccToaHne, ec- 
jih ohh He BHflHbi hjih He nojiHOCTbio BHflHbi H3iviepaiomeMy, CKpa^biBaiOT paccToaHne. 

^jia yTOHHeHna n oSjierneHna rjia30MepHoro onpefleneHna paccToaHnii MoryT Hcnojib30BaTbca 
CJieflyiomne npneivibi: 

- cpaBHeHne onpeflejiaeivioro paccToaHna c flpyrHM, 3apaHee H3BecmbiM hjih H3MepeHHbiM, xoTa 
6w oho jie>Kajio b hhom HanpaBJieHHH, Hanpniviep, c H3MepeHHbiM paccToaHneivi ^o onpeflejieHHbix 
opneHTnpoB; 

- MbicneHHoe pa3flejieHne paccToaHna Ha HecKOJibKO paBHbix OTpe3KOB (nacTen) c TeM, htoSw 
TOHHee onpe^ejiHTb npoTa>KeHHe OflHoro H3 hhx h 3aTeivi yMHO>KHTb nojiyneHHyio BejiHHHHy Ha hhcjio 

OTpe3KOB; 

- onpefleneHHe paccToaHna HecKOJibKHMH rjia30MepmHKaMH c TeM, htoSm h3 nojiyneHHbix pe- 
3yjibTaTOB B3aTb cpe^Hee; 

Hanpniviep, o#hh rjia30MepmHK onpeflejiHJi paccToaHne b 700 MeTpoB, a flpyroM - b 600, cpe^Hee 
Sy/ieT 650 MeTpoB. 

H3MepeHHe paccToaHHH HenocpeflCTBeHHbiM npoiviepoM iuaraMH npoHBBOflHTb napaMH, nop, Jie- 
Byio hjih npaByio Hory, npHHHMaa napy iuaroB b cpeflHeivi 3a nojiTopa MeTpa (H3MepeHHe, npHHaToe 
ycTaBOM). 

IIpHMep. IIpH H3iviepeHHH paccToaHna nojiyHHJiocb 260 nap maroB, aneflOBarejibHO, paccToaHne 
paBHO 400 MeipaM (260 x 1,5). 

fljia Sojiee TOHHoro onpeflejieHHa paccToaHHH BbiuieyKa3aHHbiM cnocoSoivi H3iviepaiomHH #oji- 
>KeH 3HaTb BejiHHHHy CBoero HHflHBHflyanbHoro iuara. fljia 3Toro cnoKOHHO, He Hanparaacb, npoiiflHTe 
MapiueBbiM iuaroM 3apaHee OTMepeHHyio #HCTaHHHio b 100 MeipoB h npn 3tom noflCHHTairie KOJinne- 
ctbo iuaroB hjih nap maroB Ha Hen. Cflejiairie 3to HecKOJibKO pa3, BbiBeflHie cpe^Hioio apncJMeTHHe- 
CKyio BejiHHHHy h 3aTeivi Hcnojib3yHie ee Ha npaKTHKe. 

JIBJIEHHE ^EPHBAIJHH 

BcjieflCTBne oflHOBpeMemioro B03fleiicTBHa Ha nyjno BpamaTejibHoro ^BH>KeHHa, npn^aiomero 
en ycTOHHHBoe nojio>KeHHe b nojieTe, h conpoTHBJieHHa B03#yxa, CTpeiviameroca onpoKHHyTb nyjno 
rojiOBHOH nacTbio Ha3a/i, ocb nyjiH OTKJiOHaeTca ot HanpaBJieHHa nojieTa b CTopoHy BpameHHa. B pe- 
3yjibTaTe 3Toro nyjia BCTpenaeT conpoTHBJieHHe B03#yxa Sojibiue oahoh CBoeii CTopoHoii h nosTOMy 
OTKJiOHaeTca ot hjiockocth CTpejibSbi Bee Sojibiue h Sojibiue b CTopoHy BpameHHa. TaKoe OTKJiOHeHHe 
Bpamaiomeiica nyjin b CTopoHy ot hjiockocth CTpejibSbi Ha3biBaeTca flepHBainieii. 3to ^OBOJibHO 
CJio>KHbiH (})H3HHecKHH npouecc. flepHBauna B03pacTaeT HenponopiniOHajibHO paccToaHHio nojieTa ny- 
jih, BCJieflCTBne nero nocneflHaa 3a6npaeT Bee Sojibiue h Sojibine b CTopoHy h ee TpaeKTopna b njiaHe 
npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoii KpnByio jihhhio (cxeivia 66, TaSji. 7). Ilpn npaBoii Hape3Ke CTBOJia flepHBau,Ha 
yBOflHT nyjno b npaByio CTopoHy, npn jieBon - b jieByio. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



114 



iaw 


jt 100 


1 100 f 80 


!<J»- 


I 52 


900- 


M3 


SOD- 


129 


700 - 


/'* 


600- 


1 12 


500 — 


7' 


400- 


r * 


300 - 


I 2 


am -J 


[ i 


100 A 






^ row pyflST* 



CxeMa 66. ,H,epHBanH}i 
TaSjinna 7 



^HCTaHHHH,M 


/Je P HBanHa,<M 


Tucaimje 


100 








200 


1 





300 


2 


oa 


400 


4 


oa 


500 


7 


OJ 


600 


12 


0,2 


700 


19 


0,2 


800 


29 


o^ 


900 


43 


o^ 


1000 


62 


0,6 


1100 


80 


0.8 


1200 


100 


uoo 



Ha flHCTaHu,Hax CTpejibSbi j\o 300 MeTpoB BKjnoHHrejibHO flepHBanna He HMeeT npaKTHHecicoro 
3HaneHHa. OcoSeHHO 3to xapaKTepHO fljia bhhtobkh CBJ\, y KOTopon onTHnecKHH npnneji IICO-1 
cnennanbHO CMemeH bjicbo Ha 1 ,5 cm Ctboji npn 3tom cnerKa pa3BepHyT bjicbo h nyjin cuerKa (Ha 1 
cm) yxofljrr neBee. npHHUHmiajibHoro 3HaneHHa sto He HMeeT. Ha flHCTaHHHH 300 MeTpoB chjioh j\q- 
pHBau,HH nyjin B03BpamaiOTca b Tonicy npHnejinBamia, to ecTb no nenrpy. H y>Ke Ha flncTaHUHH 400 
MeTpoB nyjin HanHHaiOT ocHOBaTejibHO yBOflHTbca BnpaBO, no3TOMy, htoSbi He KpyTHTb ropnBOHTanb- 
Hbiii MaxoBHK, nejibrecb npoTHBHHKy b jieBbiii (ot Bac) raa3 (cxeMa 67). ^epHBanneii nyjno yBe^eT Ha 
3- 4 cm BnpaBO, h OHa nona^eT npoTHBHHKy b nepeHOCHny. Ha flHCTaHnnn 500 MeTpoB nenbTecb npo- 
THBHHKy b jieByio (ot Bac) CTopoHy ronoBbi Meac^y raa30M h yxoM (cxeMa 68) - 3to h 6y#eT npnSjin- 
3HTejibHO 6-7 cm. Ha ^HCTaHnHH 600 MeTpoB - b JieBbiii (ot Bac) o6pe3 ronoBbi npoTHBHHKa (cxeMa 69). 
^epHBanna yBe^eT nyjno BnpaBO Ha 11-12 cm. Ha flncTaHUHH 700 MeTpoB B03bMHTe bh^hmmh npocBeT 
MOK^y tohkoh npHnejinBaHHa h neBbiM KpaeM ronoBbi, r^e-TO naj\ nenrpoM noroHa Ha nuene npoTHB- 
HHKa (cxeMa 70). Ha 800 MeTpoB - j\&Th nonpaBKy MaxoBHKOM roprooHTanbHbix nonpaBOK Ha 0,3 th- 
caHHOH (ceTKy noflaTb BnpaBO, cpeflmoio TOHKy nona^aHHa nepeMecTHTb BJieBo), Ha 900 MeTpoB - 0,5 
TbicaHHOH, Ha 1000 MeTpoB - 0,6 TbicanHOH. 




CxeMa 67 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



115 



CxeMa 68 



CxeMa 69 




CxeMa 70 

HeM Bbinie yron MecTa uejiH, TeM MeHbine flepHBanHa. y ctbojiob pa3JiHHHbix bh^ob opy>KHa mar 
Hape30B pa3JiHHHbiii, cneflOBaTejibHO, pa3JiHHHOH 6y#eT h flepHBanna. 

Cjie^yeT ynecTb, hto Ta>Kejibie nyjiH MeHbine OTKJiOHaiOTca flepHBaniieH, h OTKJiOHeHHe 3to 6y- 
#eT TeM MeHbine, neM Sojibine Bee nyiin TaKoro >Ke KannSpa. TaK, Ta>Kejibie nyjin cnopTHBHbix narpo- 
hob KannSpa 7,62 Maccoii 13,4 r OTKJiOHaiOTca b 1,5 MeHbine, neM jierKne nyjin, a Ha flHCTamniH 1000 
m h flanee - b 2 pa3a MeHbme. 

TPAEKTOPHH nOJIETA nYJIH H EE 3JIEMEHTW 



CHaiuiep o6a3aH 3HaTb, KaK jictht BbinymeHHaa hm nyna h hto c Heii nponcxoflHT b noneTe. B 
HacToameM nocoSrai onncbiBaiOTca ajieMenrbi TpaeKTopHH bhhtobohhoh nyjin h HaBOflKH opy>KHa, 
HeoSxoflHMbie CHaiinepy b npaKTHnecKon paSoTe (cxeMa 71). 




CxeMa 7 1 . 3jieMenTbi HaBOflKn h TpaeKTopHH CTpejiKOBoro opy>KHa 

TpaeKTopneii Ha3biBaeTca Jinmia noneTa nyjin b B03#yxe. IIpaMaa jinHna, npeflCTaBJiaioinaa 
npoflOJDKeHne och KaHana CTBOJia #o BbiCTpena, Ha3biBaeTca JiHHHeii BbiCTpena. IIpaMaa jiHHHa, npefl- 
CTaBJiaioinaa npoflOjraceHHe och KaHana CTBOJia b momcht BbiCTpena, Ha3biBaeTca JiHHHeii SpocaHHa. 

IIpH HanHHHH yraa BbmeTa nyna BbiSpacbiBaeTca H3 KaHana CTBOJia He no jihhhh BbiCTpena, a no 
jihhhh SpocaHHa. 

BbiSpomeHHaa H3 KaHana CTBOJia c onpeflejieHHOH HanaiibHOH CKopocTbio nyna npn ^BH>KeHHH b 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 116 

B03flyxe noflBepraeTca fleMcTBHio flByx chji: chjim Ta>KecTH h chjim conpoTHBJieHHa B03#yxa. ,H,eHCTBHe 
nepBoii HanpaBJieHO bhh3: oho 3acTaBJiaeT nyjiio HenpepbiBHO nomDKaTbca ot jihhhh SpocaHna. J\qPl- 
CTBHe BTopoii HanpaBJieHO HaBCTpeny ^BH>KeHHio nyjin: oho 3acTaBJiaeT ee HenpepwBHO TepaTb cko- 
pocTb noneTa. B pe3ynbTaTe 3Toro nyjia, BbiSpomeHHaa H3 KaHana CTBOJia, jictht He no npjiMOH jihhhh 
SpocaHna, a no kphboh, HepaBHOMepHO HBornyron jihhhh, pacnojio>KeHHOH HH>Ke jihhhh SpocaHna. 

Hanaro TpaeKTopHH - TOHKa BbuieTa (flynbHbin cpe3 CTBOJia). 

ropH30HTanbHaa njiocKOCTb, npoxoflamaa nepe3 TOHKy BbuieTa, Ha3biBaeTca ropH30HTOM opy>KHa 

BepTHKanbHaa njiocKOCTb, npoxoflamaa nepe3 TOHKy BbuieTa no jihhhh Bbicipejia (SpocaHHa), 
Ha3biBaeTca iuiocicocTbio CTpejibSbi. 

HtoSw AoSpocHTb nyjiio p,o KaKOH-jinSo tohkh Ha ropH30HTe opy>KH», HeoSxoflHMO jihhhio 6po- 
caHHa HanpaBHTb Bbiiue ropn30HTa. 

Yroji, cocTaBJieHHbin JiHHHeii BbiCTpejia h ropn30HTOM opyacna, Ha3biBaeTca yrjiOM B03BbiineHHa. 

PaccToaHHe no roproomy ot tohkh BbuieTa p,o tohkh na^eHHa (TaSjiHHHon) Ha3biBaeTca ropn- 

30HiajIbHOH HJIH npHUeJIbHOH flajIbHOCTbK) 

Yroji Me>Kfly KacaTejibHoM k TpaeKTopHH b TOHKe na^eHHa n ropH30HTOM opy>KHa Ha3biBaeTca 
yrjiOM na^eHHa (TaSjiHHHbiM). 

Bbicniaa TOHKa TpaeKTopnn Ha# ropH30HTOM Ha3biBaeTca BepninHoii TpaeKTopHH. BepniHHa #e- 
jiht TpaeKTopnio Ha flBe HepaBHbie BeTBH, BeTBb ot tohkh BbuieTa flo BepniHHbi, Sojiee fljiHHHaa h ot- 
Jioraa, Ha3biBaeTca Bocxoflameii BeTBbio TpaeKTopHH, BeTBb ot BepniHHbi #o tohkh na^eHHa, Sojiee ko- 
poTKaa h Kpyraa, Ha3biBaeTca HHCxoflameii BeTBbio TpaeKTopHH 

PaccToaHne ot ropH30HTa opy>KHa #o BepniHHbi TpaeKTopnn (Ha KOHKpeTHOM ee ynacTKe) Ha3bi- 
BaeTca bmcotoh TpaeKTopHH. 

ToHKa, no KOTopon HaBOflHica opy>KHe, Ha3biBaeTca tohkoh npHnejiHBaHHa. 

JlnHna, Hflymaa ot rjia3a CTpejiKa nepe3 cepe^HHy npope3H npnnejia n BepmnHy MyniKn (ohth- 
necKaa ocb oniHHecKoro npnnejia), Ha3biBaeTca jiHHHen npHnejiHBaHna. 

Yroji, o6pa3yeMbiii jikhhch npnnejiHBaHHa h jikhhch Bbicipejia, Ha3biBaeTca yrjiOM npnnejiHBa- 
HHa. 3tot yroji npn HaBOflKe nojiynaeTca nyTeM ycTaHOBKH npnnejibHoro npncnocoSjieHHa no BbicoTe 

COOTBeiCTBeHHO flajIbHOCTH CTpeJIbSbl. 

IIpH pacnojio>KeHHH nejin Ha oflHHaKOBOH BbicoTe c opy>KHeM jihhhji npHnejiHBaHna coBna^aeT c 
ropH30HTOM opy>KHa, a yroji npHnejiHBaHHa coBna^aeT c yrjiOM B03BbiineHHa. IIpH pacnojio>KeHHH ne- 
jih Bbinie hjih HH>Ke roprooma opy>KHJi Me>Kfly jiHHHeii npHuejiHBaHHa h ropH30HTOM opy>KHa o6pa3y- 
eTca yroji, Ha3biBaeMbrii yrjiOM MecTa nejin. Yroji MecTa nejin CHHTaeTca nojio>KHTejibHbiM, Kor^a nejib 
Bbinie ropH30HTa opy>KHa, h OTpnnaTejibHbiM, Kor^a nejib HH>Ke. Yroji MecTa nejin h yroji npHnejinBa- 

HH3 B COBOKynHOCTH COCTaBJUHOT yrOJI B03BbIHieHHa. 

Yroji B03BbinieHHa, npn kotopom nojiynaeTca HanSojibinaa roprooHiajibHaa ^anbHOCTb, Ha3biBa- 
eTca yrjiOM HanSojibHieH (npeflejibHoii) ^ajibHOCTH. BejiHHHHa yrjia HanSojibHieH npeflejibHoii flaiibHO- 
cth fljia BHHTOBOHHbix nyjib KannSpa 7,62 mm paBHa 30°. 

IIpocTpaHCTBO (paccToaHHe no jihhhh npHnejinBaHna), Ha npoTa>KeHHH KOToporo Hncxoflamaa 
BeTBb TpaeKTopHH He npeBbiniaeT bmcotm hcjih, Ha3biBaeTca nopaacaeMbiM npocipaHCTBOM. 

IIpHLi,ejibHoe nopa>KaeMoe npocTpaHCTBO 3aBHCHT: 

- ot BbicoTbi u,ejiH (oho Sy^eT TeM Sojibiue, neM Bbinie nejib); 

- ot OTJiorocTH TpaeKTopnn (oho Sy^eT TeM /umHHee, neM OTJio>Ke TpaeKTopna). 

BbiCTpeji, npn kotopom TpaeKTopna He noflHHMaeTca Ha^ JiHHHeii npHu,ejinBaHna Bbinie nejin Ha 
BceM npoTa>KeHHH npnnejibHOH ^ajibHOCTH, Ha3biBaeTca npaMbiM BbiCTpejiOM. IIpHMeHaeTca npn ot- 
pa>KeHHH aTaKH npOTHBHHKa. 

BbiCTpeji, npn kotopom TpaeKTopna He noflHHMaeTca Bbinie jihhhh npnii,ejiHBaHHa hjih conpa- 
>KeHa c Heii, Ha3biBaeTca npaMbiM oxoTHHHbHM BbiCTpejiOM (cHannepcKHM). 3to CTapoe aHrjiniicKoe 

nOHSTHe. IIpaMOH OXOTHHHHH BbiCTpeji no ^aJIbHOCTH 3aBHCHT OT BblCOTbl nOCTaHOBKH npHU,eJIbHbIX 

npncnocoSjieHHH h HanajibHon ckopocth nyjin. ^anbHOCTb TaKoro BbiCTpejia oSwhho He npeBbiniaeT 
200-250 MeTpoB. IIpaMOH oxothhhhh BbiCTpeji npnMeHaeTca b yjinnHbix n jiecHbix 6oax npn HeoSxo- 
flHMOCTH nOCT03HHO MaHeBpHpoBaTb. 

ECTECTBEHHOE PACCEHBAHHE (PA3BPOC) BBICTPEJIOB. CPE^IMH TOHKA 

nonA^AHHH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 117 

IIpH CTpeubSe H3 OflHoro h Toro >Ke BnojiHe ncnpaBHoro opy>KHa, npn caMOM TmaTenbHOM co- 
SjiiOfleHHH tohhocth h o#HOo6pa3HH Ka>Kfloro BbiCTpena Ka>K^aa nyna BCJieflCTBHe pa^a cjiynaHHbix 
npHHHH neTHT no CBoeM, otjihhhoh ot flpyrax TpaeKTopHH. 

3to aBJieHHe Ha3biBaeTca ecTecTBeHHbiM pacceHBaHHeM (pa36pocoM) BbicTpenoB. 

rioneMy nponcxoflHT pacceHBaHHe? Ot pa^a npHHHH, fleMcTBne KOTopbix HeB03MO>KHO ynecTb 
3apaHee npn npHnejinBaHHH. HanpHMep, KaK 6bi tohho hh roroTOBJiajincb naTpoHbi, b hhx Bcer^a 6y- 
#eT HeKOTopoe pa3HOo6pa3He b Macce h KanecTBe nopoxoBoro 3apa#a, KancioJibHoro BOcnnaMeHaio- 
mero cocTaBa, (J)opMe h Macce nyjib h rHJib3, KanecTBe KpenneHHa nyjin b rHJib3e h t. r. 3to pa3HOo6- 
pa3He Be^eT k KOJieSamiaM b HananbHOH CKopocTH nyjin, a ot BejiHHHHbi HananbHOH CKopocTH 3aBHCHT 
(J)opMa TpaeKTopHH. Pa3HOo6pa3He b (|)opMe h jiHHeHHbix pa3Mepax nynb npHBOflnr k KOJieSaHHaM Be- 
jiHHHHbi conpoTHBJieHHa B03flyxa, ot KOTopoM TO>Ke 3aBHCHT (})opMa TpaeKTopHH. Bojibiuoe 3HaneHHe 
fljia paccenBaHHa HMeeT KanecTBO opy>KHa, nncTOTa o6pa6oTKn KaHana CTBOJia h ero coxpaHHOCTb, Ka- 
necTBO cSopKH h OTJia^KH opy>Kna. KpoMe Toro, npn Kaac^OM BbiCTpene 6y#eT Ha6jno#aTbca hckoto- 
paa HeTOHHOCTb HaBOflKn, pa3HOo6pa3He B03flyniHbix B03MymeHHH h t. r. Hejib3a ynecrb Bee npHHH- 
hm, BJinaiomHe Ha pacceHBaHHe. flna Ka>Kfloro BbiCTpena Hejib3a npe#CKa3aTb, Ha Kaicyio BejiHHHHy h 
Ky^a OTKJiOHHTca nyna ot nojiaraiomenca en tohkh nonaflaHHa. 

MecTO pacnojio>KeHHa Ka>Kfloro OT^ejibHoro BbiCTpena anynaHHO h HeonpeflejieHHO, noaTOMy 
npoSoHHbi Ha nopa>KaeMOH BepTHKanbHoii noBepxHOCTH 3aHHMaiOT HeKOTopyio nnomaflb, KOTopaa 
Ha3biBaeTca iuiomaflbio paccenBaHHa. 

Ha njioma^H paccenBaHHa Bcer^a mo>kho Hairm TaKyio TOHKy, KOTopaa 6y#eT cpeflHeM no ot- 
HOineHHio ko BceM npoSoHHaM. 3Ta TOHKa Ha3biBaeTca cpeflHeft tohkoh nona^aHHa. coicpameHHO CTII 
(cxeMa 72). 




BWaiOtniliMSH 



CxeMa 72. OnpeflejieHHe cpeflHen tohkh nona/iamia 

PacceHBaHHe BbicTpenoB (tohck BCTpenn nynn c MHHieHbio) paccMaTpnBaeTca Ha BepTHKanbHOH 
nnocKOCTH KaK pacceHBaHHe no BbicoTe h SoKOBoe. 

B3anMHO nepneH^HKyjiapHbie jihhhh, npoBefleHHbie Ha BepTHKanbHOH hiiockocth TaK, htoSw no 

06e CTOpOHbl Ka>KflOH H3 HHX npHXOflHJIOCb OflHHaKOBOe KOJIHHeCTBO npoSoHH, Ha3bIBaK)TCa OCaMH 

paccenBaHHa - BepTHKanbHOH h ropHBOHTanbHoii (cxeMa 72). 

ToHKa nepeceneHHa oceM paccenBaHna npn flocraTOHHO Sojibuiom HHCJie BbicTpenoB h onpe/ie- 
jiaeT nojio>KeHHe cpeflHeii tohkh nona^aHHa. 

PacceHBaHHe nyjib noflHHHaeTca onpefleneHHOMy 3aKOHy paccenBaHHa, KOTopwii Bbipa>KaeTca b 
aneflyiomeM: 

- nnomaflb paccenBaHHa Bcer^a orpaHnneHa HeKOTopbiM npeflenoM h HMeeT (J)opMy ajuinnca 
(oBana), BbiTaHyToro CBepxy bhh3 (cxeMa 73); 

- npoSoHHbi pacnonaraiOTca OTHOCHTenbHO CTII (Hempa paccenBaHHa) CHMMeTpnnHO, to ecTb 
Ka>K^OMy oTKJiOHeHHio ot CTII b OflHy CTopoHy OTBenaeT TaKoe >Ke npnMepHO no BejinnnHe OTKJiOHe- 
HHe b npoTHBonojio>KHyio CTopoHy; 

- npoSoHHbi pacnonaraiOTca HepaBHOMepHo: neM 6jiH>Ke k cpeflHeM tohkc nonaflaHna (Hempy 
paccenBaHHa), TeM ryme, neM ^ajibnie ot nempa - TeM pe>Ke; 

- pa3Mepw nnomaflH paccenBaHna Haxo^aTca b npaMOH 3aBHCHMOCTH ot flanbHOCTH CTpenbSw. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



118 



ifr r% ta* sf zi¥ a* t% t* 




CxeMa 73. 3aKOHOMepHOCTb paccenBaHHa 

HeM MeHbine aruimic paccenBaHHa, TeM jiyHineii CHHraeTca KynHOCTb 6oa opy>KHa. KynHOCTb 6oa 
- ochobhoh noKa3aTejib KanecTBa CHannepcKOH bhhtobkh. 3a Hero H^eT nocToaHHaa 6opb6a nyTeM 
OTSopa HanSojiee KyHHbix ctbojiob, no^Sopa SoenpmiacoB KyHHoro 6oa, ncnbiTaHHa sthx Soenpmia- 
cob Ha OTSopHbix CTBOJiax h SanaHCHpoBOHHOH OTJia^KH opy>KHa (cm. flanee pa3fleji 8 "Teopna opy>KHa 
h SoenpHnacoB"). B cnopTHBHoft h CHannepcKOH npaKTHKe npHHjrro >KecTKoe noHSTHe KyHHOCTH 
CTpeubSbi, KOTopoe onpeflejiaeTca BejiHHHHoii (J)aKTHHecKoro pacceHBaHHa BbiCTpenoB npn CTpejibSe 
H3 toh hjih hhoh KOHKpeTHOH CHCTeMbi hjih KOHKpeTHoro o6pa3ii,a opy>KHJi. J\im ManoKanHSepHoro 
opy>KHa pacceHBaHne onpeflejiaeTca Ha ^HCTaHnHH 50 MeTpoB, ^Jia CHaiinepcKoro opy>KHa KannSpa 

7,62 MM - 100 MeTpOB. ECJIH B HHCTpyKUHH HanHCaHO, HTO pa36pOC BHHTOBKH CBJ\ COOTBeTCTByeT 
8x7, 3TO 3HaHHT, HTO Ha flHCTaHHHH 100 MeTpOB pa36pOC Opy>KHa no BepTHKajIbHOH MHHieHH flOJDKeH 

BKJiaflbiBaTbca b sjuinnc pa3MepoM 8 cm no BepTHKanH m 7 cm no ropH30HrajiH, h He Sojiee Toro. Ecjih 
pa36poc npeBbiniaeT 3th TaSjiHHHbie flaHHbie, opy>KHe SpaKyeTca - fljia tohhoh CHannepcKOH CTpeubSbi 
oho HenpHroflHO. ^eM KyHHee Son CTBOJia, TeM nynnie KanecTBO opy>KHa. KyHHOCTb 6oa CTBOJia toh 
>Ke bhhtobkh CBJl MO>KeT SbiTb h jiyHme, neM yKa3aHHaa b TaSjiHHHbix HopMax. Bo mhotom KyHHOCTb 
6oa KOHKpeTHoro CTBOJia 3aBHCHT ot KanecTBa ero H3roTOBJieHna, KanecTBa SoenpnnacoB h npaBHJib- 
Horo hx noflSopa k KOHKpeTHOMy CTBOJiy. IIo3TOMy Hepe^KH cjiynan fl0CTH>KeHHa KyHHOCTH CTpejibSw 
H3 bhhtobkh CB,H, 4x3 cm h #a>Ke 3x2. OT^ejibHbie o6pa3Hbi cnopTHBHO-nejieBoro opy>KHa oSecnenH- 
BaiOT KyHHOCTb 6oa Ha 100 m npaKTHnecKH nyjia b nyjno. 

MeTKOCTb CTpejibSw onpe^ejiaeTca coBMemeHHeM CTII (ueinpa paccenBaHHa) c HaMeneHHOH 
tohkoh npHu,ejiHBaHHa Ha MHHieHH. MeTKOCTb 3aBHCHT ot KyHHOCTH 6oa h ot yMeHH» CTpejunomero - 
HacKOJibKO npaBHJibHO oh MO>KeT BbinojmaTb npneMbi paSoTbi c opy>KHeM npn CTpejibSe, ot Toro, 
HacKOJibKO oh TpeHHpoBaH h HacKOJibKO npaBHJibHO hm ycTaHOBJieHbi npHu,ejibHbie npncnocoSjieHHa. 

TAEJIHIJM IIPEBMIIIEHH5I CPE^HHX TPAEKTOPHH 



OcHOBHbie nonpaBKn, nocToaHHO BHOCHMbie npn crpejibSe, - Ha ^ajibHOCTb. OcHOBHaa CHannep- 
CKaa Ta6jiHu,a - 3to TaSjinna npeBbimeHHa cpe^Hnx TpaeKTopnii ^jui KOHKpeTHOH chctcmm opjoKHa, H3 
KOToporo CTpenaeT CHannep (raSn. 8-12). B TaSjinne coflep>KaTca flaHHbie o npeBbimeHHH TpaeKTopnH 
noneTa nyjin Ha# jiHHHen ropH30HTa opy>KHa Ha pa3JiHHHbix flncTaHinuix CTpejibSw npn pa3JiHHHbix 
ycTaHOBKax npHuejia. PaccMOTpnM npaKTHnecKoe TOJiKOBaHne TaKon TaSjinnbi no bkhtobkc CB,3, 
(TaSn. 8). 

Ta6jiHu,a 8 

IIpeBbinieHHa cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnii npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh CBJ\ (b cm) - ocHOBHaa CHannep- 
CKaa Ta6jiHu,a npn CTpejibSe naTpoHaMH "cHannepcKHe" h naTpoHaMH c nynen "cepeSpjnrbin hochk" 

(CO CTajIbHbIM CepfleHHHKOM) 



AjieKcefl IIoTanoB: «HcKyccTBo CHaflnepa» 



119 



,3iHCTaHIlHH : M 


50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 700 800 900 1000 


1 10-3 


2 15 4 -11 


3 6 14 18 17 11 -18 


4 11 25 35 39 39 33 20 -28 


5 18 38 53 64 70 70 64 50 28 -43 




7 - 67 - 135 - 157 - 159 - 165 - 115 


8 - 79 - 169 - 215 - 254 - 265 - 230 140 


10 - 127 - 271 - 364 - 450 - 500 - 540 500 400 260 


BpeManoneTanv^THKuenH. cl - 0.13 - 26 - 42 - 60 - 0.80 - 1.26 



HPHMEHAHHE HponepKu - damme, ne UMewujue npaKmunecKozo 3HcmeHun. 

Ha ducmanijuu 300 Mempoe eudenen e xeadpam npuue/i 3 u npeeuuienue mpaeKtnopuu na 100 
Mempoe paeno 14 cm. 3mo npucmpenonnue dannue. 

Ha ducmanifuu 200 Mempoe eude/ienu KeadpamaMU npuuex 2 u npeeuuienue mpaeKtnopuu na 
100 Mempoe paeno 5 cm u Ha 150 Mempoe paeno 4 cm. 3mo dannue dm coeMeujenun Jiunuu npuuejiu- 
eanun onmunecKozo u omxpumozo npuuejioe u dm cmpemdu 6e3 nepecmanoexu npuue/ia na 6jiu3kux 
ducmanifunx. 

Ha ducmanuuu 600 Mempoe eudejien npuuen 6, c maxozo paccmonnun cnaunep cmpemem npn- 
mum eucmpejioM no amaxyjoujeu nexome. 

JJannue c MunycoM nocne o3nanaJom nonuotcenue mpaexmopuu nocjie dajibnocmu ycmanoe- 
jiennozo npuue/ia. 

^onycTHM, flHCTaHu,Ha CTpenbGbi 300 MeTpoB. Ha 3to paccroaHHe, icaic H3BecTHO, ycTaHaBJiHBa- 
eTca npHueji "3". IlpH stom ctboji bhhtobkh HeMHoro noflHHMaeTca BBepx, yBejiHHHBaeTca yron npn- 
u,ejiHBaHHa - nynio Ha#o nyrb-Hyrb "noflSpocHTb", HHane no/i fleiicTBHeM 3eMHoro TaroTeHHa OHa Ha 
300 MeTpoB He aojictht h yna^eT Gnnace. IlpH stom b Bbicuien TOHKe TpaeKTopnH Ha cepe^HHe rvl- 
eraHHHH - 150 MeTpoB - nyna noflHHMaeTca Ha# ropH30HTOM opy>KHa Ha 18 cm (cm. Ta6n. 8 h cxeMy 
74). Ha flHCTaHHHH 100 MeTpoB npeBbiuieHHe 6y#eT 14 cm (3anoMHHM M stot momcht - oh oneHb BaaceH 
npn npncTpejiKe opy>KHa), Ha 200 MeTpoB npeBbiuieHHe cocTaBJiaeT 17 cm. npn crpejibSe Ha 200 MeT- 
poB h npnuejie "2" HaHBbiciuee npeBbiiueHHe nyjin 6y#eT Ha flHCTami,HH 100 MeTpoB - 5 cm, Ha 150 
MeTpoB - 4 cm (cm. Ta6n. 8 h cxeMy 76). Ho 3a AHCTaHHHaMH ycTaHOBJieHHoro npHuejia nyns 6y#eT 
pe3KO yxoflHTb bhh3 - npn npHuejie "3" Ha ^HCTaHUHH 350 MeTpoB nyna pe3KO yn^eT bhh3 ot jihhhh 
npHii,ejiHBaHHa cpa3y Ha 18 cm (cm. Ta6n. 8). npn npHuejie "2" Ha ^HCTaHUHH 250 m nyna 6y#eT HMeTb 
noHHaceHne cpa3y Ha 1 1 cm. B Ta6n. 8 3HaneHHe yKa3biBaeT, hto npn npaBHJibHO npHCTpenaHHOM 
opyacHH h cooTBeTCTBHH flHCTaHii,HH CTpenbGbi ycTaHOBJieHHOMy npHueny nyna nona^aeT b Hemp 
MHiueHH, to ecTb b caMy TOHKy npHii,ejiHBaHHa. Ha Sonee flanbHHx flHCTaHHHax noHH>KeHHe TpaeKro- 
pHH h CTn HH)Ke npHii,ejibHOH Sy^eT eme Sojibine. K npnMepy, nocTaBJieH npHueji "4", ho npn £H- 
CTaHii,HH 450 MeTpoB nyna noH^eT HH>Ke jihhhh npHuenHBaHHa Ha 43 cm (!), npn nocTaBJiemiOM npH- 
uejie "6" h peanbHOH flHCTamiHH CTpejibGbi 700 MeTpoB noHHaceHHe 6y#eT y>Ke Ha 130 cm. 



rifMtkMJtm* TpSfdigptM 

HB pft»INHtll| A*CTfiHtMW 

rtpHicrpejHywft/' 



***■»» 




5»«» 14 CM IS CM IT t 



SB" 



' OBWMH J. 






in * 



MOM 



X 



CxeMa 74. noacHeHne k TaSji. 8. 

npHueji 3, flHCTaHii,Ha CTpeubSw 300 MeTpoB. npncTpejiKa bhhtobkh Ha 100 MeTpoB 

TaSjinna 9 

CTpenbSa H3 TpexnHHeHHOH bhhtobkh o6pa3ii,a 1891-1930 rr. 

VHan. nerKOH nynn 865 m/c 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 



120 



^eneHHe upHqejia 


l ^HCI^Hr^Ha, m 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


550 


600 


700 


1 


3 





-5 






















2 


6 


7 


6 





-10 


















3 


10 


17 


20 


19 


12 





-IE 














4 


16 


2B 


37 


40 


40 


32 


20 





-27 










5 


20 


30 


51 


60 


65 


70 


56 


50 


27 





-39 






6 


30 


50 


75 


100 


110 


120 


120 


110 


95 


GO 


45 





-120 


BpeMB nonera nyjin k eicjih, c 




0,11 




0,25 




0,40 




0,57 




0,76 




0,97 


Ul 



TaSjiHua 10 

CTpenbSa H3 bhhtobkh CBT (ToKapeBa) 

VHan. jierccoH nyjin 840 m/c 



^eneHHe npHqena 


| ^HCI^H^Ha, M 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


600 


700 


1 


-1 





-4 




















2 


2 


6 


5 





-9 
















3 


7 


15 


19 


18 


13 





-IB 












4 


13 


27 


36 


41 


41 


34 


20 





-27 








5 


- 


55 


- 


77 


- 


B5 


- 


5E 


- 





-97 




6 


- 


67 


- 


117 


- 


134 


- 


127 


- 


88 





-UE 


BpeMB nojiera nyjiH k ijejiH 

(oooxBercTByeT ehhtoekc CB^O. £ 




0,13 




0,26 




0,42 




0,60 




0,80 


1,00 


1,26 



TaSjiHua 1 1 

CTpenbSa H3 TpexjiHHeiiHoro KapaSima o6pa3u,a 1907-1938-1944 rr. 

VHan. nyjiH - 820 m/c 



^eneHHe upHqena 


| ^HeTaH^HB, M 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


600 


1 


2 





-3 


















2 


6 


8 


8 





-14 














3 


11 


19 


25 


23 


14 





-20 










4 


18 


33 


47 


51 


50 


43 


30 





-36 






5 


- 


50 


- 


80 


- 


90 


- 


60 


- 





-100 


6 


- 


70 


- 


120 


- 


140 


- 


130 


- 


90 





BpeMB nojiera nyjiH k ijeiiH, c 




0,13 




0,2 




0,44 




0,62 




0,82 


1,04 



TaSjiHua 12 

C TpejibSa H3 ManoKajiHSepHOH bhhtobkh 



fleneHHe npHEiena 


l ^HCTaH^HB, M 


25 


50 


75 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


1 


2,B 





-11,8 












2 


6,0 


6,5 





-12,0 










3 


92 


14,0 


12,0 





-1B,0 








4 


12^ 


20,0 


21,0 


15,5 





-23,0 






5 


16,0 


27,5 


32^5 


30,0 


20,0 





-30,0 




6 


20,0 


36,0 


45,0 


47,0 


41,0 


2B,0 





-40,0 


7 


25,5 


45,5 


58,0 


65,0 


63,0 


52,0 


31,0 





BpeMB nojiera nyjiH k rienH, c 


0,1 


0,25 


0,3 B 


0,58 


0,B5 


U5 


UB 


U41 



CooTBeTCTBeHHO, Ha Sojiee 6jih>khhx flHCTaHunax 6y#eT HaSjnoflaTboi npeBbinieHHe CTII. TaK 
npn npnuejie "4" Ha peajibHOH flHCTaHHHH CTpenbSbi 350 MeTpoB nyjia npoiifleT Bbiiue tohkh npHuejiH- 
BaHHa Ha 20 cm. IIpH npHuejie "5" Ha peanbHOH ^HCTaHUHH 450 MeTpoB nyna npoH^eT Bbiiue tohkh 
npHHejiHBaHHJi Ha 28 cm. IIpH HenpaBHJibHOH ycTaHOBKe npnuejia hjih npn HenpaBHJibHO onpeflejieH- 
hom paccToaHHH ^0 uejiH Sy^yr HeH36e>KHbie npoMaxn. Bot noneMy Ta6jiHu,a cpeflHHx TpaeKTopHH 
CHHTaeTca ochobhoh CHaMnepcKOH TaSjumeii. CHaftnepy Hpe3BbinaHHO Ba>KHO 3HaTb TOHHoe paccToa- 
HHe flo u,ejiH njiioc-MHHyc 10 MeTpoB, He Sojibine h He MeHbiue, #a h to 3tot ^onycK b 10 MeTpoB #acT 
BepTHKajibHbiH pa36poc Ha flHCTamnuix 500-600 MeTpoB 5-8 cm BBepx/BHH3. IIo bo3mo>khocth cueflyeT 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



121 



3anoMHHTb Ta6jiHu,y npeBbiiueHHa cpeflHHx TpaeKTopHH fljia opy>KHa, H3 KOToporo npHxoflHTca CTpe- 
jiaTt, hjih >Ke npHKJieHTt ee Ha BHHTOBOHHbm npHKJiafl. BajiJiHCTHHecKHe xapaKrepncTHKH ^Jia CTpejib- 
6bi H3 pa3JiHHHbix bhhtobok pa3JiHHHbiMH SoenpmiacaMH npeflCTaBJieHbi b TaSji. 13-15. 

TaSjiHua 13 

TaSjiHua npeBbinieHHa cpeflHHx TpaeKTopHH naji jikhhch npHuejiHBaHHa jierKoM nyjieM o6pa3u,a 



lyUb r. npn ct 
VHan. SA 


DeJIbbe H3 BHHTOBKH (. 

m/c 


;m. 
























p ^HcraHixHH I 

M 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1000 


1100 


ripHEieji 


UpeBBimeHHe, cm 


1 


-1 





-2 




























2 


1 


5 


4 





-8 
























3 


6 


13 


17 


17 


11 





-17 




















4 


11 


24 


34 


37 


37 


31 


20 





-26 
















5 


- 


30 


- 


60 


- 


70 


- 


50 


- 





-80 


220 










6 


- 


50 


- 


100 


- 


120 


- 


110 


- 


80 





120 


300 








7 


- 


70 


- 


140 


- 


170 


- 


180 


- 


170 


120 





160 


400 






8 


- 


90 


- 


180 


- 


230 


- 


270 


- 


270 


240 


150 





220 


-540 




9 


- 


120 


- 


230 


- 


300 


- 


370 


- 


390 


380 


320 


200 





-290 


-710 


1000 


- 


150 


- 


290 


- 


390 


- 


480 


- 


530 


550 


520 


420 


260 





380 


1100 


- 


180 


- 


360 


- 


4900 


- 


620 


- 


700 


760 


760 


700 


580 


350 





IIpH CTP 


enb6 


e Jien 


ECOH IT 


vjiqPl 


D6pa3 


aa 190 


3 r. h 


a iihc 


ratmii 


ax, nr 


teBbin 


iaionii 


ix IK 


)0 Mei 


Pob, ee 





ecTecTBeHHoe pacceHBamie npeBbiniaeT pa3Mepw CHJiy3Ta poctoboh uejiH, ncoTOMy CHarniepcicaa 
CTpenbSa flaHHbiM SoenpmiacoM Ha Sojibinnx ^HCTaHHHJix CTaHOBHTca SeccMbicjieHHOH. 

TaSjiHua 14 

CBOflHaa TaSjiHua npeBbinieHHa cpeflHeM TpaeKTopHH Ha# jikhhch npHuejiHBaHHa npn CTpenbSe 
nyjieii o6pa3u,a 1930 r. (Ta>KejiOH) H3 bhhtobok h nyneivteTOB 





p ^HCTaHT(BHJM 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 






IIpHijeji 


rip 


jBEimeHHe, cm 






1 


-1 





A 


1 


















2 


2 


6 


5 





-10 


2 














3 


7 


14 


18 


18 


12 





-18 


3 










4 


12 


25 


35 


38 


38 


32 


20 





-26 


i 






p ^HCX3HEp 
H.M 


1C 



t 


20 



30 



41 

C 


3 


50 



61 

C 


3 


7( 



> 


80 



90 



100 



IK 



) 


12 






i 


iO 
> 


140 



150 



160 



170 



IIpHiien 


n 


peBEnneHHe, cm 


5 


0,3 


0.6 


0.7 


0.5 





0.7 


5 






















6 


0.5 


0,9 


1.1 


0,9 


0.7 





1.0 


2.6 


6 


















7 


0.7 


U 


1.5 


1.6 


1.4 


0.9 





1.5 


3.6 


7 
















8 


0,9 


1.6 


2.0 


2J 


2.4 


2.0 


u 





2.0 


4.4 


8 














9 


1.1 


2.0 


2.7 


3,2 


3.4 


3,2 


2.7 


1.6 





-2.4 


-5,3 


9 












10 


U 


2.5 


3.4 


4.1 


4.5 


4.5 


4.3 


3.4 


2.0 





-2$ 


-6.6 


10 










11 


1.6 


3.0 


4.2 


5,2 


5.8 


6.0 


6.1 


5^ 


4.4 


2.6 





-3.5 


-8.0 


11 








12 


1,9 


3.6 


5.1 


6.4 


7,3 


7.7 


E.1 


7,9 


7.0 


5.7 


3,2 





4,3 


-9.6 


12 






13 


XI 


4,3 


6.1 


7.7 


9.0 


9.7 


10 


10 


10 


8,9 


6.6 


3,9 





-5.0 


-11 


13 




14 


Z5 


5.0 


7,2 


9.1 


11 


12 


13 


13 


13 


12 


11 


8,9 


4.6 





-5.8 


-13 


14 


15 


2$ 


5.8 


B.3 


11 


13 


15 


16 


16 


13 


16 


15 


13 


9.8 


5.4 





-6.7 


-15 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



122 



TIPHMEHAHHE. 3hcik "Munyc" 03Hcmaem noHuotcenue mpaexmopuu omnocumejibHO jiuhuu npu- 
ijejiueaHun. 

CaM03apaflHbiii KapaSmi CKC (CnMOHOBa), a TaioKe oxothhhbh KapaSnHbi "Apxap" (oxothhhhh 
aHanor CKC), "CaMra" h "Benpb", CTpejuHomne naTpoHaMH 7,62x39 o6pa3u,a 1943 r., HMeiOT OflHy h 
Ty >Ke fljiHHy CTBOJia, 520 mm, h o#hh h Te >Ke SanjiHCTHHecKHe flaHHbie, npHBeflemibie b TaSji. 15. 

TaSjinua 15 

CBOflHaa SajuiHCTHnecKaa TaSjinna no KapaSnHy CKC 

VHan. nyjiH 735 m/c 



ffpiCTSHI^aiL, M 


50 


100 


150 


200 


250 


300 


350 


400 


450 


500 


550 


600 


700 


npmjeji 


IIpeEBnneHHe; cm 


1 


1 





-7 






















2 


6 


11 


9 





-16 


















3 


13 


25 


29 


2B 


IB 





-29 














4 


21 


42 


55 


62 


61 


51 


31 





-48 










5 


32 


63 


88 


105 


115 


116 


106 


B5 


49 





-71 






6 


- 


0,9 

M 


- 


1,6 


- 


2,0 


- 


1,9 


- 


U 


- 





-2a 


7 


- 


u 


- 


23 


- 


3,0 


- 


3,3 


- 


3,0 


- 


1,9 





OKOHTOTeraHaa cKopocit 
nynH,M/c 


- 


640 


- 


551 


- 


485 


- 


424 


- 


373 


- 


332 


300 


BpeMX nonera nyjiH, c 


- 


0,14 


- 


0,31 


- 


0,50 




0,72 


- 


0,97 


- 


1,26 


1.59 


rionpaEKH Ha Eerep 4 m/c, m 


- 


0,02 


- 


0,14 


- 


0,36 


- 


0,72 


- 


U 


- 


1.8 


2,6 


EIonpaEKH e fjiHrypax Ha 
serep 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


in 


- 


1 
1/2 


- 


2 
1/2 


- 


4 


5 



TIPHMEHAHHE Tlpedejibnan dajibuocmb nonema nynu 2000 m. YdouHyjo cujiy nyjin coxpannem 
do 1500 m. 

IIPAKTHHECKA5I "IIPHB5I3KA" K IJEJIH 



Ilpn CTpenbSe Ha flHCTaHnnax CBbinie 400 MeTpoB BHHTOBKy Jiynnie npHCTpenHBaTb Taic, htoSm 
CTII SbiJia caHTHMeTpoB Ha rorrb Bbiiue tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa. IIoHeMy TaK ^ejiaeTca? KaK y>Ke yno- 
MHHanocb, ocHOBHaa MHHieHb CHaiinepa - ronoBa b nonepenHHKe npnMepHO 25 cm. H Ha Sojibihom 
paccToaHHH Tpy^HO B3aTb TOHKy npnnejiHBaHHa CTporo no nempy 3toh MHmeHH, h6o nejib cjiHBaeTca 
c "nepHOTOH" ocHOBHoro yrojibHHKa hjih npnnejibHoro neHbKa. IIo3TOMy CTpenKH CTapaiOTca CTpejiaTB 
"nofl hh>khhh o6pe3 uejiH", HToSbi BH^eTb 3Ty nejib h KOHTpojinpoBaTb ee h htoSw yrojibHHK hjih ne- 
HeK ee He 3aKpbiBanH. 

Ho b jiioSom cjiynae >KejiaTejibHa KaKaa-TO "npHBa3Ka" tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa, MecTO, k KOTopoMy 

MO>KHO npHB33aTbCa 3TOH TOHKOH (HanOMHHM, HTO TOHKa npnneJIHBaHHJI - BepiHHHa OCHOBHOrO yrojib- 
HHKa). TaKOH eCTeCTBeHHOH npHBa3KOH CJiy>KHT JIHHHJI TOpH30HTa HJIH OKOna, OTKy^a BblCOBblBaeTCa 

rojiOBa. ^onycTHM, hto rojiOBa BbicyHyjiacb HacTOJibKO, htoSbi nocMOTpeTb b Shhokjib, r^e-TO npaic- 
THnecKH Ha jihhhh pTa - Hoca. Hejiacb no jihhhh OKona no# rojiOBy, HMea npncTpejiaHHyio TOHKy no- 
na/iaHHa Ha 5 cm Bbime tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa (b ^aHHOM anynae Bbinie jihhhh OKona), CHaMnep nona- 
j\&qt npoTHBHHKy b nepeHoenny. 

3Haa xopomo TaSjinny npeBbinieHHn cpe^Hnx TpaeKTopnii, mo>kho c ycnexoM CTpejunb no 
flajibHeii nejin, npHnejiHBaacb no^ nejib c npHB33K0H tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa no ropn30HTy. Ecjih pac- 
CToaHHe flo nejin 1 KroiOMeTp, o nona^aHHH b rojiOBy y>Ke Henero h ^yMaTb. Ho ecjin npoTHBHHK Ha 
TaKOH flHCTami,HH nyBCTByeT ce6a b 6e3onacHOCTH h pacxa>KHBaeT b nojiHbin pocT, sthm cjie^yeT boc- 
nojib30BaTbca. Ha flHCTaHUHH b 1 KHJiOMeTp Tpy/jHO npHB»3aTb TOHKy npHnejiHBaHna k KaKOMy-jinSo 
MecTy Ha CHJiysTe nejin - Bee pacrnibiBaeTca h "cMa3biBaeTca". Ho jihhhh ropH30HTa nofl HoraMH npo- 
THBHHKa BHflHa OTHeTJiHBO. npHB»3biBanTecb npnnejibHbiM yrojibHHKOM k Hen h nejibTecb b KaSjiyKH 
npoTHBHHKa, npnneji nocTaBbTe Ha 1 km h nyTb-nyib Bbinie (^oSaBbTe 1/4 ^ejieHna). nyjia npoiifleT 
npnMepHO b MeTpe Ha^ 3eMJieii (n tohkoh npHu,ejinBaHHa) h nopa3HT u,ejib. Cennac 3tot npneM CHHTa- 
eTca flocTOHHbiM BnpTyo30B, a enie b 70-e ro^bi oh bxoahji b nporpaMMy noflroTOBKH oSnteBoncKOBbix 
CHaiinepoB 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 123 

IIP5IMOH BWCTPEJI B IIPAKTHHECKOM nPHMEHEHHH 

KaK y>Ke Swjio CKa3aHO, npaMOH BbiCTpen - tot, npn kotopom TpaeKropna nyjiH He noflHHMaeTca 
Bbinie nejin Ha Been flHCTaHnnn CTpejibSbi. ^anbHOCTt npaMoro BbiCTpena H3 bhhtobkh 3aBHCHT ot bw- 
cotw nenH h onpeflenaeTca no TaSnnnaM npeBbimeHHa cpe^HHx TpaeKTopHH nyreM cpaBHHBaHHa bm- 
cotw nejin c BbicoTOH TaSjiHHHOH TpaeKTopHH. ilBJieHne npaMoro BbiCTpena Hcnojib3yiOT b no#BH>K- 
hmx MaHeBpeHHbix SoeBbix ^encTBHax npn fle(|)Hii,HTe BpeMeHH, Kor^a Hy>KHO Bee BpeMa flBnraTbca, 
HeKor^a KpyrnTb MaxoBHKaMH h BbiCTaBjnrrb npnneji no flanbHOCTH. 

IIpaMOH BbiCTpen b oSopoHe npn OTpa>KeHHH aTaKH HacTynaiomero npoTHBHHKa oSmhho co- 
CTaBJiaeT no ^ajibHOCTH 600 MeTpoB c npnnejiOM "6" n tohkoh npnnejiHBaHHJi Bee BpeMa no KaSnyKaM 
npoTHBHHKa rioneMy Taic? CpeflHnn pocT nepeSeraiomero b aTaice nexoTHHna 150 cm. PeanbHO oh 
pa3JiHHHM MeTpoB Ha 600. IIo TaSjinne npeBbimeHna cpe^HHx TpaeKTopHH Haxo^HM HanSojiee noflxo- 
flamyio ee BbicoTy, He npeBbimaiomyio BbicoTy nejin Ha flHCTami,HH 600 MeTpoB. OHa 6y#eT paBHa Ha 
cepe^HHe (BepuiHHe) TpaeKTopnn npn flncTaHUHH 300 MeTpoB - 120 cm c npnnejiOM "6"; Ha 400 MeT- 
poB c TeM >Ke npHu,ejiOM "6" - 1 10 cm; Ha 500 MeTpoB c npHnenoM "6" - 74 cm (cxeMa 75). 



T 



\^TttK interna JN wtttatiom* 



CxeMa 75. IIpaMOH BbiCTpen 

CueAOBaTejibHO, nenacb b Horn HacTynaiomeMy nexoTHHiiy c npHnenoM "6", HannHaa c flncraH- 
u,hh 600 MeTpoB h 6jiH>Ke, no Mepe ero npH6jin>KeHHa, mo>kho CTpenaTb 6e3 nepecTaHOBKH npHnejia. 
IIpoTHBHHK Sy^eT nopa>KeH CHanana b Horn, noTOM b >khbot, rpy^b, ronoBy. IIo #0CTH>KeHHH flncraH- 
uhh 300 MeTpoB (BepuiHHbi TpaeKTopHH) npoTHBHHK 6y#eT nopa>KaTbca b rpy^b, ronoBy, >khbot h 
CHOBa b Horn. 

CnocoS CTpeubSbi npaMbiM BbiCTpenoM y/ioSeH b oSopoHe, npn OTpa>KeHHH aTaKH npoTHBHHKa, 
Kor^a HeKor^a ycTaHaBJiHBaTb npHneji Ha nocToamio MeHJuoinneca flHCTaHnnn CTpejibSbi, h HeBa>KHO, 
Ky^a Sy^eT nopaaceH npoTHBHHK (H^ymnx Ha Bac b aTaKy npoTHBHHKOB 6y#eT onem, MHoro), - Ba>KHO, 
hto6w oh flo Bac He flonien. 

B flaHHOM cjiynae nejinrb b ronoBy - HeHy>KHaa pocKonib. Ba>KHee CTpenaTb nonaine, htoSw aTa- 
Ka HenpnaTejia SwcTpee 3axjie6Hyjiacb. Ecjih yac bbi xoTHTe "3anenHTb" npoTHBHHKa "noKpyne", 
HMeirre b BH/iy aneflyiomee: Ha flncTaHUHH 600 MeTpoB nyna yna/ieT b TOHKy npHnenHBaHna, to ecTb 
no KaSnyKaM, h noaTOMy Ha 3toh flHCTaHUHH Hy>KHO nejinTbca noBbime, Ky^a-TO b oSnacTb KOJieHen 
hjih Bbinie, b noac, ecjin xoTHTe nonacTb no nempy. Ho 6jin>Ke, Ha 500 MeTpoB, Ha#o CTpenaTb y>Ke no 
KaSnyKaM - TpaeKTopna caMa BbiBe#eT nyjno Ky^a Ha#o. Ha 6jih3koh flncTami,HH, 100 MeTpoB, nyna 
TaK>Ke Sy^eT yxoflnrb bhh3 (cm. no Ta6ji. 8: npeBbinieHne Ha TaKon flncTaHUHH 6y#eT 53 cm), nosTOMy 
nejiHTbca hjokho TaK>Ke Bbinie kojich n Hn>Ke npa>KKH, htoSw nonacTb b rpyflb. Ho Ha Bcex ocTanbHbix 
flHCTami,Hax, ot 500 h #o 100 MeTpoB, no Mepe npn6jiH>KeHHa aTaKyiomero npoTHBHHKa TOHKy npnne- 
jiHBaHHa Hy>KHO SpaTb TOJibKO no ropHBomy, "no KaSnyKaM", He MeHaa ycTaHOBKy npHii,ejia no bwco- 
tc 

npn HacTynaTenbHbix fleHCTBnax npn CTpeubSe jierKOH nyneii H3 bhhtobok npaMoii BbiCTpen 
nonynaeTca: 

- no OKonaBinenca u,ejiH (BbicoTa 30 cm) c npHnenoM "3 1/2" hjih nocToamibiM "n" Ha flHCTaH- 
ii,hh ^0 350 MeTpoB; 

- no otkpmto ne>KameH nenn (BbicoTa 50 cm) c npnnejiOM "4" Ha flHCTami,HH p,o 400 MeTpoB; 

- no nepeSeraiomen nenn (BbicoTa 1,5 m) c npnii,ejiOM "6" Ha flHCTami,HH ^o 600 MeTpoB. 

Ha BbimeyKa3aHHbix flHCTami,Hax npn BbimeHa3BaHHbix ycTaHOBKax npnii,ejiOB CTpenbSa npoH3- 
BOflHTca c BbiSopoM tohkh npHii,ejiHBaHHa no ropn3onry noBepxHOCTH rpyHTa Ha ypoBHe nenn 6e3 H3- 
MeHeHHa ycTaHOBKH npHii,ejia npn H3MeHeHHax flncTami,HH "6jin>Ke k npoTHBHHKy". 

nP^MOH "OXOTHHHHH" BWCTPEJI B TOPO^E 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 124 



KaK y>Ke ynoMHHanocb, npaMbiM "oxoTHHHbHM" CHaMnepcKHM BbiCTpejiOM aBJiaeTca tot, npn ko- 
TopoM TpaeKTopna nyjiH He noflHHMaeTca Btinie jihhhh npimejiHBaHHa hjih conpa>KeHa c HeM. 

CyTb b cneflyiomeM: BbicoTa ycTaHOBKH oimiHecKHx npim,ejiOB Ha# KaHanoM CTBOJia opy>KHa b 
cpeflHeM cocTaBJiaeT 7 cm. OSpaTHMca k cxeMe 76 h ororib >Ke k TaSjiime npeBbinieHHa cpeflmix Tpa- 
eKTopHH. KaK BHflHO, Ha flHCTaHHHH 200 MeTpoB h npHu,ejie "2" HanSojibHiHe npeBbiinemia TpaeKio- 
Phh, 5 cm Ha flHCTaHHHH 100 MeTpoB h 4 cm - Ha 150 MeTpoB, npaKTHHecKH coBna^aiOT c jiHHHeii npn- 
HejiHBaHHa - oimiHecKoii ocbio oimiHecKoro npimejia. BbicoTa jihhhh npHuejiHBaHHa Ha cepe^HHe 
flHCTaHu,HH 200 MeTpoB cocTaBJiaeT 3,5 cm. IIpoHCxoflHT npaKTHnecKoe coBnaflemie TpaeKTopnH nyjin 
h jihhhh npHuejiHBaHHa. Pa3HHu,eH b 1,5 cm mo>kho npeHeSpenb. Ha flHCTaHu,HH 150 MeTpoB BbicoTa 
TpaeKTopnH 4 cm, a BbicoTa oimiHecKoii och npimejia Ha# ropH30HTOM opy>KHa cocTaBJiaeT 17-18 mm; 
pa3HHua no bmcotc cocTaBJiaeT 3 cm, hto TaioKe He nrpaeT npaKTHHecKoii pojin. 

""-4i.3 CM 

I -■»* c. „ *"""*-■,.* *••* rp«tl*n«wn«Pt 

1 »•* 5 w 1*^. *» ~^ 



< Ian* 



76. IIpaMOH "oxothhhhh" BbiCTpeji b ropo^e. 

1 - onTHHecKHH nprnjeji; 

2 - ctboji opy>KHa 

Ha paccToaHHH 80 MeTpoB ot CTpejiKa BbicoTa TpaeKTopnH nyjin 6y#eT 3 cm, a BbicoTa npimejib- 
hoh jihhhh - 5 cm, Ta >Ke caMaa pa3HHua b 2 cm He HMeeT peiuaiomero 3HaneHHa. nyjia judkct Bcero Ha 
2 cm HH>Ke tohkh npHHejiHBaHHa. BepTHKanbHbiH pa36poc nyjib b 2 cm HacTOJibKO Man, hto oh npnH- 
HHnHajibHoro 3HaneHHa He HMeeT. no3TOMy, CTpejiaa c ^qjiquhqm "2" onTHnecKoro npimejia, HaiHHaa 
c 80 MeTpoB flHCTaHu,HH h flo 200 MeTpoB, u,ejibTecb npoTHBHHKy b nepeHOCHuy - bm Ty^a h nona^eTe 
±2/3 cm Bbinie HH>Ke Ha BceM 3toh flHCTaimHH. Ha 200 MeTpoB nyjia nona^eT CTporo b TOHKy npimejiH- 
BaHHa. H ^a>Ke flanee, Ha flHCTaHu,HH #o 250 MeipoB, u,ejibTecb c TeM >Ke npimejiOM "2" npoTHBHHKy b 
"MaKyniKy", b BepxHHH cpe3 iuanKH - nyjia nocjie 200 MeTpoB flHCTaHu,HH pe3KO nomDKaeTca. Ha 250 
MeipoB, u,ejiacb TaKHM o6pa30M, bm nona^eTe HH>Ke Ha 1 1 cm - b jio6 hjih nepeHOCHuy. 

BbinieonHcaHHbiH cnocoS oneHb y^oSeH h npaKTHneH b noflBH>KHbix ynHHHbix 6oax, Kor^a pac- 
CToaHHa b ropofle h ecTb npnMepHO 150-250 MeTpoB h Bee ^ejiaeTca Ha 6ery, c xo#y, Sbicrpo, h hcko- 
r^a BoponaTb MaxoBHKOM h BbiCTaBJiaTb npimeji no ^ajibHOCTH. 

nPHCTPEJIKA B TOPO^E no OPHEHTHPAM 

PaccToaHna b ropo^e BH3yanbHO Ka>KyTca Kopone npHMepHO Ha 1/8. noaTOMy ^HCTaiiuHH ^jia 
tohhoh CTpejibSbi BbiBepaiOTca npncTpejiKOH no ocHOBHbiM 3aMeTHbiM opneHTnpaM. 

HanpnMep, rjia30MepHO flHCTaHu,na p,o KHpnHHHoii CTeHbi, Haxoflameiica Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHH- 
Ka, onpeflejiHJiacb b 400 MeTpoB. CHaiinep, CTpejiaa no jiioSoMy BH^HMOMy h 3aMeTHOMy naTHy Ha 
3toh CTeHe c npHu,ejiOM "4", otmcthji, hto nyjia nonana HH>Ke tohkh npHuejiHBaHHa Ha 3 KnpnHHa, to 
ecTb npHMepHO Ha 20 cm. 

no TaSjiHue npeBbinieHHa cpeflHHx TpaeKTopnH Haxo^HM: c npHu,ejiOM "4" nonaflaHne Ha 400 
MeTpoB b "0" (to ecTb no neHTpy), a Ha 450 MeTpoB - 28 cm HH>Ke. CjieflOBaTejibHO, flncTaHu,na b pe- 
anbHOM cjiynae Sy^eT npnMepHO 430-440 MeTpoB. npnii,eji ycTaHaBJinBaeTca "4" h 1/3 ^ejieHHa. 

3ABHCHMOCTb TPAEKTOPHH OT ATMOCOEPHWX YCJIOBHH CTPEJIbBW 

Ha TpaeKTopnio nojieTa nyjin OKa3biBaeT BJiHaHHe He TOJibKO cnjia 3eMHoro npHTa>KeHHa. J\anb- 

HOCTb TpaeKTOpHH BO MHOrOM 3aBHCHT OT nJIOTHOCTH B03flyxa, KOTOpaa B CBOK) OHepeflb H3MeHaeTC3 

ot TeMnepaTypw, aTMOC(J)epHoro flaBJieHHa h BJia>KHOCTH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



125 



3a HopMajibHbie OTnpaBHbie (TaSjinnHbie) ^aHHbie npnHjrrbi: 

- aTMOC(})epHoe ^aBJieHne 750 mm, cooTBeTCTByiomee BbicoTe mccthocth Ha# ypoBHeM Mopa 110 



m; 



- TeMnepaTypa B03#yxa +15°C; 

- BJiaacHOCTb B03flyxa 50%; 

- nonHoe OTcyrcTBHe BeTpa. 

OTKJiOHeHHa ycjiOBHH CTpejibSw ot TaSjiHHHbix (HopManbHbix), H3MeHaa flencTBHe conpoTHBJie- 
HHa B03flyxa, H3MeHaiOT (J)opMy TpaeKTopHH, yfljiHHaa hjih yKopanHBaa ee. IIoBbinieHHe TeMnepaTypw 
B03Ayxa npn >Kape CHH>KaeT ero nnoTHOCTb h 3aMeTHO noBbiniaeT TpaeKropnio, h HaoSopoT, b Mopo3 
nnoTHOCTb B03flyxa 3aMeTHO noBwmaeTca h nyjin njjyr HaMHoro HH>Ke. H b tom, h b jipyroM anynae 
HeoSxoflHMO H3MeHHTb yrjibi npnnejiHBaHna npn pa3Hnne TeMnepaTyp b 10 rpa^ycoB. IIonpaBOHHwe 
flaHHbie Ha MeTeoycjiOBna npnBefleHw b TaSji. 16 h 17. 

TaSnnna 16 

CBOflHaa Ta6jiHu,a nonpaBOHHwx ^aHHwx Ha MeTeopojiornnecKHe ycnoBna h flepHBannio flua 

CTpeJIbSbl H3 BHHTOBKH CB,fl, 



E 
M 


ropHSOHxanEHEie 6oKOBEie nonpaBKH, cm 


BepTHKanEHEie nonpaBKH, cm 


Bokoboh Berep eh>a 
yrnoM 90° - 6 m/c 


^epHBanHK 


IIpOflOHBHEI 
H 

Berep 10 m/c 


OncjioHeHHe 
TeMnepaTyp 

BI 

Bosflyxa 
HalO^C 

VAAAV- 


OxKJioHeHHe 
aTMOctpepHor 


b 
caui'MMerpa 

X 


B 
TblCOTHEI 


B 

caHTHMeipa 

X 


B 

TbICHHHBI 

X 


o 
flaEJieHHH 
Ha 10 mm 


100 


3 


0,15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


200 


10 


0,35 


1 




- 


1 


- 


300 


26 


0,6 


2 


0,1 


- 


2 


- 


400 


48 


0,95 


4 


0,1 


1 


4 


- 


500 


72 


U 


7 


0,1 


2 


7 


1 


600 


110 


1,7 


12 


0,2 


4 


12 


3 


700 


160 


2,1 


19 


0,2 


6 


21 


5 


GOO 


235 


2,6 


29 


0,3 


15 


35 


9 


900 


320 


3,1 


43 


0,5 


26 


54 


14 


L000 


490 


3,7 


62 


0,6 


42 


GO 


20 



TaSjinna 17 

ynpomeHHbiH MeTOfl nonpaBOK Ha TeMnepaTypy 



p ^HcraHnHH I M 


TeMnepaTypa Eosflyxa, °C 


+45 


+35 


+25 


+15 


+5 


-5 


-15 


-25 


-35 


^15 


IIonpaBKH b flejieHHHX npHqena 


IIpBueji yMeHBmeTB 




rr 








en ve 


eJlHIHTb 




500 


1/2 


- 


- 


- 


- 








1/2 


2/3 


600 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


2/3 


700 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


11/3 


GOO 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


900 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


1000 


1 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


12/3 


1100 


1 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


2 


1200 


1 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


2 



nPHMEHAHHE. ffo ducmcmijuu 500 Mempoe meMnepamypou u npodojibHUM eempoM mookho 
npenedpenb, nocne 500 Mempoe enunnue 3tnux (patcmopoe nacmoiibKo eejiuxo, umo ezo npuxodumcn 
ynumbieamb. 

TIpuMep. TeMnepaTypa B03flyxa -25°C, flHCTaHHiia CTpejibSw 600 MeTpoB. YcTaHOBHTb npaBmib- 
Hbiii npnneji. 

Peuienue. Pa3Hnna cymecTByiomen TeMnepaTypw (-25°C) ot TaSjinnHon (+15°C BwnecTb -25°C) 
paBHO 40 °C. OTKJiOHeHHe nyjin bhh3 coraacHO TaSnnne Ha flncTaHUHH 600 MeTpoB npn ica>Kflwx 10°C 
noHH>KeHHa TeMnepaTyp bi paBHO 12 cm (!). CireflOBaTejibHO, OTKJiOHeHHe nyjin bhh3 6y#eT 12 cm x 4 
(KOJiHnecTBO ^ecaTKOB) paBHO 48 cm. IIpHKHHyB no TaSjinne npeBbimeHHH cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnii, yBH- 
flHM, hto nyna He floneTHT j\o nejin 50 MeTpoB. GneflOBaTejibHO, npnneji HeoSxoflHMO nocTaBHTb Ha 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



126 



"6" h npHnoflHaTb ero eme Ha 1/2 fleneHHa. BHHMaHHe! 3Ta 3ap,sna p,a&T CTaH^apTHoe penieHHe Ha 
CTaHflapTHyio CHTyauHio. HTaK, 3anoMHHTe! IIpH TeivtnepaType B03#yxa 3hmoh -25°C b cpeflHeii kjih- 
MaTHHecKOH nonoce Pocchh npHueji BbiCTaBJiaeTca "6 1/2" (fl.ua CTpenbSbi np»MbiM BbiCTpenoM). 

ynpomeHHbifl npaKTHHecKHii cnocoS BBeAemiH nonpaBOK Ha TeMnepaTypy B03Ayxa (h3 

HacraBJicuMii no bhhtobkc CBfl) 

BjiHaHHe TeMnepaTypw B03#yxa Ha ^ajibHOCTb noneTa nyjin npn CTpenbSe no nejuiM Ha paccToa- 

HH3X flO 500 MeTpOB MO>KHO He yHHTWBaTb, TaK KaK Ha 3THX paCCTOaHHSX ee BJIHSHHe He3HaHHTeJIb- 

hoc 

IIpH CTpenbSe Ha paccToaHHax 500 MeTpoB h Sojiee BJinaHHe TeMnepaTypw B03#yxa Ha flanb- 
HOCTb noneTa nyjin Hy>KHO ynHTWBaTb, yBejiHHHBaa npHueji b xonoflHyio h yMeHbmaa ero b >KapKyio 
noro/iy, pyKOBOflCTByacb npaKTHnecKon TaSjiHnen 18. 

Ta6jinii,a 18 



CTpeJIbfJEI, M 


TeMnepaiypa E03nyxa. °C 


+45 


+35 


+25 


+15 


+5 


-5 


-15 


-25 


-35 


-45 


rioiipaEKH E flfilKHHHX npmjena 


IIpHEl 


en yMeHEiuuib 


i— r 






lipBTfen yEejudiMit 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.5 


0.5 


1 


600 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


0.5 


1 


1 


700 


0,5 


- 


- 


- 


- 




0,5 




1 


1 


GOO 


0.5 


0.5 


- 


- 


- 


0.5 


0.5 




1 


1 


900 




0.5 


- 


- 


_ 


0.5 


1 




1 


2 


1000 




0.5 


- 


- 


. 


0.5 


1 




2 


2 


1100 




0.5 


- 


- 


- 


0.5 


1 




2 


2 


1200 




1 


0.5 


- 


0.5 


1 


1 




2 


2 


1300 




1 


0.5 


- 


0.5 


1 


1 


2 


2 


2 



nonPABKH HA ATMOCOEPHOE ^ABJIEHHE. CTPEJIbEA B TOP AX 



Ilepenaflbi bwcot h, aneflOBaTejibHO, nepena^bi aTMOC(J)epHoro ^aBJieHna ^aiOT ce6a 3HaTb npn 
CTpenbSe b ropax. IIonpaBKH 3#ecb o6a3aTejibHw. IIpH 3HaHHrejibHOM noBbimeHHn MecTHOCTH n&j\ 
ypoBHeM Mopa aTMOC(J)epHoe ^aBJieHne (h nnoTHOCTb B03flyxa) 3HaHHrejibHO nomoKaeTCJi, ^anbHOCTb 
TpaeKTopHH (n noneTa) nyjin yBejinnnBaeTca. IIoBbimeHHe (noHn>KeHHe) MecTHOCTH Ha Ka>Kflwe 100 
MeTpoB noHH>KaeT (noBbimaeT) ^aBJieHHe pTyraoro CTOJiSa Ha 8 mm. 

PeanbHO H3MeHeHne aTMOC(|)epHoro ^aBJieHna npHxoflHTca ynnrbiBaTb npn CTpenbSe Ha BbicoTe 
500 MeTpoB Hafl ypoBHeM Mopa n Bbime. IIonpaBOHHwe ^aHHwe b TaSjinnax 17, 18 ^aiOTca Ha pa3HHuy 
flaBJieHHa b 10 mm ot HopManbHoro TaSjiHHHoro. IIpHHHHn BbiHHCJieHHa: ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca KOJinnecTBO 
coTeH MeTpoB Hafl HopManbHOH, TaSjiHHHon, BbicoTOH 110 MeTpoB. Ha nojiyneHHoe kojikhcctbo cotch 
yMHO>KaeTca ^aBJieHHe 8 mm. 3aTeM TaSunHHyio ^aHHyio yMHO>KaiOT Ha KOJinnecTBO flecaTKOB. 

IJpuMep. BbicoTa 1500 MeTpoB, ^anbHOCTb CTpenbSw 600 MeTpoB onpeflejiHTb nonpaBKy b npn- 
nene. 

Pemenue. IIo cboahoh TaSjinue nonpaBOK Ha MeTeoycjiOBna Haxo^HM: Ha flHCTaHinrn 600 MeT- 
poB nonpaBKa no BbicoTe TpaeKTopnn Ha Ka>Kflwe 10 mm pTymoro CTOJiSa 6y#eT cocTaBJiaTb +3 cm 
npeBbimeHHa TpaeKTopnH. IIpeBbimeHHe MecTHOCTH naj\ HopManbHon TaSnnHHon bwcotoh cocTaBJia- 
eT: 1500 m - 110 m = 1390 m, OKpyraeHHO 14 cotch. Kojikhcctbo ^ecaTKOB MnjuiHMeTpoB pTymoro 
CTOJiSa Sy^eT 112:10 =11. IipeBWHieHHa TpaeKTopnn b 3 cm Ha Ka>KflWH ^ecaTOK MnjuiHMeTpoB pTyT- 
Horo CTOJiSa, yMHO>KeHHbie Ha 1 1 ^ecaTKOB, jxajxyi npeBbimeHne TpaeKTopnH 33 cm. 3to npoMax. IIo 
Ta6jinii,e npeBbimeHHH no bkhtobkc CB,3, Haxo^HM 6jiH>KaHniee 3HaneHne k ^HCTaHHHH 600 MeTpoB - 
3to 6y#eT npeBbimeHne b 74 cm Ha #HCTaHHHH 500 MeTpoB. 

Cjie/iOBaTejibHO, ecjin ycTaHOBHTb npnneji Ha "5 1/2" £ejieHHa, nyna nona^eT b TOHKy npnnejin- 
BaHna c He3HanHTejibHbiM npeBbiuieHHeM b 4 cm, hto He npeBbiuiaeT BejiHHHHbi paccenBaHHa CTBOJia 
(74 cm: 2 = 37 cm, 3to cooTBeTCTByeT npeBbinieHHio TpaeKTopnH Ha flHCTaHHHH 550 MeTpoB - BHHMa- 
TejibHO cm. Ta6jiHu,y npeBbinieHHa cpe^Hnx TpaeKTopnH no BHHTOBKe CB,3,). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 127 

ynpomcHHbiii npaKTHHecKHH cnoco6 bbc/jchmji nonpaBOK b ropax (n3 HacraBJiCHHJi no 

BMHI obkc CBJX) 

B ropax npn CTpenbSe Ha flHCTaHunax CBbinie 700 MeTpoB, ecjin BbicoTa mccthocth nap, ypoBHeM 
Mopa npeBbiniaeT 2000 MeTpoB, npHueji, cooTBeTCTByiomHH ^ajibHOCTH po uejiH, b cbjbh c nomoKeH- 
hoh ruiOTHOCTbio B03#yxa cjie#yeT yMeHbinaTb Ha o#ho fleneHHe; ecjin BbicoTa mccthocth nap ypoB- 
HeM Mopa MeHbiue 2000 MeTpoB, npHueji He yMeHbinaTb, a TOHKy npHHenHBaHHa BbiSnpaTb Ha HH>KHeM 
Kpae u,ejiH. 

H3MeHeHHe BJia>KHOCTH B03flyxa OKa3biBaeT HHHTO>KHoe BUHaHHe Ha ero njiOTHOCTb h (popMy 
TpaeKTopHH, a no3TOMy npn CTpenbSe He ynHTbiBaeTca. OflHaKO CJie^yeT HMeTb b BH^y, hto nap ot- 
KpwTOH BOflHOH noBepxHOCTbio (ninpoKaa peKa, 03epo, Mope) B03#yx HMeeT noBbinieHHyio BJia>KHOCTb 
h 3HaHHTejibHO noHH>KeHHyio TeivmepaTypy, BCJieflCTBHe nero ero njiOTHOCTb CTaHOBHTca 3aMeTHO 
SojibHie h Ha flHCTaHu,Hax 300-400 MeTpoB y>Ke BJinaeT Ha TpaeKTopnio. OcoSemio 3to aBJiemie npo- 
aBJiaeTca b jieTHee BpeMa paHHHM yTpoM. 

IIo3TOMy b TaKHx cjiynaax npn CTpenbSe nepe3 ihhpokhh BOfloeM HeoSxo/niMO SpaTb flononHH- 
TejibHyio nonpaBKy no BbicoTe. Ee pa3Mep paBeH BejiHHHHe nonpaBKH Ha flepHBauHio, ho, pa3yMeeTca, 
no BepTHKanH. 

KpoMe Toro, CTpenaTb b TaKHx ycnoBnax >KejiaTejibHO TJDKenoH nynen o6pa3u,a 1930 r. huh t»- 
>Kejion nyneH cnopTHBHoro naTpoHa. Ta>Kejibie nyjin Jiynme "paSoTaiOT" b huothom B03#yxe Ha paub- 
hhx flHCTaHUHax. He 3a6biBaHTe, hto Ha flHCTaHnnax CTpenbSbi po 400 MeTpoB nap BOfloeMOM TJDKejiaa 
nyna npoH^eT b cpe^HeM Ha 1-2 cm HH5Ke ycTaHOBJieHHon TaSjiHHHOH TpaeKTopHH, a.nocne py6e>Ka 
400-450 MeTpoB 6ypQT h^th Bbinie TaSuHHHbix ^aHHbix Ha 1-2 cm. 

nonPABKH ha yroji mecta uejih 

Ilpn pacnojio>KeHHH uejiH Bbinie hjih HH>Ke ropn30HTa opy>KHa Meac^y jikhhch npHHenHBaHHa n 
ropH30HTOM opy>KHa o6pa3yeTca.yroji, Ha3biBaeMbiH yrnoM MecTa uejiH. IIocjieflHHH CHHTaeTca nono- 
>KHTejibHbiM, Kor^a nenb HaxoflHTca Bbinie ropH30HTa opy>KHa (cxeMa 77), h OTpHuaTejibHbiM, Kor^a 
nenb HH>Ke. IIonpaBKH Ha yron MecTa uejiH onpeflenaiOTca no cboahoh TaSnnne, oSnien pirn bhhtobok 
h nyneMeTOB (Ta6n. 19). 



CxeMa 77. 06pa30BaHHe nojio>KHTejibHoro yrna MecTa nejiH 

3adana. OnpeflenHTb nonpaBKy Ha yron MecTa uejiH +40° npn CTpenbSe b ropax Ha paccToaHHH 
400 MeTpoB. 

Pemenue. Ilo TaSjiHue nonpaBOK Ha yron MecTa uejiH Haxo^HM: 

nyjia yna^eT Ha 50 MeTpoB 6jin>Ke uejiH, cneflOBaTejibHO, ycTaHaBJinBaeTca npnnen "4 1/2" peRQ- 

HH3. 

CymecTByKxr TaK>Ke ynpomeHHbie TaSjiHHbi nonpaBOK Ha yron MecTa uejiH. Ohh pa3JiHHHbi psia 
jierKHx h Ta>Kejibix nyjib. BHHMaHHe! IIpH CTpenbSe H3 CHamiepcKOH bhhtobkh CQJ\ naTpoHaMH 
"cHaiinepcKHe" h naTpoHaMH c nynaMH "cepeSpaHbiii hochk" oflHOBpeMemio pyKOBOflCTBOBaTbca TaSji. 
20 flua nyjin o6pa3ii,a 1908 r. 

TaSjiHua 19 

IIonpaBOHHbie ^aHHbie Ha yron MecTa uejiH pim CTpenbSbi H3 bhhtobkh CBJ\ h poTHoro nyneMe- 
ra 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



128 



HaKJioHHaa 

flajIBHOCTB, M 


100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


BOO 


900 


1000 


yron Mecra nenn 


IIonpaEKa no aanEHOcra 
(jonaxe - flajmine oT^nenn m) 


-35 


npn 
crpeubSe 

EHH3 


-26 


-34 


-39 


-A\ 


-AA 


^17 


-52 


-5B 


-66 


-75 


-30 


-16 


-24 


-30 


-33 


-35 


-37 


^11 


A5 


-51 


-57 


-25 


-9 


-17 


-23 


-26 


-27 


-29 


-31 


-34 


-3B 


A3 


-20 


-5 


-11 


-16 


-19 


-21 


-22 


-24 


-26 


-2E 


-32 


-15 


-3 


-7 


-10 


-13 


-15 


-16 


-17 


-IB 


-20 


-23 


-10 





-3 


-5 


-E 


-9 


-10 


-12 


-13 


-15 




-5 





-1 


-3 


-4 


-4 


-5 


-6 


-6 


-7 


-B 


-0 


































+5 


npH 

CTpent6e 
EEepx 








+1 


+3 


+11 


+22 


+3E 


+51 


+5B 


+64 


+10 








+5 


+11 


+20 


+37 


+54 


+6E 


+77 


+E3 


+15 


-2 


-6 


-1 


+7 


+16 


+32 


+46 


+5B 


+66 


+74 


+20 


-5 


-10 


-2 


+5 


+13 


+21 


+29 


+3B 


+47 


+54 


+25 


-B 


-17 


-12 


-6 





+7 


+14 


+22 


+29 


+34 


+30 


-12 


-25 


-24 


-19 


-14 


-E 


-2 


+4 


+B 


+11 


+35 


-IE 


-34 


-36 


-34 


-30 


-26 


-22 


-19 


-17 


-16 


+40* 


-25 


-44 


^17 


-50 


A9 


^1E 


-47 


A6 


A5 


A5 


+45 


-31 


-53 


-61 


-6B 


-72 


-74 


-75 


-76 


-11 


-7E 


+50 


-37 


-61 


-77 


-BE 


-97 


-103 


-106 


-109 


-112 


-114 



Uonpaexa co shqkom "hjiioc" - nynu nepejiemawm nepes ijejib na yKasannoe e madjiuije paccmon- 



nue 



IJonpaeKa co shcikom "Munyc" - nynu Jiootcamcn, ne doneman do ijejiu na yKasannoe e madjiuije 
paccmoHHue 

YnpomeHHbiH npaKTHHecKHH cnocoS nonpaBOK Ha yroji MecTa uejin npn crpejibSe b ropax (h3 

HacTaBJiemiH no bhhtobkc CBfl) 

Ecjih npn CTpenbSe uejib HaxoflHrca Bbinie hjih HH>Ke CHaMnepa, a yron MecTa uejiH npn 3tom 
cocTaBJiaeT; 

- 15-30°, to TOHKy npHu,ejiHBaHHa Ha flHCTamnttix CBbinie 700 MeTpoB cneflyeT BbiSnpaTb Ha 
HH>KHeM Kpae uejiH; 

- 30-45°, to npHueji, cooTBeTCTByiomHH flanbHOCTH j\o uejiH, HeoSxoflHMO yMeHbiuaTb Ha oaho 
fleneHHe Ha flHCTaHu,HJix CBbinie 700 MeTpoB h Ha nojiflejieHHa - Ha ^HCTaHUHJix ot -400 j\o 700 MeT- 
poB; 

- 45-60°, to npHueji, cooTBeTCTByiomHH ^ajibHOCTH j\o uejiH, HeoSxoflHMO yMeHbiuaTb Ha j\&& 
fleneHHa Ha nanbHOCTax CBbinie 700 MeTpoB h Ha oaho nejieHHe Ha flHCTaHunax ot 400 j\o 700 MeTpoB. 



CTPEJIbEA B TOP AX EOEIIPHIIACAMH nPE^CHHX JIET BBinYCKA (EOEBOH 
YCTAB TOPHOCTPEJIKOBblX nO^PA3^EJIEHHH) 

IIpH CTpenbSe b ropax ^ajibHOCTb noneTa nyjin yBeiiHHHBaeTca caBHHTejibHO co CTpejibSoft Ha 

paBHHHHOH MeCTHOCTH BCJieflCTBHe yMeHbHieHHS nJIOTHOCTH B03flyxa B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT BblCOTbl Hafl 

ypoBHeM Mopa. J\jih yneTa BJinaHHa hjiothocth B03#yxa h BHeceHHa lonpaBKH b ycTaHOBKy npHuejia 
npn BefleHHH orHa b ropax cueflyeT pyKOBOflCTBOBaTbca TaSji. 20. 
Ta6jiHu,a 20 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 



129 



Jjrrf-rai-i nun 
CTpemv6EI,M 


nyjia o6p. 1930 r. 


nyns o6p. 190E r. 


BBicora Mecraocra Hafl ypoBHeM Mopa, m 


1000 


1500 


2000 


2500 


3000 


1000 


1500 


2000 


2500 


3000 




ripHEten yMeHBmHTB {e flejieHHHX npmjena) 


500 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


600 


- 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


700 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


800 


- 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


1 


900 


m 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


1/2 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


1000 


m 


1/2 


1 


1 


1 


1/2 


1 


1 


11/2 


11/2 



IIPHMEHAHHE. B madjiuije npueedenu npudjiujicennue tfucppu. IJpu cmpejibde neodxoduMO 
cjiedumb 3a nadenueM nynb u pe3yjibtnamaMU ozhh u coomeemcmeeHHO um enocumb neodxoduMbie no- 
npaexu. 

Ha H3MeHeHHe flanbHOCTH noneTa nyjin npn CTpenbSe b ropax OKa3biBaiOT Taioice BJinaHne 3Ha- 
HHTejibHbie yrjibi MecTa nenH. IIonpaBKH Ha bjiksukq yrnoB MecTa uejiH cjie^yeT npoHBBOflnrb, pyico- 
BOACTByacb TaSji. 21, 22. 

TaS-nima 21 

^jia Ta>KejiOH nyjiH o6pa3ua 1930 r. 



(HSKJIOHHaa flaUEHOCTE.) 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1000 


Yrn&i Mecra neira 
b rpaflycax 


IIonpaBKH no flauEHOcra b flejieHHHX npHnera (npHnen y6aE jihte) 


-30 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-20 


- 


- 


- 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 





- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+30 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


TaSjinna 22 

J\im jierKOH nyjiH o6pa3ii 


a 1908 r. 


(H3KJIOHHa£ flaJUfHOCTb) 


300 


400 


500 


600 


700 


800 


900 


1000 


yrnBi Mecra nenn 
e rpaflycax 


nonpaEKH no flajiEHOcra e kgichhsx npnnena 

(CO 3H3KOM "MHHyc" - y6aEJIHTB, CO 3H3KOM "lUIK>c" - npH 


J3EJIHTE.) 


-30 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-1/2 


-10 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 





- 


- 


- 


- 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+10 


- 


- 


- 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1 


+1 


+20 


- 


- 


- 


- 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+1/2 


+30 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 



nonPABKH HA BETEP 



Bokoboh BeTep Bbi3biBaeT 3HaHHTejibHbie OTKJiOHeHHJi nyjiH ot iijiockocth CTpenbSbi. EcTb Kpw- 
jiaTaa (})pa3a: "Py>Kbe CTpenaeT, BeTep nyjin hocht". BeTep chocht nyjiH b CTopoHy ot nejin BecbMa 
omyTHMO. K npHMepy, Ha peanbHOH CHannepcKOH flncTaHUHH 400 MeTpoB ^a>Ke cnaSbin BeTep chocht 
nyjuo b CTopoHy Ha 23-25 cm. IIpH CTpenbSe b ronoBy (a b ochobhom CHaMnepy npnxoflHTca CTpenaTb 
no ronoBe, BbicyHyBHieMca H3 yicpbiTna) - 3to y>Ke aBHbin npoMax. IIojiHeHmee 6e3BerpHe - He oneHb 
nacToe aBJieHne, h npn CHannepcKOH CTpenbSe Berep npnxoflHTca npHHHMaTb b pacneT #a>Ke Ha ko- 

POTKHX flHCTaHU,HaX CTpenbSbi. 

3a CKopocTb BeTpa b CTpenKOBOH h apTHJiJiepHHCKOH npaierHKe. npHHaTbi: cjiaSbiM BeTep - 2-2,5 
m/c; yMepeHHbiM (cpeflHnii) - 4-6 m/c; CHJibHbiH-8-12M/c. 

IIonpaBKH Ha BeTep ycTaHaBJiHBaiOTca coraacHO TaSjinne nonpaBOK Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbiM Be- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



130 



Tep, flyiomHH nofl yrnoM 90° k nnocKOCTH CTpejibSbi. B 3toh TaSjiHue, KaK npHHjno bo Bcex TaSjiHuax 
CTpenbSbi b MHpoBOH npaKTHKe, nonpaBOHHbie ^aHHbie ycTaHOBJieHbi hmchho Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbiM 
BeTep - 4-6 m/c. 3to CTaH^apTHbie TaSjiHHHbie flaHHbie, h bo Bcex SanjiHCTHHecKHx pacneTax cjie^yeT 
opneHTHpoBaTbca hmchho Ha TaKyio CKopocTb BeTpa. 

Bee TaSjiHHHbie nonpaBOHHbie ^aHHbie npn cnjibHOM BeTpe yMHO>KaiOTca Ha^Boe, a npn onaSoM - 
^ejiHTca nononaM. 

IIpH BeTpe, flyiomeM no# jhoSwm ocTpbiM yrnoM (60°, 45°, 30°) k huockocth CTpejibSbi, nonpaB- 
Ky cueflyeT SpaTb B^Boe MeHbuie, neM npn Sokobom (no# yraoM 90°) BeTpe. 

IIpHMep. YcTaHOBHTb SoKOBoe CMemeHHe nyjin npn CTporo Sokobom yMepeHHOM BeTpe Ha #h- 
CTaHHHH 300 MeTpoB. Cmotphm b pa3flen Sokobbix nonpaBOK TaSji. 23. Haxo^HM: ^anbHOCTb CTpejibSbi 
300 MeTpoB, pa^OM Haxo^HM CMemeHHe nyjin ot nejin - 26 cm. Ecjih BeTep 6y#eT cnaSbiM, TaSjiHHHbie 
flaHHbie flenHM nononaM - CMemeHHe 6y#eT paBHO 13 cm. Ecjih >Ke stot cjiaSwii BeTep #yeT no# oct- 
pbiM yrnoM 45-35°, CMemeHHe npn 3tom 6y#eT 13 cm: 2 = 6 cm. Ciofla >Ke CJie^yeT npnSaBHTb hjih bw- 
necTb 1 -2 cm nonpaBKH Ha flepHBauHio nyjin, KOTopon npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh CBfl Ha ^HCTaHUHH 
300 MeTpoB mo>kho npeHeSpenb. Hpn BBefleHHH nonpaBOK Ha BeTep pyKOBOflCTBOBaTbca TaSji. 23-25. 

TaSjiHua 23 

IIonpaBKH Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbin BeTep (CKopocTb 4-6 m/c) nofl yrnoM 90° fljia bhhtobkh Ka- 
jni6pa 7,62 mm 



p ^HCT3HIXHH, 
M 


OncnoHeHHe hyjih, cm 


rionpaEKa nncajiEi Gokoboto 

-t VAAAAAAAAAAAAAA/v 

MaXOEHIKa 


Beihoce 
f^Hrypax 


CB/LCBT, 

Kapa6HH 

oGpasqa 1944 

r. 


TpexuHHeiimH 

Gpasna 
1891- 1930 it. 


cba, cbt, 

Kapa6HH 
o6pa3qa 1944r. 


TpexjiMHeHHaa 

o6pa3E(a 
1891- 1930 rr. 


MMilieHH 

{nrapHHa 50 cm) 


100 


- 


3 


- 


- 


- 


200 


10 


9 


1/2 


1/2 


0,3 


300 


26 


20 


3/4 


3/5 


0,5 


400 


48 


40 


11/5 


1 


1 


500 


72 


68 


1 1/2 


1 1/2 


U 


600 


110 


100 


2 


2 


2 



TaSjinna 24 

IIonpaBKH Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbin BeTep (CKopocTb 4-6 m/c) nofl yraoM 90° fljia ManoKajinSep- 

HOH BHHTOBKH 5,6 MM 



p ^HcraHixHH, 

M 


CKopocTt serpa 


cna6oro, 2 m/c 


yMepeHHoro, 4 m/c 


CHUBHoro, 8 m/c 


OncnoHeHHe, 

CM 

w-s-s- 


B 

flCJieHHHX 

GoKosoro 

WA^ViVvWvWvV 

MaXOBHIKa 


OxKJioHeHHe, 

CM 


B 

fleJICHHHX 

6oKOBoro 

VvWvVWvWvViVv 

MaXOBHHKa 

V ,/ v i/j^./. i .vV v -.^,. v VvV. 


OncnoHeHHe, 

CM 

V-S-SS- 


B 

fleneHHHX 
6oKOBoro 

MaXOBHHKa 


25 


- 


- 


1 


1/3 


2 


3/4 


50 


1,5 


1/3 


3 


2/3 


6 


1 


75 


2,0 


1/3 


4 


2/3 


9 


1 1/5 


100 


3,0 


1/3 


6 


2/3 


12 


1 1/4 


150 


5,0 


1/3 


11 


2/3 


20 


1 1/3 


200 


8,0 


2/3 


16 


2/3 


32 


1 1/2 



TaSjiHua 25 

IIonpaBKH Ha BeTep fljia bhhtobkh CBJ\ (h3 HacTaBJieHHa no bhhtobkc CBJJ) (nojiHaa TaSjiHua) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



131 



CTpeJIE^EL.M 


Bokoeoh yMtpeHHEiH EeTep (4 m/c) nofl yrnoM 90° 


] 


lonpaEKH (oKpyrneHHo) 


b Meipax 


b (JjHrypax 
HejioEeKa 


b flejieHHHX 

nncajnj 
6oKOEoro 

MaXOEHHKa 

wwwwwwwww 

(ceiKH Erpariejia) 


200 


oa 


- 


0.5 


300 


0,26 


0,5 


1 


400 


0.48 


1 


1 


500 


0.72 


u 


u 


600 


1.1 


2 


2 


700 


1.6 


3 


2.5 


BOO 


22 


4.5 


3 


900 


2.9 


6 


3 


1000 


3.7 


7.5 


4 


1100 


4.6 


9 


4 


1200 


5^ 


11 


4.5 


1300 


6j6 


13 


5 


3! IIpH CHJIbH 


3M 60KOBOM I 


jeTpe (8-12 m/c 


) 6e3 ocrpoii HeoSxofli 



6w jrynme B03flep>KaTbca h jinniHHii pa3 He ^eMacKnpoBaTb ce6». Ha flHCTaHnnax 300 MeTpoB h Sojiee 
CHJibHbiii BeTep AyeT HepaBHOMepHO, nopbiBaMH no3TOMy KanecrBO CTpejibSbi b TaKHx ycnoBnax 6y#eT 
ManonpeflCKa3yeMO . 

IIopblBbl BeTpa HMeiOT HeOflHHaKOByK) CKOpOCTb TaK>Ke B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT peJIbe(|)a MeCTHOCTH, H 

TOHHbiM pacneT nonpaBOK Ha BeTep b chjibho nepeceneHHOH mccthocth npoH3BecTH HeB03MO>KHO hjih 
ManoBepoaTHO. Ecjih y>K oneHb Ha^o 6y#eT CTpejiaTb npn chjibhom BeTpe hjih Ha oneHb nepeceneHHOH 
MeCTHOCTH, npHCTpenaHTecb TpaccHpyiomeii nyneii, xots TOHHOCTb CTpejibSbi nooneflHeii ocTaBJiaeT 
>KejiaTb MHoro Jiynmero. CTpejiairie, ho He b nejib, a b KaKOH-HnSyflb npe^MeT, pacnojio>KeHHbiii Ha 
OflHOH flHCTaHu,HH c nejibio h b CTopoHe ot Hee, HToSbi He cnyrHyTb Ba>KHyio nejib. B ohthhcckhh 
npnneji nCO-1 (oh TeM h xopoui) mo>kho yBH^eTb, Ha CKOJibKO fleneHHH niKaiibi Sokobmx nonpaBOK 
OTHecno CBeramyioca nynio, h 3aTeM nejinibca b Hy>KHyK) uejib, "noca^HB" ee Ha to flejiefflie micajibi, 
Ky^a ynan CBeTamniica Tpaccep 

Bwhoc tohkh npHu,ejiHBaHHa npoH3BOflHTca ot cepeflHHbi nejin. IIpH BHeceHHH nonpaBOK b 
ycTaHOBKy SoKOBoro MaxoBHHKa npnnejiHBaTbca b ee cepe^HHy 

Jljm onpeflejieHna chjim BeTpa MoryT cny>KHTb cjieflyioinne npn3HaKn (cxeMa 78). 

CnaSbin BeTep 

- cDnar cuerKa OTKJiOHaeTca ot ^peBica. 

- J\biM H3 TpySbi cjiaSo OTKJiOHaeTca. 

- IIjiaTOK KOJibimeTca n cuerKa pa3BeBaeTca. 

- TpaBa KOJiwnieTca. 

- Ha KycTax KOJieSjiKxrca BeTKn n jincTba. 

- Ha ^epeBbax KanaiOTca bctkh h mejiecTjrr jincTba. 
yiviepeHHbiH BeTep 

- cDnar flep>KHTca pa3BepHyTbiM n pa3BeBaeTca. 

- JlbiM H3 TpySbi OTKJiOHaeTca n tshctcs, He pa3pwBaacb. 

- HuaTOK pa3BeBaeTca. 

- TpaBa HaiaiOHaeTca k 3eMJie. 

- KycTbi KanaiOTca. 

- Ha ^epeBbax otkjiohjhotcji TOHKne BeTBH h chjibho KOJibimyrca jiHCTba. 
CHJibHbiii BeTep 

- cDjiar c niyMOM pa3BepTbiBaeTca n ^ep>KHTca ropH30HTanbHO. 

- JlbiM H3 TpySbi pe3KO OTKJiOHaeTca h pa3pbiBaeTca. 

- njiaTOK pBerca H3 pyK. 

- TpaBa CTejieTca no 3eMJie. 

- KycTbi y/iep>KHBaiOTca HaKJiOHeHHbiMH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



132 



Ha flepeBtax KanaiOTca cynta h otkjiohjhotcji Sojibinne bctbh. 



2-3 m/c 



vW 



7777* 

Cna6o 



v\amwww^ 



fyncnoHaercH 




Kon&nneTca 



cjienca 

WiViVvVvVvVvVv 

OTDBIEaeTCB 

<yTflpeEKa 



KanaioTca tohkhc 

EeTKH 

h menecTffT jihctbs 




KonEnnerca h 
oienca pass eEaercs 



4-6 m/c 

(yMepCHHKIH) 



&T 



S777WT77/ 

OxKJioHHerca 
He paspBiBaacB 




pasBepHyiBiM 
HpasECEaerca 




OtKJIOHHIOTCH 



HCHJIEHO 

TOHKHC EeTKH 



KOJIBimyKH TOJICTEie 




8^12 m/c 
(chjoiHkih) 

^ > I* ^ - 

/777ir7: 

Pe3KO OTKJIOHHeTCH 

h paspBiBaerca 




C mynioM 
pasB epr&iBaeTCH 

H flepjEHTCH 

ropHSOHxanBHO 




OtKJIOHHIOTCH 



jHKaiaKyra 

TOHKHC EeTKH 



PasE esaerca B&rpbiEaeTCH H3 pyK 



CxeMa 78. CKopocTb BeTpa 

OneHt Ba>KHO npaBHJibHO onpeflejiHTb paccToamie flo nejin ho npaBHJibHO onpeflejurrb CHJiy BeT- 
pa eme Ba>KHee. IIpH npaBHJibHO onpeflejieHHoft flHCTaHnnn #o nejin mo>kho He coMHeBaTbca b tom hto 
CTpenbSa Sy^eT MeTKoft h CTpenoK nona^eT no nempy c He3HaHHTejibHbiMH OTKJiOHeHHaMH nyjin 
BBepx-BHH3, h6o TpaeieropHa ee ^OBOJibHO tohho noflHHHeHa TaSunne npeBbimeHna cpe^Hnx Tpaeiero- 
pnft BeTep flyeT c HenpeflCica3yeMoft, npnneM Ha pa3Hbix flHCTaHnnax #o nejin, chjioh. Ho3TOMy fljia 
TpeHHpoBKH CTpenbSbi c yneTOM BeTpa #a>Ke Ha CTaH^apTHoft TpemipoBOHHoft flHCTaHu,HH 300 MerpoB 
3HaK)H(HH HHCTpyKTop o6a3aTejibHO nocTaBHT B03Jie MHHieHH (})jiiorep - BOTKHyryio b 3eMJiio nanKy c 
npHB33aHHbiM k Heft KanpoHOBbiM nyjiKOM (3to caMbift nyBCTBHTejibHbift k BeTpy MaTepnan). ^pyroft 
TaKoft >Ke (J)Jiiorep HHCTpyierop nocTaBHT Ha cepe^HHe CTpenKOBoft flHCTaHHHH. B SoeBbix ycjiOBnax 
CHaftnep CTaBHT TaKHe (J)Jiiorepa caM hjih >Ke 3to flenaiOT no ero npocbSe pa3BeflHHKH. fljia BHeceHHa 
nonpaBOK Ha BeTep nojib3yftTecb TaSn. 26, 27, 28. 

TaSnnna 26 

ynponieHHbift cnocoS onpefleneHHa BejiHHHHbi nonpaBOK Ha ^eftcTBne SoKOBoro yMepeHHoro 
BeTpa, flyiomero nofl yrnoM 90°, npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh KannSpa 7,62 mm (tojibko Ha yMepeHHbift 
BeTep n TOJibKO Ha yica3aHHbix flncTaHnnax) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



133 



Honpasica b MaxoBHHKe npmiejia 


| ^HCI^H^HH 1 M 


CnoBecHoe 
BBipaxeHHe npaEHJi 


MaTeMaimecKoe 
BBipaxeHHe (jwpMynti 


ripHMtp 
HOJDVSOBaHHB npaEHJIOM 


300-500 


npHneji, flejieHHEm Ha 4 


U$4 


JUpciaHifBa. 400 m. 
rionpaEKa 4/4= 1 neneHHe 


600 


EEpHneiL, flejieHHBm Ha 3 




^(HCiaHUHH 600 M. 

rionpaEKa 6/3= 2 fleneHHK 


Buhoc b iJiHrypax Hmnem 


| ^HCTaH^HH,M 


CnoEecHoe 
BEipaxeHHe npaEHJi 


MaTeuaTHHecKoe 
BEipaxeHHe ^opMynEi 


IIpHMep 
nojiESOBaHHa npaEHJioM 


300-500 


IIpHnen 6e3 2, AeneHHBnx ea 2 


(np-2)/2 


/^HCiaHEtHB 400 M 

rionpaEKa (4-2)/2 = 1 fpnrypa 


600 


ripHiieji 6e3 4 


np-4 


/(HCiaHUHH 600 M 

rionpaEKa 6-4=2 (pHrypti 



TaSjinna 27 

IIonpa BKH Ha BeTep fljia CTpejibSbi H3 ManoKajiHSepHOH bhhtobkh (nojmag TaSjigrja) 



pflanEHOCTE, M 


CKOpOCTB ECTpa, m/<C 


ooKOEoro nofl yrnoM 90° 


npoflonBHoro 




1,7 


33 


5,2 


7,4 


8,5 


9,8 


1,7 


33 


5,2 


7,4 


8,5 


9,8 




OOKOBEie OTKJIOHeHHH, CM 


OTKJIOHeHHB HO EEICOTe, CM 


50 


1,5 


2,5 


4 


5,5 


7 


7,5 





03 


0,4 


0,6 


0,6 


0,8 


100 


3,0 


5 


8 


11 


14 


15 





0,5 


0,8 


1,2 


U 


1,5 


200 


8 


L2 


IB 


26 


36 


40 


1 


1,5 


2,5 


3,5 


4 


5 



ToHKa npHuejiHBaHHji BbiHOCHTca b CTopoHy, OTKy^a flyeT BeTep. 

Otchct BbiHOca tohkh npnnejiHBaHHa mtokct nponBBOflHibca He oSa3arejibHO b caHTHMeTpax. 
Ilpome h npaKTHHHee nporoBOflnib TaKoft otchct b (Jmrypax (TbicanHbix), nponBBOfla TaKoft OTcneT ot 
cepeflHHbi (Jmrypw 

IIpH BHeceHHH nonpaBOK Ha Sokoboh BeTep Ha Sojiee OTflaneHHbie (cBbiiue 400 MeTpoB) paccTO- 
aHHa cueflyeT ynHibiBaTb BJinaHne. 

IIpuMep OnpeflenHTb SoKOByio nonpaBKy ana CTpejibSbi H3 bhhtobkh CBJ\ Ha paccToamie 500 
MeTpoB npn BeTpe chjioh 4 m/c flyiomeM cnpaBa no# yraoM 45°. 

Peiuenue TaSjiHHHaa nonpaBKa Ha BeTep cocTaBJiaeT 72 cm Bereo kocoh cjieflOBarejibHO, 722 = 
36 cm IIonpaBKa Ha flepHBannio - 7 cm GneflOBaTejibHO, 36 cm (bjicbo) - 7 cm (BnpaBo) = 29 cm BJieBO 
OKpyraeHHO 30 cm Ha flHCTaHnnn 600 MeTpoB paBHO nojiOBHHe tmcjihhoh. 3to nojiflejieHHa hjih o#hh 
menHOK SapaSaHa ^Jia nepeMemeHHa CTII BnpaBo. IIpH 3tom nejibTecb npoTHBHHKy b ero npaBbin 
raa3 - nona^eTe b nepeHOCHny. 



ynpomeHHbifl cnocoS 3anoMHHaHHH nonpaBOK Ha eeTep (H3 HaeraBJieHnH no bhhtobkc CBfl) 

J\jih oSjierneHHa 3anoMHHaHHa nonpaBOK Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbin BeTep, flyioiunii nofl yrnoM 
90°, b ^eJieHHax niKanbi SoKOBoro MaxoBHHKa (ceTKH npnnejia) Hy>KHO HH(})py npnnejia, cooTBeTCTBy- 
lomyio paccToaHHio flo nejin, pa3flejiHTb npn CTpejibSe Ha paccToaHHa #o 500 MeTpoB - Ha nocToamioe 
hhcjio 4, a npn CTpejibSe Ha Sojibiune paccToamui - Ha 3 

IIpuMep OnpeflejiHTb nonpaBKy Ha CHJibHbin Sokoboh BeTep, flyioiuHii nofl ocTpwM yrnoM k 
HanpaBJieHHio CTpeubSw, b ^ejieHHax niKanbi SoKOBoro MaxoBHHKa, ecjin paccToamie jip nejin 600 
MeTpoB (npnneji "6") 

Peiuenue 6(npHH,eji)/3(nocToaHHoe hhcjio) = 2 

IIpoAOJibHbiH BeTep ySbiCTpaeT hjih 3aMeflJiaeT nojieT nyjin, n no3TOMy OHa jio>KHTca hjih Bbiiue, 
hjih HH>Ke u,ejiH Ho 3to aBJieHne npaKTHnecKH npoaBJiaeT ceSa Ha flHCTami,Hax 400 MeTpoB h flanbiue h 
3aMeTHO TOJibKO npn cnjibHOM BeTpe - 10 m/c Ilpn yMepeHHOM h cjiaSoM npoflOJibHOM BeTpe TaSjinn- 
Hbie flaHHbie (cm CBOflHyio SajuiHCTHnecKyio TaSji 16, rpac})y "IIpoflOJibHbiH BeTep") cooTBeTCTBeHHO 
^ejiHTca Ha 2 h 4 Ecjih BeTep flyeT HaBCTpeny, TaSjiHHHbie #aHHbie BbiHHTaiOTca H3 BbicoTbi TpaeKTO- 
pnn, ecjin BeTep cooTBeTCTByiomHH - npnSaBJiaiOTca k bbicotc TpaeKTopnH 

TaSjiHH,a 28 

YnpomeHHbie nonpaBKH Ha BeTep 4 m/c npn CTpejibSe SoenpnnacaMH BbinycKOB npe>KHHx jieT 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



134 



H3r0T0BJieHH3 (H3 bhhtobkh CBfl,) 



JJp.CiaHF^BK, M 


JlencaH n yna ofypasqa 1908 r 
Vim. 845 m/c 

vwwww 


TaxenaB nym oGipasna 1930 r. 
Vhsh. 760 m/c 

VWVvWW w 


IIonpaEKH e npHqene 
(ycrasoBKa rrpHqem) 


IIonpaEKa 

Ha flCTJHEaT(HK> 


rionpaEKHE npHqerie 
(ycrasoEEa npHnera) 


IIonpaEKa 

Ha flCT}HE3E(HK> 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


200 


1/2 


- 


1/2 


- 


300 


1 


- 


1 


- 


400 


1 


- 


1 


- 


500 


1 1/2 


- 


1 1/2 


- 


600 


2 


- 


2 


- 


700 


2 


- 


2 


- 


800 


3 


1/2 


2 1/2 


- 


900 


3 


1/2 


2 1/2 


- 


1000 


3 1/2 


1/2 


3 


- 


1100 


4 


1 


3 1/2 


- 


1200 


4 1/2 


1 


3 1/2 


- 



H3 TaSji. 28 BHflHO, hto TJDKejibie nyjiH c SojibineM nonepenHOH HarpyBKon h Sojiee coBepmeH- 

HblMH SajIJIHCTHHeCKHMH (|)0pMaMH T0pa3fl0 MeHbHie CHOCSTCa BeTpOM H MeHee nOflBep>KeHbI OTKJIOHe- 

hhk) npn flepnBannn (nonpaBKH OKpyrjieHbi #o 1/2 tmcjihhoh). 

CTPEJIbEA no ^BH^KYinHMOI UEJI5IM 



3to HanSojiee Tpy^Hbin ajieMenr CHannepcKon npaKTHKH. KpoMe yMeHna bccth TOHHbie SajiJin- 
CTHnecKHe pacneTbi, ^Jia ycneniHon CTpenbSbi HeoSxoflHMO HMeTb TBepflbie HaBbiKH CTpenbSbi c no- 
flBH>KHOH bhhtobkoh. IIpH CTpejibSe no flBH^ymenca neJin BbiCTpenbi HeoSxoflHMO HanpaBJiaTb He b 
nenb, a Bnepe^H ee ABiDKeHHa c pacneTOM no BpeivteHH, 3a KOTopoe nejib npoflBHHeTca Bnepefl, a nyna 
AOJieTHT ^0 py6e>Ka nejin, r^e ohh h BCTpeTaTca. Taicon bbihoc HanpaBJieHna CTpenbSbi Ha3biBaeTca 
ynpoK^eHHeM. 

CTpejunomnn, B3»B TpeSyeMoe ynpoK^eHne, nepeMemaeT opy>KHe (jihhhio npnnejiHBaHna) no 
HanpaBJieHHio flBH>KeHHa nejin n Bnepe^n Hee cooTBeTCTBeHHO ee CKopocTH n nponBBOflnr BbiCTpen, He 
ocTaHaBJiHBaa noBOflKH opy>KHa (cxeMa 79). 




CxeMa 79 

Ynpe>KfleHHe ynnTbiBaeTca bwhocom tohkh npnnejiHBaHna b (Jmrypax nenn, b MeTpax, b tmoih- 
hmx hjih ycTaHOBKon SoKOBoro MaxoBHKa coraacHO Ta6n. 29. 

TaSjinna 29 

TaSunna pacneTOB fljia BHeceHna nonpaBOK b npnnejie hjih ynpe>KfleHHa nejin, flBH>KymeHca bo 
(J)jiaHroBOM (J)poHTajibHOM HanpaBJieHHH (no BHHTOBKaM CB,3„ CBT h TpexjinHenHon) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



135 



JJp.CiaHF^BK, M 


CKCpOCTB flEHXeHHa E[eHH 


20 kmM (6 m/c) 

(cOJIflaTBI E AEiHXeEHH H3 TeXHHKe) 


n t— m 




HaiilHJ-Jltt TULUlliBJl IJCJlb 1U KM/1 ^J M/t;j 

(6erymnH nexoiHHeii) 


riepeMemeHHe 


EienH 
e (jrarypax 


rioapaEKa 


riepeMemcHee 


jiipexfltHue 

EienH 
e (jrarypax 


rioupaEKa 
e npHE(ene 


100 


70 


1 


7.0 


40 


1.0 


4 


200 


140 


3 


7 1/3 


SO 


u 


4 1/4 


300 


230 


5 


B.O 


130 


2^ 


4 1/2 


400 


l_ 320 


7 


8 1/4 


ISO 


3.5 


42/3 


500 


430 


9 


8 ia 


230 


4.5 


4 3/4 


600 


550 


1 


9.0 


300 


6.0 


5.0 



77p« (pnamoeoM (cpponmajibHOM) deuoKenuu uejiu ynpeoKdenue e Mempax paeno CKopocmu deu- 
DtcenuH uejiu, yMHODtcenHou na epeMH nojiema nynu k uejiu e cexyudax (cm. ocHoenyw cnaunepcKyw 
ma6nuuy). 

IJpuMep. OnpeflejiHTt ynpe>KfleHHe Ha flHCTaHHHH 400 MeTpoB no nejin, flBH^yineiica B^ojib 
(J)poHTa (motouhkji c kojijickoh) co CKopocTbio 25 km/h. 

Pemenue. IIo TaSjinue 30 Haxo^HM BpeMa noflJieTa nyjin k uejiH Ha flHCTaHHHH 400 MeTpoB - 
0,59 c. 3a 3to BpeMa motouhkji npoxoflHT 4 MeTpa. Ha 400 MeTpoB 4 MeTpa 3aKpbiBaiOT no (})poHTy 10 
TbicaHHbix, to ecTb 10 flejieHHH niKanbi Sokobmx nonpaBOK. CueflOBaTejibHO, mo>kho hjih bbccth no- 
npaBKy BpameHHeM Sokoboix) MaxoBHKa, noBepHyB ero Ha 10 ^qjiqukPl (KaK noMHHM, 1 nojmoe flejie- 
Hne niKanbi MaxoBHKa paBHO 1 tmcjihhoh, hjih 40 cm no (})poHTy Ha Taicon flHCTaHHHH), hjih >Ke npocTO 
npHuejiHTbCJi no nejin KpanHen Sokoboh phckoh niKanbi Sokobmx nonpaBOK (sto 6y#eT KaK pa3 10 #e- 
jieHHH hjih 4 MeTpa no (J)poHTy Ha ^HCTaHUHH 400 MeTpoB). 

Jinn y^oScTBa ynpe>KfleHHe mo>kho SpaTb h b KOJinnecTBax (Jmryp. IIInpHHa (Jmrypbi Serymero 
npHrHyBineroca nexoTmina npnHjria 3a 0,5 MeTpa. IIpH 3tom cjie^yeT noMHHTb, hto TOHKa ynpoK^e- 
HHa b (})Hrypax, caHTHMeTpax hjih TbicanHbix OTCHHibiBaeTca ot cepeflHHbi (Jmrypbi nejin, to ecTb 3th 
caMbie 0,5 MeTpa OTCHHTbiBaiOTca He ot Kpaa (Jmrypbi, a ot "npa>KKH Ha >KHBOTe". 

IJpuMep. ^anbHOCTb CTpejibSbi 600 MeTpoB. Ckopoctb uejiH 3 m/c (Serymnn b aTaKy nexoTH- 
Hen). ^],BH>KeHHe (JwiaHroBoe. CTaH^apTHaa ninpHHa (Jmrypbi 50 cm. HaniH ynpeac^eHHe. 

Pemenue. 3 m/c = 300 cm 

300 ± 50 = 6 c|mryp (cxeMbi 80, 81). 



CxeMa 80. 




CxeMa 8 1 . Ta >Ke KapTHHKa b oniHHecKOM npnuejie 

Abtop 3Toro nocoSna HaBcer^a 3anoMHHJi npaKTHnecKHH npneM CTpejibSbi no SerymnM nejiHM, 
Kor^a-TO noKa3aHHbiii eMy CTapbiM (^pohtobmm CHaiinepoM. IIpH CTpejibSe no "Serymcy", KOTopbin 
flBHranca co CTaH^apTHOH ^Jia Serymero nexoTHHna CKopocTbio 3 m/c Ha CTaH^apTHOH flHCTamniH 6o- 
eBoro CTpejibSnma 300 MeTpoB, CTapbiM HHCipyKTop CTaBHJi npnneji "5" h npHBJBbiBanca k HH>KHeMy 
nepe^HeMy Kpaio nejin BepxHHM yrjiOM BbipaBHHBaiomeH hhth (2 Ha cxeMe 82). Ilyjia nonaflana Ha 
ypoBHe noaca MHineHH, Ha BbicoTe 70 cm. IIpoMaxoB He Smjio. IIo3flHee aBTop npocHHTan SanjincTHKy 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



136 



no BbinienpHBefleHHOH MeTOflHKe - Bee coBnajio! IIpHBJBbiBaTbca k nenrpy SerymeM (Jmrypbi Henpo- 
cto, ho, nocKOJibKy OHa HaKJiOHeHa Bnepefl, 3to h He hjokho. CTapbiii HHCTpyKTop npHB»3biBajica toh- 
koh npHHejiHBaHHa no ropH30HTy, Ha kotopom flBnranacb nejib, h eivty Smjio Jierne Bee 3to flenaTb. Pa- 
3yMeeTca, oh CTpenaji c noBOflKon, Be^a BHHTOBKy HenpepbiBHO no jihhhh flBH>KeHHa hcjih, h 
npoH3BOflHJi BbiCTpen, He ocTaHaBJiHBaa noBOflKH opy>KHa. KaK paccKa3biBan CTapbiii (|)pohtobhk, 3tot 
npneivi OTpaSoTaH ^ecaTHJieTnaMH, h b SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe no#BH>KHoro 6o» Jiynme y>Ke HHKaK He no- 
jiynnTca. 

IIo3flHee aBTop npoSoBan TaK CTpenaTb H3 bhhtobkh CBfl, noMeiHaa Serymyio Ha ^HCTaHHHH 
300 MeTpoB nejib cpa3y >Ke nocne TpeTben phckh niKanbi Sokobmx nonpaBOK. IiOJiynHJiocb npeicpacHO. 

HanSojiee pacnpocTpaHeHHaa omnSKa, Kor^a CTpenoK, BbiBO^a BHHTOBKy b KpaiiHioio TOHKy 
ynpe>KfleHHa, nepeKjnonaeT BHHMaHHe Ha cnycK KypKa n He3aMeTHO fljia ce6a ocTaHaBJinBaeT opy>KHe. 
EcTecTBeHHO, nojiynaeTca npoMax, TaK KaK BbiCTpen npoH3BefleH H3 opy>KHa, HaxoflHBineroca b Heno- 
flBH>KHOM cocToaHHH. B TaKOM cjiynae HeoSxoflHMO SpaTb ynpoK^eHne b 2-4 pa3a Sonbine pacneTHO- 
ro. Ecjih bm He yBepeHbi b ce6e, no bo3mo>khocth BbDKflnre momcht, Kor^a nenb non^eT Ha Bac hjih ot 
Bac h OTHOCHTenbHO Bamero nojio^eHna CTaHeT no (})poHTy Ha KaKOH-TO momcht Heno#BH>KHOH, Tor^a 
h CTpejiairre. IIpHCTpejiKa TpaccHpyioiHen nyjien npn TaKOM BH^e CTpenbSbi HCKmonaeTca - Tpaccep 
BH^eH He TOJibKO BaM, ero bh^ht h npoTHBHHK. ,Hpyroe #ejio - napamiOTHCT. IIoKa oh b B03#yxe, fleTb- 
ca eiviy HeKy^a. ,H,jia ynpoK^eHna no flBH>KyiHHMca nejuiM pyKOBOflCTBynrecb TaSn. 30, 31, 32. 




CxeMa 82. IIpaKTHHecKaa "npnBa3Ka" k flBH^ymenca HeJin: 

1 - HanpaBJieHne ^BH>KeHHa nejin; 

2 - "npHBa3Ka" k ropH30HTy flBH>KeHHa hcjih; 

3 - ^BH>KeHHe bhhtobkh. ^HCTaHHHa 300 m, npHHeji "5" 
TaSjinna 30 
CTpenbSa no flBH>KyiHHMC» nejiaM. BpeMa no^JieTa nyjin k hcjih, c 



crpenE^BL.M 


BHHTOEK3 CB^ 

Vnai=E36M/c 


Bhhtoek3 CBT 
View = 840 m/c 


TpexjiHHeHHaa 
oGpasqa 1891 r. 
VBai=E65M/c 


TpexnHHeHHEiH xcapafiaB 
oGpasqa 1944 r. 
Vsai = 820 m/c 


100 


0,13 


0,13 


0,11 


0,13 


200 


0,26 


0,26 


0,25 


0,28 


300 


0,42 


0,42 


0,40 


0,44 


400 


0,60 


0,60 


0,57 


0,62 


500 


0,80 


0,80 


0,76 


0,82 


600 


1,02 


1,02 


0,97 


1,04 


700 


1,26 


1,26 


Ul 


1,29 



TaSjinna 3 1 

CTpenbSa H3 MajioKajinSepHOH bhhtobkh no #BH>KymHMca nejiaM. IlepeMeiHeHHe nejiH 3a BpeMa 
noneTa npn flBH> KeHHH n0 ^ yrjioM 90 c 



^anBHOCTb ctpcjibGei, m/ 
rTepeMemeHHe ijejih, cm 


25 


50 


75 


100 


125 


150 


175 


200 


maroM (cKopociB 1,5 m/c) 


12 


25 


39 


54 


60 


84 


100 


117 


GeroM {cKopocTB 3 m/c) 


24 


51 


78 


108 


138 


168 


200 


234 



TaSjinna 32 

CTpenbSa H3 bhhtobkh CBfl no flBH>KyiHHMca nejiaM (n3 HacTaBJieHna no bhhtobkc CBfl,) (noji- 
Haa TaSjinna) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



137 



cwpenh&hL,. 

M 


IJent. 6erymaa oo CKopocnjo 3 m/c 
(npHMepHO 10 kmAi) 


Mororrem. nBHXYmas.es co ckot>octek> 20 kmM 
{npHMepHO 6 m/c) 


Ynpexff,CHH.e (oKpyrneHHo) 


E 

Merpax 


E 

(liHrypax 
HejioEeKa 


nncanBi 
GoKOEoro 

MaXOEHHKa 

VvWvVWvWvVWvW 

(cerKH npHEiena) 


e Merpax 


b fffincBBSx nncajiBi 

6oKOEoro MaxoEH-nca 

(cencH npmjejia) 


LOO 


0.4 


1 


4 


0.7 


7 


200 


0.8 


1.5 


4 


1.4 


7 


300 


U 


2.5 


4.5 


23 


8 


400 


u 


3,5 


4,5 


3,2 


8 


500 


23 


4.5 


4.5 


4,3 


8.5 


600 


3.0 


6 


5 


5^ 


9 


700 


3.7 


7.5 


5^ 


6.8 


10 


800 


4.5 


9 


5^ 


8,3 


10 


900 


5.4 


11 


6 


10.0 


11 


1000 


6.3 


12.5 


6.5 


11.5 


12 


1100 


7.3 


14.5 


6.5 


13.5 


12 


1200 


S.4 


17 


7 


15.5 


13 


1300 


9^ 


19 


7.5 


17.5 


13 



BtiHOC tohkh npim,ejiHBaHHji hjih ycTaHOBKa nejiHKa (yraoMepa, Sokoboto MaxoBHKa onrHne- 
CKoro npnnejia) ^Jia nojiyneHna HeoSxoflHMoro ynpe>KfleHHa onpeflejiaeTca b 3aBHCHM0CTH ot yrna 
^BH>KeHHa nejin: npn RBmKQnmi nejin no# yrnoM 90° - nojiHaa BejinnnHa ynpe>KfleHHa; no# yraoM 60° 
- 0,9 ynpe>KfleHHa, no# yrnoM 45° - 0,7 ynpe>KfleHHa; no# yraoM 30° - 0,5 ynpoKfleHna. 

IIpH SoeBOH CTpenbSe b MaHeBpeHHOM noflBn>KHOM 6oio onpeflejiHTb tohho yron flBH>KeHHa ne- 
jih HeB03MO>KHo; noaTOMy ynpoK^eHne npaKrnnecKH SepeTca nonHOCTbio npn flBH>KeHHH nenn no# 
yrnoM, 6jih3khm k npaMOMy (90°-60°) (cxeMa 83), h nojiOBHHa - npn Sojiee ocrpbix yraax (kocom 
ABH>KeHHH) (cxeMa 84). 



i*« W 




CxeMa 83 




CxeMa 84 

Bwhoc tohkh npnnejiHBaHna no flBH>KymHMca SerymHM nejiaM oSwhho npoH3BOflHTca b bh^h- 
mmx pa3Mepax ((Jmrypu, nejin). 

IIpHMep. Run nojiyneHHa ynpe>KfleHHa b2m npn CTpenbSe Ha 500 m no nepeSeraiomnM nejiaM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



138 



TOHKy npnnejinBaHHa BbiHOCHTb: npn flBH>KeHHH 

LJejiH nofl yraoM, 6jih3khm k npaMOMy - Ha 4 (Jmrypu, npn abhmchhh nejin no# ocTpwM yrnoM - 
Ha 2 (Jmrypti, npnHHMaa ninpHHy (Jmrypbi 3a 0,5 m. 

Jijifi nojiyneHHa ynpe>KfleHHa ycTaHOBKoM nejiHKa jiHHeHHaa BejiHHHHa ynpeacfleHna nepeBOflHT- 
ca b yrjiOByio BejiHHHHy no paccToaHHio flo nejin. 

IIpHMep. J\ji% nojiyneHna ynpe>KfleHHa b2m npn CTpeubSe c paccToaHHa 500 MeTpoB no nejin, 
nepeSeraioineH nofl yrnoM, 6jih3khm k npaMOMy, ycTaHOBKa nejiHKa "4" (2/0,5); no nejin, nepeSeraio- 
men nofl ocTpbiM yrnoM, - "2". 

ynpomeHHbifl cnocoS ynpesKAemiH (h3 HacTaBJiemiH no bhhtobkc CB,U,) 

IIpH flBH>KeHHH U,eJIH CO CKOpOCTbK), OTJIHHHOH OT yKa3aHHOH B TaSjIHne, ynpe>KfleHHe yBeJIHHH- 

BaTb (yMeHbmaTb) nponopnHOHanbHO H3MeHeHHio ckopocth #BH>KeHHa nejiH. 

Bwhoc tohkh npnii,ejiHBaHHa npoH3BOflHTb ot cepeflHHbi nejin. Ilpn BHeceHHH nonpaBOK b ycTa- 
HOBKy SoKOBoro MaxoBHHKa npnnejiHBaTbca b cepe^HHy nejin. fljia oSjierneHHa 3anoMHHaHHa ynpe- 
>KfleHHH b flejieHnax niKanbi Sokoboix) MaxoBHHKa (ceTKn npnnejia) Ha (JwiaHroBoe #BH>KeHHe nejin co 
CKopocTbio 3 m/c Ha paccToaHHH flo 600 MeTpoB CHHTaTb, hto ynpe>KfleHHe paBHO 4,5 TbicanHbix, Ha 
MeHbinnx paccroaHHax (okojio 300 MeTpoB) - 2, Ha Sojibiunx (800 MeTpoB) - 6 TbicanHbix. 

Hn>Ke npHBOflHTca ynpomeHHbiH cnocoS CTpenbSbi no flBH>KymHMca nenaM H3 nyjieMeTOB h 
bhhtobok SoenpnnacaMH npeacHnx neT BbinycKa (EoeBoii ycTaB nexoTbi). 

JJjix nopa>KeHHa neiunx n KOHHbix nejien, #BH>KymHxca nofl yrjiOM k hjiockocth CTpenbSbi, cue- 
flyeT SpaTb SoKOBoe ynpoK^eHHe b CTopoHy #BH>KeHHa nejin, pyKOBOflCTByacb TaSn. 33. 

TaSjinna 33 

E oKOBbie ynpoK^eHna b TbicaHHbix npn flBn>KeHHH u^jih nofl yraoM 90 c 



| ^HCI^H^HS 

crpeiiE5BL,M 


Ilyiia otpasqa 1930 r. 


Ilyiia otpasqa 190E r. 


nepd&eraioniaa 
nemaa rien& (3 m/c) 


BCajtHHK 
pBICBK) (4 M/c) 


nepd&eraioniaa 
nemai rien&t3 m/c) 


BCaflHHK 

P&icbjo (4 m/c) 


100 


4 


5 


3 


4,5 


200 


4 


55 


4 


5 


300 


4 


53 


4 


53 


400 


4,5 


6 


4,5 


6 


500 


4^ 


6 


4,5 


6 


600 


4^ 


6^ 


5 


6,5 


700 


5 


6,5 


5 


7 


800 


5 


7 


53 


7,5 


900 


53 


7 


6 


S 


1000 


53 


7,5 


6 


E 



IJPHMEHAHHJI. I. TIonpaeKu OKpyznenu do 1/2 mucnnHou. 

2. IJpu deuotceHUH neuieu uejiu uiazoM ynpeotcdenue 6pamb edeoe Memuie, uejvi npu deuotcenuuno 
6ezymeu; npu deuotcenuu kohhou uejiu uiazoM ynpeotcdenue 6pamb edeoe Memiue, a npu deuotcenuu 
zanonoM edeoe Oojibuie, ueM npu deuotcenuu pbicbw. 

3. IJpu deuotcenuu uenu nod ocmpuM yznoM k nanpaejienujo cmpejibdu ynpeotcdenue 6pamb 
edeoe Menbuie, uejvi npu deuotcenuu nod yznoM 90°. 

3a ckopocth ^BH>KeHHa nejieft b SoeBbix ycnoBnax npnHaTbi: 

- Seryinnii b aTaKy nexoTHHeu, - 3 m/c, 10 km/h; 

- pe3KO nepeSeraioninn nexoTHHeu, - 4 m/c, 13 km/h; 

- SeryinnH H30 Bcex chji nexoTHHeu, - 4,5 m/c, 15 km/h; 

- BenocmieflHCT - 4,5 m/c, 15 km/h; 

- MOTonmcji no nepeceneHHOH mccthocth - 6 m/c, 20 km/h; 

- CTapTyiomaa aBTOManiHHa - 6 m/c, 20 km/h; 

- MapiueBaa CKopocTb aBTOManinHbi no iuocce - 1 8 m/c, 60 km/h; 

- napamiOTHCT - 6 m/c, 20 km/h 



CTPEJIbBA no B03^yiUHWM UEJI5IM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



139 



CTpejibSa H3 CTpejiKOBoro opy>KHa no B03nyniHbiM nejiaM - caMOJieTaM, BepTOJieTaM h napamio- 
THCTaM (6e3 3eHHTHbix npjmejiOB) - BeneTca Ha paccToaHHH 500 MeTpoB (He Sonee) c npHneiiOM "3". 
YcTaHOBKa npHneiia "3" npn Sojibinnx yrnax MecTa nejin (napaiuiOTHCT, KaK H3BecTHO, HaxoanTca bbi- 
coko) oSecnenHBaeT Ha 3thx paccToaHnax nojiyneHHe cpenHeii TpaeKTopHH, He Bbixonaineii no BbicoTe 
H3 BepTHKanbHbix npenejiOB. 

Ilpn CTpeubSe no nniaipyiomeMy Ha CTpejnca caMOJieTy hjih BepTOJieTy, 3axoH»meMy Ha nejib, 
icorna jiHHna npHnejiHBaHna h HanpaBJieHne noneTa nyjin coBnaaaiOT c KypcoM caMOJieTa (BepTOJieTa), 
ynpe>KfleHna He TpeSyeTca. 

Ilpn Bcex apyrnx HanpaBJieHnax noneTa caMOJieTa (BepTOJieTa) HeoSxoanMO SpaTb ynpe>KfleHHe 
b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot CKopocTH ero noneTa n BpeMeHH noneTa nyjin. 

JlHHeHHaa BejiHHHHa ynpoK^eHna yica3aHa b TaSn. 34. 

Ilpn CTpeubSe no caMOJieTaM (BepTOJieTaM) ynpe>KfleHHe SepeTca oSmhho b bhhhmmx pa3Mepax 
(J)K)3ejia>Ka (Kopnyca) nenn. YnpeMcaeHHa b (})io3ejia>Kax Sepyrca He3aBHCHMO ot HanpaBJieHHa nojieTa 
u,ejin. 

Rim onpefleneHHa ynpe>KneHHa cnenyeT TaSjiHHHyio jinHeiiHyio BejinnnHy ynpe>KfleHHa pa3ne- 
jiHTb Ha H3BecTHyio fljiHHy nejiH. 

TaSjinna 34 



CKOpOCIt 

nojiera 

IJCJIH, ftl/c 


^aJIEHCfCTE CTpeJIEfiEI, M 


100 


200 


300 


400 


500 


BpeMH nonera nynH, c 


0,11 


0,25 


0,40 


0,57 


0,76 


YnpesfleHHe, h (oKpymeHOD) 


70 


8 


17,5 


28 


40 


53 


80 


9 


20 


32 


45 


61 


90 


10 


22,5 


36 


51 


68 


100 


11 


25 


40 


57 


76 


110 


12 


27,5 


44 


63 


84 


120 


13 


30 


48 


68 


91 


130 


14 


32,5 


52 


74 


98 


140 


15 


35 


56 


80 


106 


160 


18 


40 


64 


91 


122 


170 


19 


42,5 


68 


97 


129 



ripniviep. OnpeflejiHTb ynpe>KHeHHe b 4)K>3ejia>Kax no BepTOJieTy, HMeiomeMy fljiHHy 12 m h cko- 
pocTb 150 km/h PemeHne Ynpe>icneHHe (oKpyraeHHo) paBHo: 

- flua 100 m - 1 (})io3ejia>Ky (16,5 12); 

- fljia 200 m - 3 (})io3ejia>KaM (37,5 12); 

- fljra 300 m - 5 (})io3ejia>KaM (60.12), pjm 400 m - 7 4)K)3ejia>KaM (85-12); 

- fljia 500 m - 10 (})io3ejia>KaM (114:12). 

Ynpe>KfleHHa no CHH^aiomnMca napamiOTHCTaM onpeHejunoTca Ha oSmnx ocHOBaHnax crpejib- 
6w no flBH>KymHMca nejiaM b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot ckopocth CHH>KeHHa nejiH (6 m/c) h BpeMeHH noneTa 
nyjin. 

Ilpn CTpeubSe ynpe>KneHHe SepeTca no HanpaBJieHnio CHH>KeHHa napamiOTHCTa b ero bhhhmmx 
pa3Mepax (BepTHKanbHbix (jmrypax) no BbicoTe (1,5 m). 

IipHneji Ha flajibHOCTax ho 500 MeTpoB ycTaHaBJinBaeTca "3". Tonica npHnejinBaHna - no HoraM. 

IIpaKTHHecKHH cnocoS onpeaejieHHa ynpe>KHeHHa npn CTpeubSe no napamiOTHCTaM ynpe>KneHHe 
paBHo HHcny coTeH MeTpoB ap nenn 6e3 #Byx. 

IIpHMep. ^anbHOCTb ap napamiOTHCTa 400 MeTpoB. Ynpe>KHeHHe paBHo 4 - 2=2 (jmrypbi. 

CneflOBaTejibHO (cm. cxeMbi 85, 86). 

- flJia 100 m - 1/2 (J)nrypbi; 

- fljia 200 m - 1 (Jmrypa. 

- ajih 300 m - 1 1/2 (Jmrypu; 

- jxjvi 400 m - 2 (Jmrypbi; 

- AJia 500 m - 3 (Jmrypu. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



140 



Efrpj MMWM w jw*<w ftH* H 




CxeMa 85 




CxeMa 86 

CTpenbSa no B03flyniHbiM nejiHM BefleTca TOJibKO c noflBn>KHOH bhhtobkoh! BbiCTpen nponBBO- 
flHTca, He ocTaHaBJiHBaa noBOflKH opy>KH»! 

KaK y>Ke Sbijio CKa3aHO, b B03#yxe napaniiOTHCTy HeKy^a fleTbca. IIo3TOMy npncTpejiaTbca no 
HeMy TpaccnpyioniHMH nyjiaMH n B3»Tb ynpoK^eHne Ha peanbHoe kojikhcctbo (})Hryp - sjieMenrapHoe 
fleno. Ha CKOJibKO KopnycoB napannoTHCTa Tpaccep npoH^eT Bbime Hero h b CTopoHy (ecjin napamio- 
THCTa chocht BeTpoivi), Ha CTOJibKO >Ke h hjokho SpaTb ynpe>KfleHHe nofl napannoTHCTa h npn HeoSxo- 
flHMOCTH b CTopoHy. TpaccHpyiomne Soenpnnacbi y CHannepa flOJiMCHbi SbiTb Bcer^a. 

BE^EHHE CHAHIIEPCKOrO OrHil B OCOBWX YCJIOBH5IX 



CTpeubSa b cyivtepicax, HOHbio, b ycnoBnax orpaHHneHHon bh^hmocth no Heno#BH>KHbiM, noaB- 
junoinnMca h flBH>KyHiHMca nejiaM BefleTca Ha flncTaHn,Hax He Sojiee 450 MeTpoB h, KaK npaBHJio, c 
npnnejiOM "3". 

Ilpn 3tom npnnejiHBaHHe npoH3BOflHTca Ha paccToaHHH po 300 MeTpoB b cepe^HHy nejin (cxeMa 
87), a Ha Sonbninx paccToaHnax - b Bepxmoio ee nacTb. 




CxeMa 87 

IIpH KpaTKOBpeMeHHOM ocBemeHHn nejin (MecTHOCTH) oroHb Ha/io bccth c npHnenoM "4", npn- 
nenHBaacb nop, hh>khhh o6pe3 nejin (cxeMa 88). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



141 




CxeMa 88 

Ecjih flajitHOCTb flo uejiH 6y#eT Sojibine 400 MeTpoB, to Tonicy npHuejiHBaHHa cncpyeT BbiSnpaTb 
b BepxHeS nacTH uejiH. 

HanSojibinaa ^ajibHOCTb noneTa 3Be3floneK ocBeTHrejibHoro naTpoHa (paiceTHHHbi) nojiynaeTca 
npn yrne Spocamia okojio 50° (cxeMa 89). 




CxeMa 89 

CTpenbSa HOHbio no uejiH, o6Hapy>KHBaiomeH ce6a HH(|)paKpacHbiM rojiyneHHeM, Be#eTca c 

yCTaHOBKOH npHU,eJia "4" H C BKJIIOHeHHblM JHOMHHeCHeHTHblM 3KpaHOM. 

IIpH Ha6jIK)fleHHH B npHU,eJI HH(J)paKpaCHbIX npO>KeKTOpOB npOTHBHHKa Ha 3KpaHe B03HHKaeT 

CBeneHHe b BH^e Kpyraoro 3ejieHOBaToro naTHa. OroHb OTKpbiBaeTca b tot momcht, Kor^a naTHO 
HaxoflHTca Hafl yrojibHHKOM ceTKH npHuejia (cxeMa 90). 




CxeMa 90 

CTpenbSa no nenn, o6Hapy>KHBaiomeH ce6a BcnbiniKaMn BbicrpejiOB, Be^eTca c ycTaHOBKon 
npnu,ejia "4" n c BKjnoneHHbiM ocBemefflieM ceTKH npnuejia (cxeMa 91). 




CxeMa 91 



KOPPEKTHPOBAHHE OriW HOHbK) 



J\ji% KoppeKTnpoBaHna oma HOHbio n u,ejieyKa3aHna npnMeHaiOTca naTpoHbi c TpaccnpyiomnMH 
nyjiaMH. HanSojiee BbicoKne pe3yjibTaTbi flocTnraiOTca c npnuejiaMH hohhoix) Bn^eHna n npimejiOM 
nCO-1. Ohh He TOJibKO no3BOJiaiOT Bn^eTb uenb, ho h noBbimaiOT TOHHOCTb npHuejiHBaHHa n nopa- 
>KeHna nejin. 

IIpH CTpenbSe c hohhmmh npHu,ejiaMn h TpaccnpyiomnMH nynaMn HeoSxoflHMO name MeHaTb 
MecTO CTpenbSbi n pe>Ke BKjnonaTb HH(})paKpacHyio noflCBenHBaiomyio annapaTypy. IIpimejiHBaTbca 
Ha flHCTami,HH 300 MeTpoB c npimejiOM "3" nofl u,ejib (cxeMa 87); Ha Sojibumx ^HCTaHLi,Hax - 450 MeT- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 142 

poB (c TeM >Ke npHu,ejiOM "3") - b BepxHioio nacTb uejiH. 

BHHMaHHe! Hohhoh CHaiinepcKHH oroHb no HenoflCBeneHHbiM MajiooneBHflHbiM uejiaM Ha £H- 
CTaHunax CBbinie 450 MeTpoB Mano3(|)4)eKTHBeH. BbinieyKa3aHHbie 3HaneHHa npHu,ejiOB "3" h "4" npn- 
MeHanxrca c pacneTOM nopa>KeHHa uejiH no BbicoTe b yoiOBHax ee HeoneBHflHOCTH n Majion bh^hmo- 
cth (cnpaBJiaTbca no TaSnnne npeBbinieHHa cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnn). 

BHHMaHne! Honbio He cueflyeT CMOTpeTb b npnSopbi (npHuejibi) HOHHoro BH^eHHa HenpepbiBHO. 
HenpepwBHoe HaSniOfleHHe b npnSop (npHueji) HOHHoro BH^eHHa Ha npoTa>KeHHH 2-3 MHHyr pe3KO h 
Ha^ojiro CHH>KaeT ocTpoTy 3peHHa IIpH HeoSxoflHMOCTH flenaTb 3to Ha^o 30-40 c, He Sojibiue, c hh- 

TepBajIOM B 1-2 MHHyTbl. 

BHHMaHHe! IIpH paSoTe c HOHHbM npnuejiOM (npnSopoM) npe>Kfle neM OTopBaTb ero ot rna3a, 
npimeji (npnSop) hjokho BbiiaiiOHHTb. Ecjih TaK He flejiaTb, BHyTpemniH CBeT npnSopa ocbctht jihu,o 
CTpenKa >KejiTO-3ejieHbiM cbctom, npnneM b TeMHOTe 3to 6y#eT Bbirjia^eTb oneHb apKO h HaraaflHO fljia 
Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa c conpeflenbHon CTopoHbi. 3tot momcht norySnji y>Ke He OflHoro BoeHHOCJiy- 
>Kamero. Ha npHuejiax HOHHoro BH^eHna nocjieflHHx MOflenen cnennanbHO fljia 3Toro npeflycMOTpeHbi 
pe3HHOBbie Haraa3HHKH, KOTopbie npn Ha>KaTHH Ha hhx rjia3HHu,eH "oTKpbiBaKxrca", a npn y^ajieHHH 
rjia3HHu,bi (oT>KaTHH) - "3aKpbiBaiOTca". 

IIpH XOpOHieM, OCTpOM H TpeHHpOBaHHOM HOHHOM 3peHHH U,eJIH OTHeTJIHBO BHflHbl B oSblHHbie 

onTHHecKne npHu,ejibi b raySoKHx cyMepKax h #a>Ke b TeMHOTe. OcoSeHHO fljia 3Toro xopoui npnneji 
IICO-1 c npocBeTJieHHOH oiithkoh h noflCBeneHHOH npHu,ejibHOH ceTKoft. CTpenbSa no noflCBeneHHbiM 
nejiaM - ropaniHM cnrapeTaM, (J)apaM, orraM (})OHapeH htj,- oneHb xopomo n Hecjio>KHO nojiynaeTca 
b Tex cjiynaax, Kor^a riiqm hctko H3BecTHbi h npoMepeHbi paccToaHHa #o ocHOBHbix opneHTHpoB, 
b6jih3h KOTopbix 3th u,ejiH MoryT noaBHTbca HOHbio: 6jinHfla>KH, rae3fla #e>KypHbix nyneMeTHHKOB, 
"Kocwe" xoflbi cooSmemia h t. p,. 

COCTABJIEHHE KAPTOHKH OriM 

CHaiinepcKHe Ta6jiHu,bi fljia CBoero jiHHHoro opy>KHa CHannep flOJDKeH no bo3mo>khocth 3anoM- 
HHTb. IIoMHHTb Ha^o TaK>Ke h cnocoSbi BbiHHCJieHHH. Hx Ha^o yMeTb flenaTb b yMe h oneHb Sbicrpo, 
He OTpbiBaa B3rjiafla ot nejin. Uenb He 6y#eT >K#aTb, noKa CHannep npoH3BefleT Bee HeoSxoflHMbie bbi- 
HHCJieHHa, BHeceT nonpaBKH b nprnjeji, ycTaHOBHT npHu,ejibHbie MaxoBHKH n TmaTejibHO npHnejiHrca. 
U,ejib cflenaeT CBoe fleno h cKpoeTca. 

IIo3TOMy CHannep ^ojDKeH Bbixo^HTb Ha no3Hu,nio c 3apaHee noflroTOBJieHHbiM BbiCTpenoM. 

3to 3HannT, hto eme flo Bbixofla Ha no3Hu,Hio CHannep o6a3aH raySoKO npo#yMaTb cneHapnii 
npeflCToamen cHaiinepcKOH paSoTbi n B03MO>KHbie Bapnanrbi pa3BHTna coSbiTHn, onpeflennTb h 3HaTb 
cjieflyioniee: 

- paccToaHne ot cbohx no3Hu,HH (ocHOBHbix, 3anacHbix h no3Hu,HH "noflCKOKa" p,o ocHOBHbix 
opneHTHpoB Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa h paccToaHHa Me>K^y sthmh opneHTHpaMH); 

- penbecj) MecTHOCTH no KapTe b cpaBHeHHH ero c BHByanbHbiM BoenpnaTHeM; 

- HanpaBJieHne h CKopocTb npeoSjia^aiOHiero b 3toh mccthocth BeTpa; 

- MecTa B03MO>KHoro noaBJieHHa nejieii h flHCTaHu,HH #o hhx; 

- B03MO>KHbie HanpaBJieHHa h ckopocth ^BH>KeHHa npeflnonaraeMbix nejieii; 

- flepHBauHio Ha pa3JiHHHbix flHCTaHu,Hax c npHBa3KOH k jnoSbiM BH^HMbiM opneHTHpaM KOH- 

KpeTHOH MeCTHOCTH; 

- yron MecTa nejieii; 

- MeTeoycnoBHa (/reMnepaTypy B03flyxa, BbicoTy Ha^ ypoBHeM Mopa h t. ^.); 

- ecuH npeflnojiaraeTca bccth oroHb BCKope no OKOHnaHnn noflroTOBKH flaHHbix, nonpaBKH Ha 
BJinaHHe SoKOBoro BeTpa BKJHonaTb b HCxo^Hbie ycTaHOBKH niKanbi MaxoBHKa Sokobmx nonpaBOK, 3 a- 
nncbiBaa b KapTOHKe oraa 3th ycTaHOBKH c BHeceHHbiMH b hhx nonpaBKaMH Ha cymecTByiomyio cnjiy 
h HanpaBJieHHOCTb BeTpa; 

- ecuH BpeMa OTKpbiTHa orHa Hen3BecTHO, to b KapTOHKy 3aHecTH ncxoflHbie nonpaBKH b ycTa- 
hobkh MaxoBHKa SoKOBbix nonpaBOK Ha Sokoboh yMepeHHbiii BeTep (4 m/c), jjyiouiiipL nofl yraoM 90° k 
HanpaBJieHHio CTpenbSw, htoSw HMeTb B03MO>KHOCTb SbiCTpo Hcnojib30BaTb hx npn BHeceHHH nonpa- 
BOK Ha BeTep jiioSoh chjiw h HanpaBJieHHa npn BHe3anHO noaBJiaiomeHca h SbiCTpo Hcne3aiomeH u,ejiH 
(flaHHbie no yMepeHHOMy BeTpy mo>kho SbiCTpo yMHO>KHTb hjih pa3flenHTb Ha 2); 

- HCxoflHbie nonpaBKH npnii,ejia 3anncbiBaTb c BHeceHHbiMH nonpaBKaMH Ha TeMnepaTypy, a b 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



143 



ropax - h Ha nnoTHOCTb B03#yxa n yrati MecTa nejin; 

- oroHb no nejin, #Bn>KymeHca b nnocKOCTH CTpejibSw, bccth c ycTaHOBKon npnne.ua, cooTBeT- 
CTByioinen He TOMy paccToamno, Ha kotopom nenb o6Hapy>KeHa, a TOMy, Ha kotopom nenb mtokct oica- 
3aTbca b MOMeHT OTKpbiTHa oraa (cpa3y SpaTb ynpoK^eHne no flanbHOCTn). J\jih 3Toro npn Be^emm 
oma no nemen nejin Sokoboh npnneji ycTaHaBJinBaeTca MeHbme (Sojibine) Ha 1 -2 ^ejieHna, a npn Be- 
fleHHH oma no MOTonejin - Ha 2- 3 flejieHna, b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot ckopocth ee flBH>KeHHa. IIo Mepe npo- 
ABH>KeHHa nejin ycTaHOBKa npnnejia ncnpaBJiaeTca b cooTBeTCTBHH c H3MeHeHneM paccToaHna #o ne- 

JIH. 

Bee HeoSxoflHMbie pacneTbi no BbiaBJieHHbiM n npeflnonaraeMbiM nejiaM nponBBOflaTca #o bm- 
xofla Ha no3Hu,HH. 3to no3BOJiaeT npn pe3Knx H3MeHeHnax oScraHOBKH 6oa n BHe3anHOM noaBJieHHH 
nejien b6jih3h HBBecmbix h y>Ke npocHnraHHbix opneHTnpoB SwcTpo BBOflnrb nonpaBKH no xo#y 
CTpejibSw. 

Bcio 3Ty oScTaHOBKy CHannep flOJi>KeH rpySo h npHMHTHBHO HapncoBaTb Ha jiHCTKe SyMarn (a 
eme Jiynme KapTOHa - oh He MHeTca) (cxeMa 92). 3to Ha3biBaeTca - cocTaBHTb KapTOHKy oma. Ha 3toh 
KapTOHKe pa^OM c npoMepaMH flncTaHnnn #o nejien h opneHTnpoB CHannep cpa3y >Ke npocTaBJiaeT 
u,H(})pbi ycTaHOBKH npHu,ejiOB - pe3yjibTaT y>Ke roTOBbix BbinnoieHnH. Ilpn B03HHKHOBeHHH HeoSxofln- 
mocth CTpenaTb no Toii hjih hhoh nejin CHannep ycTaHaBJiHBaeT npHueji no sthm HH(|)paM, 3apaHee 
npocHHTaHHbiM. 3to 3kohomht BpeMa Ha none 6oa. 







^ 



BHMUHMSl 3a 

CIBWOA. w* CMf* 

MAp*ap*fe«t 



CxeMa 92. IIpHMepHaa KapTOHKa oma. 

ycjiOBHbie o6o3HaHeHna: 1 - ocHOBHaa no3nu,Ha CHaiinepa Ha HenipajibHOH nojioce; 2, 3 - 3anac- 
Hbie no3Hu,HH; 4 - no3Hu,Ha ^Jia OTxofla- 5 -B03MO>KHbie no3HHHH CHannepoB npoTHBHHKa; 6 - jinHen- 

Hbie nOCTaHOBKH npOTHBHHKa 

BHHMAHHE! 3a CBoen cnnHOH, Ha CBoen TeppHTopnH npocTaBJiaTb jnoSbie o6o3HaneHHa 3a- 
npemaeTca! 

HeMeu,KHe CHannepw cocTaBJiajiH aHajiornnHbie KapTOHKH oma, ho c Sojiee tohhoh npHBa3Kon k 
flHCTaHnnaM CTpejibSw (cxeMa 93). 



K*-« 




V* «K It* |,# 

CxeMa 93. KapTOHKa oma HeMeuKoro CHaiinepa c HaHecemibiMH Ha Hen KpyraMn paccToaHnn p,o 
npeflnojiaraeMbix HeneM h opneHTHpoB 

HenrpajibHaa nojioca, a TaK>Ke nepeflHHH icpan npoTHBHHKa - 3oHa HHTepecoB CHaiinepa, ero pa- 
Sonee xo3ancTBO, h oh o6a3aH 3HaTb, rae h Kaicon "rB03#b" 3#ecb "3a6nT". HacToainnn CHannep nc- 
nojib3yeT jnoSyio B03MO>KHOCTb, htoSm eme #o 6oa onpeflejinrb flncTaHnnn #o B03MO>KHbix nejien n 
npoH3BecTH HeoSxoflHMbie pacneTbi. Ilpn noflroTOBKe ncxo^Hbix ^aHHbix ^Jia CTpejibSw CHannep o6a- 
3aTejibHO KOHcyjibTnpyeTca c HaSjnoflaTejiaMn, pa3BeflHHKaMH h HenocpeflCTBeHHbiM KOMaH^npoM, 
o6a3aTejibHO cooSmaa hm pe3yjibTaTbi cbohx coScTBemibix HaSjnofleHnn n TaiernHecKHx BbiBOflOB. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 144 

nponecc HeoSxoflHMO CBepaTb no KapTe. Ho na>Ke npn HMeiomenca KapTOHKe oraa 6e3 pacneTOB b 
CHaiinepcKOH npaKTrace Bee paBHO He oSohthcb. Ohh npoH3BonaTca Ha Ka>KnbiH KOHKpeTHbiH cjiynaH, 
no pa3HbiM Ta6jiHu,aM, 3anacTyK) HaKnanbiBaacb npyr Ha ^pyra. 

3aneM h noneMy Bee 3to hjokho, oneHb neTKO h npxoflHHBO h3jio>khji nncaTejib B. Ko>KeBHHKOB 
b paccKa3e "Bbicmee CTpenKOBoe o6pa30BaHHe" (npnBonnTca coKpameHHo). 

"...XoTenocb KypnTb, ho cnnneK He SbiJio. OcTaHOBHBnincb B03Jie cojinaTa, npn CBeTe nyHbi 03a- 
SoneHHO nepeSnpaBHiero py>KenHbie naTpoHbi, nonpocnji oraa. 

- ^Ito 3to bw c naTpoHaMH nenaeTe? 

- CopTHpyio, - CKa3an Soeu, n, nonHeca KyuaK c 3a>KaTbiM naTpoHOM k CBoeMy yxy, oh noTpac 
hm. Otjio>khji naTpoH b CTopoHy. 

- A 3TO hto, HcnopneHHbiH? 

- EcTb TaKoe nonp3peHHe. 5{ HenoBeK npnBepeflJiHBbin, nyrb BMaTHHKa hjih nyna cjiaSo chaht, 
npHHaTb He Mory... 

- Hy a caMH noneMy He OTnwxaeTe? 

- CnoKOHCTBHa HeTy. 5{ Benb b niTypMe no CBoen cnennajibHOCTH nepBbin pa3 6yny. PaHbme Bee 
H3 3aca^bi 6hji, c accncTeHTOM. 

- C KaKHM aCCHCTeHTOM? 

- C yneHHKOM. Oh HaSnioneHHe Ben. A a b sto BpeMa rjia3aMH OTnbixan. PaHbme a oahh pa6o- 
Tan, TaK raa3Hoe yTOMJieHne k KOHny BaxTbi HacTynano, xoTb h MopKOBKy en. B Hen, b MopKOBKe, bh- 
TaMHH ana raa3 nojie3HbiH ecTb. Ha ce6e HcnbiTan. 

- Bw CHannep? 

- Hmchho. Eoeu, c BbicninM CTpenKOBbiM o6pa30BaHHeM. JJpyrnQ nyMaiOT TaK: npHu,ejiHJica, 
HaflaBHJi Ha cnycKOBOH KpionoK - h totob (})aniHCT. HeT, TyT KynbTypHbin nonxofl TpeSyeTca. Hbbhhh- 
Te, bw Ha BOceMbcoT MeTpoB (J)aniHCTa MOKny rjia3 chstb MO>KeTe? HayKy nna 3Toro npencTaBJiaeTe 
ce6e? TaK a BaM CKa>Ky. nepBoe - cyMen onpenejinrb, hto oh ot Te6a Ha BOceMbcoT MeTpoB HaxonHT- 
ca, a He Ha HiecTbcoT hjih ceMbcoT naTbnecaT. ^Jia 3Toro OTToneHHbiH rjia30Mep TpeSyeTca. no yraaM 
^ajibHOCTb BbiHHCJiHTb - reoMeTpna Hy>KHa. 

nyna, Korna jictht, BpamaeTca cneBa HanpaBO h naeT OTKJiOHeHHe BnpaBO. Ha HiecTbcoT MeTpoB 
OHa Ha 12 caHTHMeTpoB OTKJiOHaeTca, a Ha BOceMbcoT - y>Ke Ha 29. 3Haa 3Ty n,H(|)py, h nep>KH b coot- 
BeTCTBHH MyniKy. A ecjiH CHJibHbiii Sokoboh Berep, Tyr KaK? Bwhoch TOHKy npnnejiHBaHHa Ha ABe 
(Jmrypu. Ho Benb pa3Hbie oScToaTenbCTBa MoryT SbiTb. H BeTep, h <\>ipm\ Sokht - na eme b pa3Hbie 
ctopohw... TyT TaKoe cjio>KeHHe h BbinnraHHe - ronoBa BcnyxHeT. A BpeivteHH Te6e OTnymeHO Bcero 
Tpn ceKyHHbi. npo(J)eccop, h tot BcnoTeer. 

Bw b HHBH3HOHHOH ra3ere HHTann, KaK a co 3HaMeHHTbiM HeMeu,KHM CHannepoM noeanHOK Ben? 
KaK b Tynie kohckoh CHfleji h KaK accncTenr onHOBpeMeHHO co mhoh no Heivtny 6hji, htoSm Ha ce6a 
oroHb npHBJienb? A rnaBHoe He CKa3aHO, noneMy a (})aniHCTa CBannji. 

A CBanHJi a noTOMy, hto KynbTypHee ero OKa3ajica, b ceKyHAHOH apH<|)MeTHKe ero npeB3onieji, 
xoTb oh b BepjiHHe ocoSyio niKOJiy kohhhji c otjikhhcm. 

Ha Mnyce a b 3acane cnneji. ^epes peKy 3a ^pnnaMH oxoTHJica. H He oxoTa 3to Sbina, a cpaM: 3a 
Tpn flHa hh oflHoro He chh3hji, no3op ! y>K a, 3HaeTe, h BHHTOBKy 3aHOBO npHCTpejiHBan, h mopkobh no 
nojiKHJiorpaMMa Kynian, h k KanHTaHy 3a KOHcyjibTanneH oSpamanca. Bee HanpacHO - HenojieT! Ho- 
Hbio HarnniOM nepe3 peKy c BepeBOHKoM miaBan, hto6 ynocTOBepHTbca b paccToaHHH. He noMorao. 
Torna a CHannepy HeKynaeBy nHCbMO HanHcan. H hto bbi nyMaeTe? TenerpaMMa: MI iepe3 BonHyio 
nperpany Hy>KHO SpaTb SojibniHH yron B03BbinieHHa, TaK KaK xononHbiH B03flyx h BJia>KHOCTb CHH>Ka- 
k)t TpaeKTopnio". 

"...cnacnSo roBopio CHannepy, KOTopbiM Hac conpoBO>Kflaji. noji3 a k noTy c tojiom. A Bnepenn 
MeHa TpaHHien c HeivtenKHMH nyjieMeTHHKaMH. npHmyjiH ronoBbi h BenyT oroHb. Cjienon oroHb MHe 
He npenaTCTBHe. Bot eenn kto h3 hhx ronoBy BCKHHeT ^a B3raaHeT, Tor^a MHe, kohchho, KOHeu,. 

H bot npnnoflHajica o^hh, aBTOMaT noflHaji, npaMO b raa3a B3rjiaHyji h Sau, - cen 3aMepTBO. 
,H,ajibHie noit3y. Eme o^hh bckohhji, ho h y Hero H3 ronoBbi 6pbi3Hyjio. H CTano MHe noHaTHO, KaK 
KoHnpaTioK (CHannep) MeHa CBoeft mctkoh nynen cSeper. Hotom KoH^paTioKa ^pyrHM nonpbiBHHKaM 
OflaiDKHBajiH. npaMO aHren-xpaHHTejib, a He HenoBeK. Ho mm ero Toace 6e3 npncMOTpa He ocTaBJiajin. 
ABTOMaTHHK 3a hhm cjieflOBan, KaK 3a reHepanoM. H nyneMeTHHKaM HaKa3 Sbiji - b cnynae nero npn- 

KpblTb". 

"...oh Ha rope ocTairca. OSbacHan HaM, hto b ropax B03flyx ocoSeHHbiH, npo3paHHbin. ToBopaT, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



145 



Korfla nepe3 ymejibe oroHt Beflenib, oSivtaH b paccToaHHH p,o tohkh npnHejiHBaHHa npoHCxoflHi. Oh 
ceiiHac npoBepaeT, Kaic npHueji ycTaHaBJiHBan: npaBHJibHO hjih Her. EMy HH(|)pbi Hy>KHbi. PeSaT CHaM- 
nepcKOMy flejiy yon. Ha Bee oSbacHemie TpeSyeTca. Bot oh fljia yMCTBeHHoro OTneTa h oSaneflyeT". 

IIPAKTHHECKAfl nPHCTPEJIKA CHAHIIEPCKOH BHHTOBKH 



IIpHCTpejiKa opy>KHa nofl oniHHecKHH npHueji - npouecc KponoTJiHBbiH, TpeSyiomHH BpeMeHH h 
TepneHHa. B jiioSom cnynae BHHTOBKy CHanana npHxoflHTca npHCTpenHBaTb nofl OTKpbiTbiM npHueji. 
HtoSw cpa3y "3au,enHTbca" 3a MHiueHb h csKOHOMHib BpeMa, Soenpnnacbi h HepBHyio 3Heprnio, hc- 
nojib3yiOT cjieflyiomHH npaKTHnecKHH cnocoS. 

BnHTOBKy 3a>KHMaiOT b npncTpejiOHHOM CTaHKe (hjih npocTO CTpySuHHOH KpenaT Ha HeM- 
HnSyflb MaccHBHOM) h npn HBBJieneHHOM 3aTBope HaBOflaT no KaHany CTBOJia Ha MHiueHb, pacnojio- 

>KeHHyiO Ha flHCTaHUHH 1 00 MeTpOB OT CTpeJIKa. ECJIH KOHCTpyKU,Ha CTBOJIbHOH kopoSkh He n03BOJiaeT 

3arjiaHyrb BHyTpb CTBOJia, fljia 3toh u,ejiH Hcnojib3yiOT npoflOJiroBaTbiM ockojiok 3epKana. MnnieHb 
AOJi>KHa BH^HeTbca CTporo nocpeflH Kpyrnoro nojia KaHana CTBOJia, no ero ocn (1 Ha cxeMe 94). He 
cSnBaa 3toh HaBOflKH h nocToaHHO CBepaacb c HeM, ycTaHaBJiHBaiOT OTKpbiTbin nprnjeji, noflSnBaa bm- 
coTy MyniKH (BbiBHHHHBaa hjih BBHHHHBaa ee, hjih >Ke MeHaa MyniKH no HOMepaM, hjih >Ke o6pa6aTbi- 
Baa hx Hafl(})HJieM) h CMemaa ee no roproonry. OTKpbiTbiii npimeji ycTaiiaBJiHBaeTca TaK, htoSm ero 
TOHKa npHuejiHBaHHa SbiJia b neHTpe toh >Ke caMOH MHineHH c ycTaHOBKon npnuejia "1" (2 Ha cxeMe 
94). nocTOJiHHO CBepaacb y>Ke c sthmh flByMa HaBOflKaMH, hhth hjih npnnejibHyio ceTKy onrnnecKoro 
npnuejia BbiBOflaT b Ty >Ke caMyio TOHKy npnuejinBaHna b neHTpe MHineHH (3 Ha cxeMe 94). no okoh- 
naHHH 3Toro npouecca CTn 6y#eT HaxoflHibca b6jih3h 3toh tohkh npnuejinBaHna, oSmen n ^Jia ot- 
KpbiToro, h fljia onrnnecKoro npnuejiOB. J\im oxoTHnnbnx uejieii 3Toro BnojiHe ^ocTaTOHHO. 

Ho /ura CHannepcKon npaKTHKH 3Toro Mano. fl,Jia CHannepa TaKaa npncTpejiKa aBJiaeTca tojibko 
npeflBapnTejibHon "npnB»3Kon" opy>KHa k uejin. noneMy? noTOMy hto b pe3ynbTaTe TaKoii "npnBa3- 
kh" oniHHecKHH npnue.ii MO>KeT OKa3aTbca copneHTnpoBaHHbiM Ha nejib He uenrpoM 3pHTejibHoro no- 
Jia, a ero KpaeM (cxeMa 95). Ha BbiinenpnBefleHHon cxeMe 94 npncTpejiKH KOHenHbin pe3yjibTaT npe#- 
CTaBJieH b Hfleane, Kor^a uejib OKa3anacb b cepe^HHe 3pHTejibHoro nojia npnuejia h TaM >Ke OKa3anca 
uemp npHu,ejibHoro nepeKpecTna. 




Hon 



CxeMa 94. npnB5i3Ka k uejin onrnnecKoro npnuejia: 

1 - nejib b npocBeTe KaHana CTBOJia; 

2 - Ta >Ke nejib b otkpwtom npnnejie; 

3 - Ta >Ke nejib b onrnnecKOM npnuejie; 

4 - KpoHniTeiiH onrnnecKoro npnuejia 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



146 



HUTU 




CxeMa 95 

rioneMy Hy>KHO, htoSw Hemp npimejibHoro nepeKpecTHa 6wji b ueinpe 3pHTejibHoro nojia, a He 
r/ie-TO c Kpaio? IIoTOMy hto, BO-nepBbix, neTKOCTb H3o6pa>KeHHa uejiH b uempe 3pHTejibHoro nona 
Sy^eT HaMHoro Bbinie, neM no KpaaM. Bo-BTopbix, ecjin nepeKpecTHe pacnojio>KeHO b uempe nous, 
mo>kho KpyrHTb nonpaBKH b jiioSyio CTopoHy h nepeMemaTb npimejibHoe nepeKpecTHe Ty^a, icy^a 
Haflo. fljia HJunocTpaii,HH nocMOTpHTe Ha cxeMy 95. IIpH CTpenbSe no flBJDKymeiica uejiH fljia ynpe- 
MCfleHHa Haflo flaTb nonpaBKy (b flamiOM cnynae) BnpaBO "2", htoSw ctboji opyacna TO>Ke nomeji Bnpa- 
bo h nyjia c ynpoKflemieM BCTpeTHJia uenb. J\jih 3Toro hhth Ha^o nepeMecTHTb bjicbo, ho, nocKOJibKy 
ohh y>Ke TaM HaxoflaTca, bjicbo hx nepeMemaTb y>Ke HeKy/ia. 

IIo3TOMy b CHannepcKOM BapnaHTe npHu,eji b HeoSxoflHMyio TOHKy npimejiHBaHHa npn npn- 
CTpenKe HaBOflHTca c npimejibHbiMH hhtsmh (ceTKon), y>Ke BbiCTaBJieHHbiMH no uempy 3pnTejibHoro 
nojia. 

IIpHCTpejiKa bhhtobkh c onrnHecKHM nprmejiOM /urn cyrySo CHannepcKnx nejieii npoH3BOflHTca 
cornacHO ycTaBHOMy nojio>KeHHio, a hmchho 

/ arnan npucmpejiKii - nocne "rpySon" npHB33Kn opy>KHa k uejiH BHHTOBKa npncTpenHBaeTca no 
nepHOMy npncTpejiOHHOMy KBa^paTy pa3MepoM 25x35 cm OTKpbiTbiM npimejiOM "3" TaKHM o6pa30M, 
HToSbi cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHna SbiJia Bbinie tohkh npHu,ejinBaHna Ha 14 cm - j\jih bhhtobkh CQJ\ h 
Ha 17 cm - fljia TpexjiHHeHHOH bhhtobkh (cm TaSjiimy npeBbimeHHa cpe^Hnx TpaeKTopnii h cxeMy 96). 
Opy>KHe, npHCTpenaHHoe TaKHM o6pa30M c npHnenoM "I" Ha flHCTami,HH 100 MeTpoB, 6y#eT nona^aTb 
CTporo no uempy b TOHKy npuuejiuBaHHa, a Ha flucTaHuuu 300 MeTpoB c npHnenoM "3" 6y#eT TaK>Ke 
nona/iaTb CTporo b TOHKy npuuejiuBaHua "no nenrpy". 

// smart npucmpejiKu - BHHTOBKa (JmKcupyeTca b npucTpejiouHOM CTaHKe hjih b neM yroflHO flJia 
npn^aHHa eii HenoflBH>KHOCTH. IIo OTKpbiTOMy npuuejiy b 3ac})HKCHpoBaHHOM coctojihhh opy>KHe 
Hau,ejiHBaeTca b hh>khhh cpe3 npucTpejiOHHoro KBa^paTa (cm. cxeMy 96, 1 3Tan npncTpejiKn). OnTuue- 
ckhh npnneji c 3apaHee BbiBefleHHbiM b nenrp 3pHTejibHoro nona npuuejibHbiM nepeKpecTneM nonpa- 

BOHHblM MexaHH3MOM KpOHHITCHHa BblCTaBJUieTCa TaK, HToSbl npHU,eJIbHbIM yrOJIbHHKOM H neHbKOM OH 

6bui HaBe^eH CTporo b TOHKy npuuejiuBaHua OTKpbiToro npuue.na (cxeMa 97). IIoBTopaeM onTnuecKUH 
npHu,eji BbiBOflHTca Ha uenb omnHecKUM yrojibHHKOM (neHbKOM), HaxoflaiuuMca b uempe 3puTejibHO- 
ro ij.oji«, to ecTb npucTpejibiuuK "BopouaeT" caMHM KopnycoM npuue.na, He Tporaa MaxoBHKH. Ilpouecc 
3tot KponoTJiHBbiH, TaK KaK npn ^BH>KeHHax npHCTpejibm,HKa opy>KHe cSnBaeTca, xoTb h He3HauH- 
TenbHO, c HaBOflKH OTKpbiTbiM npuuejiOM. IIo3TOMy npHCTpejibiu,HK nepuoflnuecKu 3arjiaflbiBaeT b ot- 
KpbiTbiM npHu,eji h nonpaBJiaeT npaBHJibHOCTb ero HaBOflKn. 



wamtaijfm 




/nilfn 2Sr33 <ai 



Tilm mlwiiiwliii* 



CxeMa 96 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 147 




CxeMa 97 

Ecjih no xoponio npncTpejiaHHOMy OTKpbiTOMy npnnejiy c tohkoh npHnejiHBaHHa no# o6pe3 
BHHTOBKa nona^aeT Bbinie Ha 14 cm ot tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa, to npn HanejieHHOM b Ty >Ke TOHKy npn- 
uejiHBaHHa Ha toh >Ke flHCTaHnnn onTHHecKOM npnnejie pe3yjibTaT nonaflaHHH 6y#eT tot >Ke caMbift. 

Ilocjie Toro Kaic BHByanbHO coBMemeHbi tohkh npHnejiHBaHHa OTKpbiToro h oniHHecKoro npn- 
nejiOB npn o#hom h tom >Ke npHnejiHBaHHn - nop, o6pe3 npnnejibHoro KBa^paTa, npHCTpejibiiniK npo- 
BepaeT BbinojiHeHHe BbinieonHcaHHoro TpeM» SoeBbiMH BbiCTpenaMH, npnnejiHBaacb no# o6pe3 npn- 
nejiOHHoro KBa^paTa oiroiHecKHM npnnejiOM. 

KaK npaBHJio, npn stom Ha ^HCTaHnHH 100 MeTpoB cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa nojiynaeTca Ha 
hckomoh BbicoTe 14 cm (no BHHTOBKe CB,3,) ot tohkh npnnejinBaHna HHor^a, oneHb peflKO, npnxo- 
flHTca BHOCHTb He3HaHHTejibHbie KoppeKTHBbi MaxoBHKaMH. Ecjih Bee nojiynmiocb npaBHJibHO, c Kop- 
peKTHBaMH hjih 6e3 hhx, nocne npoBepKH ycTaHaBJiHBaiOT npaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe niKanbi MaxoBmcoB 
SoKOBbix nonpaBOK h flncTaHnnoHHoro MaxoBHKa. B SoeBoii oScTaHOBKe MaxoBHKaMH npnnejia npn- 
xoAHTca KpyTHTb nocToaHHO, BHOca pa3JiHHHbie nonpaBKH no bbicotc, Ha BeTep, no Serymen nejin n t. 
r. H Ka>Kflbin pa3 to nun HHoe flejieHne niKanbi MaxoBHKa aojdkho yKa3biBaTb npaBHJibHyio BejiHHHHy 
B3aToii nonpaBKH IIo3TOMy, CTapaacb He cflBHHyib c MecTa MaxoBHK, otbcptkoh OTBopannBaiOT (Jjhk- 
cnpyioinne CTonopHbie bhhtm (7, 2 Ha (})oto 152) flncTaHnnoHHoro BepTHKanbHoro MaxoBHKa, npn 
3tom HiKana (jihmS) MaxoBHKa BepTHKanbHbix nonpaBOK "oTnycKaeTca" h MO>KeT BpamaTbca He3aBH- 
chmo ot MaxoBHKa. He cflBHraa MaxoBHK, niKany BpamaiOT h ycTaHaBJiHBaiOT Hnc^pon "3" HanpoTHB 
KOHTpojibHOH pncKH. 3thm bw ycTaHOBHTe npnneji "3" rioneMy hmchho TaK? BcnoMHHTe - c npnne- 
jiom "3" Ha AHCTamniH 100 MeTpoB bm nonann c npeBbimeHneM (no TaSjinne npeBbimeHnn cpe^Hnx 
TpaeKTopnn) Ha 14 cm Bbinie tohkh npnnejiHBaHHa, cjieflOBaTejibHO, c tcm >Ke npnnejiOM "3" Ha jsyt- 
CTaHnnn 300 MeTpoB bw nona^eTe CTporo no nempy - b Ty TOHKy, Ky^a nejnuincb. BamiHCTHKa npn- 
CTpejiOHHoro nponecca npe^CTaBJieHa Ha cxeMe 96. 




cDoto 152 

Ilocjie Toro KaK BbiCTaBJieH npnneji "3", He enema, aKKyparao h octopo>kho "3aT>niHTe" (})hkch- 
pyiomne CTonopHbie bhhtw. Tenepb, ecjin BaM HeoSxoflHMO CTpejunb Ha 100 MeTpoB, CTaBbTe npnneji 
"1" h nejibiecb no nempy - Ty^a h nona^eTe. Ecjih HeoSxoflHMO CTpejiaTb Ha 400 MeTpoB - daBbie 
npnneji "4" h TO>Ke nejibTecb no nempy . AHanornHHO h Ha ^pyrnx flncTaHnnax. 

Ilpn yflOBJieTBopaiomeM Bac nojio>KeHHH tohkh nona^aHna no roproomy (He BnpaBO, He BJieBO, 
a Ty^a, Ky^a Ha^o) OTnycKairre CTonopHbie (JmKcnpyiomHe bhhtm MaxoBHKa Sokobmx nonpaBOK h bh- 
CTaBJiaiiTe niKany (jihmS) 3Toro MaxoBHKa npoTHB KompojibHon Sokoboh pncKn Ha "0". 3aTeM (})hkch- 
pyiomne bhhtm octopo>kho "3aTaHHTe". Ey/ieT jiyHiue h y^oSHee fljia Bac, ecjin 3th bkhtm bbi OTny- 
CTHTe 3apaHee, erne j\o npncTpejiKH. 

BbinieonHcaHHbiH nponecc npncTpejiKH bhhtobkh CBJ\ o^HHaKOB ^Jia Bcex bh^ob onTHnecKHx 
npnnejiOB. Ilpn npncTpejiKe flpyrnx bhhtobok hjih KapaSnHOB cjie^yeT HMeTb b BH^y, hto npeBbime- 

HH3 CpeflHHX TpaeKTOpHH Ha flHCTaHU,HH 100 MeTpOB pa3JIHHHbI flJIS pa3HbIX CHCTeM Opy>KHa. II03TOMy 

b HacToanieM nocoSnn h npnBOflaTca Ta6jiHu,bi npeBbinieHHH cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnii ^Jia CHCTeM ajihh- 
HOCTBOJibHoro CTpejiKOBoro opy>KHa, OTnynieHHoro HacejieHHio b CBoSoflHyio npofla>Ky. 

^jia npncTpejiKH Hcnojib3yiOTca KBa^paTbi (npaMoyrojibHHKH H3 nepHOH SyMara pa3MepoM 
25x35 cm), CTaH^apTHbie oSmeBOHCKOBbie npncTpejiOHHbie MnnieHn, Ha KOTopbix HaHeceHbi jihhhh 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 148 

craSaHHa (yKopanHBaHna) HH>KHero o6pe3a fljia KOHKpeTHbix o6pa3noB opy>KHa - aBTOMaTOB, nyneMe- 
tob, CHaMnepcKHx bhhtobok. IIpH yica3aHHOH jihhhh craSa npHcrpejiOHHOH MHineHH ^Jia CHannepcKOH 
bhhtobkh paccroaHHe ot HH>KHero o6pe3a flo uempa h Sy^eT paBHO 14 cm. Bonee-MeHee noflroTOB- 
jieHHbie CTpenKH Hcnojib3yiOT /uia npncTpejiKH nepHbie Kpyrjibie nncTOJieTHbie cnopTHBHbie MHineHH 
N° 4 c /niaMeTpoM nepHoro Kpyra 25 cm. B jiioSom anynae npncTpejiKa npoHBBOflnrca Ha nepBOHa- 
HanbHOH flHcraHHHH 100 MeTpoB c npHnejiHBaHHeM "nofl o6pe3" h npnnejiOM "3". 

BHHMAHHE! IlaTpoHbi /uia oflHoro h Toro ace opyacna HeoflHHaKOBbi. H3roTOBJieHHbie Ha pa3- 
hwx 3aBO#ax, b pa3Hoe BpeMa, H3 pa3Hbix MaTepnanoB, ohh xoTb h He3HanHTejibHO, ho OTJinnaiOTca 
Apyr ot flpyra no BbicoTe TpaeKTopnn. IIo3TOMy BHHTOBKy Hy>KHO npncTpejinBaTb oahoh napTnen a6- 
cojiiotho oflHHaKOBbix naTpoHOB. 3to flaeT KynHbin, CTaSnjibHbin, a raaBHoe, oflHOo6pa3Hbin no Bbico- 
Te Son. Ilofl pa3Hbie napran naTpoHOB opy>KHe Ha#o npncTpejinBaTb 3aHOBO - napTnn naTpoHOB pa3- 
Hjrrca no BbicoTe TpaeKTopnn. 

Hejib3a npncTpejinBaTb opy>KHe "cSpoflOM" cjiynaiiHbix naTpoHOB pa3JinnHbix napTnn, MapKnpo- 
bok, neT H3roTOBJieHna n pa3JiHHHoro npeflHa3HaHeHna. ,H,a>Ke npn CTpeubSe H3 nyneMeTa "cSpoflOM" 
anynanHO nofloSpaHHbix naTpoHOB HaSjnoflaeTca HenpeflCKa3yeMoe noBbimeHHoe paccenBaHne. 

Ta6jinn,bi npeBbimeHHa cpe^HHx TpaeKTopnn cocTaBJieHbi c pacneTOM Ha ycpeflHeHHbie SanjiH- 
CTHnecKHe KanecTBa SoenpmiacoB h ^aiOTca #Jia oSinen opHenranHOHHOH "npHBa3KH M . Ctbojim opy- 
>KHa oflHHx h Tex >Ke chctcm npn Bceii TmaTenbHOCTH H3roTOBJieHHa nojrynaiOTca TO>Ke HeoflHHaKOBbi- 
mh: oflHH ctboji Sy^eT "3a6iipaTb" Bbinie, Apyroft - hidkc 

IIo3TOMy He yflHBJiaiiTecb, ecjm o6Hapy>KHTe HecoBna^eHHa Me>Kfly (J)aKTHHecKHMH nonaflaHHa- 
mh no flanbHOCTH h u,H(})paMH niKanbi flHCTamiHOHHoro MaxoBHKa. TaKHe BemH ^aiOT ce6a 3HaTb Ha 
flHCTamniax CBbinie 400 MeTpoB, h npn KymoM CTBOJie 3to He CTpaniHO. Cflejiairre cooTBeTCTByiomHe 
OTMeTKH Ha flHCTaHUHOHHOH HiKajie h CTpejianre flajibiue. 

JlayKQ oneHb noflroTOBJieHHbie h TpeHHpoBaHHbie CTpenKH hmciot pa3JiHHHbiH Bee, pocT, fljiHHy 
pyK, a raaBHoe, BoenpnaTHe peanbHOCTH. IIo3TOMy y CTpenKOB c pa3JiHHHOH "scTaTypon" crpejibSa H3 
OflHoii h toh >Ke bhhtobkh 6y#eT 3aMeTHO OTJinnaTbca. Ecjih BaM b pyKH nonana BHHTOBKa CBJl, paHee 
KeM-TO y>Ke npncTpejiaHHaa, BaM oneHb nerKO h SbiCTpo mo>kho npncTpejiaTb ee "no# ce6a" ,H,ony- 
cthm, npn CTpejibSe Ha flHCTaHHHH 1 00 MeTpoB TpeMa naTpoHaMH bw nonanH jieBee h Bbinie Ha 5 cm ot 
>KejiaeMoii tohkh. 3Haa, hto Ha 3toh ^HCTaHnHH o#hh mejinoK (nojiflejieHna) SoKOBoro MaxoBHKa co- 
CTaBJiaeT 0,5 tmcjihhoh, hjih 5 cm, noBepmrre MaxoBHK no nacoBon CTpejiKe Ha nojiflejieHna (o^hh 
mejiHOK) - "BbroiHHTe" nyjiio ce6e b jia^OHb Ha HCKOMbie 5 cm. BepTHKanbHbiH flncTaHUHOHHbiH Maxo- 
BHK noBepHHTe npoTHB nacoBon CTpenKH Ha nojiflejieHHa - "onycTnre" nyjiio ot jia^OHH Ha 5 cm bhh3. 
Ecjih Ha flamiOM npnnejie npe^ycMOTpeHa TpemoTKa, 3to 6y#eT o#hh mejinoK. IIpoBepbTe TpeMa bbi- 
CTpenaMH, hto nojiynnjiocb. Ilpn HeoSxo/niMOCTH hto-to b npnnejie ^oSaBbre hjih ySaBbre. A Tenepb, 
Kor^a BHHTOBKa npncTpejiaHa nofl Bac, nocTaBbTe niKany b cootbctctehh c pe3yjibTaTaMH BameM npn- 

CTpeJIKH. 

HE 3ABBIBAHTE! Ha TpempTKy 3aMKHyT jihmS (niKana) MaxoBHKa. npn ee cboSo^hom Bpame- 
hhh (npn OTnymeHHbix (})HKCHpyiomHx BHHTax) Sy^yr HaSjnoflaTbca 4)HKcau,HOHHbie mejiHKH. Ha 
nponecc npaBHJibHOH ycTaHOBKH niKanbi ohh He bjihjhot, h SoaTbca 3Toro He CJie^yeT. MaxoBHK Ha 
TpemoTKy He 3aMKHyr h c OTnymeHHbiMH (JmKcanHOHHbiMH CTonopHbiMH BHHTaMH BpamaeTca 6e3 
mejiHKOB. Co mejiHKaMH oh BpamaeTca TOJibKO npn 3aTaHyibix (})HKCHpyiomHx BHHTax. 

no BceM BbinieyKa3aHHbiM npnHHHaM - pa3HHna b Soenpnnacax, HeoflHHaKOBOCTb ctbojiob, hh- 
flHBHflyanbHbie ocoSeHHOCTH BoenpnaTna - CHaiinepcKoe opy>KHe TOHHoro h ocoSo tohhoix) 6oa npn- 
CTpejiHBaeTca nocToaHHbiM "xo3aHHOM M , 3aKpenjieHHbiM 3a hhm, c npHBa3Kon Ha KOHKpeTHbie ^HCTaH- 
ii,hh CTpejibSbi - ot 100 flo 700 MeTpoB, a no HeoSxoflHMOCTH - h Ha Sojiee OTflaneHHbie KOHKpeTHbie 

flHCTaHU,HH. 

npHCTpeJiaTb BHHTOBKy CB^],, HMeiOmyK) CTBOJI HOpMajIbHOH KyHHOCTH c HCnpaBHbIM npHii,ejiOM, 

He npeflCTaBJiaeT ocoSoh cjio>khocth y>Ke noTOMy, hto OHa H3roTOBJieHa KaK o^ho nejioe c nocaflOH- 
hmm MecTOM ("jiacTOHKHH xboct") nofl onTHnecKHH npnii,eji, npnneM 3to nocaflOHHoe MecTO BecbMa 
tohho copneHTHpoBaHO CTporo napamiejibHO och KaHana CTBOJia. no3TOMy npn nocTaHOBKe npnnejia 
nCO-1 Ha 3to opy>KHe uejib OKa3biBaeTca b cepe^HHe onTHnecKoro nojia npHii,ejia h Ha npncTpejiKe 
noflBOflHTb k Hen npHu,ejibHbin yrojibHHK 6jih3ko h y^oSHO. OneHb xopomo, Kor^a onTHnecKHH npn- 
u,eji npn ycTaHOBKe Ha opy>KHe cpa3y OKa3biBaeTca copHenrHpoBaHHbiM onTHnecKOH ocbio Ha u,ejib h 
OHa HaxoflHTca b cepe^HHe 3pHrejibHoro nojia. Bo-nepBbix, pa3pemaiomaa cnocoSHOCTb (neTKOCTb) 
jnoSoro onTHnecKoro npnSopa b nempe nojia 3HaHHTejibHO Bbinie, neM no ero KpaaM. Bo-BTopwx, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 149 

oneHb HeyfloSHO, Kor^a onrHHecKaa ocb npHu,ejia, a cooTBeTCTBeHHO h Hemp 3pHrejibHoro nona, He 
copneHTHpoBaHbi no HanpaBJieHHio Ha nejib. IIocMOTpHTe enie pa3 Ha cxeMy 95, BHHTOBKa npncTpejia- 
Ha aBHO HenpaBHJibHO h HeyfloSHO. flua CTpenbSbi no Heno#BH>KHOH nenn sto enie roflHrca, a ^jih 
CTpenbSbi no ^BH>KymeHca hcjih - y>Ke HeT. 

TaKHM HeflOCTaTKOM ciuionib n pa^OM OTJinnaiOTca o6opy#OBaHHbie ohthkoh oxoTHHHbH Kapa- 
Shhm CKC, "Caiira", "KaSaH" h nponne CHCTeMbi, Ha KOTopbix noca^OHHoe MecTO onrHHecKoro npn- 
Hejia 3aBOflOM-H3roTOBHTejieM He npe#ycMOTpeHO. 

Ha TpexjiHHeHHbix BHHTOBKax o6pa3na 1891-1930 rr. nocTaHOBKa onrHHecKoro npHHe.na noHa- 
nany TO>Ke He SbiJia npeflycMOTpeHa. IIo3TOMy CHCTeMa nocTaHOBKH Ha ^aHHoe opy>KHe onrnnecKHx 
npnHejiOB npeflycMaTpHBaeT KoppeKHHio hx HanpaBJieHHOCTH. HaBefleHne nenrpa 3pHTejibHoro nojia 
Ha nejib (MHmeHb) npoH3BOflHTca no BepTHKann (BBepX-BHH3) BepXHHMH n hh>khhmh MHKpoMeTpHne- 

CKHMH BHHTaMH OCHOBaHHJI KpOHIHTeHHa ((J)OTO 94). 

Jlirn 3Toro cnerica "oTnycKaiOT" ochobhoh 3a>KHMHon bhht h nonepeivteHHbiM BpameHHeM mhk- 

pOMeTpHHeCKHX BHHTOB BblBOflST npHHeJI B Hy>KHOe nOJIO>KeHHe. IIpH 3TOM XBOCTOBHK KpOHHITeHHa 

(Ha (})oto 94) nepeMeniaeTca BBepx-BHH3, cooTBeTCTBeHHO nepeMeiHaeTca h npHneji. HaBefleHne no 
ropH30HTanH npoH3BOflHTca noflKJiaflKon Me>Kfly xboctobhkom KpomnTeHHa h ero ocHOBaHHeM toh- 

"HX JiaTyHHblX HJIH CTajIbHblX nOJIOCOK, H3rOTOBJieHHbIX XOT3 6bl H3 KOHCepBHblX SaHOK. HHor^a TaKHe 

npoKJia^KH npHxoflHTca CTaBHTb h b coHJieHeHna KpoHinreHHa npHnena IICO-1 npn ero ropHBonrajib- 
hmx ocTaTOHHbix CMeiHemiax ot flec|)opMaHHH BcneflCTBHe y^apoB. 

Ilocjie Toro Kaic Hemp 3pHTejibHoro nona npnnejia BbiBe#eH Ha nejib, MHKpoMeTpHHecKne bhhtm 
3a>KHMaiOTca flpyr OTHOCHTejibHO Apyra bo H36e>KaHHe BepTHKaiibHoro Jiio(|)Ta. 3a>KHMHOH bhht nocne 
3Toro 3aTarnBaeTca c ycHJiHeM 10-15 Kr Ha OTBepTKe. IIpHHejibi IIY Ha TpexjiHHeHHbix BHHTOBKax 
BbinieonHcaHHbiM o6pa30M Kperorrca "HaMepTBo" n npn nepeHOCKe (nepeB03Ke) opjoKHa c bhhtobkh 
He CHHMaiOTca. 

Ha npHHenax nB ((J)oto 90, 91) ropHBOHranbHoe BbiBe#eHHe uempa 3pHTejibHoro nona Ha nejib 
npoH3BOflHTca BpameHHeM BHHTa 2 ((})oto 90) h 3 ((})oto 91), nepeMeiHemieM npnnejia no roprooH- 
TanbHOH HanpaBJiaioiHeH KpomnreHHa. no BepTHKann 3pnTejibHoe none b flamiOM npnnejie He HaBO- 
flHTca no npHHHHe oneHb tohhoh noca^Kn ero b kuhhobh^hom "jiacTOHKHHOM xBOCTe", a npoH3BOflHT- 
ca Jinnib He3HaHHTejibHaa KoppeKTHpoBKa flHcraHHHOHHbiM MaxoBHKOM BBepx-BHH3 b nponecce 
npncTpejiKH. 

CnocoSa npncTpejiKH Jiynniero, neM BbinieonHcaHHbiH ycraBHOH, hhkto He H3o6peji. Bo3HHKaeT 
Bonpoc: 3aneM sto Hy>KHO? Otbct: xo^HTb fljia ocMOTpa MHineHeii Ha 100 MeTpoB Bce-TaKH 6jiH>Ke, 
neM Ha 300. KpoMe Toro, nyneBbie npoSoHHbi b nofl3opHyio TpySy 20x Ha #HCTami,HH 100 MerpoB 
BHflHbi OTneTJiHBO, a Ha 300 MeTpoB y>Ke hh b KaKyio TpySy He bhahw BOoSme H3-3a aTMOC(|)epHOH 

flblMKH. 

Bo3HHKaeT quiq Bonpoc: noneiviy Hejib3a c caMoro Hanajia nocTaBHTb npHneji Ha "1" h cpa3y 
npncTpejiHBaTbca no nenrpy mhihchh Ha 100 MeTpoB ^HCTaHHHH. Otbct: nepHaa MyniKa 6y#eT cjih- 
BaTbca c nepHbiM KBa^paTOM, h bm HHKorfla He "HaiHynaeTe" MyniKOH Hemp mhuichh. A HeSojibinyio 
ToneHHyio, nycTb #a>Ke apKyio, nejib M B3aTb" b OTKpbiTbin npHHen HaMHoro Tpy^Hee, neM npHnejiHTbca 
npaMoyronbHOH MyniKOH c npocBeTOM nofl o6pe3 npncTpejiOHHoro KBa^paTa, KOTopwii b peanbHOH 
npHHejibHOH npoeKHHH o^HHaKOB c MyniKOH (cxeMa 98). HeSojibnion "npocBeTHK" Me>Kfly MyniKOH h 
hh>khhm cpe30M KBajspaja (2 Ha cxeMe 98) noMO>KeT KOHrpojinpoBaTb hx B3aHMHoe nojio>KeHHe h He 
no3BOJiHT M Bpe3aTbca" nepHOH MyniKOH b nepHbin KBajjpar. KynHOCTb CTpejibSbi no npncTpejionHOMy 
KBajipajy no sthm npnnHHaM Bcer^a Sy^eT Jiynme, neM npn CTpenbSe no flpyrHM nenaM. 3to 3aMene- 

HO npaKTHKOH. 



ill 



CxeMa 98: 

1 - npncTpejiOHHbin KBa^paT; 

2 - npocBeT 

HE 3ABBIBAHTE! O^hh noBopoT MyniKH bhhtobkh CBfl, noBbimaeT hjih noHn>KaeT TOHKy 
npnHejiHBaHHa Ha 16 cm. OflHa pncKa Ha ropH30HTanbHOH niKane ocHOBaHna MyniKH paBHa 10 cm (oa- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



150 



hoh TbicaHHoM). Bee sto noMoraeT onem. 6bicipo npHCTpejiHBaTb BHHTOBKy MHHHMajibHbiM KOJinne- 
ctbom naTpoHOB. ^onycTHM, nepBbie Tpn BbiCTpena KyHHO nonann b npaBbiii hh>khhh yron npncTpe- 
jiOHHoro KBa/ipaTa (hjih #a>Ke rpy^HOH MHineHH) HH>Ke pacneTHOH tohkh (o6o3HanHM ee "X") Ha 8 cm 
h npaBee Ha 10 cm. "3aBopaHHBaeM M MyniKy Ha non-oSopoTa bhh3, ctboji noflHHMeTca BBepx, h Ha 
MHHieHH mm nonyHHM noflbeM CTI1 8 cm. CTpejiaTb /uia 3Toro He Ha^o. ,3,ajiee nepeMemaeM MyniKO- 
BOflOM hjih ocTopo>KHbiMH y^apaMH MeflHoro MOJiOTOHKa MyniKy no "jiacTOHKHHy xBOCTy" BnpaBO Ha 
OflHO fleneHHe niKanbi - ctboji noiifleT bjicbo h CTII nepeMecTHica bjicbo Ha 10 cm. Tenepb TpeMa bm- 
CTpejiaMH npoBepaeM to, nero ^ocTHrjiH. KaK npaBHJio, b noflaBJiaiomeM SojibiHHHCTBe cnynaeB CTII 
CTaHOBHTca Ty^a, icy^a Hy>KHO npHCTpejibiHHKy. 

CymecTByeT npaKTHnecKaa npncTpejiOHHaa (})opMyjia: 

fl=(A x B)/100000 

r#e J\ - nonpaBOHHaa BejiHHHHa; 

A - fljiHHa npHu,ejibHOH jihhhh KOHKpeTHoro opyacna (ot rpHBKH uejiHKa p,o MyniKH); 

B - OTKJiOHeHHe nyjm ot hckomoh tohkh nonaflaHHa. 

IJpuMep. OnpeflejiHTb BejiHHHHy nepeMemeHHa MyniKH KapaSnHa CKC, ecjra npH npncTpejiKe 
cpe^Haa TOHKa nona^aHHa OTKJiOHHJiacb ot hckomoh Ha 10 cm (100 mm). 

PeiueHue: 

Jl= (480 mm (AJiHHa npimejibHoii jihhhh CKC) x 100 mm)/100000=0,48 mm. 

HHor/ia (oneHb pe^Ko) npHxoflHica bhochtb flonojiHHTejibHyio KoppeKTHpoBKy. 

BbiHieonncaHHaa MeTOflHKa npncTpejiKH no3BOJiaeT skohomhtb Soenpimacbi. TaK ^ejiaiOT BoeH- 
Hbie HcnoKOH BeKOB. My>KHKH, KynHBnme Hape3Hoii ctboji, HaHHHaiOT npHCTpejiHBarb ero "no- 
npocTOMy", CTpejiaa b ra3eTy c paccToamia flecaTH niaroB h nocTeneHHO OTCTaBJiaa ee Bee flanbine h 
flajibine. IIpH 3tom H3BO#HTca nyflOBHmiioe kojimhcctbo naTpoHOB, a >KejiaeMbiH pe3yjibTaT Bee paBHO 
He flocTHraeTca. 

BHHMAHHE! IIpHCTpejiKe c oimiHecKHM npimejiOM noflJie>KHT TOJibKO opy>KHe c KyHHbiM 6o- 
eM, cooTBeTCTByiomHM HHCTpyKUHH no flaHHoii CHCTeMe opy>KHa. BHHTOBKa hjih KapaSnH, He HMeiO- 

IHHe flOCTaTOHHOH KyHHOCTH 6oa, npHCTpejiHBaTb C OnTHKOH SeCCMblCJieHHO. 

Kor^a bw npncTpejiajiH BHHTOBKy Ha 100 MeTpoB c npHuejiOM "3", u,ejiacb nofl o6pe3, c npeBbi- 
nieHHeM 14 cm no BbicoTe (HMeeTca b BHfly CB,H,), to Sy^bie yBepeHbi: c npnu,ejiOM "1" Ha Te >Ke 100 
MeTpoB OHa Sy^eT nona^aTb CTporo no nenrpy, Ha 200 - c npHuejiOM "2" - CTporo no nempy, Ha 300 - 
c npnnejiOM "3" - CTporo no nenrpy. Ha 400, 500, 600 MeTpoB n ^anee c npnnejiaMH cooTBeTCTBeHHO 
"4", "5", "6" BHHTOBKa Toace Sy^eT nona^aTb CTporo no nenrpy. 

BonpeKH mnpoKO SbiryiomeMy mhchhio cpe^n CHannepoB o tom, hto no OTKpbiTOMy npimejiy 
BHHTOBKy npHCTpejiHBaTb He o6a3aTejibHO, ropbKnii SoeBon onbiT yKa3biBaeT Ha oSpaTHoe. Ha BOHiie 
nacTbi na^eHna. no 3aKOHy noflJiocTH BHHTOBKa y^apaeTca 060 hto-to TBep^oe hmchho oimiHecKHM 
npnnejiOM. no onrnnecKOMy npimejiy MO>KeT nonacTb majibHaa nyna hjih ockojiok. npimejibi HanH- 
HaiOT "flbimaTb" nonpaBOHHbiMH ycTpoiicTBaMH (y Bcex npim,ejiOB 3to HanSojiee cjiaSbie MecTa) b ca- 
Mbiii HenoflxoflamHH momcht. J\a. h Mano jih hto MO>KeT cjiyHHTbca c oiithkoh - tohhmh npnSop Tpe- 
6yeT 6epe>KHoro oSpamemia. Xoponio npHpaSoTamibiH h BbiBepeHHbiii OTKpbiTbiii npinjeji b TaKnx 
CJiynaax h npn OTKa3e ohthkh npocTO HeoSxoflHM. 

nepeMenieHHe cpeflHeii tohkh nonaflaHHa (CTn) npn paSoTe c npHuejibHbiMH npHcnocoSjieHH- 
aMH MajioKajinSepHbix bhhtobok c ajihhoh CTBOJia 65 cm npeflCTaBJieHO b TaSji. 35 h 36. 

Ta6jiHu,a 35 

nepeMemeHHe CTn, cm, npn H3MeHeHHH BbicoTbi OTKpbiToro npnitejia 



/(ajlbHOCTt, M 


OepeflEHxeHHe npni^ena 


or 25 flo 50 


ot 25 flo 50 


or 25 no 50 


or 25 no 50 


fleJICHHH 


flejieHHH 


flejieHHfl 


fleJICHHH 


Majioe 


6onBmoe 


Manoe 


6onBmoe 


Manoe 


6onEinoe 


Manoe 


Gojibmoe 


25 


0,8 


2,4 


0^ 


2.E 


1,1 


3^ 


u 


3,7 


50 


- 


- 


1.8 


5^ 


XI 


6^ 


2^ 


7^ 


15 


- 


- 


- 


- 


3^ 


10,0 


3,7 


1U 


100 


- 


- 


- 


- 


43 


13,0 


5,0 


15,0 



Ta6jiHu,a 36 

nepeMemeHHa CTn npn nepeflBH>KeHHH MyniKH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



151 



.flaJIEHOCTE, M 


riepefflEH^eHHe MynncH, mm 


1 


0,8 


0,6 


0,4 


0,2 


rTepeMemeHHe CT1L, cm 


25 


4,0 


3,2 


2,4 


1,6 


0,8 


50 


8,0 


6,4 


4,8 


3,2 


1,6 


75 


12,0 


9,6 


7,2 


4,8 


2,4 


100 


16,0 


12,8 


9,6 


6,4 


3,2 



Ilponecc npncTpejiKH TpexjimieHHOH CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh o6pa3na 1891-1930 rr. oneHb xo- 
ponio h noflpoSHO npeflCTaBJieH b npncTpejiOHHOH HHCTpyKHHH § 16. 



OcoSeHHOCTH lipMBC/JCHMH K HOpMajlbHOMy 60K) CHafinepCKOH BHHTOBKH C OHTHHeCKHM 

npHnejioM BpeMeH Bcuhkoh OTenecTBeHHOH bohhh 

CHaMnepcKaa BHHTOBKa npeflBapnTejibHO npHBOflnrcji k HopManbHOMy 6010 c OTKpbiTbiM npnue- 
jiom no npaBHJiaM npHBefleHHa k HopManbHOMy 6010 KannSpa 7,62 mm bhhtobkh o6pa3na 1891-1930 
rr. (6e3 HiTbiKa h c yKpenjieHHbiM onrHnecKHM npHnejiOM). Ilocjie 3Toro BbiBepaeTca onrHnecKHH 
npnneji. Jliia 3Toro BHHTOBKa yKpennaeTca b npHnejibHOM CTaHKe h no OTKpbiTOMy npnnejiy c ycTa- 
hobkoh xoMyTHKa Ha ^ejieHne "3" HaBOflHrca nofl hh>khhh o6pe3 npncTpejiOHHon MnmeHn (cxeMa 99). 
,Z],HCTaHnHOHHaa niKana onrHnecKoro npHuejia ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca Ha flejiefflie "3", a nncana Sokobmx 
nonpaBOK - Ha flejiemie "0". Ecjih npn 3thx ycTaHOBKax jihhhji npHnejiHBaHna onrHnecKoro npnnejia 
6y#eT HanpaBJieHa b Hemp Sejioro Kpyra MnmeHn, to onrHnecKHH npHueji cnnTaeTca BbiBepeHHbiM. 





laiimiiiaiiiihiiifiiiiiiftKi 

*Pt*tMPtll41|i|*l|*Mpk*P4£ 

■ Minimi iif jimp rituiM* 

J»ji*pppiiiMMPi«PliaiJiPPP 
«■«■■■■■»•■■! JiPivmaitittj 

• p u P* ■ ■ p H ■ i ■ f i ■ * ■ p * ■ ■ ■ * l" p p ■ 
14ltJPp*l4MkilimiBllkil»PIII 
ppplv*ip«tiri<iipv*pi<ipi*iia 
pappppptlliiJlllilpi4CtJ*BiP 








































| 


1 


1 1 




, 




1 




| 






[ 


( 












1 ' * * 






■ 












■ 









n iflattfftf 









CxeMa 99. ripncTpejionHaa MnmeHb CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh c onrHHecKHM npHnejiOM 

IIpH OTKnoHeHHH jihhhh npnHejiHBaHHa onTHnecKoro npnne.na ot nenrpa Sejioro Kpyra HeoSxo- 
flHMO BpameHneM 6apa6aHHHKOB coBMecTHTb ee c nenrpoM Kpyra, He H3Meroia nojio^eHna HaBOflKH no 
OTKpbiTOMy npnnejiy. Ilocjie 3Toro niKany flncTaHnnn uajio nocTaBHTb npoTHB yKa3aTejia ^ejieHneM 
"3", a niKany Sokobwx nonpaBOK - ^ejieHneM "0". 

JJjm 3Toro BHHTbi 6apa6aHHHKOB ocBo6o>KflaiOTca Ha oflHH-flBa oSopoTa n nocne ycTaHOBKH #e- 
jieHHH "3" n "0" npoTHB cooTBeTCTByiomnx yKa3aTejieM 3aKpenjunoTca. 

IIpH BbiBepeHHOM onTHnecKOM npnnejie jihhhh npnnejinBaHna no OTKpbiTOMy h onrnnecKOMy 
npnnejiaM nepeceKaiOTca Ha ^ajibHOCTH 300 MeTpoB, o6pa3ya Me>Kfly coSoh yron b 0-01 ^ajibHOCTH, 
TaK KaK pa3HHii,a b BbicoTax npnnejibHbix jihhhh OTKpbiToro h onrnnecKoro npnnejiOB paBHa 3 cm 
(cxeMa 100). Ha #anbHOCTH 100 MeTpoB jihhhs npnnejinBaHna no onrnnecKOMy npnnejiy npon^eT 
Bbiiue jihhhh npnnejinBaHna no OTKpbiTOMy npnnejiy Ha 2 cm. IlosTOMy npeBbiiueHHe KonrpojibHon 
tohkh (KT) Hafl tohkoh npnnejinBaHna no onTHnecKOMy npnnejiy aojdkho SbiTb He 1 7 cm, KaK ^Jia ot- 
KpbiToro npnne.na, a Ha 2 cm MeHbiue, to ecTb 15 cm. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



152 




CxeMa 100. IIpeBbiHieHHa TpaeKTopHH Ha# jihhhjimh npHnejinBaHHH onTHnecKoro (AB) h ot- 
KpwToro (CB) npHuejiOB 

Ilepefl OKOHHaTejibHtiM npnBefleHHeM CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh k HopManbHOMy 6010 HeoSxoflHMO 
ocMOTpeTb ee h onTHHecKHH npHueji, oSpamaa ocoSoe BHHMaHHe Ha KpenneHHe bhhtob 6apa6aHHH- 
kob, KpomirreHHa, xBOCTOBoro BHHTa h BHHTa ynopa. 

Boh CHannepcKOH bhhtobkh c onrHnecKHM npHnejiOM npH3HaeTC» HopManbHbiM, ecjin Bee 4 
npoSoHHbi BMemaiOTca b raSapm flnaivieTpoM 8 cm, HanoaceHHbiH nempoM Ha KOHTpojibHyio TOHKy. 
Ecjih 3th TpeSoBaHHa He BbinonHeHbi, b onTHHecKHH npnueji BBOfljnca nonpaBKH no BbicoTe h 6oko- 
BOMy HanpaBJieHHio coraacHO TaSji. 37. 

TaSjinna 37 

Bej iHHHHbi nonpaBOK b jjcjiquksx 



OnaioHeHHe CHI or KT, cm 


YcraHOEKH 6apa6aH i iHKa 


Bepxaero 


6oKosoro 


Clll mxe 


Clll E&nne 


Clll ejiceo 


Clll EnpaEO 


2 1/2 


3 1/4 


2 3/4 


+1/4 


-1/4 


5 


3 1/2 


2 1/2 


+1/2 


-1/2 


7 1/2 


3 3/4 


2 1/4 


+3/4 


-3/4 


10 


4 


2 


+1 


-1 


12 1/2 


4 1/4 


13/4 


+1 1/4 


-1 1/4 


15 


4 1/2 


1 1/2 


+1 1/2 


-1 1/2 


17 1/2 


4 3/4 


1 1/4 


+13/4 


-13/4 


20 


5 


1 


+2 


-2 



,H,onycTHM, hto npn npHBefleHHH CHannepcKoii bhhtobkh c onrHnecKHM npHnejiOM k HopManb- 
HOMy 6010 CTII OKa3anacb Ha 13 cm HH>Ke h Ha 8 cm neBee KompojibHon tohkh. J\jih Toro htoSm BBe- 
cth nonpaBKH b ycTaHOBKH onTHnecKoro npHuejia, Haxo^HM b TaSjinue OTKJiOHeHHa, paBHbie hjih 
6jiH3KHe nojiyHeHHbiM npn CTpejibSe TaKHMH OTKnoHeHnaMH Sy^yr 12 1/2 cm no BbicoTe h 7 1/2 cm no 
SoKOBOMy HanpaBJieHHio. IIocKOJibKy CTII b ^aHHOM anynae HH>Ke kohtpojibhoh tohkh, to npoTHB 12 
1/2 b rpa(|)e "CTII miace" HMeeM ^ejieHHe 4 1/4, a npoTHB 7 1/2 b rpac})e "CTII bjicbo" - flejieHne +3/4. 

IIocTaBHB 6apa6aHHHKH onTHnecKoro npHnejia npoTHB yKa3aTejieii ^ejieHHaMH 4 1/4 (BepxHHn) 
h 3/4 (Sokoboh), cueflyeT OTKpennib hx bhhtbi, nocTaBHib niKany BepxHero 6apa6aHHHKa npoTHB yKa- 
3aTena ^ejieHHeM "3", a SoKOBoro - ^ejieHHeM "0" h 3aKpennTb BHHTbi. Ha 3thx ycTaHOBKax CTpejibSa 
noBTopaeTca. B ocrajibHOM Ha^jioKHT pyKOBOflCTBOBaTbca npaBHJiaMn npnBefleHna k HopManbHOMy 
6010 7,62-mm bhhtobkh o6pa3u,a 1891-1930 rr. IIojio>KeHHa bhhtob KpomuTenHa npHnejia, xBOCia h 
ynopa CTBOJibHon kopoSkh 3apHCOBbiBaiOTca b CTpejiKOBOH KHH>KKe CHaii-pepa (cxeMa 101) hjih Ha 06- 

paTHOH CTOpOHe OTHeTHOH (npHCTpeJIOHHOH) KapTOHKH. 




MttffMlOV 

e- 






n 



CxeMa 101 3apncoBKa nojio>KeHHa bhhtob b CTpejiKOBOH KHH>KKe CHannepa 
TpexjiHHeHHbie CHaiinepcKHe bhhtobkh noflJie>KaT npnBefleHHio k HopManbHOMy 6010 caMHMH 
CHannepaMH: 

nocjie npoHBBOflCTBa 150-200 BbiCTpenoB, Ka>Kflbiii pa3, Kor^a npnueji CHHManca c bhhtobkh; 
npn OTBepTbiBaHHH bhhtob ocHOBaHna KpomnreHHa hjih KOJieu, npnuejia IIE, npn OTBepTbiBaHHH bhh- 
tob ocHOBaHHa h Kopnyca KpoHHiTenHa npHnejia ny, npn nojiyneHHH bhhtobkh ot ^pyroro CHannepa. 



PA3 AEJI 5. EOEBAfl nCHXOOH3HOJIOriW CHAHIIEPA 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 153 



EoeBaa ncnxoc^nBHOJioraa - 3to HayKa o npHBJieneHHH HeBOCTpeSoBaHHbix noTeHnnajibHbix pe- 
3epBOB HejiOBenecKoro opraHH3Ma #jia pe3Koro noBbimeHna scJ^eKTHBHOCTn SoeBoii ^eaTejibHOCTn. 
CHaMnep o6a3aH o6jia#aTb oSocTpeHHbiM 3peHHeM h cnyxoM, noBbinieHHbiM ypoBHeM HaSjnoflaTejib- 
hocth h CBoeo6pa3HbiM "3BepHHbiM HyTbeivi", no3BOJiaiomHM eMy npeAyraflbiBaTb #Bn>KeHHa npoTHB- 
HHKa, ero noBeflemie, nepeMemeHna h TaKinnecKne 3aMbicjibi. 

HtoSm BbinojiHHTb SoeByio 3a^any n ocTaTbca >KHBbiM, CHaMnepy HeoSxoflHMO o6Hapy>KHTb 
nejib npoK^e, neM 3Ta nejib oSHapyacnT ero. HtoSw o6Hapy>KHTb npniaHBinyioca OTflaneHHyio n 3 a- 
MacKHpoBaHHyio nejib, Hy>KHO ee yBn^eTb, hjih >Ke onpeflejinib ee Haimine no MejibHanmnivi npnma- 
KaM OKpy>Kaiomero jiaHflina(|)Ta, yKa3biBaiomHM Ha npHcyrcTBHe 3aMacKnpoBaHHon nejin. 3to mo>kho 
CflenaTb TOJibKO npn Hajinnnn TpeHHpoBaHHOH 3pHTejibHOH HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTH. CHaMnep flOJi>KeH 3a- 
MeTHTb to, hto He MoryT 3aMeTHTb flpyrne HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTb - 3to cnocoSHOCTb OTMenaTb ecre- 
CTBeHHoe hjih HeecTecTBeHHoe cocioaHHe npeflMeTOB, aBJieHHH, noBefleHHa nejiOBeKa h >KHBOTHbix. 
HaSniOAaTejibHOCTb - 3to eme h cnocoSHOCTb CTpoHTb jioranecKyio npnHHHHyio B3aHMOCBa3b Me>Kfly 
HaSjiiOflaeMbiMH aBJieHHaMH, H3MeHaeMbiM hjih HeH3MeHaeMbiM nojio>KeHHeM npeflMeTOB Ha jiaHflinac})- 
Te, noBefleHHeM >khbwx cymecTB, conocTaBJiaa (|)aKTbi h pa3ra#biBaa B03MO>KHbie ^encTBna npoTHBHH- 
Ka. 3HaneHHe TpeHHpoBaHHOH HaSjuoflaTejibHOCin, coBMemeHHon c paSoToii Ha KapTe, nepeoneHHTb 
Tpy/iHO. 3to eflHHCTBeHHbiii peajibHbiii nyrb k pa3BHTHio TaKinnecKoro HecTaHflapTHoro MbinuieHHa, 
TaK HeoSxoflHMoro h CHaiinepy, h pa3BeflHHKy. 

HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTb - TaKaa >Ke ecTecTBeHHaa ncnxo^nBHOJiornnecKaa cnocoSHOCTb BoenpHaTHa 
HHC^opMannn, KaK 3peHHe, CJiyx, oSoHaHHe. Ee mo>kho h Hy>KHO pa3BHBaTb, npnneivi npe^ejiOB b co- 
BepnieHCTBOBaHHH 3Toro pa3BHTHa HeT. 

TpeHHpoBKa HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTH npoBOflmca oneHb HecjioacHbiMn MeTOflaMH. 

HHCTpyKTop KJia^eT Ha ctoji HecKOJibKO npeflMeTOB: naTpoHbi ot pa3JinHHoro opy>KHa, nyroBn- 
nw, 3HaKH pa3JiHHHa, jiocKyibi KaMy(J)jia>Ka, KaMHH, CHrapeTbi pa3Hbix copTOB n o6a3aTejibHO KOMnac. 
KypcaHTy ^aiOT nocMOTpeTb Ha Bee 3to HecKOJibKO ceKyH/i, 3aTeM KOMno3nnnio 3aKpbiBaiOT 6pe3eHTOM 
h npeflJiaraiOT KypcaHTy nepenncjinTb Bee npeflCTaBJieHHoe Ha Hen. 

Hh HeM He npeflynpe>KfleHHbiH KypcaHT nepenncjiaeT b jxynmeM cjiynae nojiOBHHy H3 Toro, hto 
BH^eji. Cjie/iyeT nonpaBKa HHCTpyKTopa. "Tbi He CKa3an, ot KaKoro opyacna naTpoHbi h CKOJibKO hx, 
CKOJibKO KaMHeM, KaKHx pa3MepoB h KaKoro ohh nponcxo^eHna, ckojibko cnrapeT n Kaioix ohh cop- 
tob, CKOJibKO naTeH SbiJio Ha KaMyc})jia>Ke, h He nepenncjinji, KaKne hmchho Smjih 3HaKH pa3JinHna". 3a 
HeflorafljiHBOCTb h Hepa^eHHe KypcaHT nojiynaeT Hapafl BHe onepefln. flajibHenmne TpeHnpoBKH npo- 
flBHraiOTca HeMHoro nporpeccHBHee. BpeMa noKa3a coKpamaeTca. KojinneciBO npeflMeTOB h hx ac- 
copTHMeHT H3MeHaiOTca. Kor^a KypcaHT HannHaeT 6e3oniH6oHHO onncbiBaTb Bee, hto eMy noKa3aHO, 
3aHaTHa nepeHOcaTca Ha npnpo/iy. 

Ha flHCTaHHHH 1 00 MeTpoB KypcaHTy ^aiOT nocMOipeTb HeBOopy>KeHHbiM rjia30M Ha jiaHflina(|)T, 
3aTeM oh noBopanHBaeTca cnnHon h accncTeHT (TaKoii >Ke KypcaHT) npoH3BO#HT He3HanHTejibHbie H3- 
MeHeHHa bSjihbh MHHieHHoro nojia. KypcaHTa noBopannBaiOT jihhom k MHHieHaM, h oh nojiynaeT ko- 
MaHfly paccKa3aTb nponBomeflinnx TaM H3MeHeHnax. IIocTeneHHO TpeHHpoBOHHbie flncTaHnnn yBe- 
jiHHHBaiOTca ^0 300 MeTpoB. Ha TaKOM paccToaHHH CHaiinep aojckch o6Hapy>KHTb HeBOopy>KeHHbiM 
rjia30M H3MeHeHHa b nojio>KeHHH npe^MeTOB - HafljiOMJieHHbie bctkh, BbiTonTaHHyio TpaBy, KOJibixa- 
HHe KycTOB, flbiM ot CHrapeTbi, noaBJieHHe h HCHe3HOBeHne Manopa3MepHbix npe^MeTOB (paBMepoM c 
KOHcepBHyio SaHKy). Hmchho HeBOopyaceHHbiM rjia30M, h6o b npou,ecce TaKHx TpemipoBOK 3peHHe 
3aMeTHO oSocTpaeTca. 3aTeM KypcaHTbi noonepeflHO oSopy^yiOT 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie no3Hii,HH h onaTb 
>Ke HeBOopy>KeHHbiM rjia30M Ha Tex ace flHCTaHunax ^o 300 MeTpoB TpeHHpyiOTca b o6Hapy>KeHHH 
npH3HaKOB 3thx no3Hii:HH (npHMaTaa TpaBa, pacHHmeHHbie ceKTopa oScipejiOB, 3aTeHeHHbie MecTa Ha 
Kpaio Jieca hij.). 3aTeM to 5Ke caMoe BbinojiHaeTca b flBH>KeHHH Ha ManiHHe - KypcaHTbi onpe^ejiaiOT 
Ha paccToaHHH MecTa, no jiaHflma(|)Ty mccthocth npHroflHbie fljia nocTaHOBKn npoTHBHHKOM CHannep- 
ckhx 3aca^. TpeHnpoBaHHbix TaKHM o6pa30M CHannepoB Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb b noflBn>KHbix flencTBH- 
ax - b rojiOBHon noxoflHon 3acTaBe, npn conpoBO>KfleHHH kojiohh, b pa3BeflflHBepcnoHHon hjih nonc- 
KOBO-erepcKoii rpynne. Tot, kto oSopyflOBan TaKne no3nu,HH Ha TpeHnpoBKax, tot CMO>KeT 
nporao3HpoBaTb MecTa hx nocTaHOBKH b SoeBbix ycjiOBHax. 3to Bnojme peanbHO - y nejiOBeKa, koto- 
pbiii >KfleT Hana^eHHa b flBH>KeHHH, oneHb oSocTpaeTca BoenpnHMHHBOCTb. 

npn BbiHieonncaHHbix TpeHnpoBKax ncnojib3yeTca H3BecTHbin npaKTnnecKHM Me^nKaM ncnxo- 
4)H3HOJiorHHecKHH npneivi Mo6njiH3aii,HH pe3epBa >KHBoro opraHH3Ma. npn noBceflHeBHon ^eaTejibHO- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 154 

cth nejiOBeKy HeoSxoflHMO nocToamioe nojiyneHHe Kaicoro-TO oSteivia >KH3HeHHoft oShxoahoh hh- 
4)opMau,HH H3BecTHO, hto y rayxHx jnofleft, HeflonojiyHaiomnx nacTb oShxoahoh onepaTHBHoft hh- 
(J)opMaii,HH, 3Ta noTepa KOMneHcnpyeTca noBbiiueHHbiM pa3BHTHeM 3pnTejibHoft HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTH. 
IIo3TOMy 3HaiomHH HHCTpyKTop 3acTaBHT KypcaHTa Harayxo 3aTKHyTb yniH npn >KecTKOM TpeSoBaHHH 
BbinojiHeHHa yneSHoft 3a#aHH BbiaBJieHna nejin Ha flHCTaHu,Hax 300 MeTpoB h Sojiee. Pe3yjibTaTbi npn 
3tom 3aMeTHO nporpeccHpyiOT, a TaK>Ke 3aMeTHO oSocTpaeTca 3peHHe. 

TpeHHpoBKH HaSniOflaTejibHOCTH nepeHOcaTca Ha nojinroH. Ha flHCTaHnnax Sojiee 300 MeTpoB 
CHannepbi-HaSjiiOflaTejiH b jhoSmx cnynaax y>Ke BbiHy>KfleHbi nojib30BaTbca oniHHecKHMH npnSopaMH. 
Ha flHCTaHHHax 300, 350, 400 MeTpoB nepefl KypcaHTOM CTaBHica 3ap,sna b TeneHne HecKOJibKHx nacoB 
oScjieflOBaTb jiaH^Hia^T ^o Ka>Kfloro KBa^paTHoro #en,HMeTpa, hctko onpeflejinib paccToaHHa #o opn- 
eHTHpoB, cnporH03HpoBaTb MecTa oSopyAOBamui npoTHBHHKOM CHaftnepcKnx no3Hu,HH h cocTaBHTb 
KapTOHKy oraa. Hohbio CKpbiTHO BbiflBHHyTbca h oSopyflOBaTb 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie no3nnHH. TBopne- 
CKyio HHHHHaTHBy KypcaHTOB npn 3tom HHCTpyKTopw BcanecKH noompaiOT. TaKyio >Ke 3a#any nojiy- 
naeT flpyraa rpynna KypcaHTOB, ho "c toh jihhhh (J)poHTa". C paccBeTOM h Te h flpyrne TpeHnpyiOTca b 
o6Hapy>KeHHH oSopyflOBaHHbix no3Hu,HH no H3MeHeHHaM pejibec})a h ^pyrnM npH3HaKaM. nepBbift hx 
o6Hapy>KHBHiHH nojiynaeT noompeHHe, nocjie#HHft - B3bicKaHHe. Tohho TaKne >Ke TpeHHpoBKH 3aTeM 
npoBOflaTca Ha Sojiee flanbHHx flHCTaHnnax - p,o 600 h 800 MeTpoB. 

Jljm pa3BHTHa BH3yanbHOH HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTH b CTapbie BpeivteHa CHaftnepoB 3acTaBJiajiH naca- 
mh HaSniOflaTb 3a... paSoHHMH Ha CTpoHTenbCTBe. npn stom HaSjnoflaTejib aojckch 6bi.n HaxoflHTbca Ha 
TaKOM paccToaHHH, HToSbi BeTep flOHOCHJi oSpbiBKH pa3roBopHOH penn. O coflep>KaHHH pa3roBopa 
Ha/io SbiJio floraflaTbca no apTHKyjumnn ry6 pa3roBapHBaiomHx h no nx >KecTaM. 3to KOJioccanbHO 
pa3BHBano TaK Ha3biBaeMyio ayflHOBH3yanbHyio HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTb h no3BOJiajio CHaftnepy H3ynnTb 
3aKOHOMepHOCTb noBefleHna nejiOBeKa h CHCTeMbi ero nepe#BH>KeHHft b 3aMKHyroM npocTpaHCTBe. 3to 
SbiJin CBoeo6pa3Hbie 3aH3Tna no royneHHio noBa^OK nejiOBeKa. HaSjiiOflaTejib caM fljia ce6a, b TpeHH- 
PObohhom nopa^Ke, #0Ji>KeH 6bui onpeflejimb, KaK h Ky^a CKpbuica tot hjih hhoh CTpoHTenb b Jia6n- 
pHHTe CTpoameroca 3flaHH», trq, b KaKOM MecTe, H3-3a KaKoro yrna h nepe3 KaKoft npoMOKyroK Bpe- 
MeHH oh flOJi>KeH noaBHTbca. no Mepe Toro KaK poc 3Ta>K 3a 3Ta>KOM, apxHTeKTypa 3flaHna 
npeflCTaBana nepefl HaSjnoflaiomHM "b pa3pe3e" h npeflyra^aTb #BH>KeHHa B03MO>KHbix nejieft HaSjno- 
flaiomeMy CTaHOBHJiocb Bee jierne n jierne. Hotom 3aH3THa nepeHOcnjincb b none, Ha MacmraSHbie 
BoncKOBbie yneHna. 3aMacKnpoBaHHbin CHaftnep b6jih3h ot no3Hinift ycnoBHoro npoTHBHHKa HaSjno- 
flan 3a >KH3Hbio ero Tpamueft, 6jiHHfla>Keft, xo^ob cooSmeHHa. npn 3tom CHaftnepw ynnjincb HHiyH- 
thbho "BKjnoHaTbca" b u,ejib h 3apaHee nyBCTBOBaTb ee noaBJieHne b KaKOM-nnSo otkpbitom h He3a- 
mnmeHHOM MecTe. npn noflxofle k TaKOMy MecTy npoTHBHHK enie Hnnero He npeflnojiaran, a CHaiinep 
y>Ke flep>Kaji 3to MecTO Ha npHu,ejie c npeflBapHTenbHO "Bbi>KaTbiM" cnycKOM. TpeHnpoBaHHaa HaSnio- 
flaTenbHOCTb no3BOJiajia CHannepy no MajienniHM npH3HaKaM onpeflenHTb, hto u,ejib Bbixo^HT Ha onac- 
Hoe MecTO, h flo>KaTb cnycK enie flo noaBJieHHa ee TaM. B pe3yjibTaTe (})aHiHCT, nyrb-nyTb BbiflBHHyB- 
niHHca H3 yKpwTHa, Tyr >Ke nojiynaji nyjno b ronoBy. TaKHM Bentaivi ynnjin Ha cnenKypcax HKB,H, ^o 
BOHHbi. Bo BpeMa BOHHbi CHaMnepbi ynnjincb TaKOMy SoeBOMy npeflBH^eHnio npaMO Ha no3Hu,Hax. 
CHannepoB, HaSpaHHbix H3 chShpckhx CTpenKOB h boctohhwx HapoAHOCTen - HaHanneB, hhbxob, aKy- 
tob, KOTopbie HyBCTBOBann npnpofly h Ha paccToaHHH oniymajiH H3MeHeHHa b Hen, oSynaTb TaKHM 
BemaM He Sbijio HeoSxoflHMOCTH - ohh 3to yviejiH c ^eTCTBa. Ha (J)poHTe ohh ^ep>KajiH Ha 3aMeTKe Bee 
ncKyccTBeHHO cflejiaHHbie noHH>KeHHa b SpycTBepax oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa, 3Haa, hto hmchho TaM 
KTO-HnSyflb paHO hjih no3flHO flOJDKeH BbicyHyrbca, htoSm nocMOTpeTb, hto ^enaeTca Ha nepe^HeM 
Kpae. H kto BbicoBbiBanca, nojiynaji nyjno b jio6. 

Bonee-MeHee TpeHHpoBaHHbiH CHaiinep Bcer/ja CTpeMHTca noiiMaTb momcht, Kor/ja npoTHBHHK, 
noji3yn(HH no-nnacTyHCKH b HeraySoKHx CKJia^Kax MecTHOCTH, noflHHMeT ronoBy. PaHO hjih no3flHO 
oh flOJi>KeH ee noflHaTb, htoSw ocMOTpeTbca. nocjie CHannepcKoro BbiCTpejia noflHaBHinii rojiOBy 
onycKan ee pa3 h HaBcer^a. 3HaK)mHe h TpeHHpoBaHHbie CHaiinepbi, KOTopwe Haynnjincb nyBCTBOBaTb 
npnpofly, MajieHiune H3MeHeHna b Heft h Maneftniyio, fla>Ke caMyio He3HaHHTejibHyio (J)ajibiHb Ha 
jiaHfliua(J)Te, Bcer^a BbinncjiaT OTKpbiTyio hjih 3aKpbiTyio no3Hu,Hio CHaftnepa. Bojiee Toro, ohh npnKH- 
HyT b yMe, r^e hmchho fljia npoTHBHHKa y^oSHee, BbiroflHee h He3aMeTHee pacnojio>KHTb OTKpbiTyio 
CHaftnepcKyio no3Hu,Hio, fljia oSopyflOBaHna hjih 3aH»THa KOTopoft He HyacHO MHoro BpeMeHH. 3Haio- 
mHft CHaftnep Bcer^a onpe^ejiHT, c KaKoft no3Hu,HH, b KaKoe BpeMa j\na, npn KaKOM ocBenieHHH h no- 
jio>KeHHH cojiHu,a Sy^eT CTpejiaTb npoTHBHHK. H 3HaiomHft CHaftnep Sy^eT hmchho b sto BpeMa o>kh- 

flaTb, HTO HMeHHO Ha 3TOft n03HU,HH npOTHBHHK nOflHHMeT TOJIOBy flJIS BbiCTpejia. H c HananoM 3TOrO 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 155 

noflteMa CHaiinep atokmct cnycK, hto6m "noflHaBiiiHHca jio6", KOJinera c toh ctopohm, "noiiMaji" 
CHaMnepcKyio nynio. Hhhb KoeM cjiynae 3HaiomHH CHaftnep He 6y#eT jnoSonbiTCTBOBaTb o pe3ynbTa- 
Tax CBoero BbiCTpejia - yKycHJi h CKpwjica. TaK 6y#eT Ha^oKHee. Ecjih iipothbhhk ySm, 06 stom #o- 
HeceT pa3BeflKa. Ecjih He ySm, 3HanHT, oh npoaBHica. 

ySeAHTejitHee Bcero TaKHe MOMenibi npeflCTaBJieHbi s noKa3aHHax OHeBH/meB: 
"...Ha nepBoe SoeBoe 3a#aHHe HayMHHeBy nocjianH b nape c onbrmbiM CTpejncoM-My>KHHHoii. 
3HHaH^a oSpaflOBanacb, Kor^a fljia yKpwTHa HanapHHK eii npeflJio>KHJi Ty >Ke caMyio BopoHKy ot 6om- 
6m, KOTopyio npHMeTHJia h OHa. CaM oh ycTpoHJica MeTpoB Ha cto JieBee. 3nHa BHHMaTejibHO CMOTpe- 
na, KaK, SnaronojiyHHO floSpaBimicb #o MecTa, CHaiinep Hanan oSopyflOBaTb cboio orHeByio TOHKy h 
3aTeM coBepnieHHO ncne3 H3 BH^y. IlponiJio eme HeMHoro BpeMeHH, h Tyr 3nHa yBH^ejia ero CHOBa. 
U,ejiHBniHCb, oh nyrb npHnoflHJui ronoBy, h b Ty ate ceKyH^y pa3flanca BbiCTpen npoTHBHHKa. Giynn- 
jiocb HenonpaBHMoe. 

"CHaiinepbi, KaK h MHHepbi, omnSaiOTca o#hh pa3", - roBopmiH b ynHJiHine. OKa3anocb, npaB- 

m". 

(T. Kpan. "npaBO(})JiaHroBaa") 

HanHHaiomeH ^emnHHe-CHaiinepy noBe3Jio. Ecjih y^aHHyio no3Hu,Hio (BopoHKy aBHa6oivi6bi) 
3aMeTHjm oflHOBpeMeHHO h OHa, h ee HacTaBHHK, ee HaBepHaKa 3aMeTHJi h HeivienKHH CHaiinep. Bojiee 
Toro, HeMeu,, HaBepHaKa H3yHHBniHii MecTHOCTb, 3aceK y^oSHyio CHaMnepcKyio no3Hu,Hio pa^OM c 3toh 
BopoHKoii h 5Kflan, noKa pyccKHH noflHHMeT na HeM rojiOBy. H flo>Kflajica. KpoMe Bcero nponero, 3Ta 
CHaftnepcKaa napa noneMy-TO Bbinuia Ha no3HnHio 3acBeTJio, b HapynieHHe Bcex HHCTpyKHnii. 

"...CjiyHHJiocb 3to BecHoii, b acHbiM MaMcKHH #eHb. ^eByniKH 3anerjiH no# MorynHM BeKOBbiM 
flySoM. 3aMacKHpoBanHCb - Jiynme He npHflyMaenib. Bo bcjikom cjiynae oScipeji c Bpa>KecKoii CTopo- 
hm, fljiHBHiHHca u,ejibiii nac, fla>Ke bctohkh B03Jie CHaMnepoB He 3a^eji. IIotom Bee cthxjio. KomeBaa 
npocMaTpHBana b npnneji jihhhio oSopoHbi. Hto TaKoe? OTKyfla-TO Bbipocjia ManeHbKaa ejiOHKa, #o 
oScipejia ee Bpo^e He Sbuio. A Hy-Ka, Hy-Ka! KoMaKOBa TO>Ke 3aMeTHJia HOByio ejiOHKy. Ho, bh^hmo, 
nieBejibHyjiacb. OflHOBpeMemio #Ba Bbicipejia HaBCTpeny flpyr Apyry. KomeBaa yBH^ejia, KaK (})aiiiHCT- 
ckhh CHaiinep BbipoHHJi BHHTOBKy, ejiOHKa, He noflAep>KHBaeMaa hhhcm, noBajimiacb Ha MepTBoe Tejio. 
OrjiaHyjiacb Ha noflpyry... Ah» KoMaKOBa ypoHHJia rojiOBy Ha npracjiafl, TOHeHbKaa, TeMHaa CTpyiiKa 
CTeKana bhh3, b 3eMJiio. 

BbiCTpeji Bpara Smji TO>Ke ToneH". 

(r. EBCTHraeeB. "Tpn Ahhw". CSopmiK "CHaiinepbi". npHBOflnrca coKpameHHo) 

3tot 3nH30fl npaKTHnecKH He HjoK^aeTOi b KOMMemapHJix. HeMeu,KHn CHaiinep nocTynnji KJiac- 
CHnecKn: BbiflBHHyjica h 3aMacKHpoBan no3Hu,Hio bo BpeMa apToScTpejia - coSbiTna, OTBJieKaiomero 
BHHMaHHe n He flaiomero noflHan. rojiOBy. PyccKne >KeHmHHbi -CHaiinepbi nocTynHJin caMOHa^eaHHO, 
HaSjnoflaa b onTHnecKHH npnneji, a He b nepncKon. To, hto 3aMeTHJiH HOByio ejiOHKy, KOTopoii paHb- 
me, flo oScTpejia, He Swjio - 3acjiyra HHCTpyKTopa, paHee TpeHnpoBaBinero CHaihiepoB Ha HaSjnofla- 
TejibHOCTb. Ho HeMenKoro CHaiinepa, no Bceii bh^hmocth, Ha noBbimeHHyio HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTb Tpe- 
HnpoBanH TO>Ke. HHane 6bi oh He 3aMeTHJi meBejieHHa, CTOHBinero >kh3hh pyccKoii >KemnHHe- 
CHaiinepy. KaK 6bi hh 3aMacKHpoBanca CHaiinep, Ha OTKpbiToii no3Hu,HH eMy Ha^o jie>KaTb HenoflBnac- 
ho. B SoeBoii oScTaHOBKe Bee 3aMenaeTca h Bee CTaHOBHTca aBHbiM, noTOMy hto npn >KecTKoii Heo6- 
xoflHMOCTH oSocTpaeTca BoenpnaTHe. 

nocjie Toro KaK HapaSoTaH flOJi>KHbiii ypoBeHb HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTH, CHaiinep o6a3aH "oTKpbiTb 
ymn" n TpeHnpoBaTb cjiyx. Ha nojie 60a, ocoSeHHO b 3aca^ax HOHbio h b onepaTHBHOM noncKe CHaii- 
nep o6a3aH He TOJibKO xopomo BH^eTb, ho h xopomo cjibimaTb. 

Cjiyx oneHb xopomo pa3BHBaeTca npn hohhoh paSoTe, a b 3KCTpeMajibHoii oScTaHOBKe HOHbio 
pa3BHBaeTca eme SwcTpee. 

HcnoKOH BeKOB cymecTBOBaji oneHb npocToii h flocTynHbiii cnocoS TpeHnpoBKn cjiyxa c noMO- 
mbio pyHHbix hjih KapMaHHbix nacoB. JIo>KHTecb Ha cnnHy h nojio>KHTe nacw Ha paccToaHHH BbiTaHy- 
toh pyKH ot ce6a. nonbiTaiiTecb ycjibimaTb paSoTy MexaHH3Ma. nocTeneHHO OTOflBHraiiTe nacbi ot 
ce6a. HeTKO yjiOBHB 3ByKH paSoTaiomnx nacoB, CHHTaiiTe hx y^apbi #o CTa - 3to TpeHnpyeT onepaTHB- 
Hoe BHHMaHHe. Ecjih bh npn onepeflHOM OTOflBnraHHH nacoB He cjibiniHie hx, He HanparaiiTe cjiyx - 
oSocTpme "cjiyxoBoe BHHMaHne", h bii hx BCKope ycjibiniHTe. Me>Kfly oSocTpemibiM BHHMaHneM h 
ocTpoToii cjiyxa cymecTByeT npaMaa (})H3HOJiorHHecKaa CB»3b. 3anoMHHTe! Gnyx paSoTaeT c nojiHoii 
OTflaneii, Kor^a nejiOBeK Haxo^HTca b cnoKoiiHOM coctojihhh. Paccep>KeHHbiH h pa3bapeHHbiii nejiOBeK 
CJibiniHT oneHb njioxo. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 156 

Cnyx HanHHaiiTe TpeHnpoBaTb HOHbio, Kor^a oh ocrpee caM no ce6e, (})H3HOJiorHHecKHM o6pa- 
30M, h nocTeneHHO nepexoflnre k ^HeBHbiM TpeHnpoBKaM. 

HenoBeK Jiynnie cjibiniHT npn ocBemeHHH mccthocth, nycTt #a>Ke anaSoM h HeapKOM. 3ejieHbin 
u,BeT TaK>Ke ^ejiaeT cnyx ocTpee. TaKOBa ocoSemiocTb HepBHoM CHCTeMbi. 

JIoKamne na cnHHe yxy^niaiOT 3ByKOByio opHenrannio, a jioKainne Ha >KHBOTe, HaoSopoT, 
yjiynniaiOT. J\jw yjiynnieHHa cnyxa npoH3BOflHTca npeccyioinHn Macca>K yniHbix paKOBHH. Oh Bbinoji- 
HaeTca cneflyioinHM o6pa30M: co>KMHTe pyKH b KynaKH h TbuibHbiMH HacT»MH KyjiaKOB MeflJieHHO 
Ha>KMHTe Ha yniHbie paKOBHHbi h SbiCTpo OTnycTHre. Ba>KHO, htoSm nepe3 koctahikh nanbueB npoxo- 
flHJi B03Ayx h b ymax He B03HHKano "HMOKaHba". CflejiaiiTe 10-15 TaKHx Ha>KHMaHHH, h bh nonyB- 
CTByeTe, hto b ymax 3aMeTHO "npoacffluiocb". 

HecMOTpa Ha TpeHHpoBaHHbie 3peHne h cnyx, pa3BeflnnKH h CHamiepbi o6a3aTejibHO Hcnojib3y- 
K)T flonojiHHTejibHbie npneivibi ^Jia noBbimeHHa octpotw 3peHHa h cnyxa. H3bcctho, hto caxap h tjiio- 
K03a aBJiaiOTca 3HepreTHnecKHMH BeinecTBaMn, HeoSxoflHMbiMH /uia paSoTbi cepflua, M03ra h HepBHon 
CHCTeMbi b uejiOM, a oneflOBaTejibHO, h opraHOB nyBCTB. 

KyconeK caxapa, nojio>KeHHbiH no# »3biK, 3aMeTHO noBbiniaeT 3(|)4)eKTHBHOCTb hohhoix) 3peHna h 
cnyxa. OcTpoTy hx noBbiniaeT pa3>KeBbiBaHHe KHCJio-CJia^KHx TaSneTOK. 

H3 npocTbix h flocTynHbix cpe^CTB Ha npaierHKe npnMeHaeTca pa3>KeBbiBaHHe inenoTKH naa co 
menoTKOH caxapa (ho He raoTaTb cpa3y!). TeHH, co#ep>KainHHC}i b nae, ^encTByeT TOHHBnpyioine, a 
caxap - 3HepreTHnecKHH MaTepnan flua M03ra. 3tot cnocoS Bbi3biBaeT cyinecTBemioe noBbinieHHe 
nyBCTBHTejibHOCTH 3peHHa HOHbio h coKpamaeT BpeMa aflanTau,HH b TeMHOTe c 30-40 flo 5-7 MHHyr. 
IIpH >KeBaHHH cjia^Koro naa pe3KO yBejinnHBaeTca 3HepreTHnecKHH noTeHnnan nenoBeKa no cpaBHe- 
hhk) c ero oSbiHHbiM cocToaHHeM. Tot >Ke 3(J)(})eKT flocTnraeTca npocTeiuunM npone^ypHbiM npneMOM 
- oSTHpaHHeM Ji6a, bhckob, men xojioahoh boaoh. 

HoHHoe 3peHne oSocTpaeTca b nojio>KeHHH cn^a. Hhkto He 3HaeT, noneMy Taic nponcxoflnr, ho 
MeTOfl stot 3(})(})eKTHBeH h npoBepeH. 

U,ejieHanpaBJieHHoe BHHMaHne noBbiniaeT HOHHoe 3peHHe n cnyx b 1,5-2 pa3a. 

Tjia3 - ochobhoh paSoHHH opraH CHannepa. B CTpenKOBOM cnopTe ^onycKaeTca CTpenbSa b oh- 
Kax H3 Bcex BHflOB cnopTHBHoro opy>KHa. 5KecTOKaa SoeBaa npaKTHKa npeflbSBJiaeT k CTpenKy noBbi- 
meHHbie TpeSoBaHna, n nosTOMy 3peHne CHannepa aojdkho SbiTb 6e3ynpenHbiM. Ilpn OTSope CHanne- 
poB HenocpeflCTBeHHO b nacrax n noflpa3flejieHnax pyKOBOflCTByiOTca oieflyioinHMH nojio>KeHHaMH. 

"HenoBeK c HopManbHbiM 3peHneM MO>KeT Ha paccToaHHH 4 MeTpoB hctko BH^eTb npe^MeTbi Be- 
jihhhhoh b 1 MHjniHMeTp. TaK >Ke hctko Ha 3tom paccToaHHH 6y#eT BHflHa HiTpnxoBKa Ha SejiOM Kpyre 
nepHbiMH JIHHH3MH tojihihhoh b 1 MHjniHMeTp (cxeMa 102, npnBefleHO b opnrHHajie). 

IIo Mepe yAaneHHa 3aniTpHxoBaHHoro Kpyra ot ncnbiTyeivioro nocjieflHHH Bee xy>Ke n xy>Ke 6y- 
rqt pa3JiHnaTb nepHbie h Senbie jihhhh, a npnivtepHO b 8 - 10 MeTpax coBceM hx He yBHflnr. By^eT bh- 
rqh TOJibKO cepwn Kpyr. 

IIpH npoBepKe octpotm 3peHna Kpyr co ihtphxobkoh cjie^yeT noMeinaTb b 8 MeTpax ot ncnbrry- 
eMoro n noKa3biBaTb eMy 4-5 pa3 c pacnojio>KeHHeM hitphxobkh b pa3Hbix HanpaBJieHnax. KaHfln^aT, 
3aicpbiB oflHH raa3, aojckch Ka>Kflbin pa3 onpeflennTb HanpaBJieHne hitphxobkh. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 157 



CxeMa 102. 3aniTpHX0BaHHbiH Kpyr fljia npoBepKH octpotw 3peHHa 

J\ji% CHaMnepcKoro oSyneHHa u,ejiecoo6pa3HO 3aHHCJurrb Jinnib Tex, KOTopwe 6e3 oihhSok onpe- 
flenaiOT nojiOMcemie ihtphxobkh Ha Kpyre c paccToaHHa 8 MeTpoB" (cD. H. 5Komkob. nocoSne fljia hh- 

CTpyKTOpOB). 

Jinn oSocTpeHHa 3peHH» CHaMnepy Hy>KHa ^neTa, a hmchho, BHTaMHH A, hctohhhkom KOToporo 
aBJiaeTca MopKOBb, ho ecTb ee nap,o c neM-TO jkhphmm - c jhoSbim MacnoM huh CMeTaHoM, h6o co#ep- 
acaniHHca b mopkobh KapoTHH (npoBHTaMHH A), H3 KOToporo CHHTe3HpyeTca caM BHTaMHH, >KHpopac- 
tbophm h b >KHpHOH cpe^e ycBaHBaeTca HaMHoro Jiynnie. 

3tot MOMeHT xopouio H3BecTeH npaKTHnecKHM CHannepaM, KOTopwe rpbi3yr MopKOBKy npn 
Ka>KflOM y^oSHOM cjiynae h b jhoSwx KOJinnecTBax. Eme Sojiee nojie3Ha nepHHKa b jiioSom bh^c 

Abtop eme noMHHT Te BpeMeHa, Kor^a CHaMnepaM cneu,noflpa3flejieHHH CTporo-HacTporo 3a- 
npemanocb HirraTb jie>Ka h CMOTpeTb TejieBH3op- ot naca HTemui Ha cnHHe h nojiyropa-flByx nacoB 
npocMOTpa TejieBH3opa 3peHHe 3aivteTHO yxy^niaeTca cyTOK Ha Tpoe. 

fljia yjiynineHHa 3peHHa peKOMeH^yeTca nnecKaTb b oSnacTb rnaB xojioahoh bo#oh - 3to tohh- 
3npyeT 3pHTejibHbiii annapaT. PeKOMeH^yeTca TaK>Ke jierKHH nocTyKHBaiomHii Macca>K noflynienKaMH 
nanbueB no 3aKpbiTbiM BeicaM 

KaK y>Ke SbiJio ynoMaHyTO, oSbiHHbiM onTHnecKHH nprnjeji #aeT B03MO>KHOCTb yBH^eTb uejib b 
ycjiOBHax nnoxoro ocBemeHHa, to ecTb Ha paccBeTe, b #o>Kflb, TyMaH, npefl3aKaTHbie cyMepKH h #a>Ke 
HeMHoro b TeMHOTe. 

B SoeBoft oScTaHOBKe CHaMnepy npnxoflHTca ^OBOJibHO nacTO paSoTaTb hmchho b Taioix ycno- 

BH3X, H flJia 3peHH3 CTpeJIKa 3TO HMeeT CBOH OCoSeHHOCTH 

IIpH yxyflineHHH bh^hmocth (cyMepKH, #o>Kflb h t. a) He CJie^yeT cocpeflOTOHHBaTb 3peHne Ha 
u,ejiH b >KejiaHHH yBH^eTb ee nojiynnie, npn stom nponcxoflHT H3JiHniHee Hanpa>KeHHe npiiuejibHoro 
raa3a h HCTomaeTca HepBHaa CHCTeivta BCJie^CTBHe oSmero HanpjDKeHHa Hanpa>KeHHe HepBHOH CHere- 
mm Be^eT k pe(|)JieKTopHOMy HeynpaBJiaeMOMy HanpjDKeHHio npaKTHnecKH Bcex Mbiniu, CTpejiKa, #a>Ke 
Tex, KOTopwe oSbiHHO He 3afleiiCTBOBaHbi b npouecce BbiCTpejia. PecJwieKropHO noBbiniaeTca nynbc, h 

BCe 3TO BefleT K CHH>KeHHIO yCTOHHHBOCTH Opy5KH3. ECJIH BaM Hy>KHO CTpeJISTb B cyMepKH H UeJIb 

CMOTpHTca cepbiM nojiypacnjibiBHiHMca 6ecc})opMeHHbiM CHJiy3TOM, He3aneM CTpenaTb eM CTporo b ne- 
peHOCHiry - u,ejibTecb Ky^a-TO b cepe^HHy cmiysTa uejin, cocpeflOTOHHB 3peHHe Ha npimejibHOM 3Jie- 
MeHTe - ocTpne neHbKa hjih npimejibHoro yrojibHHKa IIpH 3tom 3peHHe He HanparaeTca h, cootbct- 
CTBeHHO, He HanparaeTca opraHH3M. 

3anoMHHTe! OSwhho npn paSoTe c onTHnecKHM npimejiOM CTpenoK He 3aMenaeT yxy^nieHHa 
bh/ihmocth ro Tex nop, noKa OHa He CHH3HJiacb flo 3HaHHTejibHoro ypoBHa Timjifi b npimeji, CTpenoK 
yBepeH, hto oh bh^ht HopManbHO, h HenpoH3BOJibHO HanparaeT 3peHHe c BbinieonHcaHHbiMH nocjiefl- 
ctbh»mh, CTpeMacb nojiyHine yBH^eTb u:ejib Ilocjie BbiCTpejia ^a>Ke npn HopManbHOH 3pHTejibHOH 
Harpy3Ke ocTpoTa 3peHHa BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeTca b 4-5 pa3 ^ojibine BpeMeHH, noTpaneHHoro Ha BbiCTpen. 

IIpH 3pHTejibHOM nepeyTOMJieHHH, B03HHKineM nocne BbiCTpejia b TeMHOTe hjih b cyMepKH, Hy>K- 
ho "oTflbixaTb raaBaMH" ^o nojiHoro BOCCTaHOBJieHHa octpotw 3peHHa h Hcne3HOBeHHa HenpnaTHbix 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 158 

omymeHHH b rjia3ax. HHane 3peHHe mtokho npocTO-HanpocTO "copBaTb" 

HoHtio AOJiro h npHCTanbHO BCMaTpnBaTbca b TeMHOTy He cne^yer, htoSm He yroMnaTb 3peHHe 
PeKOMeH^yeTca nepnoflHHecKH 3aKpbiBaTb rjia3a Ha 5-10 ceicyHfl. Taicoii kopotkhh ot^mx ho3bojiht 
H36aBHTbca ot yroMJieHHa. 

IIpH paSoTe HOHbio mtokct B03HHKHyrb HeoSxoflHMOCTb nocMOTpeTb Ha KapTy, b KaKOH-HnSyflb 
flOKyMeHT hjih npocTO nocBeTHTb B03Jie ce6a. ^jih 3Toro Ha^o nojib30BaTbca TOJibKO KpacHbiM cbctom 
c y3KOHanpaBJieHHbiM jiynoM, npracpbiBaa npHnejibHbiii raa3 pyicoii, htoSm He HapyniaTb ero aiacoMO- 

flaUHIO. 

HoHbio He CMOTpHTe Ha BcnbiniKH CHrHanbHbix h ocBeTHTejibHbix paiceT CMOTpHTe He Ha paKeTy, 
a Ha to, hto HaxoAHTca no# HeM, b none ee ocBemeHna. Oahoh KpacHBoii paKeTbi, KOTopoii bbi nojno- 
SyeTecb, noKa OHa ropHT, xBaTHT, htoSm CHH3HTb Baniy cnocoSHOCTb neTKO BH^eTb b TeneHne nojiyna- 
ca. IIpH HeoSxoflHMOCTH nocMOTpeTb Ha hto-to CBeTameeca B03bMHTe nyroBHny h CMOTpHTe nepe3 ee 
flbipoHKH, 3aicpbiB npHu,ejibHbiH rjia3 HnKor^a HOHbio He CMOTpHTe Ha KOCTep - bh Bee paBHO He yBH- 
flHTe Tex, kto HaxoflHTca 3a hhm. IIpHKpoHTe raa3 ot nnaMeHH pyicoii h CMOTpHTe no nepH^epnn 
ocBemeHHoro MecTa, Tor^a bh yBHflnre to, hto TaM 6y#eT HaxoflHTbca 

U,ejib, B03HHKmyio npn BcnbiniKe paKeTbi hjih npn ^pyroM ocBemeHHH, CTapairrecb "nojio>KHTb" 
cpa3y, noTOMy hto rpaMOTHaa nejib nocjie ee ocBemeHHa nocTapaeTca cpa3y >Ke Hcne3HyTb H3 nojia 
3peHHa. 

B onTHnecKHH npnneji mo>kho "HeMHO>KKO yBH^eTb" b TeMHOTe, a ecjin pa3BHTb ocTpoTy TaK 
Ha3biBaeMoro "HOHHoro 3peHHa", to b npnneji mo>kho yBn^eTb eme Sojibiue. HoHHoe 3peHHe - 3to He 
CBepxbecTecTBeHHbiii (J)eHOMeH, a oSbiHHaa 4)yHKnna opraHH3Ma, flocTaBiuaaca HaM b HacjieflCTBO ot 
flaneKHx npe^KOB h npeSbiBaiomaa b HeBOCTpeSoBamiOM coctojihhh ^peMniomero aTaBH3Ma. J\jih 
CHaiinepoB h pa3BeflHHKOB npomjioii bohhm hohhoc 3peHne Smjio noBceflHeBHbiM HHCTpyvieHTOM Te- 
Kymeii SoeBoii paSoTbi 

Jljm npo6y>KfleHHa h pa3BHTna HOHHoro 3peHna nonaine CMOTpHTe hohbio Ha 3Be3flw. IIocmot- 
peB Ha hhx MHHyr flecaTb He OTpbiBaacb, bbi KOHCTaTHpyeTe, hto hx Bpo#e 6bi CTano Sojibiue. 3to 
oSocTpnjiocb h "HacTpoHJiocb" HOHHoe 3peHne 

H3JiHHmee "cMOTpeHne" b HaSjnoflaTejibHbie npnSopbi 3aMeTHO CHH>KaeT ocTpoTy 3peHHa. Ilo- 
3TOMy npn paSoTe b CHannepcKOH nape CHaiinep "oTflbixaeT rjia3aMH M , a ero HanapHHK nocToaHHO Be- 
^eT HaSjnofleHne b nepncKon hjih CTepeoTpySy, onpe^ejiaeT flHCTaHUHH p,o nejieii h BbinojmaeT 6aji- 
jiHCTHnecKHe pacneTbi. 

B TeMHOTe CTapaiiTecb oSoraTHTb M03r KHCJiopoflOM h Ha npoTa>KeHHH 4-5 MHHyr flejiairre ho- 
com no 10-12 rjiySoKHx b^oxob b MHHyiy 3to oSocTpaeT ocTpoTy HOHHoro 3peHna h cjiyxa B Tex >Ke 
uejiax mo>kho flejiaTb >KeBaTejibHbie ^BH>KeHHa, noBbiiuaiomHe M03roBoe KpoBOoSpameHne Tot ace 
3(})4)eKT flocTHraeTca npHMeHeHHeM 0,1%-Horo pacTBopa aTponnHa IIojio>KHTe no# »3biK Kyconeic ca- 
xapa, h nycTb oh TaM nocTeneHHO pacTBopaeTca. IIoflOJibHie #ep>KHTe ero bo pTy n He crjiaTbiBanre 
cpa3y. HoHHoe 3peHne h cjiyx oSocTpaiOTca npn 3tom pa3a b nojiTopa. 

CHaiinep, KOTopwii HaxoflHica b CHaiinepcicoii 3aca#e, aojckch npocjiyiunBaTb He TOJibKO aTMO- 
c(J)epy, ho h rpyHT. B 3eMJie xopoiuo nepe^aiOTca 3ByKH ot niaroB, flBH>KeHHa TexHHKH, cSpacbiBamiJi 
rpy30B, Hiami,eBbix paSoT, a b HeKOTopwx cjiynaax #a>Ke nejiOBenecKOH penn. CHaiinep, BbiHy>KfleHHbiii 
SbiTb npnBa3aHHbiM k BHHTOBKe h BH3yanbHO KOHTpojiHpoBaTb oScTaHOBKy, MO>KeT npocjiyniHBaTb 
rpyHT flByM» npaKTHnecKHMH cnocoSaMn: BOTKHyTb b rpyHT Manyio jionaTy n cjiyiuaTb, npn>KaB yxo k 
nepeHKy, hjih >Ke 3aKonaTb b rpyHT SyibiJiKy hjih (J)jiary, ^o nojiOBHHbi 3anojiHeHHyio BOfloii, b rop- 
jibiniKO KOTopoii nepe3 OTBepcTne b npoSKe BCTaBHTb pe3HHOByio TpySKy. ^pyroii KOHeu, TpySicn BCTa- 
BHTb b yxo h cjiyiuaTb. 

3anoMHHTe! CHaiinepy Hejib3a Kypnib! Hhkothh M 3a>KHMaeT" cocy^bi, CHH>KaeT ocTpoTy 3peHHa 
n yBejiHHHBaeT nyjibcaii,Hio. Ilocjie OflHoii BbiKypeHHoii cnrapeTbi na npoTa>KeHHH 2-3 nacoB KanecTBO 
CHaiinepcKoii CTpejibSw yxy^HiaeTca Ha 15-20%. KpoMe Toro, nocToaHHoe KypeHne CHH>KaeT oSniyio 

HyBCTBHTeJIbHOCTb H BOCnpHHMHHBOCTb. 

CHaiinep He HMeeT npaBa 3JiHTbca. 3jiocTb ro^HTca b npaMoii aTaKe, a npn tohhoh CTpejibSe OHa 
npHHOCHT TOJibKO Bpefl. 3jiocTb yBejiHHHBaeT nyjibcau,Hio h sthm 3aMeTHO yxy^maeT KanecTBO CTpejib- 
6bi. CHaiinep He HMeeT npaBa Ha HeraTHBHbie 3mou,hh BOoSme. CTpax "oSecTOHHBaeT" CTpejiKa h jih- 
maeT ero HepBHoii h (})H3HHecKoii SHeprnn, a BOJiHeHne Bbi3biBaeT yBejiHHeHHbiii M MaHflpa>K". IIo3TOMy 
npoc})eccHOHajibHbie CHaiinepbi nocTeneHHO OTynaiOT ce6a BOJiHOBaTbca, 3JinTbca h SecnoKOHTbca bo- 
o6uiQ, BBOfla ce6a b cocToaHHe "SoeBoro paBHOflynina". KoHnaeTca sto nojmeiiiHeii HeBoenpHHMHH- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 159 

BOCTbio k CTpeccoBbiM cnTyannaM. H no3TOMy CHannep CTpejiaeT no >khboh nejin TaK >Ke, KaK b 6y- 
Ma>KHyio MHineHb, He ncnbiTbiBaa npn 3tom HHKaKHx smouhh. Xjia^HOKpoBHe CHaftnepoB rpaHHHHT c 
6e3pa3JiHHHeM. 

HeoflHOKpaTHO OTMenajiHCb anynaH, Kor^a CHaMnepbi pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHbix rpynn nepefl napa- 
niiOTHbiM flecaHTHpoBaHHeM 3acbinanH b caMOJieTax, h SyflnjiH hx HenocpeflCTBeHHO nepefl BbiSpoc- 

KOH. 

JlyninHH BHfl cnopTa, cnocoScTByiornHH crpejibSe, - iuiaBaHHe, acejiaTejibHO b chokohhom Teivuie 
Ha flanbHHe flncTaHUHH. IIjiaBaHHe oneHb xopouio pa3BHBaeT HeoSxoflHMbie fljia CTpenbSbi rpynnbi 
MbiHiu,, 3(J)(J)eKTHBHO h SbiCTpo "cTaBHT CTpenKOBoe flbixaHHe". KaK y>Ke H3BecTHO, KanecTBO flbixaHHa 
npn CTpenbSe Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb. OneHb nojie3Hbi 3aHjrrHa ranrejibHOH rHMHacTHKOH h TpeHnpoBKa 
BecTHSyjiapHoro annapaTa jnoSbiM ^ocTynHbiM cnocoSoM. 

Ber, Kpocc, CTaMepcKne pwbkh, 3aH3THa KapaT3 OTpHnaTejibHO bjihjiiot Ha TOHHyio CTpejibSy H3 
bhhtobkh. H no3TOMy, ecjiH CHannep paSoTaeT b pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHon rpynne, r^e Bee ocHOBaHO Ha 
ckopocth nepeivtemeHHH, ABHraTbca eMy npeflnoHTHrejibHee SbiCTpbiM cnopTHBHbiM iuaroM, a b pyico- 
naniHOH cxBaTKe paSoTaTb He KynaicaMH, a SecmyMHbiM nncTOJieTOM, 6.naro fljia pocchhckoh apMHH hx 
Ha^ejiajiH ^ocTaTOHHO. 

5KemnHHbi CTpenaiOT Jiynine My>KHHH. JIqjio #a>Ke He b tom, hto ohh He nbiOT h He KypaT. IIch- 
xo<J)H3HOJiorHHecKH >KemnHHbi HaMHoro Sojiee npncnocoSjieHbi k paSoTe b 3KCTpeManbHbix yanoBnax, 
neM My>KHHHbi. Ilopor TepneHHa >KeHinHH Bbiuie My>KCKoro. cDnBHOJiorHnecKaa BbiHOCJiHBOCTb h npn- 
cnocaSjiHBaeMOCTb >KeHCKoro opraHH3Ma no 3(|)4)eKTHBHOCTH He conocTaBHMa c My>KCKOH. 5KemnnHbi 
oSjia^aiOT Sojiee oSocTpemibiMH CHCTeMaMH BOcnpHarna, b nacTHOCTH, noBbimeHHbiM b noTeHniiajie 
HOHHbiM 3peHHeM, cnyxoM h oSoHaHHeM. Y hhx MraoBeHHO cpaSaTbiBaeT SoeBaa HnryHnHa, H3Ha- 
najibHO 3ano>KeHHaa npnpoflOH. 5KeHinHHbi HeBepoamo HaSjnoflaTejibHbi. 

5KemnHHa, ncnxoiiorHHecKH 3apaHee noflroTOBJieHHaa k BefleHnio SoeBbix flencTBHH, He ncnbi- 
TbiBaeT Ha none 6oa nyBCTBa pacTepaHHOCTH. Ilpn BbinojmeHHH nocTaBJieHHon SoeBoft 3a^anH >KeH- 
niHHbi paSoTaiOT (hmchho paSoTaiOT) coSpamio, neneHanpaBJieHHO h 6e3>KajiocTHO. EoeBaa paSoTa 
npoH3BOflHTca neTKO, HcnojiHHTejibHO h aKKypaTHO. 5KeHH(HHbi-BoeHHOCJiy>KaHiHe oneHb neTKO otho- 
caTca k BbinojiHeHHio cjiy>Ke6Hbix HHCTpyKnHH, He OTCTynaa ot hhx hh Ha mar. K nponeccy CHannep- 
ckoh CTpejibSbi >KeHinnHbi OTHOcaTca oneHb aKKypaTHO h TmaTenbHO, TaK >Ke, KaK k BbinojiHeHHio no- 
CToaHHOH HHCTpyKu,HH, no3TOMy ohh Sojiee oSynaeMbi CTpeubSe, neM My>KHHHbi. K nponeccy 
MacKnpoBKH >KeHH(HHbi OTHOcaTca TBopnecKH, c HeBepoaTHOH H3o6peTaTejibHOCTbio, stot nponecc 
oneHb opraHHneH fljia hhx. Pe3ynbTaTHBHOCTb ^eHCTBHH >KeHinHHbi-CHaHnepa 6y#eT Bcer^a Bbime, neM 
y CHaHnepa-My>KHHHbi. B SoeBoM npaKTHKe >KeHH(HHbi Sojiee ocTopo>KHbi, npn paHeHnax - Sojiee >kh- 
Bynn. 

C yneTOM sthx ocoSeHHOCTen b cepe^HHe 1943 r. b Mockbc SbiJia cc})opMHpoBaHa LJeHTpanbHaa 
>KeHCKaa niKOJia CHannepoB. 3a ^Ba ro^a Swjio noflroTOBJieHO Sojiee 1800 >KeHinHH-CHannepoB, koto- 
pwe flo KOHu,a BOHHbi yHHHTO>KHJiH, no caMbiM rpySbiM noflcneTaM, Sojiee 18000 HeivmeB, to ecTb o^Hy 
HeMeu,Kyio ahbh3hio nonHoro (})poHTOBoro cocTaBa. 

PA3^EJI 6. MACKHPOBKA CHAHIIEPCKOH n03HI^HH HA MECTHOCTH 

CHannep - 3to oxothhk, a oxothhk flOJi>KeH SbiTb hcbhahm. Tot h3 CHannepoB, kto nbiTaeTca 
paSoTaTb He3aMacKHpoBaHHO, noHTH cpa3y CTaHOBHTca MHmeHbio fljia npoTHBHHKa. IIo3hli,hh ^jih pa- 
SoTbi CHannepa npnxoflHTca BbiSnpaTb h oSopyflOBaTb SyKBanbHO nofl hocom y HenpnaTejia, noflnac 
Ha HeyfloSHbix, OTKpbiTbix h, Ka3anocb 6bi, HenpHroflHbix ^Jia 3Toro MecTax. IIosTOMy MacKnpoBKa no- 
3hli,hh flOJi>KHa SbiTb 6e3yKopH3HeHHOH, Bbirjia^eTb ecTecTBeHHO n He Bbi^ejiaTbca cpe^n OKpy>KaiOHie- 
ro jiaHflma(})Ta. 3nMHaa n neTHaa MacKnpoBKH pa3JiHHHbi. 3hmoh MacKnpoBaTbca Jierne, noTOMy hto 
ocHOBHbie u,BeTa 3hmoh - HepHbiii n Sejibiii. Benoro, pa3yMeeTca, Sojibme, noaTOMy h CHannep Ha^eBa- 
eT Ha ce6a Bee Senoe. BenbiM, nofl u,BeT CHera, flOJi>KeH SbiTb MacKxanaT c SenbiM KamomoHOM. Bhh- 
TOBKa TaK>Ke flOJi>KHa SbiTb oSMOTaHa neM-HHSy^b SenbiM. Jlynme Bcero jiiia sthx nejien noflxoflHT 
oSbiKHOBeHHbin MeflHu,HHCKHH 6hht. Bhhtom oSiviaTbiBaiOTca TaK>Ke onTHnecKHH npHu,eji n peMeHb. 
TenecHbiH u,BeT Jinna h khctch pyK Bbiflan He OflHoro CHaiinepa, nosTOMy Ha jihu,o HafleBaeTca MaTep- 
naTaa hjih 6yMa>KHaa Senaa MacKa c y3KHMH npope3aMH ^Jia rjia3 ((J)oto 153). 3th y3Kne npope3H nr- 
paiOT cojiHu,e3aniHTHyio ponb npn paSoTe riiqm nofl apKHM cojiHu,eM cpe^H Senoro CHera. TaKaa moui- 
Haa 3acBeTKa SyKBanbHO cuenHT raa3a. IIpHnejibHO CTpenaTb b TaKnx ycnoBHax HeB03MO>KHO. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 160 




cDoto 153. 3nMHaa SKHnnpoBica CHannepa 

JIjis paSoTti 3HMOH CHannep, ecTecTBeHHO, yTennaeTca h MacKxanaT Ha^eBaeT Ha Tennyio KypT- 
Ky. JleBaa pyKa Taic hjih HHane flOJi>KHa SbiTb b Tenjioii tojictoh pyicaBHue - h ^Jia yTenneHHa, h ^Jia 
Toro, htoSm HeHTpanH30BaTb nyjibcau,Hio pyKH. IIpaBaa pyKa TO>Ke ^oiDKHa SbiTb b pyicaBHue, hmchho 
b pyKaBHu,e, a He b nepnaTice, htoSw nanbHbi Jiyniue corpeBajincb. B npaBOH pyicaBHue ^ejiaeTca npo- 
pe3b fljia CTpejunomero yKa3aTejibHoro nanbua. IIpH HeoSxoflHMOCTH BbiCTpena CTpejunomHH naneu, 
BbiCTaBJiaeTca H3 pyicaBHHbi h jitokhtcs Ha cnycK. Pa3yMeeTC», o6e pyicaBHHbi flOJi>KHbi SbiTb Sejioro 
HBera hjih noicpbiTbi SejibiMH nexjiaMH. 

PyicaBHHbi Ha pyicax h MacKa Ha Jinue o6a3aTejibHbi - ohh npeflOxpaHaiOT ot o6Mopo>KeHHa. 
KpoMe Toro, MacKa c#ep>KHBaeT nap ot flbixaHHa. 3tot nap Bbiflan h norySHJi y>Ke He OflHoro CTpejiica. 
^.jiHHHbiH hh>khhh KpaM MaTepnaToii MacKH 3anpaBJiaeTca nofl mnpoKHH bopothhk, h nap OT flblXaHHS 
3thm "xoSotom" HanpaBJiaeTca "no# imcypy" h flonojiHHiejibHO oSorpeBaeT CHannepa. KypTKa, MacK- 
xanaT h niTaHbi CHannepa He flOJi>KHbi SbiTb TecHbiMH - ohh flOJi>KHbi SbiTb Ha HOMep-flBa ninpe oSwh- 
hoh ofle>Kflbi h oSecnenHBaTb CBoSo^y #BH>KeHHH CHannepa b jioKaneM coctojihhh. B oSninpHOH 
oflOK^e HenpoH3BOJibHbie TejioflBH>KeHHa, HeH36e>KHbie Ha Mopo3e, He TaK 3aMeTHbi co ctopohm, k to- 
My >Ke b npocTopHOH oflOK^e Tenjiee. 3HMHHe no3HUHH CHannepa Moryr SbiTb OTKpbiTbiMH n 3aicpbi- 
TbiMH. OTKpbiTbie no3Hu,HH, to ecTb HHHeM He 3amHmeHHbie h He 3aicpbiTbie CBepxy, 3aHHMaiOTca 
CHaiuiepoM Ha to BpeMa, KOTopoe oh MO>KeT Bbiflep>KaTb Ha Mopo3e. OSwhho 3to 3anacHbie no3Hu,HH h 
no3Hu,HH noflCKOKa fljia BbDKH^aHHa noaBJieHHa nenH, MmoBeHHoro ee nopa>KeHHa h Sbiciporo Hcne3- 
HOBeHHa c 3toh no3Hu,HH, He flO>KHflaacb, noKa ee HaicpoiOT MHHOMeTHbiM oraeM. OTKpbiTbie no3Hu,HH 

HOC3T BpeMeHHblH XapaKTep, HO 3TO He 3HaHHT, HTO HX He HaflO nOflrOTaBJIHBaTb h BbiSnpaTb MeCTO 

fljia hhx. IIocMOTpHTe Ha (})oto 154. CHaiuiep oneHb rpaMOTHO BbiSpan h noflroTOBHJi OTKpbiTyio Bpe- 
MeHHyio no3HHHio fljia nopa>KeHHa Hejieii Ha oSbeiere, pacnojio>KeHHOM co ctopohw ycnoBHoro npo- 
THBHHKa Ha flHCTaHu,HH 350 MeTpoB. IIo3HLi,Ha CHaiinepa pacnojio>KeHa Ha OKpanHe neca. Bnepe^H no- 
3hhhh HaxoflHTca peflKHH KycTapHHK. CHannepy (h 4)OTorpa(J)y, flenaBHieMy chhmok) stot pe^KHH 
KycTapHHK He MeuiaeT BH^eTb oSbeKi h to, hto ^enaeTca Ha HeM, noTOMy hto KycTapHHK pacnojio>KeH 

OT n03HUHH 6JIH3KO. Ho CTOHT OTOHTH XOT5I 6bl MeTpOB Ha CTO H nOCMOTpeTb Ha n03HHHIO CO CTOpOHbl 

npoTHBHHKa, KaK Bee, hto HaxoflHTca 3a 3thmh peflKHMH KycTHKaMH co ctopohm no3Hu,HH, nepecTaeT 
SbiTb pa3JiHHHMbiM KpoMe Bcero nponero, flbiM ot BbiCTpena paccenBaeTca 3a ctchoh KycTapHHKa h 
nosTOMy He BH^eH CHapy>KH. 3to TaK Ha3biBaeMbiH "sc^eier tiojicboh rapflHHbi" - H3 noivtemeHHa H3-3a 
rap/iHHbi BHflHO Bee, a c ynnnbi 3a rap^HHOH - HHnero. Ho fla>Ke b 3tom cjiynae CHannep CTapaeTca 3a- 
pwTbca norjiy6>Ke b CHer n jihhihhh pa3 He noflCTaBJiaTbca. B ^aHHOM cnynae CHer 6bm HeraySoKHH, h 
CHannep He Mor b Hero 3aKonaTbca, nosTOMy oh HarpeS SpycTBep cnepe^H n c Sokob ((})oto 155). 
Cnepefln CHannep KanHTanbHO noKponnn boaoh SpycTBep h npocTpaHCTBO Ha 2-3 MeTpa nepefl hhm 
fljra Toro, hto6w o6pa30Banacb jie^aHaa Koponica h cyxoii CHer He noflHHManca npn BbiCTpene nopoxo- 
BbiMH ra3aMH (<|)oto 156). Chokhwh BHxpb, B3MeTeHHbiH nocne BbiCTpejia, noflHHMaeTca ^OBOJibHO 
BbicoKO h oneHb Harjia^HO noKa3biBaeT npoTHBHHKy MecTO, OTKy^a 3tot BbiCTpen 6bui npoH3BefleH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



161 



cDoto 154. CHaMnep Ha OTKpbiTOH no3HHHH 




cDoto 155. CHaMnep, 3apbiBmHHca b CHer 



m i 







yi , / 


is* - ^ 





cDoto 156 OTKptiTaa no3Hu,Ha CHaMnepa cnepe/ni. IlyHKTHpoM o6o3HaneHO npocTpaHCTBO, 
OKponneHHoe bo#oh ^Jia o6pa30BaHH» jieflaHoM KopKH 

Ecjih y CHaMnepa ecrb B03MO>KHOCTb, oh He TOJibico KponHT, ho h nonHBaeT boaoh SpycTBep ne- 
pefl coSoh h no 6oKaM ot ce6a. Ilocjie 3Toro no3HHHa 3anefleHeeT h 6y#eT npeflOxpaHaTb xo3»HHa ot 
nyjib h ockojikob. TaK flenanH HeMUM, KOTopbie He jhoShjih Merorrb no3Hu,HH h CTpejuuiH c hhx ^jih- 
TenbHoe BpeMa. HaniH #0CTaTb hx He MorjiH H3-3a OTcyrcTBHa MaHeBpeHHbix mhhomctob Manbix Ka- 
jinSpoB. PyccKne CHannepbi npeflnoHHTanH Mep3HyTb #o ynopa, 3apbiBHiHCb no bo3mo>khocth no- 
rjiy6>Ke b CHer, h nocjie OflHoro-#Byx BbiCTpenoB "cBannBanH" c no3Hu,HH, He #o>KHflaacb, noKa HeMHbi 
HaicpoiOT ee MHHOMeTHbiM oraeM. HeSojibmne MHHOMeTbi Tnna "noflHOc" y HeMueB SbiJin b Ka>KflOM 
B3BOfle. Pa3Hbie bo3mo>khocth - pa3Haa TaKTHKa. Ho b jiioSom cjiynae n Hamn, n HeMeipcHe, n (})HHCKHe 
CHannepbi oSopyflOBann 3aKpbiTbie yTenjieHHbie ocHOBHbie no3nu,HH, Ha KOTopbix npnxoflnjiocb Haxo- 
flHTbca flonro - h fljia BbicnoKHBaHHa npoTHBHHKa, h ^Jia HaSniOfleHHa. KaK 3to mo>kho c^ejiaTb? CTa- 
pbiii (J)hhh, >KHBymHH no# JleHHHrpaflOM (HbiHe CaHier-IIeTepSypr) h OTCH#eBHiHH b CBoe BpeMa npn 
CTanHHe 10 neT 3a ynacTne bo Btopoh mhpoboh BOHHe "He Ha toh CTopoHe", noKa3an aBTopy npocTOH 
h flocTynHbift BceM cnocoS oSopyflOBamia 3aKpbiTOH CHaiinepcKOH no3Hu,HH c noMombio noflpynHbix 
cpe/iCTB, Bcer^a HMeiomnxca b cpeflHeM KJiHMaTHnecKOH nonoce. KopoTKOH muion CTapmc cpe3an co- 
ceHKy (He enoHKy - y cochw nrojiKH ^ep>KaTca oneHb flonro, a y enn ohh ona^aiOT cpa3y). 3aTeM oh 
OTpe3an y komjicboh nacTH y3eji-3Be3fly, H3 KOToporo pocjin bctbh b pa3Hbie CTopoHbi. CTapnK nepe- 
BepHyn OTpe3aHHbiH (^paraem - cochm CBepxy bhh3 h nocTaBHJi ero Ha CHer b TaKOM BH^e. IIojiyHHJiocb 
roTOBoe nepeKpbiTne, KaK KapKac y 30HTHKa (c|)oto 157). CHera SbiJio Mano, h CTapHK nocTaBHJi 3tot 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



162 



Kapicac Ha CTaptiH OKon, ocTaBHiHHca c nponuioM bohhm. C toh >Ke coceHKH Smith Hape3aHbi bctbh, h 
3thm "jianHHKOM" rqr HCKycHO 3ano>KHJi h nepenjien TOJiCTbie bctbh Kapicaca ((})oto 158). IIotom 
Hanan 3a6pacbiBaTb Bee 3to CHeroM. OKon Hanan Hcne3aTb Ha rna3ax ((})oto 159) h BCKope Boc-Sme 
cpaBHanca c naHflHia(J)TOM. Jljm o63opa h oScTpena Swjia npoflenaHa aivi6pa3ypa, b KOTopyio BbiCTaB- 
jianacb BHHTOBKa ((J)oto 160) (fljia HaraaflHOCTH 4)OTorpa(|)HpoBaHH» ctboji Shhtom He MacKHpoBanca). 




cDoto 157. KapKac - nepeicpbiTHe, H3roTOBJieHHoe H3 foparMen ra HeSo jibmofi cochm 



cDoto 159. IIo3HLi,Ha 3a6pacbiBaeTca CHeroM 




cDoto 158. KapKac nap, OKonoM nepenneTeH h 3ano>KeH cocHOBbiMH nanaMH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



163 




£ 

cDoto 160. IIojiHOCTbio 3aMacKHpoBaHHaa no3Hu,Ha. AM6pa3ypa ^jui o63opa h CTpanbSbi H3 bhh- 

TOBKH 

^OBOJibHO SbiCTpo o6pa30Banocb BecbMa yiOTHoe JioroBO, b kotopom mo>kho 6bmo ch #eTb. Ilo- 
cue Toro KaK bxoahoh Jia3 3aBecHJiH CTapbiM HeMenKHM MeniKOM H3 xo3aHCTBa 3Toro 3Haiomero hh- 
CTpyKTopa, BHyTpn no3Hu,HH B^pyr crano HeoSbiHaiiHO Tenno no cpaBHeHHio c -20°C, KOTopwe Smjih 
CHapy>KH. K TOMy 5Ke TaM He Sbino BeTpa. Ilocjie Toro KaK CTapHK 3a»cer orapoK cbchh h nocTaBHJi ero 
b yrny TaKHM 06 pa30M, htoSw oroHb He 6bm BH^eH H3 aivi6pa3ypbi CHapy>KH, mo>kho Swjio CHaTb py- 
KaBHHbi, iuanKy h paccTerayTbca. HHCTpyKTop oSbacHHJi Bee sto TeM, hto B03flyniHaa noflyniKa, o6pa- 
30BaHHaa tojictbim xbohhbim nepeKpwTHeM, oneHt xopouio #ep>KHT Tenno. K TOMy >Ke, KaK oh CKa3an, 
"oroHeK cbchh flonaeT nanoBeKy Tennee Ha flyme", a ot 3Toro CTaHOBHTca Tennee BceMy opraHH3My. 
IIo ero cuoBaM, hmoi napy CBenen, Ha TaKoM no3HnnH mo>kho Swjio npoflep>KaTbca cyTKH npn caMbix 
>KyTKHx Mopo3ax. B flOBepiueHHe ko BceMy #efl KanHTanbHO nonHJi yKpbiTHe boaoh CHapy>KH, npeBpa- 
thb ero b jieflaHOH flOT. IIo TOMy, KaK SbiCTpo h CHopoBHCTO oh Bee 3to Jiejian b crymaiomnxca cyMep- 
Kax, aBTop noHan, hto cboh 10 neT jiarepeM stot Hepa3roBopHHBbiH nanoBeK nojiynnji He^apoM. J\o- 
BOJibHO nacTO CHannepaM npHxoflHTca noflnoji3aTb k npoTHBHHKy h paSoTaTb no 3apaHee pa3Be#aHHOH 
u,ejiH c noflCKOKa, 6e3 noflroTOBJieHHOH npe>Kfle no3Hu,HH, n cpa3y Hcne3aTb no npHHnnny "yKycnn n 

CKpblJICa". fljia 3TOrO npHXOflHTCa KpaTKOBpeMeHHO "B03HHKHyTb". HT06bI B03HHKHyTb He3aMeTHO, 

Ha^o He Bbi^ejiaTbca Ha (})OHe mccthocth, a fljia 3Toro CHaMnepy HeoSxoflHMO Bee BpeMa KpyTHTb ro- 
jioboh n KOHTpojinpoBaTb (})oh, KOTopwH HaxoflHTca 3a hhm. Ha (})oto 161 CHannep 3Toro He Cflenan h 
b SejiOM MacKxanaTe bo3hhk Ha nepHOM (|)OHe, k TOMy >Ke Ha pobhom rpeSHe BbicoKoro MecTa. Oh CTan 
3aMeTeH, h 3a Te 3-4 ceKyHflbi, HeoSxoflHMbie eMy fljia BbiCTpena, eroMoryr "cHSTb" caMoro. 




cDoto 161. HenpaBHJibHaa no3Hu,Ha: CHannep b SenoM MacKxanaTe pe3KO BbiflcnaeTca Ha nepHOM 
(})OHe rpeSHa bwcotkh 

B flpyroM cjiynae CHannep npaBHJibHO Hcnojib30Ban Senbin (})oh B03BbimeHHOCTH y ce6a 3a cnn- 
hoh ((})oto 162). K TOMy >Ke oh Haxo^HTca He Ha pobhoh jihhhh, a cpe^H CKJia/ioK mccthocth h no3TO- 
My MeHee 3aMeTeH. Ha mccthocth CHannep Bcer^a CTapaeTca 3aH»Tb no3HUHio TaM, r^e flua Hero ecTb 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



164 



yicpfeiTHe, h HToSbi no nBeTy MacKHpoBKH He BbiflejiaTbca b HeM (hjih b6jih3h ot Hero). YRpbiTHeM 
HeoSxoflHMO nojib30BaTbca npaBHJibHO. Ha (})oto 163 yicpbiTHe (cTpoHTejibHbin oSjiomok) HaxoflHica 
cnpaBa ot CHannepa. IIpH stom oh hm npaierHHecKH He 3amHmeH. B flamiOM anynae 3a yKpbiTHeM 
HaxoflHTca nacTb ronoBbi h nuena, a Bee ocTanbHoe OTKpbiTO fljia BCTpenHoro nopa>KeHHa. 




cDoto 162. IIpaBHJibHO Hcnojib30BaHHbiH SejibiH (})oh 3a cnHHOH. CHaiinep b SejiOM noHTH He bh- 



«eH 




cDoto 163. HenpaBHJibHO Hcnojib30BaHHoe yKpbiTne. CHaiinep cjieBa ot Hero, h nosTOMy yicpbi- 
THe ero He 3amnmaeT 

Ha (J)oto 164 CHaiinep nojio>KHJi BHHTOBKy Ha yicpbiTne CBepxy. npn 3tom ronoBa h nuenn ot- 
KpbiTbi h He 3amnmeHbi. KpoMe Toro, 3tot CHaiinep fla>Ke b MacKxanaTe Bbi^ejiaeTca Ha# yKpbiTHeM 
CBepxy. Ha (})oto 165 yicpbiTne HaxoflHTca cneBa ot CHannepa. B flamiOM cjiynae flHCTaHnna #o CHan- 
nepa 5 MeTpoB, ho oh npaKTnnecKH He BH^eH. Ecjih npncMOTpeTbca, mo>kho 3aMeTHTb Kpyraoe rormo 
onTHnecKoro npnne.na n nepHOTy fleTanen bhhtobkh. Eojibinaa nacTb ronoBbi h Becb Kopnyc 3aKpbiTbi 
ot BCTpenHoro orna npoTHBHHKa. J\im BbiCTpena CHaiinep BbiCTaBHJi nacTb ronoBbi, npaBoe njieno h 
npaByio pyKy. 




cDoto 164. HenpaBHJibHO Hcnojib30BaHHoe yKpbiTne. CHaiinep CBepxy Hero, oh BH^eH h He 3a- 
mnmeH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



165 




cDoto 165. IIpaBHJibHoe nojio>KeHHe CHaMnepa 3a yicpbiTHeM. YicpbiTHe cneBa ot CHaiinepa, oho 
MaKCHManbHO ero 3amnmaeT, h CHaiinep noHTH He BH^eH 

Bo3HHKaeT ecTecTBeHHbiH Bonpoc: Kor^a Ha#o 3aHHMaTb h o6opy#OBaTb no3Hu,Hio? Otbct KaTe- 

TOpHHeH - TOJIbKO HOHbK), KOr^a 3TOrO He BHflHT npOTHBHHK. H BblflBHraTbCa Ha n03HU,HK) HeoSxOflHMO 
nOJI3KOM. IIpH oSopyflOBaHHH n03HU,HH HeJIb33 CTaHOBHTbCJI He TO HTO B nOJIHblH pOCT, HO RayKQ Ha 

neTBepeHbKH. B Haiue BpeMa HOHbio Bee npocMaTpnBaeTca npnSopaiviH hohhoix) BH^eHHa, npocjryniH- 
BaeTca HaSjnoflaTejuiMH h pa3BeflHHKaMH. H He tojibko npocjiyniHBaeTca. BbimeynoMJiHyTbiii (})hhh 
BH^eji nejio BeKa 3hmoh b TeMHOTe MeTpoB 3a cto. IIo3TOMy Bee Ha^o flenaTb, paSoTaa b "HH>KHeM 
ypoBHe", h aScojiiOTHO SecmyMHO. B neTHee BpeM», Kor^a npnpofla 3a3ejieHeeT, CHaftnep CTapaeTca 
BbiSpaTb no3HHHio b raySHHe 3ejieHH h HaSjiiOflaTb 3a oScTaHOBKOH b npocBeTbi Me>Kfly jihctboh. 
Jlynme, ecnH oh 6y#eT Haxo^HTbca b 2-3 MeTpax 3a jiHHHen mcjikhx KycTOB, KOTopwe C03flaKxr Bbime- 
onHcaHHbiH "3(|)(|)eKT rapflHHbi". CHaiinepy 6y#eT bh^ho Bee, hto ^ejiaeTca CHapy>KH, a caM oh 6y#eT 
HeBH^HM. rijiaMa ero BbiCTpena TO>Ke He 6y#eT 3aMeTHbiM, h flbM ot BbiCTpena pacceeTca b KycTax. 
Hhhto He BbiH^eT Hapy>Ky. Cjihhikom 6jih3ko ot nepeflHeft kpomkh KycTOB CTpejunb Henb3a, noTOMy 
hto ot Bbixnona BbiCTpena HeMHHyeMO 3aKanaiOTca BeTBH, h 3to Bbi^acT no3Hu,Hio CHaiinepa. Ecjih 
CHaiinepy npn^eTca CTpejiaTb c OTKpbiToro MecTa, ero no3nnnio MO>KeT ^eMacKnpoBaTb KOJibixaHne 
BbicoKoii TpaBbi ot Bbixnona. Ecjih Ha stom MecTe HeT TpaBbi, no3Hnnio ^eiviacKHpyeT BHxpb nbijin, 
B3MeTeHHbiii nopoxoBbiMH ra3aMH. B cyxyio norofly stot BHxpb noflHHMaeTca Ha BbicoTy 2-3 MeTpa h 
BH^eH H3flaneKa #a>Ke HeBOopy>KeHHbiM rjia30M. Ecjih BaM ^ocTaTOHHO BbiCTpejiHTb c Kaicoii-TO no3H- 
nnn oflHH pa3 h nocjie 3Toro MrHOBeHHO Hcne3HyTb c Hee, to 3to b npHHunne He HMeeT 3HaneHHa. Ho 
ecjiH cjiyHHJiacb HeoSxoflHMOCTb npoflep^aTbca Ha no3Hnnn xots 6bi ajih flByx BbiCTpejiOB, Ha nbuib- 
Hbiii ynacTOK npeflBapmejibHO HaSpacbiBaeTca TpaBa, noBepx KOTopoii jio>KHTca MacKHpoBOHHaa ceTb. 
HtoSw ee He cjjyuo BeTpoM, OHa npn>KHMaeTca KaMHaMH, 3aKpenjiaeTca BTbiKaHHeM b 3eMJiio cynbeB 
poraTKaMH bhh3 hjih npoBOJiOHHbiMH U-o6pa3HbiMH CKoSKaMH. Pa3yMeeTca, 3to Bee flejiaeTca HOHbio. 
BbiBaeT, hto CHaiinepbi BbiKanbiBaiOT OKon, Bnepe^n KOToporo BTbiicaiOT b 3eMJiio rycTyio coceHKy hjih 
fla>Ke flBe. Ho sto #ejiaeTca eme #o Toro, KaK npoTHBHHK 3aHaji no3nnHH h npncTymni k HaSjiiOfleHHio. 
noaBJieHHe coceHKH, KOTopoii He Smjio paHbiue, 6y#eT cpa3y 3aMeneHO. noneiviy #a>Ke jictom npeflno- 
HHTaiOT HMeHHO coceHKy, a He KaKoe-JinSo flpyroe flepeBne? noTOMy hto cocHOBaa xbos flOJiro He bh- 
HeT, He ocwnaeTca h cocHy He Ha^o nojiHBaTb. JlioSoe flpyroe Haca>KfleHHe nepe3 nojiflHa Ha >Kape 
"onycTHT yiun", h He3aMeHeHHbiM sto He npoiifleT. HE 3ABBIBAHTE! CaMbiii Jiynmnii KaMy(})jia>K h 
caMaa ncKycHaa MacKnpoBica ro^aTca tojibko #o nepBoro Bbicrpejia, #o "3MeHHoro yKyca", a nocjie 
OKOHnaHHa MOMeHTa BHe3anHOCTH TepaiOT CBoe 3HaneHHe. CHaiinepy Ha^o hjih yxoflmb c no3HUHH, 
hjih ero HanapHHK aojckch r^e-TO cSoicy BKjnoHHTbca b paSoTy h nepeKJiionnTb BHHMaHHe npoTHBHH- 
Ka Ha ce6a. 

Pa3yMeeTca, Jiynmee MecTO fljia CHaiinepcKoii no3Hu,HH - b TeHH. Ho HHor^a CHaiinep BbiSnpaeT 
apKO ocBemeHHoe MecTO, HacTOJibKO apKoe, hto Ha HeM Hnnero He bh^ho. OcoSeHHO ecjin cojmne npn 
3tom Sy/ieT CBeTHTb npoTHBHHKy b rjia3a. JleTOM MacKnpoBaTbca Ta>Kejiee. PacTHTejibHOCTb Ha iiaRp,- 
uia^TQ pa3HOTOHHaa, nosTOMy BoeHHbie Ha^eBaiOT naTHHCTbiii KaMyc})jia>K, htoSm He Bbi^ejiaTbca cpe- 
flH OKpy>Kaiomeii cpe^bi. KaKnx TOJibKO pacnBeTOK n pncyHKOB KaMyc})jia>KHoii Ofle>Kflbi He npn^yMajiH 
3a npomeflinne cto jkt! Ho C03flaTb KaMyc})jia>K c yHHBepcanbHbiM pncyHKOM TaK h He nojiynnjiocb. H 
He noTOMy, hto pacTHTejibHOCTb b pa3Hbix MecTax h KJiHMaTHHecKHx 30Hax HMeeT pa3Hbiii OTTeHOK. A 
noTOMy, hto b npnpofle HeT pobhwx jihhhh h cnjiyaT nejiOBeica b KaMy(J)jiH>Ke TaK hjih HHane Bbi^ejia- 
eTca jiHHeiiHbiMH onepTaHHaMH. 

HtoSw "pa3MbiTb" cnjiy3T n cflejiaTb ero MaKCHManbHO npn6jin>KeHHbiM k pejibec})y, KaMy(J)jia>K 
flejiaiOT "jioxMaTbiM". Ha ojiewpy - HaKH^Ky hjih KOM6HHe30H - HaniHBaiOT nojiocKH h jiocKyTbi MaTe- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 166 

Phh, xbok), conoMy h nponee, hto xapaKTepHO TOHy ^aHHOH MecTHOCTH. "JIoxMaTbie" KaMy(J)jia>KH H3- 
roTOBJiajiH c He3anaM3THbix BpeMeH. Ceirnac TaKoft KaMy(J)jia>K Ha3biBaeTca "ejiOHKa", "KHKHMopa" h t. 

fl. B XX CTOJieTHH flJIH H3r0T0BJieHH3 "jIOXMaTblx" KaMy(})Jia>KeH npHMeHSIOT oSpblBKH MaCKHpOBOH- 

hmx ceTeii h CTaporo oSMyH^HpoBaHna, KOTopwe HaniHBaiOT Ha njiam-nanaTKH, KypTKH, nojiOTHHma 
6pe3eHTa... Ka>Kflbiii Sojiee-MeHee onbimbiii CHaiinep nibeT ce6e KaMy(J)jia>K caM TaK, KaK CHHTaeT 
Hy>KHbiM. KaMyc})jia>KH, H3roTOBJiaeMbie npoMbinuieHHOCTbio, o^HHaKOBbi h no3TOMy paHO hjih no3flHO 
CTaHOBaTca Harjia^HbiMH fljia npoTHBHHKa. OSmhho CHaMnepbi fljia paSoTbi Ha npnpofle H3roTOBJiaiOT 
"jioxMaTbiii" KaMyc})jia>K b (|)opMe HaKH^KH, #jia Toro htoSm HenpoH3BOJibHbie flBH^KeHna nofl hhm 6bi- 
jih MeHee 3aMeTHbi. IIo oScTOjnejibCTBaM SoeBOH paSoTbi KaMy(J)jia>K mo>kho niHTb c pyKaBaMH. Cnjiy- 

3T erO flOJDKeH SblTb "pa3MbiT", yMeHbHieH H HeCHMMCTpHHeH. 

^jia 3Toro Bee BbiCTynaioinne nacTH flOJi>KHbi HaxoflHTbca "b oSjiacTH TeMHbix roneH". KpniepH- 
eM ou,eHKH y^anHO H3roTOBJieHHoro KaMyc})jia>Ka aBJiaerca ero opraHHHHoe cjinaHne c OKpjoKaioineii 
cpefloii, ecuH ero BJiaflejien. HaxoflHica b HeM b HenocpeflCTBemiOH 6jih30Cth ot Hero-Hn6yflb "jioxMa- 
Toro" - KycTOB, namoSbi, bmcokoh nopocjin h t. r. KaMy(J)jia>K o6»3aTejibHO roTOBHica c KanioniOHOM. 
Ha KaMy4)ji»>K HaniHBaiOTca neTJin h KapMaHHHKH fljia nprncpemieHHa k HeMy bctok, cynbeB, TpaBbi h 
Bcero, hto eerb Ha flaHHoii mccthocth. Tohho TaK >Ke, KaK h 3hmoh, CHaiinepa fleMacKHpyeT TejiecHbiM 
HBer Jinna h khctch pyK. IIoaTOMy Ha jihuo Ha^eBaeTca "jioxMaTaa" MacKa, KOTopaa k TOMy >Ke npe#o- 
xpaHaeT ot KOMapoB, Ha pyKH - "jioxMaTbie" pyKaBHnbi, npnneM npaBaa pyKaBnna c npope3bio fljia 
"cTpejunomero" nanbna. 

CHaiinep b "noxMaTOM" KaMyc})jia>Ke npeflCTaBJieH Ha (})oto 166-169. ,3,eMacKHpyiOT SjiecTamne 
MaxoBHKH h KOHTypbi npnnejia. IIosTOMy CHaftnepbi Ha^eBaiOT Ha npnnejibi "noxMaTbie" nexjibi (hjih 
oSiviaTbiBaiOT npnnejibi "noxMaTbiMH" oSpbiBKaMH oSMyHflnpoBaHHa) ((J)oto 170). Ha ctboji bhhtobkh 
CHaiinep HaMaTbiBaeT "noxMaTyio" jieHTy hjih HararHBaeT "jioxMaTbiii" nexoji. Bee 3th "noKpbiniKH" 
KpenaTca oneHb huotho, o6b»3koh HiHypKaMH, htoSw npn CTpejibSe Hnnero He cbe3>Kajio h He "flbiiua- 
jio" Ha BHHTOBKe (cm. (})oto 153). CHaiinep b KaMy(J)jia>Ke aojckch Bbirjia^eTb HacTOJibKO HeB3panHO, 
hto Ha Hero He xoTejiocb 6bi CMOTpeTb. 3to ochobhoh npHHnnn KaMyc})jia>Ka. Oh aojckch SbiTb 3anw- 
jieHHbiM, 3aTacKaHHbiM, nofluiHTbiM jiocKyraMH c pa3Hbix ctopoh - Kopone, aojckch He Bbirjia^eTb hh- 
KaK. no3TOMy CHaiinep, paSoTaiomnii He b pe>KHMe CHaihiepcKoii cboSoahoh oxotm, a b noflBH>KHOH 
rpynne, ^0Ji>KeH HMeTb MHHHMyM KaMy(J)jia>Ka - cjierKa 3aKaMy(J)jiHpoBaHHyio BHHTOBKy h jierKyio 
"jioxMaTyio" KypTOHKy c pyKaBaMH - Ha cjrynaii CHaiinepcKOH 3aca#bi. CHaiinep, nyneMeTHHK h rpaHa- 
TOMeTHHK noflBH>KHoii rpynnw aojckhw noMeHbine Bbmejunbca, noTOMy hto npoTHBHHK HMeHHO hx 
"nojio>KHT" b nepByio onepeflb. nosTOMy, ecjiH y>K KaMy(|)jiHpoBaTbca, to KaMycJunrpoBaTbca BceM, 
HToSbi OTflejibHbiM KaMyc})jia>KeM He Bbi^ejiaTbca HHKOMy. 




cDoto 166 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



167 



cDoto 167 



cDoto 168 



(Doto 169 




cDoto 170. KaMy(})jiHpoBaHHe opy>KHa h onTHnecKoro npimejia 

IipHHUHII pa60TbI Ha OTKpblTblX n03HU,HaX H nOJIb30BaHHa yKpblTHaMH tot >Ke, hto h 3hmoh. Ot- 

KpwTyio BpeMeHHyio no3Hu,Hio >KejiaTejibHO npe^BapHTejibHO noflroTOBHTb, xoTb HeMHoro yraySnTb (b 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



168 



CJiynae apTHJuiepniiCKoro hjih MHHOMeTHoro o6cTpe.na oaho cnaceHne - 3eMJia-MaTyniKa), 3aMacKnpo- 
BaTb flepHOM n nojiHTb, HTo6ti TpaBa He npnBa.na. ^a>Ke b caMOM xoponieM KaMy(J)jia>Ke Hejib3a 3aHH- 
MaTb no3Hu,Hio Ha rpeSHe BbicoTbi, Ha (})OHe He6a (c})oto 171). Jlynme cnycTHTbca no CKaTy h 3aH»Tb 
no3Hu,Hio TaM, trq noryme pacTHTejibHoerb ((J)oto 172), HMea CKaT y ce6a 3a cnnHon h He Bbmejiaacb 
Ha ero (})OHe. Hernia HaxoflHTbca TaK>Ke CBepxy yicpbiTHa (c|)oto 173). fla>Ke b caMOM y^aHHOM KaMy(})- 
jia>Ke CHannep penbecjmo 6y#eT Bbi^ejiaTbca CBepxy. MecTO CHannepa cnpaBa h BHH3y ot yicpbiTHa 
(noKa3aHO CTpejncon Ha (})oto 173), Tor^a qh no-HacTOflineMy conbeTca c hhm h He 6y#eT 3aMeTeH. 




cDoto 171. Me>Kfly CTpenKaMH no3Hu,Ha CHaiinepa. Ha rpeSHe BbicoTbi h Ha ^ohq He6a oh #o- 
BOJibHO neTKO Bbi^ejiaeTca h 3aMeTeH #a>Ke B "noxMaTOM" KaMy(J)jia>Ke 



cDoto 172. Ha npeflbiflymen $ 





'■■<■• ■ kWtim, 

)hh CHannep Haxoflnjica Ha no3Hu,HH, yica3aHHOH CTpejnca- 
mh 1 Cennac oh Haxoflnrca b raySHHe pacTHTenbHOCTH HH>Ke no CKaTy. Ero no3Hu,Ha yKa3aHa CTpen- 
koh 2 J\ji% HarjiaflHOCTH oh BbiflBHHynca H3-3a KycTa, HHane b noxMaTOM KaMy(J)jia>Ke oh Swji 6bi HeBH- 
flHM BOoSme 




cDoto 173. HenpaBHJibHoe ncnojib30BaHne pejibe(|)a yKpwTHa ,3,a5Ke b xoponieM KaMyc})jia>Ke 
CHannep 6y#eT Bbiflejurrbca CBepxy 3Toro yKpbrrna Ero MecTO cnpaBa n BHH3y ot yKpbiTHa (noKa3aHO 
CTpenKon) 

Tohho TaK >Ke, KaK n 3hmoh, b flpyrne BpeMeHa ro#a CHannepy npnxoflHTca o6opy#OBaTb 3aKpbi- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



169 



Ttie no3Hu,HH. ^ejio #a>Ke He b tom, hto oceHbio, KaK roBopmi pyccKHH CHaMnep BacHJinn 3anneB, 
"Bee, hto ecTb MOKporo h xonoflHoro, - Bee Ha Te6»'". ,3,ejio b tom, hto Ha otkpbitoh no3HnnH npnxo- 
flHTca jie>KaTb HenoflBH>KHO. Majienmee HieBeneHHe b caMOM xopoiueM KaMy(J)jia>Ke MO>KeT CTOHTb 
CHaMnepy >kh3hh. JIe>KaTb aSconiOTHO HenoflBHMCHO He TaK npocTO, KaK Ka^eTca JleTOM flOHHMaiOT 
KOMapw h MyxH, h Hejib3a noiueBejinTbca, htoSm hx OTorHaTb XoneTca noTaHyrbca h pa3M»Tbca - He- 
noflBH>KHOCTb HeecTecTBeHHa #Jia >KHBoro nejiOBeKa. Ot HenoflBH>KHOCTH HeMeeT naneu, Ha cnycKe. 
XoneTca raoTHyrb H3 (Jwiara h Hero-Hn6y#b no>KeBaTb. H hto xy>Ke Bcero, b caMoe Henoflxoflamee 
BpeMa TaHeT no Hy>Kfle. IIpeflCTaBbTe, KaK 3to BbiraaflHT b6jih3h ot Bbicjie>KHBaeMoro oSbeKra, Ha rw- 
CTaHHHax cjibiniHMOCTH HejiOBenecKOH penn. 

IIo3TOMy CHannepbi-oxoTHHKH, KOTopwe HOHbio noflnoji3anH k npoTHBHHKy Ha flHCTaHnnio 200 
MeTpoB, a HHor^a h 6jiH>Ke, y^aHHO M B>KHMajiHCb" b KaKyio-HnSyflb 3anpHMeHeHHyio paHee CKna/iKy 
MecTHOCTH b TOHKe, OTKyzja OTKpbiBanca H3rn6 TpamueH c (|)jiaHra, h Ha npoTa>KeHHH CBeTOBoro aha 
o>KHflajiH noaBJieHHa b 3tom H3rH6e Ba>KHOH neini, 3anpocTO Moran npHnoji3TH hohbio k cbohm c non- 

HblMH IHTaHaMH. 

IIo3TOMy ocHOBHbie CHaiinepcKHe no3Hu,HH b ho3hu,hohhoh BOHHe oSopy^yiOTca no 3aKpbiTOMy 
THny. HoHbio CHannep BbiKanbiBan Ha HnHben nonoce no6jin>Ke k npoTHBHHKy OKon, 3eMjno ot koto- 
poro othochji Ha nojiOTHHHie noflanbHie h MacKHpoBan OKon HaKpbiBanca CBepxy npoBOJiOHHbiM Kap- 
KacoM. OSbiHHO CHaiinepbi roroTOBJiaKxr npocTenninn KapKac THna "nayK", oh coctoht H3 HecKOJibKnx 
OTpe3KOB MarKon npoBOJiOKH c 3arHyTbiMH b neTJiH KOHnaMn, KOTopwe coeflHHeHbi bhhtom h raHKoft 
(4)oto 174). JJpyme KOHnbi 3arHyTbi bhh3, htoSm mo>kho Swjio BOTKHyrb hx b 3eMJiio h sthm 3ac})HK- 
cnpoBaTb KOHCTpyKiniio. TaKoii KapKac CKna^biBaeTca ((J)oto 175) n nosTOMy y#o6eH ^Jia nepeHOCKH. 
B pacKpbiTOM BH^e KapKac ycraHaBJinBaeTca Ha# OKonoM ((})oto 176). Ha KapKac HaKn^biBaeTca "jiox- 
MaTbin" KaMy(J)jia>K, KOTopbin npncbinaeTca CBepxy TeM, hto ecTb Ha mccthocth, - jiHCTbaMH, cyxon 
TpaBoii, xBoen, cojiomoh h t. r. Ilocjie nero no3Hnna CHaMnepa npaKTHnecKH cunBaeTca c OKpy>Kaio- 
ihhm jiaHflHia(})TOM h He BbmenaeTca Ha HeM (<|)oto 177-179). TaKne no3Hu,HH MacKnpyiOTca no# koh- 
kh, pbiTBHHbi, KyHH jiHCTbeB, Mycopa, a npn pacnojio>KeHHH no3nnnH Ha CKaTe, oSpameHHOM k npo- 
THBHHKy, BOoSme nofl poBHoe MecTO. IIo3HnHio Bcer^a CTapaiOTca BbiSpaTb Ha pobhom MecTe, 
noflanbHie ot npHMerabix opneHTHpoB, npHB-neKaiomnx BHHMaHne, paccToamie #o KOTopwx HaBepHa- 

Ka BblHHCJieHO npOTHBHHKOM. 




cDoto 174. IleTJiH CKJia^Hor o KapKaca co eflH HeHbi bhhtom h rafiKOH 




cDoto 775. KapKac b anoaceHHOM coctojihhh 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



170 




cDoto 176. PacKpbiTbiii KapKac, ycTaHOBJieHHMH Ha# okoiiom 




cDoto 177. KapKac, npHKpbiTbiii cyxoM TpaBoii 



■- 









• ■ 



y >"*■ fen* I » *- *' 

m ' 

y 




cDoto 178 KapKac, npHKpwTbiH "jioxMaToii" HaKHflKoM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



171 











cDoto 1 79 IIojiHOCTbio 3aMacKHpoBaHHaa no3HHHa cnHBaeTca c jiaHflina(})TOM 

J\jlK oSyCTpOHCTBa y^oSHOH H Ha^OKHOH n03HHHH BO BpeMa BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl H pyccKH- 

mh, h HeivmaMH nacTO npHMeHjmca (HHor^a npHMeHaeTca h cennac) TaK Ha3biBaeMbin "KaMy(J)jia>KHbiH 
neHb" ((})oto 180, 181). Taicon neHb ^ejiaeTca H3 noflpyHHbix MaTepnanoB. OSwhho 3a ocHOBy Sepyr 
CTapyio aBTOMoSHJibHyio noKpbiniKy, KaKHe b h3o6hjihh BanaiOTca no floporaM, o6pe3aiOT SopTa h bo- 
Kpyr HaniHBaiOT SepecTy hjih ^pyryio flpeBecHyio Kopy. BbiBano, hto c #Byx ctopoh TaKoro "mia" 
KpenHJiH Kopy pa3Hbix nopofl flepeBbeB, htoSm y^oSHO h SbiCTpo Swjio MacKHpoBaTbca b pa3Hbix 
ycjiOBHax h b pa3Hbix MecTax. MacKHpoBOHHbiH neHb CTaBnrca onaTb >Ke Ha OKon, rpyHT pa^OM c ko- 
TopbiM npncbinaeTca jiHCTb»MH, TpaBoM n t. j\. no ycjiOBHaM MecTHOCTH. HHor^a yMejibnbi MOK/iy pe- 

3HHOBOH OCHOBOH H KOpOH npHBHHHHBajIH SoJITaMH oSjIOMKH peCCOp H3 pa36nTOH TeXHHKH HJIH flpy- 

rne TOJiCTbie MeTanjiHHecKHe njiacTHHbi. IleHb npeBpamanca b j\ot, 3amHmaa xo3anHa ot nynb h 
ockojikob. HHTepecHO, hto nyjiH npoSnBajiH CTanbHyio HenoflBH>KHyio njiHTy h He npoSHBajin He- 
Sojibnine CTanbHbie njiacTHHbi toh >Ke TOJiiHHHbi, aMopTH3HpyiomHe Ha pe3HHOBOH ocHOBe. BbiBano, 
hto npoTHBHHK Ha BcaKHH cjiynaH npncTpejiHBajica no nHaM b 30He CBoero KOHrpojia, nocjie nero 
ycnoKaHBanca n Ha npoBepeHHbiH TaKHM o6pa30M neHb 6ojiee He oSpaman BHHMaHHa, 



cDoto 180. KaMy(|)jia>KHbiH neHb 




Mi' \ ?■ 

cDoto 181. KaMyc})jia>KHbiH neHb. KpbiniKa OTKpwTa, nofl nHeM no3Hu,na CHannepa 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



172 



B ropofle KaMy(|)jia>K flomKeH SbiTb TO>Ke "jioxMaTbin", tojibko flpyroro HBeTa KaK y>Ke ynoMH- 
Hanocb, KaMy(J)jia>K flomKeH SbiTb TaKHM, htoSm b ero CTopoHy He xoTenocb CMOTpeTb, - 3to ochobhoh 
ncHxojiorHHecKHH npHHunn KaMy(J)jia>Ka. Ha Koro b ropo^e He xoneTca CMOTpeTb? Kohchho, Ha rpa3- 
hwx h oSopBaHHbix 6oM>KeH. IIo3TOMy ropoflCKOH KaMy(|)jia>K H3roTOBJiaeTca ceporo HBeTa (cyxon ac- 
(})ajibT - 3tot u,BeT npeoSjia^aeT b ropo#e) h oSniHBaeTca jhoSmmh cepo-nepHbiMH jiocKyTaMH h no- 
jiocKaMH. KpoMe Toro, CHapyscn KaMy(J)jia5K b Mepy BbiMa3biBaeTca hbbcctkoh, ca>KeH, KnpnHHHOH 
nbijibio, Kopone, flenaeTca TaK, htoSm B3rjia#y He xoTenocb ocTaHaBJiHBaTbca Ha HeM. MecTa fljia 
CHannepcKHx 3aca# b ropo#e BbiSnpaiOTca TaK, htoSw Ha hhx TO>Ke He xoTenocb CMOTpeTb. OSwhho 
3to KyHH Mycopa, CBajiKH, CTpoHTejibHbie oSjiomkh, KOTopwe b Hauie BpeMa BCTpenaiOTca noBCKwy 
($oto 182). 




cDoto 182 CHannep cpe^H CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob, oh Ha nepeflHeM nnaHe, ho b "noxMaTOM" 
KaMyc})jia>Ke npaKTHnecKH He bh^ch 

TopoflCKOH KaMyc})jia>K roroTOBJiaeTca b BH^e ^jthhhohojioh KypTKH c hihpokhmh pyKaBaMH - b 
ropofle CHaiinepy nacTO npHxoflHrca BCTynaTb b pyKonaniHyio cxBaTKy. K TOMy >Ke b uejiax onepaTHB- 
hoh u,ejiecoo6pa3HOCTH TaKoM KaMy(J)jia>K b BbiBepHyroM BH^e npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoh KypTKy oSbiHHoro 
noKpoa, Ha^eB KOTopyio, mo>kho nepeMemaTbca b ropo#e, He Bbi3biBaa k ce6e He3flopoBoro HHTepeca. 
3to oneHb hchho fljia CHaMnepoB aHTHTeppopncTHHecKHx no#pa3flejieHHH, KOTopwe b noncKax bm- 
roflHbix no3Hu,HH BbiHy>KfleHbi caMOCToaTenbHO nepeMemaTbca c oSbeKra Ha oSbeKT, no^nac npoxofla 
mhmo CKonneHHa jHOfleii. IIpH CHaiinepcKOH CTpenbSe b ropo^e cepo-nepHO-SypbiH "jioxMaTbin" Ka- 
My(|)jia>K c TaKOH >Ke MacKoM Ha Jinue npaierHHecKH He BH^eH Ha oSbiHHbix ^Jia CHannepa no3Hu,Hax - Ha 
CTpoftKax h b pa3BanHHax, b noflBanax h Ha nep^aKax, b ^pyrnx nojiyTeMHbix MecTax. 

Ho AJiH ropofla 3Toro Mano. OrHecTpejibHbie KOHTaKTbi, B03HHKaiomHe npn npoBefleHHH cneuH- 
anbHbix MeponpnaTHH no 6opb6e c TeppopH3MOM, nponcxoflaT b caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix, HenoflroTOB- 
jieHHbix h HeyfloSHbix fljia CHannepa MecTax, r^e HeB03MO>KHO He to hto OKonaTbca, ho #a>Ke He 3a hto 
yKpbiTbca. Hame Bcero 3to SbmaeT b asponopTax npn ocBo6o>KfleHHH 3ano>KHHKOB H3 3axBaneHHoro 
caMOJieTa. 

no3HHHH CHaiinepoB rpynnw npHKpbiTHa flOJi>KHbi SbiTb yKpenneHbi, HeBH^HMbi h Haxo^HTbca b 
onepaTHBHOH 6jih30Cth ot oSbeKra. HacTO £Jia sthx HeneM Hcnojib3yiOT npeflMer, Ha KOTopbiM HaM 
BceM TO>Ke Ha^oejio CMOTpeTb, - CTapyio aBTonoKpbiuiKy. Ee pa3pe3aiOT nononaM, BHyrpb BCTaBJiaiOT 
SpoHemHTOK h npope3aiOT aM6pa3ypy fljia CTpenbSbi. 3Ty aM6pa3ypy CTapaiOTca npope3aTb b BH^e 
pBaHoro M 3Be3flOo6pa3Horo" OTBepcTHa, htoSm co3flaBanocb BnenaTJieHHe, hto sto ecTecTBeHHbin ^e- 
(})eKT, a He aivt6pa3ypa. 

^jia MacKHpoBKH aivi6pa3ypa 3aKpbrra CHapy>KH pBaHbiM jihctom pe3HHbi, b kotopom npope3aHO 
HeSojibiuoe OTBepcTne fljia HaSniOfleHHa. npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH 3Ta "niTopica" 3a npHB33aHHyio k Hen 
SeneBKy noflHHMaeTca BBepx h OTKpwBaeT aivt6pa3ypy fljia CTpenbSbi. npHHu,Hn 3Toro nepeHOCHoro 
yKpwTHa npeflCTaBJieH Ha (})oto 183, 184. Bee 3to HexHTpoe ycTpoiiCTBO oSwhho xpaHHTca r^e- 
HnSyflb b cneu,Ha30BCKOM rapa>Ke h npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH CTaBHTca Ha no3Hu,Hio nofl npnicpbiTHeM ^bi- 
moboh 3aBecbi hjih npH KaKOM-jinSo OTBJieKaiOHieM MaHeBpe. "Koneco" (TaK ero h Ha3biBaiOT) He npn- 
BJieKaeT BHHMaHHa h Ha^e>KHO 3amHmaeT 0T u Y JIh (4)oto 185). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



173 




cDoto 183. IlepeHOCHoe yKpbiTHe THna "Koneco" BpoHemHTOK c aivi6pa3ypoH BCTaBJiaeTca a no- 

JIOBHHy aBTOMoSffllbHOH nOKpbiniKH 




cDoto 184. "Koneco" cnepe#H IIlTopKa onymeHa 



/ 4 <i$ 

cDoto 185. IIpHHLi,Hn paSoTbi 3a yKpbiTHeM "Koneco" 1 - CHaMnep no# "noxMaTbiM" KaMy(J)jia>KeM, 

2 - yKpwTHe "Koneco" 

"JIoxMaTbiM" KaMyc})jia>K caM no ce6e oneHb nojie3Haa Bemb. BbiBepHyTbiM "niepcTbio" BHyTpb, 
oh npeKpacHO corpeBaeT. Ero Hcnojib3yiOT KaK noflCTHJiKy hjih ofleajio. B Hero 3aBopanHBaiOT opy>KHe 
BMecTO nexjia npn nepeB03Ke. 3to npeKpacHenmee cpe^CTBO fljia BbDKHBaHna. H He tojibko noTOMy, 

HTO OH fleJiaeT HeBHflHMbIM CBOerO X035IHHa BbinOJIHeHHblH B BHfle MaCKHpOBOHHOIX) nOJIOTHHHia, JIOX- 

MaTbiH KaMyc})jia>K Hcnojib3yeTca npn HoneBKax (^HeBicax) KaK raMaK b MecTax, KHiuamnx 3MeaMH h 
Bpe^HbiMH HaceKOMbiMH, a TaK>Ke npn HeB03MO>KHOCTH cnaTb Ha 3eMJie (ocoSeHHO Ha xojioahoh). 

OflHH no>KHJiOH My>KHHHa, bck) BOHHy npoMbiHiJiaBHiHH b rjiySHHHOH pa3Be#Ke Ha HeMeHKOH 
CTopoHe, pac CKa3biBan, KaK b BenopyccHH Heivmbi 3arHanH ero BecHoft, b anpejie, b TonKoe Sojioto, h 
oh noHTH Heflejiio HaxoflHJics TaM. HeMUbi 3HanH, hto Ha 3tom Sojiotc HeT hh oflHoro KnoHKa cynin h 
nenoBeK TaM He MO>KeT £OJiro npoflep>KaTbca no rpy^b b jieflaHOH BO#e Pa3Be#HHK npeKpacHO npo- 
^ep>Kajica b 3tom SojiOTe, noflBecHB "jioxMaToe" KaMyc})jia>KHoe nojiOTHHine b KanecTBe raMaKa 3a He- 
CKOJibKO naxjibix ^epeBbeB, pacTymnx b bo^c KaK oh paccKa3biBan, b 3tom raMaKe b TeneHne He^ejiH 
oh OTOcnanca 3a bcio BOHHy. HeMUbi ynuin; ohh He b coctojihhh Swjih #a>Ke npeflnojio>KHTb, hto b 6o- 
jiOTe kto-to MO>KeT Bbi>KHTb Sojiee naTH flHen. Ha bcskhh cjiynaii, BbDK^aB eme napy cyroK, pa3Be#HHK 
TO>Ke ynieji. 

"JIoxMaTbin" KaMy(J)jia>K mioxo o6Hapy>KHBaeTca yjibTpa3ByKOBon h HH(J)paKpacHOH annapaTy- 
poM, a TaK>Ke npnSopaMH HOHHoro BH^eHHa. Hto MO>KeT ^eMacKnpoBaTb CHannepa h Bbi^aTb ero? 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 174 

ripoK^e Bcero to, hto MO>KeT SjiecHyib. EjiecHyib Moryr nyroBnnbi, Boncoro po#a npa>KKH h 3HaKH 
pa3JiHHHa, a TaioKe noTepTbie "jibicbie" MecTa Ha opy>KHH. ^a>Ke HeBOopy>KeHHbiM rjia30M TaKHe ot- 
SjiecKH Ha cojimje yjiaBJiHBaKxrca MeTpoB Ha 15-20, a b omnHecKHH npnneji - b 3-4 pa3a flanbiue. 

OneHb fleMacKHpyiOT otSjkckh ot ctckoji Shhokjich h oniHHecKHx npnnejiOB. Ohh bhahbi HeBe- 
poaTHO flaneKO h H3-3a BbinyKJiocTH ctckoji npocMaTpHBaiOTca nofl pa3HbiMH yraaMH. IIo3TOMy Ha on- 
THHecKHii npnneji Ha^o o6a3aTejibHO Ha^eBaTb SjieH^y. Ha npnnejie IICO-1 OHa KOHCTpyKTHBHO 
npeflycMOTpeHa h o6a3aTejibHO flOJi>KHa Bbi^BHraTbca npn SoeBOH paSoTe. H 3hmoh, h jictom fleMac- 
KnpyeT KpacHbiH nBeT. JleTOM oneHb ^eMacKnpyeT SejibiM nBeT. JleTOM ^eMacKnpyeT npaMOJinHen- 
HOCTb jihhhh - OHa HeecTecTBeHHa fljia >khboh npnpoflbi. 

Bo Bee BpeMeHa CHaiinepbi Swjih BbiHy>KfleHbi e>KeflHeBHO hto-to Merorib b KaMy4)jra>Ke, b ero 
pacnBeiKe h (J)aKType "jioxMaTOCTn", noflCTpanBaacb noA to hjih HHoe MecTO b jiaHflHia(|)Te npnMeHH- 
TenbHO k nocToaHHO MeronomHMca ycjiOBHaM SoeBbix fleiiCTBHH. '3to oneHb KponoTJiHBaa paSoTa, ko- 
Topyio hhkto 3a CHaiinepa ^ejiaTb He 6y#eT. JlioSaa MacKHpoBKa - onem. TJDKejibiii h OTBeTCTBeHHbiii 
npouecc. Ha BOHHe jieHHBbiH h HenoflroTOBJieHHbiii - ^oSbina CMepTH. Boinia - TBopnecKaa paSoTa 
M03ra, noMHO>KeHHaa Ha Ta>KejibiH (|)H3HHecKHH ipy^. CHaiinepcKHH pe3yjibTaT HanpaMyio 3aBHCHT ot 

CKpblTHOCTH H BHe3anHOCTH. 

Ha BOHHe MHoro Bemeii c coSoh He noTacKaenib. no3TOMy Ha b3bo# pa3BeflHHKOB hjih OT^ejie- 
Hne CHaftnepoB npHxoflHJiocb oSmhho 3-4 "noxMaTbix" KaMy(J)jia>Ka pa3Hbix pacuBeTOK h pncyHKOB, 
CTOJibKO >Ke CKJia^Hbix KapKacoB h oflHH KaMyc})jia>KHbiH neHb. B Haiue BpeMa Spnraflbi no 6opb6e c 

TeppOpH3MOM HMeiOT CpeflCTBa MaCKHpOBKH npHMepHO B TaKOM >Ke KOJIHHeCTBe, HO BMeCTO KaMy(})- 

jijdkhmx nHeii Ha MecTO SoeBbix fleMcTBHH npHB033T yKpbmie rana "KOJieco". 

PA3#EJI 7. OCHOBM CHAHIIEPCKOH TAKTHKH 
^EHCTBHil CHAIfflEPA B nCBHHHOHHOH BOHHE 

PaHO hjih no3flHO BoeHHbie ^eiiCTBHa npHHHMaiOT no3HiniOHHbiH xapaKTep. npoTHBoSopcTByio- 
mne CTopoHbi ctost (})pohtom #pyr npoTHB flpyra h He npeflnpHHHMaiOT HacTynaTejibHbix fleMcTBHH. 
3to He 3HanHT, hto BoiiHa npHOCTaHOBHJiacb. ,fl,a>Ke b TaKOM ManonoflBH>KHOM OKonaBiueMca coctos- 
hhh Ha nepeflOBOH H#eT HanpjDKeHHaa paSoTa coji^aT h ocjmuepoB. Coji^aTbi 3aKpenjiaiOTca, poiOT 
OKonbi h 6jiHHfla>KH, hto6w SbiJio r^e yKpbiTbca ot nyjib h ockojikob. Bo Bee BpeMeHa jiyHiueii 3amH- 
toh Ha BOHHe SbiJia, ecTb h 6y#eT 3eMJiH-MaTyiHKa. Ocjmuepbi, HanHHaa ot KOMaH^npa B3BO#a h Bbiiue, 
c nepBbix >Ke MHHyr 3aH»Tbi ycTaHOBJieHneM MecTOHaxo^eHHa npoTHBHHKa, onpeflejieHneM ochob- 

HblX npHU,eJIOHHbIX OpHeHTHpOB H flHCTaHU,HH flO HHX, HeM KOMaHflHp B3BOfla Cpa3y CTaBHT B H3BeCT- 

HOCTb KOMaH^HpoB OTflejieHHH, a Te - fle>KypHbix nyjieMeTHHKOB. Cpa3y BbiCTaBJiaeTca HaSjno^aTejib, 
KOTopwii b nepncKon (cxeMa 103), Syccojib (cxeMa 104) hjih CTepeoTpySy (hh b kocm cjiynae He b 6h- 
HOKJib - ySbiOT noHTH cpa3y) Be^eT nocToaHHoe HaSjnofleHne 3a HeiiTpajibHOH nojiocoii, nepeflHHM 
KpaeM npoTHBHHKa h HacKOJibKO mo>kho b rjiySnHy ero oSopoHbi, noAMenaa Bee, hto TaM nponcxoflHT: 
noaBJieHHe OT^ejibHbix coji^aT b o^hom h tom >Ke MecTe, bchmhikh BbiCTpejiOB, 3ByKH ^BH>KeHHa Tex- 
hhkh, noaBJieHHe orHeM, HanHHHe aHieHH, HiaHu,eBbix paSoT h t. a. 3a#ana HaSjiiOflaTejia - BbiaBHTb 
orHeBbie tohkh npoTHBHHKa, KOMaH^Hbie nyHKTbi, yBJibi cb»3h, HanHHHe apTycTaHOBOK h CTeneHb hx 
ocHameHHOCTH SoenpnnacaMH, HanHHHe mhhhmx nocTaHOBOK - no BceM 3thm flaHHbiM Henocpefl- 
CTBeHHbiii KOMaH^np B3BO#a flOJi>KeH cocTaBHTb KapTHHy nepeflHero Kpaa npoTHBHHKa h npe^CTaBJiaTb 
ce6e, hto oh 6y#eT ^ejiaTb b cjiynae HacTynjieHHa hjih Hero eMy cjie^yeT >K^aTb b cjiynae oSopoHbi. 
npHKa3 o HacTynjieHHH MO>KeT nocjieflOBaTb b jiioSoh momcht, h, He 3Haa oScTaHOBKH, KOMaH^np 
B3BOfla, poTbi, SaTanbOHa BbiHy>KfleH Sy^eT raaTb jHOflen Ha nyjieMeTbi h MHHHbie nojia. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



175 



A 



r 



h* 



CxeMa 103. PynHoft nepncKon npHMeHaeTca fljia HaSjnofleHHa H3-3a yKpbiTHa CTpenKaMH noKa- 
3aH xofl jiyneH b nepncKone 




CxeMa 104. Eyccojib 1 - opneHTHp-Syccojib, 2 - npnBOfl MexaHH3Ma BepTHKanbHOH HaBOflKn; 3 - 
OKynap; 4 - onrHnecKHH BH3np, 5 - 3epicajibHbiH nepncKon, 6 - npnBOfl MexaHH3Ma ropnBOHTajibHon 
HaBOflKH; 7 - niKana; 8 - opneHrnpyiomHH HepBaK, 9 - mapoBaa rorra 

C oSenx ctopoh (J)poHTa BbiCTaBJiaiOTca ^ajibHOMepHbie nocTbi, 3a#ana KOTopbix CKpynyjie3HO 

COCTaBHTb KapTy CBOeM 30HBI OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH C TOHHbIM yKa3aHHeM flHCTaHUHH CTpeJIbSbl y>Ke He 

npocTO flo opnenrnpoB, a #o OTflenbHbix orHeBbix ToneK npoTHBHHKa BecnpecTaHHO paSoTaeT apTHJi- 
jiepnncKaa pa3Be#Ka, cooSmaiomaa cbohm 6aTape»M TOHHbie KoopflHHaTbi nejien KaK Ha no3nnnjix 
npoTHBHHKa, TaK h b rjiy6HHe ero oSopoHbi. IIo HenTpajibHon nonoce SecKOHenHO noji3aiOT canepw, 
3aH»Tbie MHHHbiMH npoTHBonexoTHbiMH h npoTHBOTaHKOBbiMH nocTaHOBKaMH. Pa3Be#rpynnbi Secnpe- 
CTaHHO h b caMoe HenpeflCKa3yeMoe Bpeivta jia3aiOT nepe3 HenTpanbHyio nonocy b nonbiTKax B3»Tb 
»3biKa Bca 3Ta paSoTa h oneHb MHoroe flpyroe HannHaeTca cpa3y nocne KOMaHflbi ocTaHOBHTbca n 3 a- 
KpennaTbca Ha py6e>Ke. Kopone, HenTpajibHaa nonoca c caMoro Hanana no3HHHOHHoro npoTHBOCToa- 

HH» HaHHHaeT >KHTb CBOeo6pa3HOH Hanpa>KeHHOH >KH3HbK). C oSeHX npOTHBoSopCTByiOHlHX CTOpOH, 

Hcnojib3ya sto BpeivteHHoe 3aTHHibe, CTapaiOTca 3aKpennTbca, neperpynnnpoBaTbca, noflTaHyrb pe3ep- 
bm h nojiynme pa3Be#aTb to, hto ^ejiaeTca Ha nepe#HeM Kpae y npoTHBHHKa H tot, kto c^ejiaeT sto 
jrynme h SbiCTpee, noHeceT HaHMeHbHine noTepn. 

OcHOBHaa TaKTHnecKaa 3a^ana CHaiinepa, 3a BbinojiHeHne KOTopon eMy 6y#eT SecKOHenHO Sna- 
roflapHO HenocpeflCTBeHHoe HananbCTBO, - copBaTb Bee 3th MeponpnaTna, npoBOflHMbie npoTHBHHKOM. 

CHannep npe>Kfle Bcero flOJi>KeH He CTOJibKO yBejinnnBaTb jihhhmh cneT (xot» sto T05Ke noKa3a- 
Tenb ero paSoTbi), a c#ejiaTb Bee, htoSw ocjienHTb npoTHBHHKa h ocTaBHTb ero 6e3 hcxoahmx flaHHbix 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 176 

fljia HacTynjieHHa. CHaMnep o6a3aH ySnib Ha6jnoflaTe.na, flajibHOMepmnKa, apTHJuiepHHCKoro KoppeK- 
THpoBmraca, fle>KypHoro nyjieMeTHHKa h, pa3yMeeTca, o(|)HHepa, HaSjHOflaiomero 3a MecTHOCTbio b 6h- 
HOKJit CHannep flOJi>KeH pa36HTb nynen onTHnecKne npnSopbi HaSjnofleHHa - nepncKonbi h CTepeo- 
TpySbi npoTHBHHKa. CHannep flOJi>KeH BbiaBHTb h yHHHio>KHTb HaSjiiOflaTejibHbie nocTbi, a TaK>Ke 
nocTbi apTHJiJiepHHCKOH pa3BeflKH, CB33HCT0B, canepoB h TaKTHnecKHe pa3Beflrpynnw npoTHBHHKa, 
KOTopwe caMOCToaTejibHO Be^yr nocToamioe HaSjnofleHHe 3a nepe^HHM KpaeM - He pa3Be#aB oScTa- 
HOBKy flHeM, ohh He b cocToaHHH 6y#yT nepecenb HeHipajibHyio nojiocy HOHbio. B KOHue kohhob 
CHannep aojckch co3#aTb oScTaHOBKy CHannepcKoro Teppopa, HaBe^a naHHnecKHH CTpax Ha hh>khhx 
hhhob npoTHBHHKa. Bee, hto flBH>KeTca h noaBJiaeTca Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa, ^ojdkho SbiTb yHH- 

HTO>KeHO CHaftnepCKHM OraeM IIpOTHBHHKa Hy>KHO OTyHHTb XOflHTb B nOJIHblH pOCT - Ha^O 3aCTaBHTb 

ero noji3aTb Ha >khbotc no KaHaBaM h jio>K6HHaM. npoTHBHHKa Hy>KHO npnynHTb k mwcjih, hto onacHO 
^a>Ke Ha Mnr BbicyHyTbca H3 TpamneH. IIpoTHBHHKy Hy>KHO ncnopTHTb HacTpoeHne, c yrpa "3aBanHB" 
HeocTopo>KHO noflCTaBHBHieroca nojiycoHHoro nacoBoro. TaKne Benin Ha/io ^ejiaTb e>Ke#HeBHO, c koh- 
KpeTHbiM pe3yjibTaTOM - >KecTOKaa HenpeKJiomiocTb ^eMopanHByeT npoTHBHHKa. TaKyio SoeByio pa6o- 
Ty MoaceT c^enaTb TOJibKO CHannep - fljinHHbiH ho>k b cepflue npoTHBHHKa. TonbKO CHannep b coctoji- 
hhh SbiCTpo "noflJiOBHTb" Bee 3th BHe3anHO noaBJunomneca h Tyr 5Ke Hcne3aiomHe nejiH. 

H npn BceM stom Hy>KHO ocTaTbca HeBH^HMbiM - Hey»3BHMOCTb CHaiinepa flOJi>KHa SbiTb noHTH 
MHCTHnecKOH, h6o 3to oneHb flaBHT Ha ncHXHKy HenpnaTejia. 

PA3BE#KA IJEJIH 

Ochobhmm MeTOflOM pa3Be#KH Hejieii fljia CHannepoB aBJiaeTca nocToamioe CKpwToe HaSjnofle- 
hhc Be^eT ero oSmhho #e>KypHbiH CHaiinep. IIpH stom BbiSnpaeTca no3HHHa Ha bbicotkc, mo>kho Ha 
flepeBe hjih Ha KaKOH-jinSo BbiniKe, ho o6a3aTejibHO TmaTejibHO 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiM o6pa30M, h6o npo- 
thbhhk Bcer^a HmeT CHannepoB, HaSjHOflaTejieM h KoppeKTHpoBiHHKOB hmchho b TaKnx MecTax. UeH- 
HOCTb y/jaHHO oSycTpoeHHoro HaSjiiOflaTejibHoro nyHKTa HeoSbiHaiiHO BejiHKa, HacTOJibKO BenHKa, hto 
BecTH CHaftnepcKHH oroHb c HaSjiiOflaTejibHbix nyHKTOB bo H36e>KaHHe hx pacniH(})poBKH KaTeropHne- 
ckh 3anpeniaeTca. OSmaa Macca pa3Befl#aHHbix, nojiyneHHbix npn y^anHOM HaSjiiOfleHHH, HaMHoro 
uemiee, neM y^aHHbiH CHaiinepcKHH BbiCTpen. ,H,e>KypHbiH CHannep, Haxo^acb b 6e3onacHOM ot cny- 
naHHbix nyjib h ockojikob MecTe, HaSjiiOflaeT TOJibKO b nepncKon hjih b apTHjniepHHCKyio Syccojib, ko- 
Topwe TO>Ke flOJi>KHbi SbiTb 3aMacKHpoBaHbi h He flaBaTb CBeroBbix otSjicckob ot ctckoji. Hto mo>kho 
3aMeTHTb HaSniOfleHHeM Ha conpeflejibHoii CTopoHe h HeHipanbHOH nonoce? CHanajia minero. Ha^o 
>K^aTb pa3BHTHa coSbiTHH. PaHO hjih no3flHO SjiecHyT CTeiaia Shhokjis h npoaBHTca CHJiysT rojiOBbi 
0(})HLi,epa (hjih nojieBoro KOMaH^npa), HaSjiiOflaiomero c toh ctopohm b rjiySnHe oSopoHbi npoTHBHH- 
Ka. CTano SbiTb, HaSjnoflaioniHH Hameji y^oSHoe fljia HaSjiiOfleHna MecTO h noaBHTca TaM HeoflHO- 
KpaTHO. Bo3HHKHyT "3MeHHbie rojiOBbi" nepncKonoB h Syccojieii Bpa>KecKHx HaSjnoflaTejien. Hjih no- 
aBaTca "pora" CTepeoTpySw. Bee 3to Sy^eT noBopanHBaTbca h ^aBaTb otSjicckh ot ctckoji. 
IIocMOTpHTe Ha cboh 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiii "jioxMaTbiM" nexjiOM onTHnecKHH npnSop h nocTapaiiTecb 
o6Hapy>KHTb TaKoii 5Ke Ha conpeflejibHOH CTopoHe. TaK BbWBJiaiOTca HaSjiiOflaTejibHbie nyHKTbi npo- 
THBHHKa. Bot BbiSpacbiBaeTca 3eMJiH H3 OKona 6jiH>Ke k HaM ot jihhhh TpaHHieii npoTHBHHKa - sto ro- 
TOBHTca no3Hu,Ha rpaHaTOMeTHHKa hjih #e>KypHoro nyjieMeTHHKa. 3a nepeflHHM KpaeM npoTHBHHKa 
BHflHbi aHTeHHbi - sto y>Ke HHTepecHo: r/ie aHTeHHbi, TaM nyHKT hjih y3eji cb33h, cjieflOBarejibHO, pa- 
flOM flOJi>KeH SbiTb KOMaHflHbiii nyHKT. B TpaHmeax npoTHBHHKa noaBHJiacb KacKa ((J)ypa>KKa, nnjiOTKa, 
rojiOBa b KOCbiHKe n t. a.) o^hh pa3, Hcne3Jia, noaBnuacb CHOBa - sto npnMaHKa ^Jia CHannepa. Ilone- 
My? IIoTOMy hto KacKa He noBepHynacb b H3rH6e TpaHHien, Kor^a nonuia no ropH30HTy, CTano SbiTb 
ee HeyMejio HecyT Ha nanKe, a rojiOBy b (J)ypa>KKe hjih nnjiOTKe 6e3 KacKH hhkto npoTHBHHKy ^a>Ke b 
nepBbie nacbi no3Hu,HOHHoro npoTHBOCToaHHa BbiCTaBJiaTb He Sy^eT. B o^hom h tom >Ke MecTe mo>kho 
3aMeTHTb KnySbi CH3oro hjih HepHoro flbiMa - 3to paSoTaiOT Ha (})opca>Ke ^BHraTejiH SpoHeTexHHKH. 
BHHMaTejibHbiM BH3yanbHbiM HaSjiiOfleHHeM mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb oneHb MHoro HHTepecHoro h nojie3- 

HOrO. ITo OrHSM KOCTpOB H flblMy OT HHX MO^CHO OnpefleJIHTb MeCTOHaXO>KfleHHe KyXOHb H nyHKTOB 

nnTaHna. 0(})Hnepbi h nojieBbie KOMaHflnpbi npoTHBHHKa Moryr SbiTb h 6e3 3HaKOB pa3JiHHna, ho npn- 
3HaKOM niTaSoB, oc|)HnepcKHx njioniaflOK n aneeK ynpaBJieHna b rjiySnHe oSopoHbi HenpnaTejia MO>KeT 
nocjiy>KHTb nocToaHHbin npHxofl-OTxofl mojxew., noaBJieHne BoeHHOCJiy>KamHx c oc})HLi,epcKHMH cyMKa- 
mh, npnSopaMH HaSjiiOfleHHa, c BJiacTHOH >KecTHKyjiau,HeH, npoBOflHaa CB»3b h nponee. B npaKTHKe 
H3BecTeH cjiynan, Kor^a KOMaH^Hbiii 6jiHHfla>K npoTHBHHKa Bbi^ajio nocToaHHoe noaBJieHne b o^hom h 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 177 

tom >Ke MecTe KOTa, KOToporo npHKopMHJiH HeMeu,KHe o4>Hn;epH. 

IIpH HaSjiiOfleHHH b nepncKon h npn o6Hapy>KeHHH nejin Ha^o 3aMeTHTb opneHTJip (noflSnraa 
SpoHeTexHHKa, pa3BanHHbi, ^epeBO - jiioSoh HenoflBH>KHbiH h 3aMeTHbiH npeflMeT), B03Jie KOToporo 
noaBHJiacb uejib, cpa3y >Ke onpeflejiHTb paccToaHHe flo 3Toro opneHTHpa h c^ejiaTb cooTBeTCTByiomyio 
3anncb b >KypHane HaSjnofleHHa c yKa3aHHeM BpeMeHH o6Hapy>KeHHa hcjth. 

CeKTop HaSniOfleHHa pa36HBaeTca Ha 30hw hjih nonocbi no npHHunny OTflaneHHOCTH ot CBoero 
nepeflHero Kpaa. OSwhho ninpHHa sthx nonoc cocTaBJiaeT 200 MeTpoB. IIocjieflOBaTejibHOCTb npo- 
CMaTpHBaHHa mccthocth npoBOflHTca "nejiHonHbiM" o6pa30M (cxeivta 105), HanHHaa "ot ce6a". 

0W 




CxeMa 1 05 . HejiHOHHaa nocneflOBaTejibHOCTb HaSniOfleHHa 

HaSjiiOfleHHe h BH3yanbHaa pa3Be#Ka uejieH npoBOflaTca riiqm h HOHbio. IIoKa o#hh CHaMnep 
HaSniOflaeT, flpyroii npocjiyniHBaeT Bee 3ByKH, KOTopwe momct yjiOBHTb. IIpocjiyHiHBaeTca He TOJibKO 
"aTMOC(J)epa", o6a3aTejibHO npocjiyiHHBaeTca 3eMJia. KaKHM o6pa30M? Botkhhtc b 3eMJiio oSbiHHyio 
conflaTCKyio Manyio nonaTKy h npHJio>KHTe yxo k Hepemcy. CHanana TO>Ke HHnero He ycjiwuiHTe. A 
noTOM, no Mepe KOHnenrpannH BHHMaHHa, bbi, k yflHBJieHHio fljia ce6a, ycubiniHTe HeBepoaTHO MHoro. 
3eMJia oneHb xopomo npoBOflHT 3ByKn. Mo>kho ycjibimaTb ryu motopob h Jia3r ryceHHu, - 3to #BH>KeT- 
ca SpoHeTexHHKa. Mo>kho ycjibimaTb rayxne y^apw Ta>KejibiM o 3eMjno - sto hto-to Ta^Kenoe crpy>Ka- 
iot c aBTOManiHH. Mo>kho ycjibimaTb paSoTy inaHneBoro HHCTpyMenra npn noflroTOBKe no3HHHH, ma- 
in coji/iaT, Hflymnx CTpoeM. BTbiKaa jionaTy opHenraHHeH hjiockocth niTbiKa no pa3HbiM 
HanpaBJieHnaM h nofl pa3HbiMH yraaMH, mo>kho ^OBOJibHO tohho onpeflejiHTb HanpaBJieHne 3ByKOB. 
Bee 3ByKH, noiiMaHHbie no^ 3eMjien, cpaBHHBaKxrca co 3ByicaMH, yjiOBJieHHbiMH b aTMOC(J)epe. J\im 
jiynmero "3ByKoyjiaBJiHBaHHa" sto npeflnoHTHrejibHee ^enaTb no6jin>Ke k npoTHBHHKy Ha HeHrpajib- 
hoh nonoce, pa3yMeeTca, CKpbiTHO h 3aMacKnpoBaHHO. HMeKxrca h ^pyrne cnocoSbi "3eMnaHoro" npo- 
CJiyniHBaHHa, nofleoSHO H3Jio>KeHHbie b cnennajibHon jiHTepaType. 

IIo BceM pe3yjibTaTaM BHByanbHoro HaSjnofleHna n ayflno-npocjiyniHBaHna npoHBBOflHrca rnia- 
TenbHoe cpaBHeHne c ^aHHbiMH, KOTopwe floSbuiH pa3Be#HHKH n HaSniOflaTejiH. IIo bo3mo>khocth Bee 
sto cpaBHHBaeTca n B3aHMHO flonojiHaeTca ^aHHbiMH apTHJuiepHHCKHx pa3Be#HHKOB, KOTopwe npoBO- 
flaT TaKne MeponpnaTHa caMOCToaTejibHO h oneHb KanecTBeHHO. 06Hapy>KeHHbie uejiH HaHoeaTca Ha 
KapTy. nojiyneHHbie pa3BeflflaHHbie b nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTn nocTynneHHa 3anHCbiBaiOTca b cnennajib- 
Hbin >KypHan. 

HaSjnofleHHe 3a HeHrpanbHOH nojiocon, nepeflHHM KpaeM npoTHBHHKa n ero TbiJiOBbiM npo- 
CTpaHCTBOM npoBOflHTca nocToaHHO. B HaSjnofleHHH, KpoMe niTaTHoro Ha6jnoflaTe.na, ynacTByiOT pa3- 
BeflHHKn, apTHjniepHHCKHe KoppeKTHpoBniHKH, HenocpeflCTBeHHbiH KOMaHflnp n, pa3yMeeTca, CHaHne- 
pw. Ka>Kflbiii H3 hhx HMeeT cboh 3a#anH, ho HaSniOflaiOT ohh oScTaHOBKy c pa3Hbix no3Hti:HH, BH^aT ee 
b HeoflHHaKOBbix paKypcax h nosTOMy ^Jia oSmeH nojib3bi Bcer^a ^enaTca flpyr c flpyroM pe3yjibTaTa- 

MH HaSjIIOfleHHH. 

CHaiinep flOJi>KeH o6a3aTejibHO roynnrb KapTy panoHa CBoeii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. OHa ^aeT eMy 
nojiHyio KapTHHy pejibecJmoH oScTaHOBKH. ^onycTHM, 3a KaKOH-TO bbicotkoh CHaiinepy MecTHOCTb He 
BHflHa, a Ha KapTe TaM 6yflyr tohho o6o3HaHeHbi OBpa>KKH, Bna^KHbi, jioniHHbi, cicaTbi h nponne He- 

pOBHOCTH. 

HaSjnofleHneM BbiaBJiaiOTca cnaSbie MecTa oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa. HHor^a HaSjnofleHHeM h npo- 
CJiyniHBaHHeM o6Hapy>KHBaiOTca HHTepecHbie h Heo>KHflaHHbie Benin, a nivteHHo: OTcyrcTBHe KaKoro 
6w to hh SbiJio HaSjnofleHna co ctopohm npoTHBHHKa (SbiBano h TaKoe), pacxjiaSaHHOCTb ero 6ohu,ob, 
He6pe>KHoe h HeSflHTenbHoe HeceHHeM cjiy>K6bi, OTcyTCTBne niaHueBbix paSoT, noaBJieHne Ha nepeflo- 
boh npoTHBHHKa rpa>KflaHCKHx h aBHO nocTopoHHHx jiHii, (hm Henero TaM flenaTb). Bee 3to yKa3biBaeT 
Ha cjiaSyio h Henpo(})eccHOHajibHyio opraHH3au,Hio paSoTbi npoTHBHHKa b oSopoHe. 06Hapy>KeHHe 
CMeHbi jiHHHoro cocTaBa npoTHBHHKa Ha no3Hu,nax - sto Sojibmon no^apoK ^Jia CBoero KOMaH^npa. Bo 
Bcex BbimenepeHHCJieHHbix cnynaax KOMaH^np npnHHMaeT caMOCToaTenbHoe pemeHne o HeMe/uieH- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 178 

hoh aTaKe - rpex He BOcnojib30BaTbca o6pa30BaBineHca anaSnHoii. Hmchho b TaKHe MOMenibi aTaKa 

CBOHX 6yRQT HeO>KHflaHHOH, HeoSblHaHHO 3(})4)eKTHBHOH H C MHHHMajIbHblMH nOTepaMH. 

IlepeoneHHTb pe3yjibTaTbi TmaTenbHoro h nocToamioro HaSjnoflemui HeB03MO>KHO. CHaiinep, 
HaSniOflaTejib h pa3Be#HHKH, BbiHy>KfleHHbie nocToamio HaSjiiOflaTb no cnen,H(|)HKe CBoeii SoeBoii pa- 
SoTbi, - 3to raa3a h yniH KOMaH^Hpa. 

IIo3TOMy Hapa^y c ochobhoh HCTpeSniejibHoii ^eaTejibHOCTbio CHaiinepa eivty Bcer^a CTaBjrrca 
3a^aHH no HaSjnofleHHio. B no3HnHOHHO-o6opoHHiejibHbix SoeBbix flencTBnax conyrcTByioniaa paSoTa 
CHannepoB KaK HaSjnoflaTejien nrpaeT oneHb Ba>KHyio ponb. CHannepy CTaBjrrca OTflejibHbie n koh- 
KpeTHbie 3aflaHna no HaSjnofleHHio b 30He ero OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. He3aBncnMO ot Toro, r^e pacnojiara- 
eTca no3Hu,na CHaiinepa - Ha nepeflHeM Kpae cbohx hjih Ha HnneiiHoii nojioce, - CHaiinep o6»3aH H3y- 
naTb MecTHOCTb n BbiaBJiaTb omeBbie cpe^CTBa npoTHBHHKa. B jiioSom anynae CHaiinep Be^eT >KypHan 
HaSjnofleHHa b npoH3BOJibHoii (})opMe, b kotopom 3anncbiBaeT KoopflmiaTbi n BpeMa o6Hapy>KeHHa to- 
ro hjih HHoro oSbeKTa, coSbmia, noaBJieHHa b Tex hjih hhbix MecTax coji^aT h o(|)HnepoB npoTHBHHKa, 
BbinojmeHna inaHneBbix h ^pyrax oSopoHHiejibHbix paSoT h nponee. Mejioneii b HaSjnofleHHH He 6bi- 
BaeT. H3 3annceii CHaiinepoB, pa3BeflHHKOB h HaSjnoflaTejieii ocjmnep cocTaBJiaeT oSmyio KapTHHy 60- 
eBoii oScTaHOBKH. 

IIpoTHBHHK Bcer^a CTpeMHTca aTaKOBaTb BHe3anHO. CHaiinep KaK HanSojiee TpeHHpoBaHHbiii 
HaSjiiOAaTejib o6a3aH BOBpeMa o6Hapy>KHTb npn3HaKn noflroTOBKH npoTHBHHKa k aTaKe h c^ejiaTb Bee 
B03MO>KHoe fljia cpbiBa hjih ocjiaSjieHHa ee CHaiinepcKHM omeM (cm. ^anee). 

OcoSeHHO BHHMaTejibHO CHaiinepbi aojckhm HaSjiKwaTb 3a oScTaHOBKoii B03Jie mhhhlix 3arpa>K- 
fleHHii - cbohx h npoTHBHHKa, h6o nepefl BbiflBH>KeHHeM b aTaKy canepw npoTHBHHKa Bcer^a nocra- 
paiOTca npoflejiaTb npoxo^bi b 3thx 3arpa>KfleHHax. 

nOCTAHOBKA 3A^AH CHAHIIEPAM 

CHaiinepaM CTaBaTca 3a#aHH b cootbctctehh c hx B03MO>KHOCTaMH B03fleiicTBHa Ha npoTHBHH- 
Ka. 

C HananoM aTaKH npoTHBHHKa CHaiinepbi yHHHTO>KaiOT oraeM >KHByio cnny, n b nepByio onepeflb 
oc})HLi,epoB, h onacHbie fljia cbohx oraeBbie cpe^CTBa, npHRpbiBaiomne h oSecnennBaiomHe oraeM npo- 
flBH>KeHHa npoTHBHHKa. 

^HCTaHHHa fleiicTBHTejibHoii cipejibSbi CHaiinepcKoii bhhtobkh y CTpejiKa c xopomeii noflroTOB- 
Koii npaKTHnecKH He npeBbiniaeT 800 MeTpoB. IIosTOMy CHaiinepaM ^Jia acJ^eKTHBHoii paSoTbi npn 
mnpoKoii HeiiTpajibHoii nojioce - Sojiee 400 MeTpoB - npnxoflHTca HOHbio ckpwtho BbiflBnraTbca h 3a- 
HHMaTb no3HHHH Ha HeiiTpajibHoii nojioce. Ilepefl hhmh Bceraa ctost o#hh h Te >Ke 3a#aHH: 

- yHHHTO>KeHHe SbiCTpo noaBJiaioniHxca n Hcne3aiomHx nejieii, KOTopwe He HaSjnoflaiOTca h 
HeflOcaraeMbi ^Jia nopa>KeHHa co CBoero nepe#Hero Kpaa; 

- yHHHTO>KeHHe oc})HLi,epcKoro cocTaBa npoTHBHHKa; 

- cpbiB opraHH3au,HH paSoTbi nepeflHero Kpaa npoTHBHHKa; 

- CHaiinepcKHii Teppop h fleMopanroaHna HenpHjrrejia; 

- HaSjnofleHHe 3a coSmthjimh Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa, HByneHHe pacnojioaceHna ero oraeBbix 

CpeflCTB, HaSjIIOflaTeJIbHblX, KOppeKTHpOBOHHblX H KOMaHflHblX nyHKTOB H flpyrHX Ba>KHbIX B TaKTHHe- 
CKOM OTHOHieHHH oSbeKTOB. 

IIpH nocTaHOBKe 3a^an CHaiinepaM o6a3aTejibHO yKa3biBaiOTca: opneHTHpbi, nojioca HaSjnofle- 
HHa, py6e>KH npeflnojiaraeMoro cocpeflOToneHHa npoTHBHHKa, onacHbie b TaKTHnecKOM OTHOHieHHH 
ynacTKn mccthocth, Ha KOTopbie oSpamaeTca ocoSoe BHHMaHHe npn HaSjnofleHHH. CHaiinepa, Bbi^BH- 
HyBHieroca 3a nepe^HHii Kpaii cbohx ^Jia HaSjiiOfleHHa Ha HeiiTpajibHoii nojioce, oSecnennBaiOT Heo6- 

XOflHMblMH CpeflCTBaMH CB33H flJIS CBOeBpeMeHHOH nepeflaHH HH(})OpMaLI,HH. 

fl,jia Toro hto6w ^eiicTBOBaTb 34)(})eKTHBHO, CHaiinep flOJiaceH ^eiicTBOBaTb co3HaTejibHO, a jijm 
3Toro oh flOJi>KeH yacHHTb ce6e TaKTnnecKyio 3a^any CBoero noflpa3flejieHHa. 

Ilpn nojiyneHHH 3a^aHH CHaiinep corjiacoBbiBaeT c KOMaH^npoM pacnojio>KeHHe cbohx ochob- 
hoh, 3anacHbix h jio>KHbix no3Hu,Hii, noTOMy hto KOMaH^np o6»3aH 3HaTb, r^e stot CHaiinep (hjih 
rpynna CHaiinepoB) Sy^eT paSoTaTb na HeiiTpajibHoii nojioce h r^e ero HCKaTb. H60 b CTpeMJieHHH 
npH6jiH3HTbca k npoTHBHHKy Ha BepHbiii BbiCTpeJi h b noncKax HanSojiee Bbiro^Hbix yrjiOB oScTpejia, 
no3BOJiaiOHiHx "flocTaTb" uejib b caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix MecTax rjiySnHbi oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa, CHaii- 
nepbi noflnac 3aHHMaiOT no3Hu,HH oneHb 6jih3ko ot ero nepeflHero Kpaa - b 300-250 MeTpax, a HHor^a 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 179 

h 6jiH>Ke. H noaTOMy bo BpeMa paSoTbi CHaftnepa 3a hhm aojckhw HenpepwBHO cneflHTb co ctopohw 
nepBoii jihhhh Tpamneii ero nepeflHero Kpaa h 3HaTt, r^e oh HaxoflHica. noneMy? IIoTOMy hto, Kor^a 
oh nocne CTpejibSw 6y#eT o6Hapy>KeH npoTHBHHKOM h Ha ero jinKBHflanHio Spoorr aBTOMaTHHKOB, 
TOJibKO oraeBaa noflflepacKa co ctopohw cbohx noMO>KeT CHaiinepy OTopBaTbca ot HenpnaTejui, #o6e- 
>KaTb hjih flonoji3TH ^o 6e3onacHoro MecTa. B CTapwe BpeMeHa /uia 3Toro cneiniajibHO Bbi^ejiajiH 
CTaHKOBbiH nyneMeT. Cennac B03MO>KHOCTax CTaHKOBbix nyjieMeTOB 3a6buiH BOoSme, xots HacTaB- 
jieHHaMH hx npHMeHeHHe eme npeflycMOTpeHO. CTaHKOBbiii nyneMeT - oneHb CHJibHoe orHeBoe cpe#- 
ctbo. Ero ycTOHHHBOCTb no3BOJiaeT BecbMa Jierico h scJ^ckthbho nopa>KaTb MHO>KecTBeHHbie He3aivtac- 
KnpoBaHHbie u,ejiH Ha paccToaHHax #o nojiyropa KHJiOMeTpoB. J\im 3Haiomero nejiOBeica cjio>KHoro b 
3tom HHnero Her. Eme He TaK ^aBHO nyneMeTHHKH 3anpocTO Morjin nopa>KaTb uejiH "nepe3 ronoBbi 
cbohx" h Ha oSpaTHbix CKaTax bwcot. IIosTOMy oSycnoBJiHBaiOTca cicpbiTbie nyrH OTxofla c no3HHHH k 
cbohm b anynae ocjio>KHeHHa oScTaHOBKH h nopaflOK orHeBoro npHKpbiTHa co ctopohw cbohx npn ot- 
xo/ie CHaiinepoB, BpeMa, Kor^a no3Hu,HH Sy^yr roTOBbi, nopaflOK B3aHMOfleHCTBHa c coceflaMH (raKH- 
mh >Ke CHaiinepaMH) ^pyrnx noflpa3flejieHHH. CHaiinep flOJi>KeH 3HaTb CHCTeivty orroi CBoero no#pa3fle- 
jieHna h 3HaTb HanpaBJieHna h nyin OTxofla SoeBoro oxpaHeHHa cbohx b anynae npHKpbnna ero 
CHannepcKHM orHeM npn OTCTyiuieHHH. 

HecMOTpa Ha to, hto nejieii BbiaBJiaeTca ^OBOJibHO MHoro, CTpejurrb no hhm cpa3y >KejiaTejibHO 
He Bcer^a. HeM Sojibine npoTHBHHKa BbiaBJieHO cennac, TeM xy>Ke fljia Hero noTOM. BacnjiHH 3aiineB 
3to Ha3biBan ">KH3Hb b paccponKy". B peiuaiomHH MOMeHT Sy^eT ySm HaSjuoflaTejib, ocjmnep, #e>Kyp- 
Hbiii nyjieMeTHHK, pa36nTbi HaSjnoflaTejibHbie npnSopbi, 3acTpejieHbi b H3rn6ax TpaHiueii Soiiubi npo- 
THBHHKa. HacTynHT CHannepcKHH Teppop. Bee SoaTca BbicyHyTbca H3 OKonoB. Ha KaKoii-TO npoMe>Ky- 
tok BpeMeHH opraHH30BaHHbie fleftcTBHa npoTHBHHKa 6y#yT napajiHBOBaHbi. CHaiinep fle3opraHH30Ban 
paSoTy nepeflHero Kpaa npoTHBHHKa h b OTBeTCTBeHHbin momcht noMor cbohm b Sojibiueii CTeneHH, 
neM npocTO yBejiHHHJi cboh jihhhmh cneT. CHaiinep yjiynninji TaKTHnecKoe nojio>KeHHe cbohx. IIpo- 
thbhhk b HeoSxoflHMblii no TeneHHio coSbiTHH momcht 6y#eT o6e3rjiaBJieH, ocuenjieH, fle3opraHH30- 
BaH h HaHeceT ropa3#o MeHbnie ymepSa. 

B no3Hu,HOHHoii BoiiHe Jiynnie Bcero TaKne Benin nojiynaiOTca y CHaiinepa. H sto Bcer^a 6bi.no, 
ecTb n Sy^eT ero ochobhoh 3aflaneii. 

CHaiinepcKHii npoMbicen He Bcer^a npoHBBOflHica c HeiiTpajibHoii nojiocbi hjih nepeflHero py- 
6e>Ka cbohx. B oSopoHe HeT rjryxHx, 3aKpbiTbix MecT. Ha CTbiKe Me>K#y nacTSMn npoTHBHHKa mo>kho 
BbiflBHHyrbca BMecTe c pa3Be#HHKaMH bo (|)jiaHr npoTHBHHKy h 3aH»Tb oneHb BbiroflHyio no3Hu,Hio. 
TaKne Bbi^BH^eHHa bo (|)jiaHr npoH3BOflaTca HOHbio, CKpbimo n SecmyMHO. npn stom Hcnojib3yiOTca 
CKJia^KH MecTHOCTH, TyMaH, pe3Kne TeMnepaTypHbie nepena^bi. HanpnMep, npn pe3KOM oceHHeM no- 
HH>KeHHH TeMnepaTypw pa3Beflrpynnbi HeoflHOKpaTHO npoSnpajiHCb b tbiji npoTHBHHKa no BHe3anHO 
3aMep3aioniHM SonoTaM, pynbaM h t j. ■ TaKHM MecTaM, KOTopwe npoTHBHHK CHHTan HenpoxoflHMbi- 
mh h trq He BbicraBJiaji HaSjuofleHHe h He ocyuiecTBJiaji mhhhwx npoTHBonexoTHbix nocTaHOBOK. 

B TaKHx cjiynaax oneHb nerKO BbiaBJiaiOTca apTHJiJiepniicKHe no3Hu,HH, 0(})HLi,epcKHe njioniaflKH, 
niTaSbi h npoHHe MecTa cocpeAOToneHHa >khboh chjibi npoTHBHHKa. CSoKy npoTHBHHK OTKptiT h y»3- 
bhm. B jiioSom BapnaHTe CHaiinepcKoii pa3BeflKH oneHb nojie3HO BbiacHHTb pacnopaflOK ^hs nepeflHero 
Kpaa h TbmoBoro oSecneneHHa npoTHBHHKa. 3to no3BOJiaeT ycTaHOBHTb momchtw, Kor^a npoTHBHHK 
paccjiaSneH h OTBJieneH, HanpnMep j\jih npneMa nHinn. 

no HeoSxoflHMOCTH oScToaTejibCTB CHaiinep (rpynna CHaiinepoB) MO>KeT OTKpbiTb oroHb Ha 
yHHHTO>KeHHe hjih BepHyTbca k cbohm c pa3BeflflaHHbiMH. Ho name Bcero rpynna CHaiinepoB h pa3- 
BeflHHKOB oraeM nyjieMeTOB n CHaiinepcKHx bhhtobok b Hy>KHbiii momcht (a HHorfla n npocTO TaK) 
nycKaiOT KpoBb >khboh cnjie npoTHBHHKa. OjiaHroBbiii oroHb rpynnbi CHaiinepoB b "Topeu," no3Hu,Hii 
npoTHBHHKa Sy^eT He npocTO pe3ynbTaTHBHbiM - oh Sy^eT rySnTejibHbiM n Bbi30BeT naHHKy b TpaH- 
iueax npoTHBHHKa. 06a3aTejibHaa u,ejib npn stom - oc})HLi,epbi h ^e>KypHbie nyneMeTHHKH (oroHb nyjie- 
MeTOB MO>KeT OKa3aTbca pokobmm fljia CHaiinepoB) Bee ocTanbHbie Ha cpe^Hnx h 6jih3khx flHCTaHu,Hax 
He CMoryr OKa3aTb CHaiinepaM opraHH30BaHHoro conpoTHBJieHHa. HaSjiiOflaTejiH yHHHTO>KaiOTca b no- 
CJieflHioio onepeflb - ecjin hx no3Hu,HH pa3BeflaHbi, ohh HHKy^a He fleHyTca. 

B TaKHx cjiynaax CHraanoM k otkpmthio KOJuieKTHBHoro orHa cjiy>KHT nepBbiii BbiCTpeji CTapnie- 
ro rpynnbi. nocjie paSoTbi ocyntecTBJiaeTca CKpwTbiii otxoa 6e3 KOMaH^bi, caMOCToaTejibHO no Jiomn- 
HaM, CTapbiM TpaHmeaM, CKna^KaM mccthocth. Pa3BeflCHaiinepcKaa rpynna CTpyKTypHO ^eJiHTca Ha 
TpoiiKH c Ha3HaneHneM CTapmero, htoSm hhkto He OTCTan n He noTepajica. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 180 

BBIEOP H OEYCTPOHCTBO CHAHIIEPCKHX n03HE<HH 

Ilocjie Toro KaK flHeM npoHBBefleHa BHByanbHaa pa3Be#Ka uejieH, HOHbio CHaMnep BbiJie3aeT 3a 
nepeflHHH Kpaft Ha HeHrpanbHyio nonocy h oSopy^yeT no3HiiHH fljia CTpejibSbi. MecTO ajih no3Hu,HH 
onpeflejiaeTca hsljikhuqm Hejieii h BbiSnpaeTca Taic, htoSw pa3Be#aHHbie uejiH mo>kho SbiJio ^ocTaTb 
BbicTpenoM. IIo3hli,hio >KejiaTejibHO BbiSpaTb b TaKOM MecTe, HToSbi cojiHue CBeTHJio b raa3a npOTHB- 
HHKa h cjiennjio ero, oflHOBpeMemio Bbi3biBaa fleMacKHpyiomHe otSjicckh ero onrHnecKHx npnSopoB. 
IIo3HLi,Ha flOJi>KHa SbiTb b TeHH, a ecuH OHa pacnojio>KeHa Ha cojnme, to He flOJi>KHa ^aBaTb TeHb, BHe- 
3anHO B03HHKaiOHiyio npn nepeMemeHHH cojnma h ^eiviacKHpyiomyio no3HHHio. Ha^o yHHTbiBaTb h 
HanpaBJieHne BeTpa: >KejiaTejibHO, htoSm oh jjyii b CTopoHy npoTHBHHKa h Hec eivty b rjia3a flbiM, nbuib 
h necoK. IIo3hli,hio >KejiaTejibHO 3aHHMaTb c (|)jiaHra (cSoKy) ot npoTHBHHKa - Taic Jiyniue OTKpbiBaiOTca 
H3rn6bi TpaHHien, xo^ob cooSmefflia, npoTHBHHK 3a OTflejibHbiMH yKpbiTHaMH, h caM CHaMnep npn Be- 
fleHHH TaKoro "Kocoro" 4)jiaHroBoro oraa mojkct SbiTb KanHranbHO yicpbrr ot oraa 4)poHTanbHoro h 
MeHee 3aMeTeH c (J)poHTajibHbix no3Hu,HH npoTHBHHKa. Pa3yMeeTca, oneHb >KejiaTejibHO 3aH»Tb no3H- 
hhio noBbinie - Ha BbicoTKe, Ha Kpbinie, Ha nep^aKe, Ha ^epeBe HT.fl. - TaK Jierne "^ocTaTb" npoTHBHH- 
Ka nyjien. 

Ho npo Bee 3th nepcneKTHBHbie fljia CHannepa MecTa 3HaeT h npoTHBHHK, noTOMy hto b TaKnx 
>Ke npHBJieKaTenbHbix MecTax 6yp,yj CTpeMHTbca ycTaHOBHTb cboh no3Hu,HH h ero CHannepbi. IIo3TOMy 
CHaiinepcKHe no3Hu,HH BbiSnpaiOTca b6jih3h BbimeyKa3aHHbix oneHb Bbiro^Hbix MecT. npnneM no3n- 
hhh ycTaHaBJiHBaiOTca noflajibiue ot KaKoro-JinSo npHBJieKaiomero BHHMaHHe oSbeKra. IIcHxojiorHHe- 
ckhh npHHu,Hn BbiSopa no3Hu,HH: OHa oSycTpanBaeTca b TaKOM MecTe, hto Ha Hee He xoneTca cmot- 
peTb, HanpHMep, b Kyne Mycopa huh cpe^n HarpOMO^eHHa oflHOo6pa3Hbix HenHTepecHbix 
npeflMeTOB. IIo3HLi,Ha 3aHHMaeTca b caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix MecTax h TmaTejibHO MacKnpyeTca nofl (})oh 
h pejibec}) MecTHOCTH. K BbiSopy no3Hu,HH Ha#o OTHOCHTbca TBopnecKH, Hcnojib3ya Bee conyTCTByio- 
mne oScTOjrrejibCTBa h ynnTbiBaa (})aKTopbi, KOTopwe cpaSoTaiOT npoTHB Bac. C jhoSoh 3aHjrroH BaMH 
no3Hu,HH npoflyMbiBanTe h noflroTaBJiHBanTe nyra OTxofla. ^ojiro paSoTaTb c oahoh h toh >Ke no3n- 
hhh BaM He ^a^yT. KaK TOJibKO npoTHBHHK noHMeT, hto npoTHB Hero paSoTaeT CHaiinep, no BameM 
pacniH(})poBaHHOH no3Hu,HH He Sy^yT >KajieTb apTHJuiepHHCKHx SoenpnnacoB, a ecjin sto He noMO>KeT, 
Ha Banie yHHHTO>KeHHe noroHaT b3bo# aBTOMaTHHKOB. H ecjin npn stom b3bo# nojia>KeT, ho CHannepa 
yHHHTO>KHT, 3a#ana 6y#eT CHHraTbca BbinojiHeHHOH. 

IIo3TOMy Hapa^y c ochobhoh no3Hu,HeH CHaMnep o6opy#yeT 3anacHbie no3HHHH, Ha KOTopwe 
nepeMemaeTca b oiynae onacHOCTH. Ho 3to eme He bcc BHHMaHHe npoTHBHHKa Ha^o pacceaTb, Ha#o 
BBecTH ero b 3a6jiy>KfleHHe, nosTOMy Hapa^y c no3Hu,naMH ochobhmmh h 3anacHbiMH CHannep oSopy- 
flyeT no3Hu,HH jio>KHbie, Jinnib cuerKa 3aMacKnpoBaHHbie, Ha KOTopwx nacTO pacnonaraeT Hynejia- 
npHMaHKH hjih npHMHTHBHbie MaHeKeHbi. K TOMy Me CHannepbi onpe^ejiaiOT no3Hu,HH no^CKOKa, Ha 
KOTopwe BbiflBHraiOTca fljia oflHoro-eflHHCTBeHHoro BbiCTpena h cpa3y >Ke noKH^aiOT nx ((J)oto 186). 




cDoto 186 He3aMacKHpoBaHHaa, ho yraySjieHHaa OTKpwTaa no3Hu,Ha no^CKOKa 
C3aflH hjih cSoKy ot no3Hii,HH, KaKOH 6bi OHa hh SbiJia - ocHOBHaa, 3anacHaa, no3Hii,Ha no^CKOKa 
h ^a>Ke no>KHaa (HHor^a npHxoflHTca CTpenaTb h c hhx), - o6a3aTejibHO flOJi>KHbi SbiTb (KaKHM yroflHO 
o6pa30M) nyrn OTxofla c no3Hii,HH - jioniHHbi, pBbi, OBpa>KKH, CTapwe TpaHHien h nponne CKna^KH 

MeCTHOCTH. 3T0 fleJiaeTCS flJia TOrO, HT06bI HMeTb B03MO>KHOCTb CKpblTHO H SblCTpO HCHe3HyTb C n03H- 

ii,hh b cjiynae MHHOMeTHoro hjih apTHjniepHHCKoro oScTpejia, a TaK>Ke b cjiynae nonbiTKH CHJiOBoro 
3axBaTa HiTypMOBoii rpynnoii npoTHBHHKa. nyTH OTxofla CHannepa k cbohm npn aTaKe npoTHBHHKa 
flOJi>KHbi SbiTb onpe^ejieHbi 3apaHee - 6e3 3Toro CHaiinep npaKTHnecKH oSpeneH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 181 

HopMajibHbiH n 3flpaBOMbicjiamHH CHaMnep ocHOBHyio no3Hnnio, Ha KOTopoii, KaK npaBiuio, 
npnxoAHTca cn^eTb HecKOJibKO nacoB (a HHor^a n cyTOK) h CKpbimo Bbicne>KHBaTb npoTHBHHKa, Bce- 
r/ia nocTapaeTca c^ejiaTb 3aKpbiTOH. OTKpbiTaa no3nnHa - sto Ta, KOTopaa 3aHjrca b yaoShom fljia 
CTpenbSbi MecTe c xo/iy h KOTopyio He Ha^o noflroTaBJinBaTb - CHaiinep 3aHaji KaKyio-HnSyflb pacme- 
jiHHy, npn>Kajica k CKaTy, 3aner b TpaBe, 3aceji 3a neHbKOM hjih KycTHKOM, npmcpbijica BeTKaMH hjih 
KaMy(J)jia>KeM. C TaKon no3HnnH BbiCTpenHJi napy pa3, He Sojibine, flan 3a#HHH xofl b jiomnHKy h 6bi.n 

TaKOB. 

Ecjih 3to no3HHH5i noflCKOKa, Ha KOTopyio CHaiinep SbiCTpo BbiflBHHyjica c ochobhoh no3Hu,HH 
npn y>Ke pa3BeflaHHOH h noaBHBHieiica nejin, 6biCTpo BbiCTpenHJi h MrHOBeHHO "cMbuica" Ha3a/i, no 
npHHu,Hny "yKycnji h CKpbiJica", to TaKne fleiicTBHa, 6e3onacHbie fljia CHaiinepa h npHHOcamne pe- 
3yjibTaT, TaKTHnecKH oneHb rpaMOTHbi. Ho ecjin nejib ynopHO He >KejiaeT noaBJiaTbca (flypaKOB HeT - 
hhkto He xoneT yMHpaTb), a CHaiinep o>KHflaeT ee noaBJieHHa Ha otkpmtom h pobhom MecTe, to #a>Ke b 

3aMaCKHpOBaHHOM COCT03HHH 3TO CfleJiaTb OHeHb HenpocTO. 

IIpe>Kfle Bcero, Hejib3a nomeBejinTbca. Co ctopohm npoTHBHHKa TO>Ke Be^eTca HaSjnofleHne 3a 
HeiiTpajibHOH nojiocoM h oSbeKiaMn Ha conpeflejibHoii (Ha Bameii) CTopoHe, h HaSjnofleHne 3to npoH3- 
BOflHTca BecbMa TinaTejibHO. Maneiimee nieBejieHne 3anpocTO MO>KeT CTOHTb BaM >kh3hh. Ot fljiHiejib- 
Horo HenoflBH>KHoro jie>KaHHa (cH^eHHa, CToaHHa noflnac b caMbix HeecTecTBeHHbix no3ax) HeMeiOT 
pyKH h Horn, h b KOHue kohuob He yflHBJiaiiTecb, ecun nanen. He CMO>KeT corayTbca Ha cnycice. XoneT- 
ca ecTb. XoneTca nHTb. H xy>Ke Bcero, ecjin 3axoneTca no Hy>K#e. 3axoneTca, KaK Bcer^a, no 3aKOHy 
noflJiocTH, b caMbiii HenoflxoflamnH MOMem. IIosTOMy hhkto h HHKor^a He nocMeeT H3fleBaTbca Ha# 
CHaftnepoM, riiqm KapayjiHBHiHM nejib nofl hocom y npoTHBHHKa Ha flncraHnHH cjibiniHMOCTH pasro- 
bophoh penn n HOHbio npnnoji3mero k cbohm c nonHbiMH niTaHaMH. JleTOM HeBepojrmo ^OHHMaiOT 
KOMapw n nponne HaceKOMbie. ^OJiro jie>KaTb Ha 3eMJie npoSjieMaTHHHO #a>Ke neTOM. A Tenepb npefl- 
CTaBbre, hto 3to Ha^o ^ejiaTb no3flHen oceHbio, no# npojiHBHbiM #o>KfleM, no ymn b rpa3n. A 3hmoh 
npn Mopo3e? IIpocTO TaK jie>KaTb cyTKaMH b CHery He >Kejiann hh (|)HHCKHe "KyKyniKn", hh cnSnpcKHe 

CTpeJIKH. 

IIo BceM 3thm npHHHHaM CHaiinep ocHOBHyio no3Hu,nio, c KOTopon oh Bbicjie>KHBaeT nejib, flena- 
eT 3aKpbiTOH n 6e3onacHOH. CHaiinep 3apwBaeTca b 3eMJiio. IIo oScTaHOBKe oh hjih ncnojib3yeT toto- 
Boe yraySjieHne b CKJia^Kax mccthocth, hjih BbiKanbiBaeT MHHH-6jiHHfla>K, HacKOJibKO CMO>KeT no- 
rjiy6>Ke. CBepxy 6jiHHfla>K (oKon, mejib, anenKa) HaKpbiBaeTca KapKacoM H3 jnoSoro noflpyHHoro 
MaTepnana (cm. paHee), Ha KOTopbin jio>KHTca Kpwnia - oSmhho njiain-nanaTKa hjih jiioSoh ^pyroii 
noflCoSHbiii MaTepnan (jihctw 4)aHepw, >KecTn, oSuihbkh c pa36niOH SpoHeTexmiKH n t. #.). CHapy>KH 
n CBepxy no3nu,Ha MacKnpyeTca TeM, hto ecTb Ha mccthocth (c|)oto 187). J\jih cipejibSw h HaSjnofle- 
HHa ocTaBJiaiOT mejib-aM6pa3ypy. JleTOM h 3hmoh 3aKpbiTbie no3Hu,HH oSycTpanBaiOTca n MacKnpyiOT- 
ca no-pa3HOMy. 




®oto 187. OcHOBHaa 3aKpwTaa no3nu,Ha CHannepa 

Ha TaKon 3aKpbiTon no3Hu,HH, 3amHmeHHon ot niajibHbix nyjib h ockojikob, ot BeTpa, cojimi,a h 
aTMOC(})epHbix oca^KOB, CHaiinep MO>KeT HaxoflHTbca oneHb ^ojiro. C ochobhoh no3Hu,HH CHaiinep Be- 
fleT HaSjnofleHne n >K^eT noaBJieHHa u,ejin. Ha 3aKpbiTon no3nu,Hn mo>kho nomeBejiHTbca n pa3M»Tbca. 
Mo>kho npncecTb, mo>kho npnxjionHyTb KOMapa. Mo>kho rjiOTHyTb H3 (^Jiarn h cbecTb cyxoii naeK. H 
ecjin opraHH3M noTpeSoBan, coflep>KHMoe KnmeHHHKa mo>kho Tyr >Ke 3aKonaTb h He HOCHTb b niTaHax. 

Ha 3aKpbITOH n03HU,HH MO>KHO COXpaHHTb >KH3Hb H 3flOpOBbe. 

3aKpwTaa oSopyflOBaHHaa no3Hu,Ha - sto CBoeo6pa3Hbiii BpeMeHHbiii "niTaS" CHannepa (hjih 
CHaiinepcKOH napw). 3to no3Hnna, Ha KOTopoii CHaiinep npoBOflHT Sojibinyio nacTb BpeMeHH h c ko- 
Topon eMy flOJi>KHO SbiTb BHflHO Bee. YfloSHOH fljiH HaSjiiOfleHHa no3Hnnen Ha^o flopo>KHTb, n ncnojib- 
30BaTb ee fljia CTpejibSw mo>kho TOJibKO b KpaHHeM cjiynae, no ocoSo Ba>KHbiM nejiaivi, ^ejiaa He Sojiee 
flByx BbiCTpejiOB c pa3pbiBOM no BpeMeHH hjih 15-20 ceKyHfl Be^a HenpepbiBHyio CTpejibSy. nocjie ne- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 182 

ro no3nnna HanHeT o6pa6aTbiBaTbca apTHJuiepnen. PaHO hjih no3#HO ee "HamynaiOT" pa3Be#rpynnbi 
npoTHBHHKa. IIo3TOMy KaK 6bi hh SbiJio >Kanb paccTaBaTtca c oSopyflOBaHHon, y^oSHoii, 6e3onacHoii h 
BbiroflHOH no3Hnnen, ee Ha^o BpeMa ot BpeivteHH MeHaTb. H b jiioSom anynae npnxo#a Ha 3Ty no3n- 
nnio CJie^yeT npoBepHTb, He 3aMHHHpoBaHa jih OHa (hjih no#xo#bi k Heii). KpoMe Toro, HeoflHOKpaTHbi 
cnynan 3axBaTa CHaiinepoB npn Bbixo^e Ha 3aicpbiTbie no3HHHH TaierHHecKHMH pa3BeflrpynnaMn npo- 
THBHHKa. 

IIo HeoSxoflHMOCTH BbiCTpenHB c 3aKpbiTOH no3Hu,HH napy pa3, He SojibHie, h He flTOKH^aacb, no- 
Ka 3Ty no3Hu,Hio HaKpoiOT MHHOMeTHbiM orHeM, CHannep yxoflm Ha 3anacHyio no3nnnio h npoflOiDKa- 
eT paSoTaTb OTTy^a. 3anacHaa no3Hu,Ha oSopy^yeTca npome: oSwhho OHa npeflCTaBJiaeT coSon Herjiy- 
Sokhh 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiM OKon n HHHeM He HaKpbrra hjih nyrb npHKpwTa CBepxy ((J)oto 188). 

'--" i V 1 . 




cDoto 188. 3anacHaa 3aMacKnpoBaHHaa no3Hu,Ha. 

HHorfla npH HHTeHCHBHon nepecTpejiKe c oSeiix conpeflejibHbix CTopoH mo>kho paSoTaTb n 
6jiy>KflaiomHM MeTOflOM 6e3 npeflBapnTejibHon noflroTOBKn no3Hnnn. IIpH 3tom CHaMnep no xo/iy 06- 
CTaHOBKn onpe^ejiaeT nejin n Bee nojie 60a ncnojib3yeT ^Jia no3Hnnn nofldcoica, ckpwtho nepeflBnra- 
acb ot yKpbiTna k yicpbiTHio. flojiro CTpejurib c OflHoro MecTa Hejib3a. J\soKe b flHHaMHHHOM 6010, Kor^a 
HenoHaTHO, kto Sojibine CTpejiaeT - cboh hjih ny>KHe, npoTHBoSopcTByioinne ctopohm paSoTy CHanne- 

POB npOTHBHHKa HaHHHaiOT HyBCTBOBaTb flOBOJIbHO SblCTpO. 

IIo3HnHio Mano yMeTb SbiCTpo MacKnpoBaTb, ee eme Hy>KHO rpaMOTHO BbiSpaTb ^jih coScTBeH- 
hoh >Ke 6e3onacHOCTH. Ot BbiSopa n MecTa no3nu,HH 3aBHcnr oneHb mhoto. C no3Hnnn aojckch xopo- 
mo npocMaTpnBaTbca npoTHBHHK, a no3nnna caMoro CHannepa npocMaTpnBaTbca He flOJi>KHa. Ecjih 
BaM Bce-TaKH npnxoflHTca Bbicjie>KHBaTb npoTHBHHKa c OTicpbiTon no3nnnn, nonaine orjiaflbiBairrecb 
Ha3a^, HaSjnoflanTe (})oh MecTHOCTH, KOTopwn 6y#eT 3a BaMH, n CTapanrecb He Bbi^ejiaTbca Ha stom 
(})OHe. Bbi cflejiaeTe rpySenmyio omnSicy, ecjin 3anMeTe no3nnnio Ha rpeSHe BbicoTbi: TaKHM o6pa30M 
^a>Ke b caMOM jiynmeM KaMy(J)jia>Ke bm 6y#eTe oth6tjihbo Bbi^ejiaTbca Ha (})OHe He6a ^a>Ke b nacMyp- 
Hbiii fleHb, a npn apKOM cojihchhom ocBemeHHH h noflaBHO. IIo3HnHio Jiynme BbiSnpaTb He Ha rpeSHe 

BblCOTbl, a Ha CKaTe CO CTOpOHbl npOTHBHHKa B TeHH. 

C TeHbio CHannepy Ha^o #py>KHTb. Ho OHa MO>KeT CTaTb h npe^aTejieM, ocoSemio yrpoM h Bene- 
poM b kocom cojmeHHOM ocBemeHHH. B TaKoe BpeMa Hejib3a HaxoflHibca Ha otkpwtoh no3Hu,HH flaace 
b caMOM 6e3ynpenHOM KaMy(J)jia>Ke. HoBaa TeHb Ha H3BecTHOM h npncMOTpeHHOM npoTHBHHKOM MecTe 
Bcer^a npHBJieneT BHHMaHHe. IIo3TOMy CTapanrecb "npncTponTbca" k jiioSoMy npeflMeTy, Kocaa TeHb 

OT KOTOpOrO y>Ke H3BeCTHa npOTHBHHKy. 

Ecjih no3Hu,na 3aHHMaeTca c xo/iy, CJie^yeT yMejio nojib30BaTbca noflBepHyBniHMHca yicpbiTHaMH 
- TeMH >Ke nraMH, KaMHaMH, CTpoHTejibHbiMH oSjiOMKaMH n t. fl. Hejib3a CTpejiaTb CBepxy yKpbiTHa - 
TaK bw Sy^eTe Ha BH^y h no cyTH ^ejia npeflCTaBJunb coSon rpy^Hyio MnmeHb. Hejib3a CTpejunb c 
npaBoro njiena, HMea yicpbiTne c jieBoii ctopohm, - b TaKOM cjiynae yKpbiTne BOoSme He 6y#eT Bac 3a- 
KpbiBaTb. IIpH CTpejibSe c npaBoro njiena yicpbiTne, pacnojio>KeHHoe cjieBa ot CTpejiKa, ocTaBJiaeT ^Jia 
CTpejibSbi OTKpbiTbiMH HacTb rojiOBbi, njiena n CTpejiaiomyio pyKy. 

H 3hmoh, h jieTOM CHaMnepbi jiioSst 3aHHMaTb no3Hii,HH b pa36nTOH SpoHeTexHHKe. 3anacHaa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 183 

no3Hu,Ha b TaKOM cjiynae oSopyflyeTca nop SpoHeTexHHKoii b 3apaHee BbipwTOM raySoKOM OKone. H3 
pa36HToro TaHKa hjih BTP mo>kho BbiCTpejiHTb, KaK H3 rjry6HHbi noMemeHHa (oroHt h alim ocTaiOTca 
BHyTpn, 3ByK TO>Ke npHrayniaeTca) 2-3 pa3a h noTOM, He poimnpascb, noKa no TaHKy papyj H3 npoTH- 
BOTaHKOBoro rpaHaTOMeTa, BbinacTb H3 HH>KHero jiioKa b 3apaHee noflroTOBJieHHbiii OKon, "oTopBaTb- 
ca" noflanbine ot 3Toro JiioKa h yirrn TaKHM o6pa30M ot KyMymiTHBHoii rpaHaTbi, ra30flHHaMHnecKoe 
^aBJieHHe KOTopoii BHyTpn TaHKa b coctojihhh "pa3Ma3aTb" Bee >KHBoe. 

B KypcKOM cpa>KeHHH pyccKHH CHaiinep ycTponji no3Hu,Hio nop pa36HTbiM TaHKOM Ha 
HeiiTpajibHOH nonoce, HaxanbHO h Harao, MeTpax b TpexcTax ot HeMeu,KHx no3Hu,HH h payKQ 3a jikhhch 
mhhhmx 3arpa>KfleHHH npoTHBHHKa, ho npeflBapHTejibHO "HaiunHroBan" npoTHBonexoTHbiMH MHHaMH 
TeppHTopnio B03Jie TaHKa. ,3,HeM b caMoe Heo>KHflaHHoe BpeMa Koro-TO noflCTpejiHJi. Hop TamcoM ^o- 
CTaTb ero oraeM CTpenKOBoro opytKna Smjio HeB03MO>KHO, nosTOMy nocne SecnnoflHoii CTpejibSbi no 
TaHKy Ha yHHHTO>KeHHe CHaiinepa BbiflBHHynacb rpynna aBTOMaTHHKOB. OSwhho hcmum b TaKnx cny- 
naax 3axoflHJiH k yHHHTO>KaeMOH no3Hu,HH c flByx ctopoh, a c (})poHTa hx ^BH>KeHHe npHKpbiBan OrOHb 
nyjieMeTHHKOB. IIpH Bbi#BH>KeHHH k no3HHHH Ha flHCTaHu,HH fleMcTBHTejibHoro nHCTOJieT-nyjieMeTHoro 
orroi HeMu,bi huothoh CTpejibSoii c Tpex ctopoh CTapanncb npn>KaTb Haiunx CHaiinepoB k 3eMJie h He 
pajb pawe BbiflBHHyTbca pus npHuejibHOH CTpejibSbi. IIotom npH6jiH>KajiHCb Ha SpocoK rpaHaTbi h 
rpaHaT npn 3tom He >KajiejiH. Ho b ^aHHOM cnynae pyccKHH 3a6jiaroBpeMeHHO HacTaBHJi mhh KaK pa3 
Ha TaKnx py6e>Kax h SjiaronojiynHO ynoji3 k cbohm no jiomnHe. Ilpn 3tom oh ycnen 3acTpejiHTb noji- 
flK»KHHbi HeMueB eme po Toro, KaK ohh HanajiH noflpbiBaTbca Ha MHHaX. 

B flpyroM cjiynae HeMeu,KHx aBTOMaTHHKOB, KOTopbix nocjianH k TaKOMy >Ke noflSnTOMy TaHKy 
Ha yHHHTO>KeHHe pyccKoro CHaiinepa, paccTpejuui c (J)jiaHra npHflaHHbiii k CHaiinepy pyccKHH nyne- 
MeTHHK, noflJiOBHBHiHH MOMeHT, Kor^a uejib npoTHBHHKa SbiJia pa3BepHyTa k HeMy Sokom h npeflCTaB- 
jiajia rpynnoByio MHHieHb. CaMoro CHaiinepa b stot momcht no# TaHKOM y>Ke He 6bi.no. 

BbiSpaTb h oSycTpoHTb no3Hu,Hio hjih CHCTeMy no3Hii,HH oneHb Ta>Kejio h HenpocTO. OpneHTH- 
poBaTbca fljia 3Toro Ha mccthocth h paSoTaTb (|)H3HHecKH npHxoflHTca oneHb SbiCTpo h ckpmtho. KaK 
bm Bee sto ycneeTe cflenaTb - HHKoro He KacaeTca. Bbi MoaceTe 3Toro h He flejiaTb, ho Tor^a BaM npn- 
PQtch ckpmtho Bbicjie>KHBaTb uejib, ympajb, HaSniOflaTb h npn stom He noflCTaBJiaTbca, ne>Ka Ha rpyHTe 
hjih b CHery b jhoSwx yanoBHax, He BbiaBJiaa ce6a. H KpoMe Toro, ^aBaTb pe3yjibTaTbi - hx Sy^yr Tpe- 
SoBaTb ot Bac Ka>K#biH pQnb. CHaiinepy npnxoflHTca TepneTb h paSoTaTb, paSoTaTb h TepneTb. Tepne- 
Hne - 3to paSoHHH HHCTpyMeHT CHaiinepa. BoiiHa He npomaeT HeTepnejiHBbix h caMOHafleamibix. 
BoiiHa He npomaeT jieHHBbix. Ha 3aKpbiTbix no3HHH»x y CHannepoB HeconocTaBHMO Sojibiue uiaHCOB 
He TOJibKO coxpaHHTb >KH3Hb h 3flopoBbe, ho h HaMHoro 3(})4)eKTHBHee BbinojiHHTb SoeByio 3a#any. 

npo(J)eccHOHajibHoe 3a6ojieBaHHe CHaiinepoB - npocTaTHT, B03HHKaiomHH HMeHHO ot jie>KaHHa 
Ha 3eMJie, h He o6a3aTejibHO Ha cwpoii h xojioahoh. no3TOMy bo Bcex apMHax MHpa pim CHaiinepoB 
npeflycMOTpeHbi cneuHajibHbie TennoHBOJinpyiomHe nepeflHHKH-noflflOHbi, Ha KOTopwe mo>kho Jienb h 
Ha KOTopwe mo>kho npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH cecTb. Ho fljia fljiHTejibHoro HenoflBH>KHoro jie>KaHHa npn 
o>KHflaHHH noaBJieHHa u,ejiH Bce-TaKH Hy>KHa KaKaa-TO noflCTHjnca. 

B Haiue BpeMa pirn 3thx u,ejieii Jiyniue Bcero Hcnojib30BaTb TaK Ha3biBaeMbiii "KapHMaT" - oSwh- 
Hbiii TypncTHHecKHH neHonojiHypeTaHOBbiH kobphk. TaKOH kobphk npo^aeTca b cnopTHBHbix Mara3H- 
Hax, oh npaKTHnecKH Hnnero He bccht h xopouio y^ep>KHBaeT Tenjio #a>Ke npn jie>KaHHH Ha xojiOflHbix 
CKanax. 

no3Hii,Hio CJie^yeT BbiSnpaTb TaKHM o6pa30M, htoSw ee He ^eiviacKHpoBaji ^mm ot BbiCTpejia. 

n03TOMy H 3HMOH, H JieTOM CTapaiOTCS oSopyflOBaTb n03HHHK) 3a MeJIKHM KyCTapHHKOM H CTpeJISTb B 

npocBeTbi Me>Kfly BeTBaMH, htoSw pmm He Bbixo^HJi 3a jihhhio KycTapHHKa npn stom pmm nocTeneH- 
ho paccenBaeTca b KycTapHHKe h He BH^eH co CTopoHbi. KpoMe Toro, 3a MejiKHM KyCTapHHKOM no3H- 
n;Ha Ha flHCTaHii,HH MeTpoB b ceMb^ecaT y>Ke aScojiiOTHO He BH^Ha, h6o HacTynaeT TaK Ha3biBaeMbiH 
3(})4)eKT TiojieBOH rapflHHbi. Hepe3 MejiKHH KycTapHHK CHaiinep, pacnojio>KeHHbiH HenocpeflCTBeHHO 
b6jih3h Hero, npeKpacHO bh^ht to, hto flejiaeTca 3a sthm KyCTapHHKOM, a npoTHBHHK, Haxoflamniica 
Ha paccToaHHH ot 3Toro KycTapHHKa, CHaiinepa y>Ke He bh^ht. nonpoSyiiTe - ySe^HTecb caMH. 

Jlynmaa n caMaa 6e3onacHaa pus CHaiinepa no3nii,Ha - Ha Kpaio Jieca h onaTb >Ke 3a mcjikhm Ky- 
CTapHHKOM HJIH 3a CBHCaiOIHHMH BHH3 BeTBSMH flepeBbeB TaK, HToSbl flbIM OT BbiCTpejia He BblXOflHJI 3a 

3th BeTBH. TaKaa no3HHH>i aScojiiOTHO HeBH^HMa. Ha TaKOM ynacTKe Jieca CHaiinep MO>KeT 6e3HaKa- 
3aHHO CTpejiaTb CTOJibKO, CKOJibKO eMy B3flyMaeTca, nepeMemaacb BpeMa ot BpeMeHH MeTpoB Ha 20-30 
b CTopoHy. HMea 2-3 3apaHee BbipbiTbix OKonnnKa, oh 3acTpaxoBaH h ot MHHOMeTHoro oraa. 

Bee BpeMa paSoTaTb c oahoh no3Hii,HH CHaiinepy Hejib3a. no MeTKOMy Bbipa>KeHHio Bacnjina 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 184 

3aftu,eBa, CHaftnep b noncKax nejin h pjm coSctbchhoh 6e3onacHOCTH BbiHy>KfleH Smtb KoneBHHKOM. 

IIocjieAOBaTejibHOCTb nepeMemeHHa CHaMnepa c no3HnnH Ha no3nnnio npeflyra^aTb Hejit3a. Ta- 
Kyio nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTb ^HKiyeT peanbHaa SoeBaa oScTaHOBKa. JIo>KHbie no3HUHH flOJi>KHbi BpeMa ot 
BpeMeHH "npoaBJiaTbca" nieBeneHHeM Ha hhx nyneji, bctok, oflHHOHHbiMH BbiCTpenaMH fljia npHBJiene- 
HHa CHaiinepcKoro oraa npoTHBHHKa Ha 3th no3HHHn. H Ha 3thx OTKpbiTbix no3HHHax, c KOTopbix 
mo>kho BbicneflHTb h noflJiOBHTb hmchho Hy>KHyio nejib, HHor^a npnxoflHTca CKpbiTHO HaxoflHTbca no 
HecKOJibKy flHeii. 3anacHbie no3Hu,HH npn H3MeHeHHH oScTaHOBKH (ocoSemio npn BHe3anHOM bkjihhh- 
BaHHH npoTHBHHKa b Haiuy oSopoHy) nacTO npeBpamaiOTCJi b ocHOBHbie. Ilo CKpwTbiM nyum OTxofla 
CHaiinepoB, Kaic npaBHJio, onpeflejiaeMbiM CHaMnepaMH no ecTecTBeHHbiM CKna^KaM mccthocth, npn- 
xoflHTca KonaTb TpaHmeH. PaSoTaTb npHxoflHTca c HeoSopyflOBamibix no3HiniH no^CKOKa, Ha KOTopbix 
HeoSxoflHMOCTb 3acTaBJiaeT HHor^a HacaMH jie>KaTb OTKpbrro h HenoflBH>KHO. CHannep MO>KeT pa6o- 
TaTb h 6jiy>KflaiomHM o6pa30M, mquss no3nnnio 3a no3Hu,nen. 

BejiHHHHy panoHa pacnojio>KeHHH CHCTeMbi CHaiinepcKHx no3nu,HH onpeflejinrb b npHKa3HOM 
nopa^Ke Hejib3a. CncTeMy CHaiinepcKHx no3HnHH - r^e pacnojio>KHTb ocHOBHyio, 3anacHyio, jio>KHbie n 
nponne no3Hu,HH - onpeflejiaeT CHannep b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot nejiecoo6pa3HOCTH no oScraHOBKe coSbi- 

THH. 

HenocpeflCTBeHHbin KOMaH^np ycTaHaBJinBaeT CHaMnepaM rpaHnnbi CHannepcKoro nocTa, b ko- 
Topbix CHannepbi o6a3aHbi BbinojmaTb nocTaBJieHHyio 3aflany. rpaHnnbi CHaiinepcKoro nocTa MoryT 

SblTb H 100 MeTpOB, H flO KHJIOMCTpa, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT HeoSxOflHMOCTH. 

JHiEBHOE BW^BH^CEHHE HA nCBHUHK) 

Ha nepeflOBOH 3tot MaHeBp nponcxoflnr npn acecTOKon HeoSxoflHMOCTn, a npn ^encTBHax b co- 
CTaBe pa3Beflrpynnbi 3to - oSbiHHoe aBJieHne. TaKoe #BH>KeHHe BbinojiHaeTca oneHb CKpbimo, no Ka- 

HaBaM, BOpOHKaM, BCeM B03MO>KHbIM yTJiySjieHHJIM. IIpH BbIflBH>KeHHH flHCM CTapaHieCb SblTb B TeHH H 

noname orjiaflbiBanrecb Ha3a#: KaKHM bw bh^htc jiaHflina(})T 3a BaMH, TaKHM ero bh^ho h co ctopohm 
npoTHBHHKa. CTapaHTecb He Bbi^ejiaTbca Ha stom (|)OHe. Ilpn TaKOM BbiflBH>KeHHH no-nnacTyHCKH 
Hejib3a HMeTb Ha ce6e KaMy4)jia>K c oneHb nbinmoH "noxMaTOCTbio" - oh oneHb yBejinnHBaeT cnjiysT h 
flenaeT ero Sojiee 3aMeTHbiM. ^ocTaTOHHO 6y#eT HecKOJibKHx pe#Knx KaMyc})jia>KHbix TpanoneK Ha Ba- 
meM oSMyHflHpoBaHHH fljia Toro, htoSw pa3MbiTb npaMOJinHeiiHOCTb cnnyaTa, n6o b npnpofle HeT 
npaMbix jihhhh. CTapaiiTecb hh b KoeM cjiynae He 3a#eTb npn #BH>KeHHH Bbicoicyio TpaBy hjih bctkh 
KycTapHHKa. Hx KOJibixaHne (ocoSemio npn OTcyTCTBHH BeTpa) oneHb 3aMeTHO h Harjia^HO co CTopo- 
hm npoTHBHHKa. B rycTofi pacTHTenbHOCTH npn nopbiBax BeTpa mo>kho c #BH>KeHHeM bctok hjih ipa- 
bm npaKTHnecKH He3aMeTHO fljia npoTHBHHKa npoflBHHyibca Ha BejiHHHHy 3Toro "KOJibixaHna", BMecTe 
c hhm. ^I,o>KflHTecb HOBoro nopwBa BeTpa h enie npoflBHHbrecb BMecTe c KOJibixHyBniHMnca BeTKaMH. 
3to CTapnHHbiH h npoBepeHHbiH cnocoS cnSnpcKnx CTpenKOB. CTapaiiTecb He HaSnpaTb c coSoh mho- 
ro Sapaxjia. Ho ecun ecTb TaKaa HeoSxoflHMOCTb, Bbipe>KbTe H3 aBTOMoSHJibHOH KaMepw CBoeo6pa3- 
Hyio jioflKy-BOJiOKymy, cjio>KHTe Ty^a Bee, hto BaM Hy>KHO, xopomeHbKO 3anejieHaiiTe, 3aBa>KHTe h ra- 
mus Ha nrnype, Tpoce h t. r. 3a coSoh, npnTopoHHB ee k noacy. 

BbiflBH>KeHHe Ha 6jin3KHe k npoTHBHHKy no3Hu,HH (nHor^a 200-250 m h 6jiH>Ke ^o nepeflHero 
Kpaa npoTHBHHKa) h oSopyflOBaHne nx Jiynme Bcero npon3BOflHTb npn CMeHe noroflHbix ycjiOBHH. J\im 
CHaiinepoB oneHb u,eHeH CHerona^. OSopyflOBaHHaa b CHery 3aKpbiTaa no3Hu,Ha bo BpeMa CHerona^a 
CBepxy npncbinaeTca CHeroM caMbiM ecTecTBeHHbiM cnocoSoM h opraHHHHO cnnBaeTca c naHflmacJ)- 

TOM. 

KaK 6bi hh 6bui HenprorreH flo>Kflb, CHannep o6a3aTejibHO Hcnonb3yeT ero flua CKpbiTHoro bbi- 
^BH>KeHHa no6jiH>Ke k npoTHBHHKy. K TOMy >Ke flO>Kflb CKpa^biBaeT myMbi ot inaHueBOH paSoTbi npn 
oSopyflOBaHHH no3Hu,HH. CTeHa hjih nejieHa flO>Kfla cbo^ht Ha HeT HaSjnofleHne npoTHBHHKa 3a 
HeiripajibHOH nojiocon. K TOMy ace ecTb y jnofleM ncHxojiornHecKaa ocoSeHHOCTb - nocjie jiioSoh ne- 
peMeHbi noroflbi ocjiaSjieHa SflHTejibHOCTb, xoneTca BbirjiaHyTb Hapy>Ky h nojnoSoBaTbca jiaHflinac})- 
tom. Bot Tyr-TO BoeHHOCJiy>KamHe h nojiynaiOT nyjno b rojiOBy. 

HeMu,bi roBopnjiH, hto nocjie cnjibHoro flO>Kfla, yparaHHoro BeTpa hjih CHerona^a no3Hu,HH pyc- 
ckhx CHaiinepoB BbipacTann b HaxanbHoii 6jih30Cth ot HeMeu,Koro nepeflHero Kpaa, KaK rpnSbi. BoeH- 
Haa CTaTHCTHKa Bcer^a noKa3biBana, hto nocjie nepeMeH noroflbi pe3yjibTaTHBHOCTb CHaiinepcKoro or- 
Ha SbiJia HeoSbinaiiHO bwcokoh. 

B jiioSom cjiynae BbiflBH>KeHHe Ha no3Hii:HK) npoH3BOflHTca ckpwtho, noji3KOM. CnSHpcKne 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 185 

CTpenKH neTKO nepeHajiH npnHnnn flajibHeBOCTOHHbix oxoTHHKOB-a3HaTOB (HaHaiiLi,eB, TyHrycoB h t. 
#.): nyBCTBOBaTb 3eMJiio B03Jie ce6a h Bee, hto Ha Heii pacreT h no Heii ^BH>KeTca; He BpeflHTb BceMy, 
hto paflOM; npeBpaTHTbca b to, hto Haxo^HTca paflOM. B nocTynaTax boctohhmx (J)hjioco(})hh 3to 
Ha3biBanocb eflHHeHHeM c OKpy>Kaiomeii cpe#oii. 

HcKycHbie oxothhkh HaynnjiH chShpckhx CTpenKOB He3aMeTHO nepeflBHraTbca no OTKpwTOMy 
MecTy nofl "noxMaTbiM" KaMy(|)jia>KeM. KaK-TO oneHb #aBHO, eme Sy^ynn ManbHHniKOH, aBTop BH/ieji 
TaKne TpeHnpoBKH CHannepoB nofl JleHHHrpaflOM: HHCTpyKTop, nonHOCTbio HaKpbiTbin "noxMaTbiM" 
KaMyc})jia>KeM, BbDKHflan nopwBbi BeTpa h npn Ka>KflOM KOJibixaHHH TpaBbi HyTb-nyrb nepeflBHran Ka- 
My(J)jia>K Hafl coSon, b TaKT c #BH>KeHHeM pacTnrejibHOCTH. IIotom b TaKT c ^BH>KeHHaMH TpaBbi oh caM 
nepeflBHranca nofl Heno#BH>KHbiM KaMyc})jia>KeM. 3aTeM oh CHOBa nepeMeman nan coSoh KaMyc})jia>K n 
noBTopan hhkji nepeMenieHHH. J\&, 3to Smjio MeflJieHHO - okojio 30-35 MeTpoB b nac, ho coBepmeHHO 
He3aMeTHo! J\jik nepeMemeHHa KaMy4)jia>Ka CHaiinep ncnojib30Baji poraTHHy, Bbipe3aHHyio TyT >Ke b 
jiecy. 

EOPBEA CHAHIIEPA C APTHJIJIEPHHCKHMH KOPPEKTHPOBmHKAMH 

nPOTHBHHKA 

ApTHjniepHHCKHe KoppeKTHpoBinnKH oneHb nacTO paSoTaiOT Ha HenrpajibHoii nonoce hjih bSjih- 
3h ot nepeflHero Kpaa cbohx, He BbiflBnraacb 3a MHHHbie 3arpa>KfleHna. Hx KoppeKTHpoBOHHbin nocT 
Hy>KHO HCKaTb Ha BbicoTKe. TmaTejibHbiM cpaBHHTejibHbiM HaSjnofleHneivi TaKne nocTbi BbiaBJunoTca 
flOBOJibHO SbiCTpo, TaK KaK apTHJiJiepnncKHe pa3BeflnnKn MacKnpyiOTca xots n onem. TinaTejibHO, ho 
fljia CHannepoB, ncKymeHHbix b 6e3ynpeHHoii MacKnpoBKe, no3Hnnn KoppeKTHpoBinnKOB Sy^yr Bcer^a 
HaraaflHbiMH. BroyanbHbiH noncK apTKoppeKTHpoBmHKOB wj\qt Bcer^a. Hx oneHb nacTO o6Hapy>KHBa- 

K)T Ha flepeBbJTX, Ha 3aBOflCKHX TpySaX, BepXHHX 3Ta>KaX H T. J\. B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT XOfla CoSblTHH HX 

yHHHTO>KaiOT hjih cpa3y nocne o6Hapy>KeHHa, hjih, hto SbiBaeT name, nocjie nepBoro >Ke apTHJuiepnii- 
CKoro BbiCTpejia co ctopohw npoTHBHHKa. 3thm cpwBaiOT KoppeKTHpoBKy npn apTnoflroTOBKe. fljia 
3Toro CHannepbi 3apaHee 3aHHMaiOT no3Hii,HH b TaKHx MecTax, OTKy^a KoppeKTHpoBinnKOB mo>kho ra- 
paHTHpoBaHHO flocTaTb nyneii. 3to ^ejiaiOT hjih HOHbio, hjih rrqm nofl ^biMOBoii 3aBecoii, npn6jin>Ka- 
acb k nejin Ha flncTaHnnio BepHoro BbiCTpejia h 3aHHMaa CKpbiTHyio no3nnHio, Ha KOTopoii Haxofljrrca 
j\o Hanana coSwthh. IlyjieMeTHHK npn stom pacnojiaraeTca, KaK Bcer^a, cnepe^n h cSoKy ot CHaiine- 
pa. CrpejibSa CHaiinepa rjiyniHTca nyneivieTHOH onepeflbio, nocjie nero o6a OTxofljrr, no HeoSxoflHMO- 
cth npnKpbiBaa flpyr flpyra. 

CnmajiOM ^Jia paSoTbi nyjieMeTa, MacKnpyiomero CTpejibSy CHaiinepa, oSmhho cjiy>KHT Manas 
jionaTKa, #BH>KeHHeM KOTopoii CHaiinep H3-3a yKpbrrna no#aeT HeoSxoflHMyio KOMaH^y nyjieMeTHHKy. 

JleTOM 1942 rofla, b nenajibHO H3BecTHOH h 6e3#apHO nponrpaHHOH cobctckhm KOMaH^OBaHneM 
XapbKOBCKoii onepannn, Ha o#hom h3 ynacTKOB (})poHTa aKTHBH3HpoBanacb HeMeu,Kaa apTHJuiepna. 
no3HH,H5i HeMeu,KHx apTHJuiepHHCKHx KoppeKTHpoBmHKOB HaxoflHJiacb Ha HeiiTpajibHOH nojioce, HO 
b6jih3h cbohx, 3a nojiocoM mhhhwx 3arpa>KfleHHH. YSpaTb KoppeKTHpoBmnKOB Hy>KHO Swjio HeMefl- 
jieHHO, ho ySpaTb hx Swjio HeneM - hx Smjio He #0CTaTb. IIocTaBHJiH oneHb cnjibHyio ^biMOByio 3aBe- 
cy, npHHeM noAO>KrjiH Bee, hto Morjio ropeTb. Ilofl npHKpbiTHeM 3toh 3aBecbi CHaiinep c nyjieMeTHH- 
kom nponoji3JiH nojiKHJiOMeTpa no HenTpanbHon nojioce n Bbinoji3Jin b jihhhio nojiypa3pymeHHbix 
CTapwx TpamneH, no kotopmm nofloSpanncb MeTpoB Ha neTbipecTa cSoKy ot KoppeKrnpoBOHHoro no- 
CTa HeivmeB. Ot nepeflHen jihhhh HeMeu,Knx OKonoB Smjio MeTpoB cto naTb^ecaT. IlyjieMeTHHK otkpmji 
oroHb no nepeflHeMy Kpaio HeivmeB. Oh HHKoro He ySnji, ho Bbi3Ban oroHb Ha ce6a. B rpoxoTe co6- 
CTBeHHbix BbiCTpejiOB HeMHbi He paccjibiiuajiH CTpejibSy CHaiinepa. Oh He TOJibKO paccTpejiaji KoppeK- 

THpOBIHHKOB, HO H yMyflpHJICa pe3yJIbTaTHBHO flOCTpeJISTb 060HMy no HeMeiI,KHM Il03HLI,HaM. Oh TaM 

Koro-TO eme ySnji, ho ocoSemio ncnbiTbiBaTb cy^bSy He CTan h SbiCTpo "cBannji" b CTopoHy. Ha3a^ 
CHaiinep n nyjieivieTHHK BbiSnpanHCb OT^ejibHO flpyr ot flpyra, kto KaK cyivieji, ho BbiSpanncb Sjiarono- 
jiynHO. 3to xopomnii npniviep paSoTbi CHaiinepa c no^CKOKa h o^hh h3 HeMHorHx H3BecTHbix aBTopy 
CJiynaeB, Kor^a CTpejibSy CHaiinepa rjiymnji caM npoTHBHHK. 

^EHCTBIM CHAHnEPOB BO BPEMfl APTHJIJIEPHHCKOH nO^rOTOBKH H 

ATAKH nPOTHBHHKA 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 186 

Bo Bcex BOHHax npn apTnoflroTOBKe CHna apTHJuiepHHCKoro orea npoTHBHHKa H3 Bcex HMeio- 
mnxca b ero pacnopa>KeHHH apTCHCTeM HacTHJibHoro h HaBecHoro oraa (nynieK, raySnn h MHHOMeTOB) 
oSpyniHBaeTca Ha nepByio h BTopyio TpamueH oSopohjhoihhxcji fljia noflaBJieHHa hx >khboh chjim h 
orHeBbix cpeflCTB. 

HenocpeflCTBeHHO bo BpeMa apTHJuiepHHCKoii no#roTOBKH Bcer^a npoHCxoflm noflTarHBaHne 
>khboh chjiw npoTHBHHKa h BbiflBH>KeHHe ee Ha py6e>K aTaKH. Bbi^BHraiOTca nexoTHbie orHeBbie cpe#- 
CTBa, KOTopbie npeflHa3HaneHbi fljia KOHKpeTHOH oraeBOH noflflep>KKH npoflBH>KeHHa aTaKyiomeii nexo- 
tw HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha none 6oa. 

IIpH apTnoflroTOBKe na^eHHe CHapa^OB npoTHBHHKa na HeHTpanbHyio nonocy npoHCxoflm 
TOJibico cjiynaiiHO. B nepnofl apTno#roTOBKH, Kaic npaBHJio, npoTHBHHKy He ^o CHaiinepoB. IIo sthm 
npHHHHaM oneHb Hejiecoo6pa3HO HMeTb CHaiinepoB b cocTaBe nojiHOH CHannepcKOH Spnraflbi hjih He- 
CKOJibKnx CHannepcKnx nap Ha 3apaHee oSycTpoemibix h 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix no3HHHax, pacnojio>KeH- 
hwx Bnepe^H nepeflHero Kpaa Ha HenrpajibHOH nonoce. CHannepbi, HaxoflaiHHeca npn Bpa>KecKOH 
apTnoflroTOBKe b TaKnx MecTax, npaKTHnecKH He nopa>KaiOTca apTHJuiepHHCKHMH hjih aBnaHHOHHbiMn 
SoenpHnacaMH npoTHBHHKa. 

IIpH cmiOHiHOM rpoxoTe, KOTopbin ctoht npn TaKnx MeponpnaTHax, Bbicrpejibi CHannepcKnx 

BHHTOBOK npaKTHHeCKH Hepa3JIHHHMbI. J\bIM H nblJIb OT CHapaflHblX paBpblBOB fleJiaiOT HeBHflHMbIM 

flbiM ot CHannepcKHx BbiCTpenoB. IIo3TOMy, Haxo^acb ot Bpa>KecKHx no3HHHH Ha paccToaHHH BepHoro 
BbiCTpena, CHannepbi ycnenmo h 6e3HaKa3aHHO yHHHTO>KaiOT oneHb Ba>KHbie hcjih, paSoTa KOTopwx b 
npoTHBHOM cjiynae HaHeceT ontyTHMbin Bpefl b npeflCToaiHeii aTaKe, a hmchho: apTHJuiepHHCKHx Kop- 
peKTHpoBiHHKOB, apTHJuiepniicKHe h MHHOMeTHbie pacneTbi, o(J)HHepoB, CB33HCT0B, aneiiKH ynpaBJie- 

HH3 npOTHBHHKa. KOHHeHTpHpOBaHHbIM KOJIJieKTHBHbIM OrHeM nO KOMaHflHbIM nyHKTaM npOTHBHHKa B 

peiuaioiHHH momcht mo>kho c^ejiaTb TaK, hto aTaKa npoTHBHHKa 3axjie6HeTca, enie He HanaBHiHCb. 
CHannepcKHM omeM mo>kho copBaTb n apTnoflroTOBKy npoTHBHHKa (cm. ^anee). 3HaneHne cpbiBa aTa- 
KH npoTHBHHKa Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb. 3to MO>KeT BOoSiHe H3MeHHTb KapTHHy 6oa. 

HacTynaiOHtne Bcer^a CTapaiOTca c^ejiaTb TaK, htoSm Me>K#y kohhom apTnoflroTOBKH h HanajiOM 
aTaKH He 6bi.no pa3pbiBa no BpeMeHH. IIo 3toh npnHHHe oSopoHjnomajicji CTopoHa flOJi>KHa HMeTb 
BCTpenHbie cpeflCTBa omeBoro noflaBJieHHa n SbiTb totoboh OTKpbiTb oroHb, KaK TOJibKO npoTHBHHK 
"npoABHHeT oraeBofi Ban" b rjiySnHy oSopoHbi. Ilpn OTpa>KeHHH aTaKH npoTHBHHKa CHaiinepbi npn- 
HHMaiOT Ha ce6a nepBbin y^ap, h nosTOMy pa^OM c hhmh flOJi>KHbi SbiTb MecTHbie cpe^CTBa c#ep>KHBa- 
HHa - nyneMeTbi, npoTHBOTaHKOBbie h npoTHBonexoTHbie rpaHaTOMeTbi 3a#ana CHaiinepoB b oSopoHe - 
yHHHTO>KeHHe oraeBbix cpe^CTB h nejien, HanSojiee onacHbix /urn cbohx: oc|)HHepoB, nyjieMeTHHKOB h 
rpaHaTOMeTHHKOB npoTHBHHKa, apTHJiJiepHHCKHx h MHHOMeTHbix pacneTOB, cb»3hctob. IIpothbhhk b 
nojiycomyTOM BH^e, nepeTacKHBaioiHHH hto-to TJDKejioe (oSmhho 3to mhhomct), flOJi>KeH SbiTb yHH- 
HTO>KeH b nepByio onepeflb. IIpothbhhk, KOTopbin nepeHOCHT hto-to Ha nepBbiM B3rjiafl HenoHjrmoe h 
oSbeMHoe, flOJi>KeH SbiTb yHHHTO>KeH npe>Kfle Bcero. OSwhho Bee Ta>Kejioe h HenoHaTHoe - 3to orae- 
Bbie cpeflCTBa, npnflaHHbie k nexoTe fljia orHeBoii noflAep>KKH aTaKH. Cennac Bee - h pa^OBbie, h ko- 
MaH^HbiH cocTaB - npeflnoHHTaiOT BoeBaTb b oflHHaKOBOH (})opMe 6e3 3HaKOB pa3JiHHna. IIosTOMy opn- 
eHTHpyiiTecb Ha KOMaH^HO-BJiacTHoe noBefleHne, BbinpaBKy, ^BH>KeHHa pyK, Ha yKa3biBaiOHiHe h 
HanpaBJiHioniHe >KecTbi, Ha HannHne Shhokjich, noneBbix cyMOK, KoSyp, KopoTKO-CTBOJibHoro opy>KHa, 
MoSnjibHbix cpeflCTB cb»3h h yHHHTO>KaHTe TaKne nejiH b nepByio onepeflb. Cmotphtc b raySnHy, 3a 
aTaKyioiHHMH nenaMn npoTHBHHKa - y>K TaM-TO bw HaBepHaKa yBH^HTe Koro-TO c Shhokjicm hjih 3a 
CTepeoTpySoii. 3to aneiiKa ynpaBJieHna, n TaKaa nejib noflJie>KHT HeMeflJieHHOMy yHHHTO>KeHHio. 

BbinienepeHHCJieHHbie nejin ^Jia CHaiinepoB aBJiaiOTca nepBOonepeflHbiMH. He yBJieKanrecb hc- 
TpeSjieHneM >khboh chjiw npoTHBHHKa. 3to flejio nyjieMeTHHKOB. Kor^a npoTHBHHK npn otShtoh aTa- 
Ke no6e>Kaji Ha3a^, bot Tor^a c jierKoii coBecTbio mo>kho yBejiHHHBaTb cboh jikhhwh cneT. 

CPWB ATAKH IIPOTHBHHKA CHAHnEPCKHM OrHEM 

HanHHaa c 1 943 ro#a, no MeTO^y, npeflJio>KeHHOMy CHaiinepoM BacnjineM 3aiiHeBbiM, CHaiinepbi 
flOBOJibHO nacTO cpbiBann aTaKH npoTHBHHKa. Cyib 3Toro npneMa 3aKJiiOHaeTca b tom, hto Bee aTaKy- 
lOHtne ^eiiCTBHa bo Bcex CTpaHax Mnpa CTapaiOTca npe^npHHaTb Ha paccBeTe. Ecjih HMeeTca pa3Be- 
AHH(J)opMaHHa HacTynjieHHH npoTHBHHKa, to rpynna CHaiinepoB hohbio ckpmtho Bbi^BHraeTca Ha 
HeHTpanbHyio nojiocy nepefl MHHHbiMH 3arpa>KfleHnaMH, MacKnpyeTca nepefl 3apaHee pa3BeflaHHbiM 
KOMaH^HbiM nyHKTOM npoTHBHHKa h o>KHflaeT Hanana coSmthh. Ilepefl HananoM aTaKH, Ha paccBeTe, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 187 

o^nuepbi npoTHBHHKa b nocjieflHHH pa3 ocMaTpHBaiOT none 6oa b Shhokjih, ouemiBaiOT h BbiBepaiOT 
oScTaHOBKy. B npoiujiOH Boinie Bocxoflamee cojimje y CHaMnepoB 3a cmmon npeKpacHO BbiCBenHBano 
HeMeu,KHe no3HUHH h Bbi3biBaiio 3aMeTHbie otSjicckh ctckoji omnHecKHx npnSopoB. HenocpeflCTBeH- 
Hyio noflroTOBKy k aTaKe mo>kho Smjio ycTaHOBHTb no o>KHBJieHHOMy nepeMemeHHio cojiflaT h ymep- 
ocJmnepoB no TpamnejiM. CHannepaMH Bbira^biBaeTca momcht, Koraa otSjicckob ot npnSopoB (cTano 
SbiTb, n caivinx npnSopoB) 6y#eT noSojibiue. CipejibSa npon3BOflHTca oSihhm 3annoM, cnmajiOM fljia 
KOToporo Sy^eT BbiCTpen CTapniero CHannepcKon rpynnbi. Ilocjie Toro KaK CHannepw "Bbipy6»T" o(|)h- 
u,epoB, aTaKa, KOTopyio BbicoKoe pyKOBOflCTBO npoTHBHHKa He OTMeHano, npaKTHnecKH HanHeTca 
"BCMaTKy" npn OTcyrcTBHH neTKoro KOMaHflOBaHna. ^jih CHannepoB Ba>KHO HanaTb CTpejibSy no 0(})h- 
nepaM HenocpeflCTBemio nepefl HananoM aTaKn, hto Ha3biBaeTca "noK-BnpHnoK" (BnpnTnpKy). HHane 
Haxoflamnxca HenocpeflCTBemio nepefl nepe^HHM KpaeM npoTHBHHKa CHannepoB CMoryr noflaBHib b 
Hanane aTaKH. IIotom, Kor^a aTaKa pa3BepHynacb, b rpoxoTe 60a h cyivtaTOxe npoTHBHHKy y>Ke He flo 
CHaiinepoB. LJenn npoTHBHHKa, BbiflBHHyBiuneca b aTaKy, HanHHaiOT o6pa6aTbiBaTbca H3 omeBbix 
cpeflCTB "nepe3 (|)poht". 3to oraeBoe npracpbiTHe fljia CHaiinepoB co ctopohm cbohx. 3a#ana CHanne- 
poB ocTaeTca toh >Ke - yHHHio>KeHHe pacneTOB oraeBbix cpe^CTB, onacHbix fljia cbohx, cpe^CTB cb»3h, 
aneeK ynpaBJieHna n "kocmm" oraeM no H3rn6aM TpamueH nejieii, He ^ocTynHbix /uia oraa cbohx. IIo 
nexoTe CTpejiaiOT no >KecTKon HeoSxoflHMOCTH, ecun c Hen He cnpaBJunoTca nyjieMeTHHKH hjih >Ke ot 
Hee CHannepaM HeKy^a ^eTbca h Bbixo^a /ipyroro HeT. 

Bo (})pohtoboh npaKTHKe SbiJin HeoflHOKpaTHbie CJiynan, Koraa OT^ejieHne CHannepoB b 10-12 
nenoBeK oraeM CHaMnepcKHx bhhtobok y#ep>KHBajio py6e>K 250-300 MeTpoB no (})poHTy, 3a CHHiaHHbie 
MHHyrbi yHHHTO>Kaa no 120-150 aTaKyiomnx cojiflaT npoTHBHHKa. OcTajibHbie, bh^s TaKoe nopefleHne 
b cbohx paflax, ot rpexa noflanbiue flaBann 3a#HHH xofl, HeB3npaa Ha HCTepnKy oc|)HnepoB. 

IIpaKTHHecKHe CHannepbi He TOJibKO nprnuuiH onbiT BaciuiHa 3aHneBa k npnivieHeHHio, ho h 
oSecnenHJiH ero nporpeccHBHoe pa3BHTHe. Ecjih Swjio hbbcctho BpeMa HacTynjieHHa npoTHBHHKa, 
rpynna CHaHnepoB-^HBepcaHTOB (hjih npoSpaBiuaaca nepe3 jihhhio (})poHTa, hjih /uia TaKnx nejien 3a- 
SpoiueHHaa b twji npoTHBHHKa 3apaHee) noflSnpanacb k apTHJiJiepniicKOH hjih MHHOMeTHOH SaTapee 
npoTHBHHKa h, KaK TOJibKO Ha paccBeTe opyflHHHaa npncjiyra HanHHana cyeTHTbca B03Jie opyflHH, nofl- 
roTaBJiHBaa hx k CTpejibSe, CHaiinepbi OTKpbiBanH oroHb h CTpejiajin #o Tex nop, noKa apTHJuiepncTbi 
He pa36eranHCb. 3thm cpbiBanacb apTnoflroTOBKa. BbiJi h ^pyron BapnaHT: CHaiinepbi oraeM oSecne- 
HHBann flHBepcnoHHOH rpynne CKpbiTHoe npo#BH>KeHHe k apTHJiJiepniicKOH SaTapee, y3Jiy cb»3h hjih 
nyHKiy ynpaBJieHna Ha SpocoK rpaHaTbi. IIpH TaKon CHaiuiepcKoii CTpejibSe npe>Kfle Bcero noflaBJia- 
jiacb oxpaHa oSbeKia, ^e>KypHbie nyjieMeTHHKH, yHHHTO>Kajica BOflHTejibCKHH cocTaB TpaHcnopTHbix 
cpe/iCTB. J\jw chhxpohhocth paSoTbi Me>Kfly ^HBepcaHTaMH h CHannepaMH BpeMa fleHCTBHH pacnncbi- 
Banocb no MHHyraM h ceKyH^aM. 

TaKne fleiiCTBHa CHaiinepcKO-flHBepcHOHHOH rpynnw Bcer^a Smjih yflanHbi. yHHHTO>KeHHe ko- 
MaHflHO-CBa3Hbix oSbeKTOB hjih ^a>Ke npocTO Hana^eHne Ha hhx HenocpeflCTBeHHO 3a 2-3 MHHyrbi ne- 
pefl aTaKoii hjih HacTynjieHneM HHor^a He TOJibKO cpbiBano TaKTnnecKHe pa3pa6oTKn MecTHoro 3Hane- 
HHa, ho n napajiHBOBano paSoTy npoTHBHHKa Ha ^OBOJibHO Sojibiunx ynacTKax ero oSopoHbi. 

OflHH H3 CTapocjiyacaiHHx paccKa3an aBTopy, KaK npn HacTynjieHHH b 1944 ro^y rpynny CHaiine- 

pOB 3a6pOCHJIH B HeMeU,KHH TbIJI C 3a^aHHeM nOflOHTH CKpblTHO K npOTHBOTaHKOBOH apTHJIJiepHHCKOH 

SaTapee, nocTaBJieHHon HeMu,aMH Ha TaHKOonacHOM HanpaBJieHHH, n paccTpejiaTb apTHJiJiepniicKyio 
npncjiyry npn Hanane TaHKOBon aTaKH. MeponpnaTne yflanocb Ha cjiaBy, ho ao 3Toro CHannepaM 
npHHiJiocb flBoe cyTOK cn/ieTb no# MycopHbiMH KynaMH h cpe^n BcaKoro xjiaMa b 400 MeTpax no3a#H 
HeMeu,KOH SaTapen, a noTOM eme h cnacaTbca ot cbohx >Ke TaHKOB, KOTopwe npocKOHHJin nepe3 moji- 
naBHiyio SaTapeio h flanbiue ^BHranHCb HanpojiOM. 

^EHCTBH5I CHAHnEPOB nPH nPOPWBE nPOTHBHHKOM OBOPOHW 

Ecjih npoTHBHHKy y^ajiocb BKUHHHTbca b Haniy oSopoHy, to oh, KaK npaBHJio, "oSTeKaeT" h 06- 
xoaht onarn o>KecTOHeHHoro conpoTHBJieHna, KOTopwe co3flaiOTca BbinieynoMaHyTbiMH ycnjinaMH 
CHaiinepoB, nyjieMeTHHKOB n rpaHaTOMeTHHKOB. HeKOTopoe BpeMa, noKa Ha noflaBJieHne 3Toro onara 
conpoTHBJieHHa He copneHTHpoBaHa Bpa>KecKaa apTHJuiepna, CHaiinepbi oraeM bhhtobok Ha OTflaneH- 
hwx flHCTami,Hax yHHHTO>KaiOT u,ejin, ynoMaHyTbie paHee. MoMeHT 3tot u,eHeH TeM, hto CTpejiaTb npn- 
xo/iHTca bo (J)jiaHr HenpepbiBHO HacTynaioniHM, npnneM noaBJiaiOTca Bee HOBbie h HOBbie oneHb Ba>K- 
Hbie u,ejiH H3 HHCJia BbinieynoMaHyTbix. KpoMe Toro, CHaiinepbi "flocTaKxr" oraeM npoTHBHHKa, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 188 

aKTHBHO paSoTaiomero b rjiy6HHe ero HacTynaiomnx nopa^KOB. 

Ho KaK TOJibKO b6jih3h onara conpoTHBJieHHa pa3opBanca nepBbift apTHJuiepHftcKHii Soenpnnac, 
Hy>KHO MeHaTb no3Hu,Hio. HHane apTHJiJiepnftcKHM orHeM coTpyr c jinna 3eMJiH. KaK h Ky^a MeHaTb 
no3Hu,Hio, 3aBHCHT ot oScTaHOBKH, HHor^a mo>kho ynoji3TH MeTpoB 3a flBecTH - flBecTH naTb^ecaT B 
CTopoHy h CTpenaTb CHOBa. HnoiTia npHxoflnrca ^enaTb aTaKyiomHft nnypMOBoft pwbok npoTHBHHKy 
bo (})JiaHr, a TaM 6y#b hto 6y#eT. HHor^a, ecjin HeT neTKoro npnKa3a CToaTb #o ynopa, mo>kho ynoji3- 

TH K CBOHM. 

OneHb nacTO b coBpeMeHHbix BoftHax CHaftnepoB, ycHJieHHbix nyneMeTHHKaMH h rpaHaTOMeTOM, 
cnennanbHO ocTaBJiaiOT b Tbiny npoTHBHHica Ha HanSojiee Ba>KHbix HanpaBJieHHax. IIpH stom CHaftne- 
pw oneHb 3(})4)eKTHBHO Be^yT oroHb bo (J)jiaHr h Banefl npoTHBHHKy, y>Ke fleftcTByiomeMy Ha jihhhh 
HaniHx Tpamneft 

TaKne npneMbi npHMeHaiOT TaM, r^e CHaftnepcKoft rpynne c npnflaHHbiMH k Heft oraeBbiMH 
cpeflCTBaMH mo>kho yKpbiTbca, - Ha nepeceneHHoft, ropncToft, noKpbiToft necoM MecraocTH, a TaK>Ke b 
paftoHe yuejieBHiHx cbohx onopHbix nyHKTOB, fljia 3aTpy#HeHHa h CBa3biBaHHa HacTynaTejibHbix #eft- 

CTBHH npOTHBHHKa. 

B jiioSom cnynae CHaftnepaM Heo6a3aTejibHO CH^eTb Ha MecTe. Ohh aojckhm BOBpeMa yxo^HTb 
ot apTHJiJiepHftcKoro oraa h aTaKyiomnx ^eftcTBHft >khboh chum npOTHBHHKa. OSwhho hx 3a#ana b 
TaKOM cjiynae He noKH^aTb Ha3HaneHHbift hm paftoH paSoTbi. 

IIpH KOHTpaTaKe CHaftnepw Hcnojib3yK)Tca #jia oraeBoro nprncpbiTHa HacTynaiomnx nopa^KOB 
cbohx noflpaBflejiefflift. 

KaK 6w hh CKJiaflbiBanacb SoeBaa oScTaHOBKa, co CHaftnepoB hhkto He CHHMaeT o6a3aHHOCTeft 
no HaSniOfleHHio 3a npoTHBHHKOM, h, Sojiee Toro, CHaftnepw Be^yr >KypHajibi HaSmofleHnft 3a H3MeHe- 
hmmh oScTaHOBKH Ha none 60a, >KejiaTejibHO c yKa3aHHeM BpeMeHH Toro hjih HHoro SoeBoro #eft- 
CTBHa npOTHBHHKa, ero nepe#BH>KeHHft ht.h.- sthm ohh oneHb noMoryT CBoeMy HenocpeflCTBemiOMy 
KOMaH^npy. IIpH xopomeM royneHHH pejibec})a MecTHOCTH, MecT B03MO>KHoft nocTaHOBKH oraeBbix 
cpeflCTB, MecT BbiflBH>KeHHa b aTaKy SpoHeTexHHKH n >KHBoft chjim KOMaHflHOMy cocTaBy Jierne npo- 

rH03HpOBaTb fleftCTBHa npOTHBHHKa H paCCHHTblBaTb coScTBeHHbie ycHJina. 

#EHCTBH5I CHAHIIEPA B COCTABE MAJIOH TPynnW (PA3BE£KA, 3ACA£A, 

nPECJIE^OBAHHE, IIOHCK, BJIOKHPOBAHHE, 3ACJIOH, BOEBOE 

OXPAHEHHE, TOJIOBHA5I IIOXO^HAil 3ACTABA) 

BoeBaa paSoTa CHaftnepoB b cocTaBe Manoft rpynnbi Bcer^a hocht xapaKTep h ocoSemiocTH bm- 
nojmeHna cneiniajibHoft onepanrai. Manaa rpynna Bcer^a Ha3HanaeTca Ha BbinonHeHHe cnennanbHbix 
3aflaHnft h ^eftcTByeT b OTpbiBe ot cbohx. 3a#aHH CHaftnepa -npn stom o#hh h Te >Ke - BecTH nocToaH- 
Hoe HaSjnofleHHe 3a oScTaHOBKoft h nepBbiM o6Hapy>KHTb npOTHBHHKa. Jlynme CHaftnepa c ero 

060CTpeHHbIM 3peHHeM H TpeHHpOBaHHOft HaSjHOflaTeJIbHOCTbK) HHKTO 3TOrO CfleJiaTb He CMO>KeT. 

TonbKO CHaftnep MO>KeT Ha paccToaHHH o6Hapy>KHTb nejib no 6.necKy ctckoji oniHHecKHx npnSopoB, 
KOJibixaHHio TpaBbi h bctok, 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie CHJiysTbi Ha 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix no3Hu,Hax. CHaftnep 
MO>KeT, flOJi>KeH h o6a3aH o6Hapy>KHTb npncyTCTBne npOTHBHHKa eme flo npaMoro conpHKOCHOBeHna c 
hhm no npHpoflHbiM npnivieTaM pe3KO omymaeMaa (hmchho omymaeMaa) TnniHHa, B3JieTeBmaa CTaa 
nTHu, (kto-to hx cnymyji), cueflbi Ha ^opore - TpaHcnopTHbie n nemne, HanHHHe cjiOMaHHbix BeroK, 
cynbeB, npHMaTaa TpaBa - Bee sto npn3HaKH 3aca#bi. y CHaftnepa, nocToaHHO BKjnonaeMoro b cocTaB 
pa3Beflrpynnbi, BbipaSaTbiBaeTca 6e3oniH6oHHoe "3BepHHoe nyTbe" Ha onacHOCTb h B03MO>KHoe noaB- 
jieHne npOTHBHHKa. 

CHaftnep o6a3aH 3HaTb KapTy MecTa coSbiTnft h noflpoSHO royHHTb no Heft jiaHflina(J)T mccthocth 
h ocoSeHHOCTH ee nepeceneHHOCTn - jiomHHbi, OBparn, BbicoTbi h bmcotkh, HanHHHe h xapaKTep pac- 
THTejibHOCTH, HToSbi TaKTHHecKH nporH03npoBaTb Bee BapnaHTbi pa3BHTHa C06bITHft. 

IIo B03HHKmeft HeoSxoflHMOCTH (no KOMaH^e hjih 6e3 KOMaH^bi) CHaftnep yHHHTO>KaeT nejin, no- 
aBHBniHeca Ha OTflaneHHbix flncTaHnnax. PaSoTa CHaftnepa b cocTaBe jnoSoft noflBH>KHoft rpynnbi xa- 
paKTepH3yeTca HeoSxoflHMOCTbio pe3Koft cmchm no3Hu,Hft, CTpenbSbi c nofl6e>KKoft (cm. paHee), Befle- 
HneM nacToro 6e3oniH6oHHoro oraa no noaBJiaiomnMca h Hcne3aiomHM nenaM h Hepe^KO CTpejibSoft 
Ha xofly c TpaHcnopTHbix cpe^CTB. 

Pa3yMeeTca, CHaftnep nojiynaeT ot HenocpeACTBeHHoro KOMaH^npa npeflBapnTejibHbie yKa3aHHa 
tom, KaK cjie^yeT ^eftcTBOBaTb npn pe3KHx H3MeHeHHax SoeBbix coSbiTnft, ho CHaftnepaM Bcer^a 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 189 

npHxoflHTca fleiicTBOBaTb caMOCToaiejibHO, coo6pa3y»Cb c oScTCwrrejibCTBaMH HenpeflCKa3yeMoii 6oe- 

BOH oScTaHOBKH 

B CB33H c xapaKTepoM cneu,HajibHOH onepau,HH paSoTa CHaiinepa HMeeT pa3JiHHHbie ocoSeHHO- 
cth. B pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHoii rpynne npn ee npoflBH>KeHHH CHaftnep ^eiiCTByeT BbiineonjicaHHbiM 06- 
pa30M fljia HaSjiiOfleHHa h o6Hapy>KeHHa npoTHBHHKa. Run 3Toro CHaMnep o6a3aH yMeTb HaSjiiOflaTb Ha 
xofly h He flenaTb npn 3tom ohihSok. IIpH HenocpeflCTBemiOM BbinojiHeHHH 3a^aHHa pa3Beflrpynnbi 
CHannep orHeM oSecnenHBaeT h npHKpbiBaeT aKTHBHyio paSoTy pa3BeflHHKOB hjih ^HBepcaHTOB npn 

CKpblTOM npOHHKHOBeHHH HJIH HajieTe Ha 06beKT flHBepCHH, yHHHTO>KaeT HaCOBblX Ha BblHIKaX, fl030p- 

Hbix npoTHBHHKa, ero ceKpeTnocTbi, naTpyjin, TpeBO>KHbie rpynnbi. CHannep orHeM CBoeft flanbHoSoH- 
hoh bhhtobkh nperoncTByeT SoeBOMy pa3BepTbiBaHHio npoTHBHHKa Ha TeppnTopHn ero >Ke oSbeKia bo 
BpeMa ^HBepcHOHHbix flencTBHH CBoeii ochobhoh rpynnbi. CHannep omeM npHKpbiBaeT otxoa flHBep- 
caHTOB c oSbeiera nocne flHBepcnn, He no3BOJiaa npoTHBHHKy CTpejiaTb no hhm npnnejibHO. CHannep 

MeTKOH CTpeJIbSon He n03BOJIHeT npOTHBHHKy npH6jIH3HTbC3 K CBOeMy >Ke oSbeKTy, 3aMHHHpOBaHHO- 

My flHBepcaHTaMH, #o nonHoro ero pa3pynieHHa. CHannep o6a3aH oSecnennib SjiaronojiynHbiii ncxofl 
SoeBoii paSoTbi pa3BeflflHBepcnoHHOH rpynnbi: #aTb hm B03MO>KHOCTb "oTopBaTbca" h 3a#ep>KaTb npo- 
THBHHKa Ha nyrax 3Toro OTxofla KaK mo>kho flOJibine. IIpH 3tom CHannep flOJi>KeH nocToamio Meronb 
no3Hu,HH, hto6m ero He oSohijih h He 3axBaTHJin co ctopohm hjih c3a^H. 3Haa nepeceneHHOCTb MecT- 
hocth, CHannep cnporH03npyeT TaKne MaHeBpw npoTHBHHKa h paccTpejiaeT ero eme Ha nyrax BbiflBH- 
>KeHna. Ho flOJiro HcnbiTbiBaTb cy^bSy He ctoht. KaK TOJibKO CHannep ySeflmca, hto cboh "oTopBa- 
jiHCb" flOBOJibHO flaneKO, oh "oTpbiBaeTca" caM, n ^ejiaeT sto KaK mo>kho SwcTpee n no bo3mo>khocth 
SeroM. OflHHOHKe "oTopBaTbca" Bcer^a npome, ^cm rpynne. C flHBepcanraMH CHannep bbixoaht Ha 
BCipeny b oSycjiOBJiemiOM MecTe. BbiBaiOT n flpyrne BapnaHTbi, no nejiecoo6pa3HOCTn. 

B cjiynae, ecjin noflpa3flejieHne coBepmaeT Mapm, b tojiobhoh noxoflHon 3acTaBe hjih Henocpefl- 
CTBeHHO b cocTaBe CBoero noflpa3flejieHna, MecTO CHaiinepa - Ha SpoHe b nepeflHHx nopa^Kax #BH>Ke- 
HHa. 3a#aHH CHaiinepa Te >Ke - BecTH HaSjnofleHne, o6Hapy>KHTb B03MO>KHyio nocTaHOBKy npoTHBHH- 
kom 3aca^bi, fljia nero CHaiinep oronb >Ke aojckch 3HaTb pejibecj), TinaTejibHO H3ynHB KapTy h 
nporH03Hpya MecTa, r^e npoTHBHHK MO>KeT ycTaHOBHib 3aca#y. IIpH o6Hapy>KeHHH TaKoii 3aca#bi 
CHaiinepbi OTKpbiBaiOT no Hen oroHb caMOCTOjnejibHO, 6e3 KOMaH^bi, n b flajibHeniueM paccTpejinBaiOT 
u,ejiH, KOTopbie, no hx MHeHnio, aBJiaiOTca HanSojiee onacHbiMH ^Jia cbohx - b nepByio onepeflb rpaHa- 
TOMeTHHKOB h nyneMeTHHKOB. IIo3hli,iiio CHaiinep b anynae ocTaHOBKH KOJiOHHbi 3aHHMaeT no nejieco- 
o6pa3HOCTH - b KiOBeTe, BopoHKax h T.fl, ho noflanbine ot ManiHH, KaK no^SnTbix, TaK n He noflSnibix - 
ohh "npHTarHBaiOT" k ce6e oroHb npoTHBHHKa. 

Ilpn OTxofle cbohx, Haxoflacb b SoeBOM oxpaHeHHH, CHaiinepbi rySnTejibHbiM orHeM CHaiinep- 
ckhx bhhtobok oneHb #a>Ke nocnocoScTByiOT cbohm SjiaronojiyHHO otohth, 3BaKyiipoBaTb MaTepH- 
anbHoe oSecneneHiie h BbmecTH paHeHbix. JJjm stoto CHaiinepbi flOJi>KHbi 3a6jiaroBpeMeHHO 3aH»Tb 
BbiroflHbie no3Hu,HH c xoponiHM o63opoM, oSecneHHBaiomHe BbiroflHbiii oScTpeji. Ha TaKHx no3im,iiax 
npoTHBHHKa Heo>KHflaHHO BCTpenaiOT oraeM h, 3a^ep>KaB ero Ha ckojibko mo>kho, 3aHHMaiOT HOBbie 
BbiroflHbie py6e>KH. 

JlaMQ npH nOCTOSHHOM COnpHKOCHOBeHHH C npOTHBHHKOM, npH HenpepblBHOM OTXOfle B COCTaBe 

SoeBoro oxpaHeHHa CHaiinepbi, nojib3yacb jiioSbiMH noflxopnjHMH CKJia^Kaivm pejibe(J)a, ^eiiaiOT 
ocTaHOBKH fljia BefleHHa orHa, c#ep>KHBaiomero npoflBiDKeHHe HacTynaiomHx. Hmchho CHaMnepaM 

npH HX flajIbHoSoilHOCTH MO>KHO CfleJiaTb 3TO flOBOJIbHO 3(})4)eKTHBHO, npH nOJIHOH 6e3HaKa3aHHOCTH, 

nocjie nero CHaiinepbi ^oroHaiOT cbohx. KaK noKaBana npaKTHKa, HMeHHO TaKaa TaKTHKa Heo>KHflaHHO- 
ro CHaSnepcKoro oriia c 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix HeBHflHMbix no3HLi,Hii HepBHpyeT HacTynaiomero npoTHB- 
HHKa, 3acTaBJiaeT ero ocHOBaTejibHO "cnoTbiKaTbca" h TpaTHTb BpeMa Ha HeHy>KHoe SoeBoe pa3BepTbi- 
BaHHe H3 noxoflHbix nopaflKOB. 

npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH ocTaBHTb no3Hu,HH sto ^ejiaeTca opraHH30BaHHO, SecHiyMHO h aScojiiOTHO 
CKpwTHO ot npoTHBHHKa. CHannepcKHe 3aca^bi npn 3tom BbiCTaBJiaiOT Ha HanpaBJieHnax BepoaTHbix 
BbiflBH>KeHHH HenpHaTejia fljia npnKpbiTHa cbohx OTCTynaiomHx nopaflKOB. H b TaKHx cjiynaax CHaii- 
nepaM onpe^ejiaiOTca nopa^OK h nyra OTxofla k cbohm, npiineM otxoa CHaMnepoB aojckch o6a3aTejib- 
ho oSecneiHBaTbca orHeBbiM npHKpbiTHeM cbohx. OSmhho fljia 3Toro Ha3HanaiOT MHHOMeTbi, KOTopwe 
flOJi>KHbi SbiTb b totobhocth OTKpbiTb oroHb no SoeBbiM nopaflKaM HacTynaiomero npoTHBHHKa. 

npn npoBefleHHH bohckoboh onepauHH no 6jiOKnpoBaHnio h nponecbiBaHino KaKoro-jm6o 
ynacTKa mccthocth npn 6opb6e c pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHbiMH rpynnaMH npoTHBHHKa, npn yHHHTO>KeHHH 
6aHfl(})opMHpoBaHHa, npn jiHKBHflau,Hii BOopy>KeHHbix h ocoSo onacHbix npecTynHHKOB, a TaK>Ke fljia 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 190 

noHMKH coBepniHBniHx noSer H3 MecT 3aKjnoHeHna CHaiinepbi Bcex poflOB bohck, ynacTByiomnx b Me- 
ponpnaTHH, npHMeHaiOTca: a) Ha CTbiKax noflpa3flejieHHii, B3aHMHO nepeicpbiBaa orHeM "Hnneiuibie" 
MecTa MOK^y noflpa3flejieHnaMH - cbohmh h ny>KHMH, 6) fljia nnoTHoro nepeKpbiTna orHeM H3 3aMac- 
KHpoBaHHbix 3aca^ nyreii n HanpaBJieHnii B03MO>KHoro OTxofla cnenKOHTHHreHia k MecTaM, r^e mok- 
ho yKpbiTbca, - k jiecaM, OBparaM, HacejieHHbiM nyHKTaM 

IIpH bohckoboh onepannn KOHenHaa 3a^ana CHaiinepa - He #aTb cnenKOHTHHreHiy BbipBaTbca H3 
paiioHa 6-noKHpoBaHHji. CHaiinep 3arpaflHTejibHbiM orHeM (hjih Ha yHHHTO>KeHHe) nepeKpwBaeT "kjih- 
eHTaM" nyTH B03MO>KHoro OTxo#a 

y CHaiinepoB, Ha3HaneHHbix b noncKOBbie noflBH>KHbie rpynnbi, Bee Te >Ke ocHOBHbie 3a#aHH, Be- 
cth TmaTenbHoe HaSjiiOfleHHe fljia CBoeBpeMeHHoro o6Hapy>KeHH» npoTHBHHKa. B noncKOBoii rpynne 
MecTO CHaiinepa - B03Jie KOMaH^npa, KOTopoMy CHaiinep o6a3aH flOKJia^biBaTb o pe3ynbTaTax HaSjno- 
fleHHa. CHaiinep, nporH03Hpya oScTaHOBKy cornacHO nBynemiOMy Ha KapTe pejibecj)y mccthocth, 06- 
pamaeT ocoSoe BHHMaHne Ha TeHeBbie MecTa, b KOTopbix Moryr yKpbiibca pa3bicKHBaeMbie. TmaTejib- 
ho ocMaTpHBaiOTca BepxyniKH ^epeBbeB, KycTbi, CKonneHna xBopocTa, pa3BanHHbi, CKna^Kn 
MecTHOCTH, Bee nocTpoiiKH (nocToaHHbie h BpeivteHHbie) h np. CHaiinep TpeHnpoBaHHoii Ha6jno#a- 
TejibHOCTbio h 3BepHHbiM nyibeM flOJDKeH 3aMeTHTb MejibHaiiHiyio (})ajibHib b oicpjoicaiomeH npnpofle h 
pacno3HaTb 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie yKpbirna Tex, Koro nmyT. B HacejieHHbix nyHKTax, Ha xyropax h b ^e- 
peBHax CHaiinep oSpamaeT ocoSoe BHHMaHHe Ha nepflaKn, noflBanbHbie OKHa, OTflyniHHbi, BHHMaTejib- 
ho cneflHT 3a noBefleHHeM mccthmx >KHTejieii - ohh oneHb nacTO yKpbiBaioT Tex, kto npHHien H3 Jieca. 
OcoSoe BHHMaHne y^ejiaeTca CTpoeHHaM h flOMOBJia^eHHJiM, pacnojio>KeHHbiM Ha Kpaio HacejieHHoro 
nyHKTa, ocoSemio b6jih3h Jieca, - hmchho TaM name Bcero Haxo^aTca oSycTpoeHHbie onopHbie tohkh 
pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHbix rpynn h pe3HfleHiypbi npoTHBHHKa. OneHb nacTO ocMaTpHBaiOTca ynacTKH Jie- 
ca, npHJieraiOHiHe k HaceneHHOMy nyHKTy. 

B necy Haflo SbiTb ocoSemio SflHiejibHbiM. Jlec ycnoKaHBaeT h ycbimraeT. Bbi onem* fla>Ke 3a- 
npocTO CMO>KeTe He 3aMeTHTb nejiOBeica, npHTaHBineroca pa^OM c BaMH. IIo3TOMy uejin b necy, KaK 
npaBHJio, noaBJiaiOTca BHe3anHO h TaK >Ke BHe3anHO Hcne3aiOT 3a ^epeBbaMH. CTaBbre nocToaHHbiH 
npnueji "3" h CTpejiaiiTe HaBCKH^Ky, uejiacb b nepeflHHH Kpaft Serymeii uejin. 

IIpH nponecbiBaHKH necHbix MaccHBOB MecTO CHaiinepa - Ha npoceicax, b^ojib OBparoB, nojiaH, 
onynieK h ^pyrax OTKpbiTbix MecT, b^ojib KOTopbix oSmhho ^BH>KeTca nponecbiBaHHe. BHHMaHne 
CHaiinepa npn 3tom cocpeflOTonnBaeTca Ha ynacTKax Jieca c rycToii pacTHrejibHOCTbio, H3-nofl koto- 
poii npoTHBHHK MO>KeT BecTH oroHb. OroHb no npoaBHBineMy ce6a npoTHBHHKy CHaiinep OTKpwBaeT 
caMOCToarejibHO. 

Ilpn Haxo>KfleHHH b 3aca#e 3a#ana CHaiinepa Bee Ta >Ke - HaSjuoflemie. CHaiinep He flOJDKeH npo- 
3eBaTb Toro, Koro >Kflyr b 3aca/iy. O noaBJieHHH Toro, Koro >Kflyr, CHaiinep ycjiOBHbiM 3HaKOM "BHHMa- 
Hne" (flBa pa3a mejiKHyib npnnejibHoii njiaHKoii) cooSmaeT KOMaH^npy. OSmhho b 3aMacKnpoBaHHbix 
3aca^ax CHaiinepbi ^eiicTByiOT no nprnmnny "Bcex nycKaTb, HHKoro He BbinycicaTb". 0>KHflaeMoro 
KJineHTa nponycKaiOT b "MenioK", r^e ero Sepyr >KHBbeM. OroHb no HeMy OTKpbiBaiOT TOJibKO b cjiynae 
ero OTxofla hjih HenpeflBH#eHHoro pa3BHTHa coSbmrii. 

Pacnonaraacb b CKpbiToii h 3aMacKHpoBaHHoii onepaTHBHoii 3aca#e, CHaiinep #0Ji>KeH He TOJibKO 
BHHMaTejibHO HaSniOflaTb, ho h He MeHee BHHMaTejibHO cnyuiaTb. Ha cnyx oneHb xoponio BoenpHHH- 
MaiOTca H3MeHeHHa b npnpofle npn flBH>KeHHH h noaBJieHHH nocTopoHHHx. 

B HacTynaTenbHOM BCTpenHOM 6010 b cocTaBe ocHOBHoro noflpa3flejieHHa CHaiinepbi npeflynpe- 
>KflaiOT nonbiTKH npoTHBHHKa HaHecTH BHe3anHbie y^apw bo (|)jiaHr CBoeMy noflpa3flejieHHio, fljia nero 
Be/iyT HaSniOfleHHe c xo^y Ha oScTaHOBKy b6jih3h (})jiaHroB, He 3a6biBaa, pa3yMeeTca, nopa>KaTb u,ejiH, 
B03HHKaiOHiHe no xofly npoflBH>KeHHa. IIonbiTKH npoTHBHHKa HaHecTH yflap no (})jiaHry hjih oSohth 
noApa3flejieHne CHaiinepbi npeceKaiOT cobmcctho c ^pyrnMH oraeBbiMH cpe^CTBaMH, ho o6Hapy>KeHHe 
Hanana TaKnx MaHeBpoB npoTHBHHKa - npaMaa o6a3aHHOCTb CHaiinepa. 

Ilpn caMOM He3HannTejibHOM noflKOBOo6pa3HOM oxBaTe npoTHBHHKa cbohmh CHaiinepbi CTpe- 
MaTca 3aH»Tb no3Hu,HH no CTopoHaM 3Toii "noflKOBbi" h nepeKpbiTb npocTpaHCTBO BHyrpn Hee CHaii- 
nepcKHM oraeM. Ilpn 3tom b nepByio onepeflb yHHHTO>KaiOTca HanSojiee Ba>KHbie u,ejiH - oraeBbie 
cpeflCTBa, onacHbie fljia cbohx, paccTpejiHBaeTca KOMaH^Hbiii cocTaB npoTHBHHKa n ero CB33HCTbi. 
IIpoTHBHHK, jinmeHHbiii cpe^CTB cb»3h, KaK npaBHJio, oSpeneH. 

nPHMAHKA RJW CHAHnEPCKHX I^EJIEH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 191 

B CHaMnepcKOM npoMbicjie npn yHHHio>KeHHH >khboh chjim npoTHBHHKa 3anpemeHHbix npneMOB 
HeT. J\jm CHaiinepa Ba>KHO, htoSw noaBHJiacb nejib, h He Ba>KHO, npn KaKHx o6cTO»TejibCTBax OHa TaM 
noaBHTca. 

Ecjih conflaT npoTHBHHKa noaBHJica Ha otkpwtom MecTe, CHannep He ySteT ero HanoBan, a pa- 
hht, h ^a>Ke He tjdkcjio, a Taic, htoSw 3tot paHeHbiii He CMor caMOCTO>rrejibHO nepeflBHraTbca. CHaii- 
nep flenaeT TaK fljia Toro, htoSbi 3acTpejinTb Tex, kto nonbiTaeTca OKa3aTb paHeHOMy noMomb, a 3aTeM 
h OKOHnaTejibHO 3acTpejiHTb h caMoro paHeHoro. IIo3TOMy paHeHoro c OTKpbiToro MecTa BbiBcmT Ha 
SpoHeTpaHcnopTepe, jx& h to b tom cjiynae, ecjin HeT onacHOCTH yHHHTO>KeHHa SpoHeTexHHKH H3 npo- 
THBOTaHKOBblX orHeBbix cpe/iCTB. 

IIpH CTpeubSe no rpynnoBbiM nejiaM (ocoSemio H3 SecinyMHoro opyacna) CHaiinep Bcer^a nep- 
bwm BbiCTpenoM nopa3HT Toro, kto H^eT hjih HaxoflHTca no3aflH rpynnw. 3to ^ejiaeTca fljia Toro, hto- 
Sw ocTanbHbie He cpa3y norouiH nponcxoflamee h He SpocnnHCb "no mejiaM". IIoKa flo rpynnbi ^on- 
^eT, hto CJiynnjiocb, CHannep noflcipejini eme OflHoro-flByx. 

OneHb xopoHien npHMamcoH, npnrarHBaiomeH nejin, aBJiaeTca opy>KHe. CHaiinep Bcer^a nocTa- 
paeTca noflCTpejimb Bpa>KecKoro Soiina b momcht bq^quks CTpejibSbi, htoSw opy>KHe 3Toro coji^aTa 
ocTanocb jie>KaTb Ha SpycTBepe. 3tot aBTOMaT paHO hjih no3#HO kto-to nonbnaeTca crorrb c SpycTBe- 
pa h nona^eT no# CHannepcKyio nyjno. ^obojibho nacTO pa3Beflrpynnbi no npocbSe CHaiinepa ocraB- 
jiaiOT b6jih3h HenpnaTejibCKHx no3HUHH opy>KHe c rjiyiHHTejiaMH - Ha bcskhh cjiynaii HcnopneHHoe h 
6e3 naTpoHOB hjih #a>Ke MaKeTbi 3Toro opy>KHa. Ha nncTOJieT c rjiyniHiejieM Bcer^a Han^yTca oxothh- 
kh. Tot, kto nojie3eT 3a TaKHM nncTOJieTOM rhqm, nojiynni nyjno ot CHaiinepa, a tot, kto nonbiTaeTca 
flOCTaTb ero HOHbio, pncKyeT noflopBaTbca Ha MHHe, 3ano>KeHHoii no,zj stoh npniviaHKOH. CHaiinepbi 
MoryT ncnojib30BaTb n ^pyrne npHMaHKH: "cjiynaiiHo" onpoKHHyBHiHHca am,HK c BbicbinaBniHMHca H3 
Hero KOHcepBaMH, cnrapeTaMH, SyibiJiKaMH h t. #. TaKne cjiynan SbiBajxn. Bbiji cjiynaii, Kor^a CHaiinep 
Ha/ieji Ha pyKy ySmoro nacw b SjieciameM Kopnyce h noflCTpejiHJi ^ypaKa, KOTopwii nonbirajica 3th 
nacbi CHaTb (Kopnyc Swji SjiecTamnn, a MexaHH3M He paSoTan). Bo3Jie ySnibix HHor^a jie>KaT (})OToan- 
napaTbi h BH^eoKaiviepbi, KaK npaBHJio, HcnopneHHbie hjih pa36nibie. HnKor^a He Ha^o noflSnpaTb Jie- 
Mcainne Ha OTKpbiTbix MecTax npnBJieKaTejibHbie npeflMeibi - ohh He cJiynaiiHO TaM Haxo^aTca, h He bm 
nx Tyfla nojio>KHJiH. 

B. 3aiineB onncan cjiynaii, Kor^a ero TOBapHinH-CHaiinepbi HOHbio nepefl HeMenKoii no3HUHeii 

nOJIO>KHJIH CB33Ky nyCTblX KOHCepBHblX SaHOK. C paCCBeTOM HX npHBeJIH B flBH>KeHHe npHB33aHH0H K 

hhm SeneBKon. BaHKH 3arpoxoTajiH, HecKOJibKO HeMneB cnpocoHba BbirjiaHynH 3a SpycTBep h nojiio- 
SonbiTCTBOBanH npHHHHe TaKoro inyvia. 3to ctohjio hm >kh3hh. 3anoMHHTe: Ha BOHHe HeocTopo>K- 
Hoe jnoSonbiTCTBO rySnTejibHO. JIioSonbiTCTBOBaTb najio b nepncKon H3-3a yKpbiTHa. 

^03HAHHE OBCTOilTEJIbCTB CHAHnEPCKOrO nPOilBJIEHHH. OnPOC 

CBH^ETEJIEH nPOHCIUE^IUErO 

IIpoaBJieHHe paSoTbi CHaiinepoB npoTHBHHKa ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca no cjie^yiomHM xapaKTepHbiM 
npH3HaKaM: npe>Kfle Bcero, sto Jiio6oe nona^aHHe nyneii b rojiOBy, oflHHOHHoe nona^aHHe Ha (})OHe 
nyjieMeTHOH onepeflH co ctopohw npoTHBHHKa, oflHHOHHoe nona^aHHe npn myMe HH3KOJieTamero ca- 
MOJieTa hjih BepTOJieTa hjih >Ke b6jih3h Ha3eMHOH TexHHKH c paSoTaiomHM flBHraTejieM, oahhohhoc 
nona^aHHe npn apTHJuiepHHCKOM BbiCTpejie hjih no^pbiBe cnjibHoro Soenpnnaca, He3aBHCHMO ot Toro, 
r^e npoH3omeji stot caMbiii 3ByK - Ha Bameii hjih Ha 3aHaTOH npoTHBHHKOM ctopohc Ha HannHne 
CHaiinepcKOH paSoTbi npaMO yKa3biBaiOT Sojiee flByx noflCTpejiOB b oahom h tom >Ke MecTe, a TaK>Ke 
no^CTpejibi b6jih3h nyHKTOB nnTaHna, BOflOCHa6>KeHHa, B03Jie niTaSoB, y3JiOB cb»3h h ^pyrax MecT 
CKonjieHHa BoeHHOCJiy>KamHx. Ha flonejibHOCTb CHaiinepa yKa3biBaiOT noflCTpejibi "b jio6", nponcxo- 
flanjHe no SoiinaM, KOTopwe Swjih Bbmy>KfleHbi b momcht no^orpejia ^BHraTbca b o^hom HanpaBJieHHH 
6e3 SoKOBbix CMemeHHH, HanpnMep Bbixo^HTb H3 flBepen. JIioSoh cjiynaii noflorpejia b TbiJiy Ha kom- 
MyHHKannax, apTHJuiepniicKHx SaTapeax, MecTax BOfl03a6opa TO>Ke yKa3biBaeT Ha paSoTy CHaiinepa. 

Bo Bcex 3thx cjiynaax HeoSxoflHMO SbiCTpo h octopo>kho Ha MecTe nponcmecTBHa BbiacHHTb 
Bee oScToaTejibCTBa noflorpejia. npe>Kfle Bcero Hy>KHO onpocHTb OHeBH/meB coSbiTna b cjie^yiomeM 
nopa^Ke: Kor^a npon3onieji BbiCTpeji h r/ie b 3to BpeMa Haxo^HJiocb cojiHu,e (ocBemeHHOCTb nejin bo 
MHoroM onpe^ejiaeT no3Hu,nio CHannepa). YcTaHOBHTb nojio>KeHHe noTepneBinero b MOMem nofl- 
CTpejia: nieji oh, CH#eji hjih jie>Kaji. 3a KaKHM yKpbiTneM oh Haxo^HJica n He Swjio jih b stom yKpwTHH 
npojiOMa hjih He3aKpbiToro npoxo^a (oTKy^a npnneTejia nyjia). npe^CTaBHTb ce6e aScTpaKTHO nojio- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 192 

>KeHHe Tena noTepneBinero b momcht no^CTpejia. IIo BxoflHOMy (BwxoflHOMy, ecjin oho ecib) OTBep- 
cthk) onpeflejiHTt HanpaBJieHne nojieTa nyjin. YcTaHOBHTb, He Swjio jih b 3tom MecTe npoMaxoB npo- 
THBHHKa no >KHBbiM HejiHM, ecjin Swjih, nycTb BaM yica>KyT cneflbi nona^aHHa nyjib (ecjin ohh ecTb) Ha 
CTeHax, SpycTBepax OKonoB h t. j\., KaKoe 3ByKOBoe npHKpbiTHe Swjio npn noflCTpejie: apTBbiCTpeji, 
nyneMeTHaa onepeflb, 3ByK HroKOJieTameii aBnaTexHHKH h t. j\. 

IIo xofly onpoca Moryr B03HHKHyTb h flpyrne nocraHOBOHHwe Bonpocbi. Onpocw CBHfleTejieM 
npoHcniefluiero noflcrpejia ^aiOT HeoueHHMyio HH^opMainno. B o^hom H3 cjiynaeB ySHioro Sonua 
yHecjiH, a ero npocTpejieHHaa HacKB03b KacKa Banajiacb Ha /pie OKona. CHaiinep -oxothhk H3 Konrpc- 
HannepcKOH rpynnw onpocoM TOBapnmen nornSiuero ycTaHOBHJi, hto nornSiunH flBnranca no TpaH- 
mee, SpycTBep KOTopon HMen noHH>KeHHe (oh oSBanHJica) Ha ynacTKe npniviepHO 70 cm. ConocTaBHB 
BxoflHoe h BbixoflHoe OTBepcTna Ha 3toh KacKe c ee MecTonojio>KeHHeM b stom ^e^eKiHOM MecTe 
SpycTBepa CHannep bwjichhji npnivtepHoe HanpaBJieHne npnueTa nyjin n yron ee na^eHna n ycTponji 
3aMacKnpoBaHHyio CHannepcKyio 3aca^y no# SpycTBepoM c Hapy>KHon ee CTopoHbi. HaSjiiOflaa b ne- 
pncKon, no xapaKTepy pejibe(J)a mccthocth ycTaHOBHJi npniviepHoe MecTO no3Hu,HH Bpa>KecKoro CHaM- 
nepa b 400 MeTpax h b3>iji 3to MecTO Ha npnueji. 

IIo KOMaH^e accHCTeHT npoHec KacKy noraSiHero nepe3 tot >Ke caMwii OTKpbiTbin flec})eKT oSBa- 
jiHBHieroca SpycTBepa. B npeflnojiaraeMOM MecTe CHaiinep 3aceK BcnwniKy BbiCTpena h BbiCTpennji no 
Hen. BbiCTpen stot OKa3anca pe3yjibTaTHBHbiM, o HeM nepe3 napy ^Hen paccKa3anH njieHHbie. 

B flpyroM anynae KacKy npoSnjio HancKocoK CBepxy bhh3. IIpH BwacHeHHH oScTO>rrejibCTB npo- 
Hcniefluiero Swjio ycTaHOBJieHO, hto CHaiinep npoTHBHHKa CTpejiaji c bwcokoh 3aBOflCKoii TpySw. EMy 
noACTaBHJiH KyKOJi-npHMaHOK. IIo Been bh^hmocth, stot CHaiinep HaSjnoflan hjih b MejiKne mejin, hjih 
b nepncKon, TaK KaK oh fljia BbiCTpejia noKa3biBanca H3 TpySw SyKBanbHO Ha ceKyH^y h cpa3y npjnaji- 
ca Ha3afl. TpySy pa3pyuiHJiH BbiCTpejiOM H3 npoTHBOTaHKOBoii nyniKH "Pannpa", h Sojibiue hhkto Ha 
stom ynacTKe npo CHaiinepa He cjibixan. 

B ropaneH tohkc K. coBpeMemioro CHr 6bui noflCTpejieH b rpy^b Soeu,, HeocTopo>KHO noKa- 
3aBHiHiica b npojiOMe CTeHbi. Hepes HeKOTopoe BpeMa Swji paHeH flpyroM Soeu,, b tom >Ke MecTe, ho no 
Apyryio CTopoHy npojiOMa. OnpocoM CBHfleTejieM n BOCCTaHOBJieHHeM coSwthji Ha MecTe nponcnie- 
CTBna Swjio ycTaHOBJieHO, hto b oflHO h to 5Ke MecTO nyjin npnjieTejiH H3 flByx pa3Hbix ToneK He nofl 
OflHHaKOBbiMH yrjiaMH na^eHHa. MecTaMH CHaMnepcKHx no3Hu,HH npeflnojio>KHJiH nep^aKH #Byx 3#a- 

HHH, OTCT03BHIHX flpyr OT flpyra Ha 150 MeTpOB. HOHbK) 06e n03HU,HH SblJIH 3aMHHHpOBaHbI pa3Befl- 

rpynnoii. Ha cjieflyionniH >Ke jxqyo, Ha oahoh h3 hhx noflopBanca CTpejiOK c SeciuyMHoii bhhtobkoh 
BCC. 

Ilocjie onpoca OHeBH^ueB n npeflBapHiejibHoro ycTaHOBJieHna npeflnojiaraeMoii no3Hu,HH CHaM- 
nepa 3a 3thm mcctom cjie^yeT TmaTejibHO h TepnejiHBO noHaSjnoflaTb. KoHipcHaiinepcKHe MeponpHa- 
THa no yHHHTO>KeHHio Bpa>KecKoro CHaMnepa npoBOfljnca TOJibKO nocjie oSbeKTHBHoro noflTBep>Kfle- 
HHa, npH nojiHeiinieH yBepeHHOCTH b ycnexe. 

Ho HHor^a SbiBaeT nojie3HO ^eiiCTBOBaTb HeMeflJieHHO, no ropaHHM cjie^aM. 

TmaTejibHbiM onpocoM oneBH/meB h aHanH30M nojiyHeHHoii HH(J)opMaLi,HH mo>kho y3HaTb h o xa- 
paKTepe Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa, hto b 3HaHHTejibHOH Mepe Sy^eT cnocoScTBOBaTb ero yHHHTO>KeHHio. 
Ha no3Hu,Hax b6jih3h ropo^a T. CHaMnepoM 6bui 3acTpejieH b rpy^b Soeu, h paHeH b njieno ero Hanap- 
hhk. OneBH/mbi noacHiuiH, hto noflCTpeji npoH3onieji b MecTe, r^e TpaHHiea SbiJia HeflOCTaTOHHO rjiy- 
6oko BbiKonaHa H3-3a BbicoKoro CToaHHa rpyHTOBbix boa. Eohhw hijih pa^OM, nepeflHHH 6bui ySnr, 
3aflHHH SpocHJica 6e>KaTb, h Smji paHeH. XapaKTepHbiM Swjio to, hto CHaiinep CTpejiaji no SerynieMy 
HecKOJibKO pa3, h cipejiaji fla>Ke Tor^a, Kor^a tot nojiHOCTbio yKpwjica b rjiySnHe xo^a cooSmeHHa. 
no nojio>KeHHio Kopnyca ySnToro h HanpaBJieHHio paHeBoro KaHana Swjio ycTaHOBJieHO opneHTHpo- 
BOHHoe HanpaBJieHne BbiCTpejia. He Swjio coMHeHnii, hto sto paSoTan CHannep, xopoiuo 3HaKOMwii c 
pejibec})OM yKpenjieHHH h hx cjiaSwMH MecTaMH. Ha sto MecTO oh h cflejian 3aca#y b pacneTe Ha to, 
hto c paHeHWMH hjih ySnTbiMH Sy^eT bo3h». no xapaKTepy ero SecnopaflOHHOH CTpejibSw mo>kho Sw- 
jio npeflnojio>KHTb, hto stot CTpejiOK a3apTeH no HaType. TaK oho h OKa3anocb Ha SpycTBep TpaHHien 
bSjih3h 3Toro MecTa nanKoii Bw^BKHyjiH KacKy, h OHa cpa3y >Ke ynana, npoSnTaa nyjieii. no 3thm npo- 
SoHHaM yTOHHHJiH HanpaBJieHne CTpejibSw. B CTpejiKOByio aneiiKy Bw^BKHyjiH Hynejio-npHMaHKy c 
npHB»3aHHWM k HeMy pyHHWM nyjieMeTOM, 3a cnycK KOToporo Swjia npHB33aHa SeneBKa. Hynejio cpa- 
3y >Ke nojiyHHJio nyjiio b rojiOBy, ho "npoH3Bejio" H3 nyjieMeTa napy kopotkhx onepeflen b CTopoHy 
CHannepcKon no3Hu,HH. He nojiyHKBHinn o>KHflaeMoro pe3yjibTaTa CHannep He Mor ycnoKOHTbca h 
BCTynnji c HyHejiOM-nyjieMeTHHKOM b flysjib, KOTopaa OKOHHHJiacb ^Jia CHaiinepa TaK, KaK h flOJi>KHa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 193 

Swjia OKOHHHTbca - ero paccTpejuuiH H3 Tpex bhhtobok o#hhm 3ajinoM. TaKHe Benni Jiynme flejiaTb, 
CTpenaa c py6e>Ka oSopoHbi cbohx h He Bbi^BHraacb Ha HeiripajibHyio nonocy. 

H eme o#ho. He neHHTecb caivtn onpeflejiHib MecTa, r^e Bauin Sohhm H3-3a ocoSeHHOCTen pejib- 
ec})a MoryT noflCTaBHibca nofl BbiCTpen Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa, h nocTaBbTe TaM TaSjiHHKH c Haflnn- 
Cbio: "BHHMaHHe - CHaiinep!" B MecTax CHaiinepcKoro npoaBJieHHa BbiCTaBJunoTca npeflynpoKflaiomne 
TaSuHHKH. "BHHMaHHe' 3to MecTO npncTpejiaHO CHannepoM!" TaK flejiajni bo BpeMa npomjion bohhm, 

H 3TO CnaCJIO HeMajIO pyCCKHX >KH3Heii. 

PEAKHH5I nPOTHBHHKA HA OrOHb CHAIHIEPA 

Ecjih bw CTpenaeTe pe3yjibTaTHBHO, to npoTHBHHKy paHO hjih no3flHO CTaHeT noHjmio, hto Ha 
ero ynacTKe paSoTaeT CHaiinep. KaKHe npH3HaKH Toro, hto npoTHBHHK 3to noHaji? Ecjih bm, flony- 
cthm, noflCTpenHJiH conflaTa npoTHBHHica, a 3a ero opy>KHeM, KOTopoe jiokht otkpbito, hhkto He npn- 
nieji h Ha nocTaBJieHHbie BaMH npHMaHKH (cm. paHee) hhkto He KjnoHyn, 3HaHHi, Bac pacniH^poBajin. 
Ecjih bw paSoTann npo(J)eccHOHajibHO, CTpejiajin Ha (})OHe nyneMeTHoii onepeflH, nonaflanH Bee BpeMa 
b rojiOBy - >KflHTe Ha 3tom MecTe KOHipcHaiinepa npoTHBHHica (hjih KOHipcHaiinepcKyio rpynny) c 
npHMaHKaMH (KacKaMH, (|)ypa>KKaMH, nynejiaMH h t. r.). KaKOBbi Banin fleiiCTBHa? IIpe>Kfle Bcero, 
HaSepHTecb TepneHHa. 5KflHie pa3BHTHa coSbmiii. 3aiiMHTe (J)jiaHroByio no3Hu,Hio ajih Bep,emm "koco- 
ro" oina, htoSm H3rn6bi Bpa>KecKHx TpaHiueii xotb Hyib-Hyib npocMaTpHBajincb no fljnnie. Ho3hhhio 
3Ty 3aiiMHTe nyib cSoKy ot paMoHa Banmx oSbiHHbix no3HHHH. He CTpejiHHie Ha cbocm hobom ynacT- 
Ke. Ha BameM CTapoM ynacTKe h flpyrnx ynacTKax cnpaBa h cjieBa ot Bac nycTb Banin accHCTeHTbi no- 
CTpejiHBaiOT, ocoSo He CTapaacb nonacTb, ho CTapaacb He noflCTaBHibca nofl BCTpenHyio nyjiio: bbi- 
CTpejiHJi c OflHoro MecTa, nepeMecTHJica flanbine, CHOBa BbiCTpejimi. Bbi aojckhw TepnejiHBO >K^aTb. 
3to CJiynaii, Kor^a HHHiniaTHBy flOJi>KeH npoaBJunb npoTHBHHK - cennac eMy Ha^o Sojibiue, neM BaM. 
Hepes HeKOTopoe BpeM» BaM HanHyi noKa3biBaTb npHMaHKH, ho bm y>Ke 3HaeTe, KaK ohh aojckhm bm- 
rjia^eTb h KaK ohh aojckhw flBnraTbca, h He 6y#eTe CTpejurrb no hhm. Banin accncTeHTbi Sy^yr bw- 
CTaBJiaTb npoTHBHHKy cboh npnMaHKH. nycTb npoTHBHHK CTapaeTca, ycTaeT h TepaeT SflHiejibHOCTb. 
KaK ycTaHOBHJi B. 3anneB eme b nponniyio Boiniy, ecjin Ha stom ynacTKe y npoTHBHHKa BOuapHJiacb 
rpoSoBaa TnmnHa, 3HanHT, c toh ctopohw 3a ^ejio b3jijicji onbiTHbiii CHaiinep, KOTopbiii noTpeSoBan, 
hto6w eMy He Meniann h KOTopwii HanHeT paSoTy no BameMy BbiaBJieHHio, 6y#eT flBnraTb cbohmh ny- 
nejiaMH, KOTopoMy Hy>KHO, htoSm bh CTpejiajin no KOHTpojinpyeMOMy hm nynejiy, a He no ero Bbicy- 
HyBineMyca cojiflaTy. TaKoro npoTHBHHKa Ha^o "nepeTepneTb". HBynHie apceHan ero npHMaHOK. 
5KflHTe, noKa oh He H3o6peTeT HOBbie. BpeM» paSoTaeT npoTHB Hero. Ha Hero flaBHi HananbCTBO h 
TpeSyeT pe3yjibTaTOB, oh 6y#eT HepBHHnaTb. AKTHBH3HpyiiTecb Ha ^pyroM ynacTKe. PaHO hjih no3/nio 
oh OTyneeT, r^e-TO ^onycTHT oiunSKy h noflCTaBHica. 

IIPH3HAK nOHBJIEHIM KOHTPCHAIHIEPCKOH TPYnnW HA CTOPOHE 

nPOTHBHHKA 

npH3HaKOM Toro, hto Bama CHaiinepcKaa paSoTa pacniH(J)poBaHa, cjiy>KHT HacTynneHHe thhikhw 
Ha ynacTKe Bamero CHaiinepcKoro nocTa. fl,onycTHM, r^e-TO 3a nepeflHHM KpaeM npoTHBHHKa TopnaT 
aHTeHHbi h TaM paHbuie SbiJia pa3Be/iaHa oc^HuepcKaa njiomaflKa, KOMaH^Hbiii nyHKT, y3eji cb»3h h t. 
r., h Bnepa b stom MecTe SbiJio o>KHBJieHHoe nepeMemeHHe BoeHHOCJiy>KaHiHx npoTHBHHKa, a cero^Ha - 
KaK BbiMepjio. H He npocTO BbiMepjio, a ^a>Ke HHnero He MejibKaeT cjiynaiiHO. KaK npaBHJio, Ha stom 
ynacTKe npeKpaniaeTca #a>Ke nyjieMeTHaa CTpejibSa co ctopohm npoTHBHHKa. ^ejiaeTca 3to noTOMy, 
hto KOMaH^np KOHTpcHannepcKOH rpynnbi npoTHBHHKa (hjih o#hh KOHipcHaiinep) npHKa3an He Me- 
niaTb, He MejibTeniHTb h, rjiaBHoe, He BbicoBbiBaTbca. Bmccto stoto "BbicoBbiBaHHa" KOHTpcHaiinep- 
CKaa rpynna npoTHBHHKa HannHaeT nrpy c npnMaHKaMn - KyKJiaMH, KacKaMH, (J)ypa>KKaMH n nponnM. 
Hto flejiaTb? OcTaBbTe Ha stom ynacTKe #e>KypHoro CHannepa n HaSjnoflaTejia, n nycTb ohh hmhth- 
pyiOT Baniy CHaiinepcKyio paSoTy, KaK Sy^TO Hnnero He npoH3oniJio. HanHHaiiTe HaSjiiOflaTb h bm- 
CJie>KHBaTb CHannepa npoTHBHHKa co ctopohw. Ot noeflHHKa yioiOHaTbca Hejib3a. TmaTejibHO npoHa- 
SjHOflaiiTe 3a Ka>KAbiM KBa^paTHbiM fleu,HMeTpoM oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa: c noaBJieHneM hobmx 
CHaiinepoB b ee xapaKiepe hto-to H3MeHHTca. nepeMecTaTca orHeBbie tohkh. Bo3HHKHyT HOBbie 3a- 
MacKnpoBaHHbie no3Hu,HH h, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, HOBbie nepeMenieHHa npoTHBHHKa no hobbim HanpaBJie- 
HH3M b rjiySnHe ero oSopoHbi. 3to cjiaSbie MecTa, n bm aojckhw HeMeflJieHHO B03fleiiCTBOBaTb orHeM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKycCTBO CHaiinepa» 194 

no 3thm cjia6biM MecTaM. IlycTb KOHTpcHaMnepcKaa SpHra^a npoTHBHHKa KHHeTca OTpaSaTbiBaTb 3th 
HOBbie HanpaBJieHHa, k BaniHM npHMaHKaM, a bw BepHeTecb Ha Bain npe>KHHH ynacTOK n 6y#eTe crpe- 
jiaTb OTTy/ia. IlycTb ohh Kn^aiOTca 3a BaMH, a He bm 3a hhmh. CTapairrecb "noflJiaBJiHBaTb" hx Ha ho- 
bwx nyrax nepeivteineHHH b rjiySnHe nx oSopoHbi, a BbiaBJiemibie 3aMacKnpoBaHHbie no3nnnH He Tpo- 
rairre flo nopw #o BpeMeHH. IlycTb ohh nonyBCTByiOT ce6a b 6e3onacHOCTH hmchho Ha hhx. 

,3,OrOBOpHTeCb C MHHOMeTHHKaMH, H nyCTb OHH, XOpOHieHbKO nOflrOTOBHB HCXOflHbie flaHHbie flJia 

CTpeubSbi, HaKpoiOT 3th no3Hu,HH BMecTe c TeMH, kto Ha hhx HaxoflHTca. Pa3 h HaBcer^a. 

BbiBaeT h flpyrofi BapnaHT. KoHrpcHaiuiep npoTHBHHKa 6y#eT paSoTaTb npoTHB Toro MecTa, c 
KOToporo bw CTpenajiH paHbnie, hjih nyrb c6oKy ot Hero. IIocMOTpHTe Ha CBoe SbiBiuee MecTO ero raa- 

3aMH H npHKHHbTe, TRQ 3TOT KOHTpCHaiuiep MO>KeT oSopyflOBaTb n03HHHK) flJia TOrO, HToSbl flOCTaTb 
BaC. ECJIH Bbl XOpOHIO H3yHHJIH KapTy H JiaHflHia(})T B 30He CBOeH OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, Bbl CMO>KeTe Bbl- 

HHCJiHTb no3HHHio Baiuero npoTHBHHKa h OTpaSoTaTb ee MHHOMeTHbiM oraeM. fl,ep>KHTe no# KOjnieK- 
THBHbiM npnnejiOM HecKOJibKHx bhhtobok c pa3Hbix CTopoH npe/inojiaraeMbie nyrn OTxo#a c 3toh no- 
3hhhh, h6o TaK hjih HHane b hhx hto-to MenbKHeT. Ha^o He npo3eBaTb sto MenbKaHHe h flocTaTb ero 
nyneii. Ha naMaTH aBTopa stot BapnaHT noflTBep>KfleH npaKTHKoii. 

OBHAPy^CEHHE BPA^KECKOrO CHAHIIEPA 

CHaiinep - He SecrniOTHbiii pyx, a >khboh nejiOBeK, h ero mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb, KaK 6bi oh hh 
MacKHpoBanca. Ero Bbi^aiOT ^mmok ot BbiCTpejia, BcnbiniKa BbiCTpejia, ecjin oh CTpejiaeT H3 3aTeHeH- 
Horo MecTa, 3ByK BbiCTpejia, ecjin oh CTpejiaeT 6e3 iuyMOBoro npnKpbiTHa. AHanH30M jiaHflnia(J)Ta 
MecTHOCTH h ras^a raa3aMH Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa Ha cboh nepeflHHH KpaM onpeflenaiOT HanSojiee 
nepcneKTHBHbie MecTa pim oSycTpoiicTBa CHaiinepcKHx no3Hii,HH. IIpH 3tom oSpamaiOT ocoSoe bhh- 
MaHHe Ha B03BbiiueHHbie MecTa, y^oSHbie fljia HaSjnoflaTejieii h apTHJiJiepniicKHx KoppeKTHpoBmHKOB 
npoTHBHHKa. TmaTejibHO npocMaTpnBaiOT BepxyniKH ^epeBbeB n 3aTeMHeHHbie HenpHMeTHbie MecTa 
B03Jie 3aMeTHbix h apKHx oSbeKTOB, npHBJieKaiomHx BHHMaHHe h "oTTarHBaiomnx" ero Ha ce6a. 

TmaTenbHbiM 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiM HaSjiiOfleHHeM b nepncKon no,zj "noxMaTbiM" KaMy4)jia>KeM c 
He3aMeTHoro MecTa ycTaHaBJiHBaiOTca H3MeHeHHa b MejibHaiiHiHx ^eTanax Ha nepeflHeM Kpae npoTHB- 
HHKa, xapaKTepHbie fljia oSycTponcTBa no3nnnH. Hame Bcero 3to MO>KeT SbiTb BbipBaHHaa TpaBa npn 
pacnnnieHHOM ceKTope 06cTpe.na, cpe3aHHbie hjih HafljiOMJieHHbie bctkh MejiKoro KycTapHHKa, o6pa- 
3yiomHe CBoeo6pa3Hyio "HHiuy b rjiySnHy", h 3a 3thm MecTOM, KaK npaBHJio, 3aTeHeHHoe hjih TeMHoe 
MecTO b CKJia^Kax pejibe(J)a hjih >Ke 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiii BeTKaMH SyropoK - sto h 6y#eT no3HHHa maii- 
nepa. O^hh h3 CTapocjiy>KamHx KaK -to paccKa3biBan aBTopy, hto npn ocMOTpe mccthocth b erepeo- 
TpySy y OflHoro H3 mien, otctojibhihx b 450 MeTpax ot jihhhh OKonoB, o#hh h3 KopHeM 6bui KaK -to y>K 
copneHTHpoBaH b CTopoHy pyccKnx no3Hii,HH. Ha bcjikhh cjiynaii no 3TOMy nmo y^apnnn H3 npoTHBO- 
TaHKOBoro py>Kba. neHb nepeKHHyjica, n CTpaHHbiM KopeHb 3aflpanca BBepx BMecTe c ohthhcckhm 
npHii,ejiOM h npHKna^OM. Oh TaK h Topnan HecKOJibKO flHeii. Cy^bSa xo3»HHa stoh bhhtobkh Sbuia 
oneBH^Ha. 

CHaiinep onem, nacTO (noHTH Bcer^a) ^ejiaeT jio>KHbie no3HHHH, OTBJieKaiomHe h pacceHBaiomne 
BHHMaHHe npoTHBHHKa. Ha bh/i ohh oflHHaKOBbi; Ka>K^aa 3aMacKHpoBaHa, ho TaKHM o6pa30M, hto no 
HapoHHTO He6pe>KHbiM fleTajiaM ohh CTaHOBjrrca bh^hh HaSjnoflaioniHM Ha conpeflejibHOH ctopohc 
CTpejiaTb no hhm BceM - 3to pacKpbiBaTb cboh orneBbie tohkh. Ho HCTHHHyio no3nnnio Ha/jo ycTaHO- 
BHTb. H cflejiaTb 3to mo>kho TOJibKO nyreM MHoronacoBoro HaSjnofleHHa. Ha hcthhhoh no3Hii,HH paHO 
hjih no3flHO npoH3oiifleT KaKoe-TO ^BH>KeHHe hjih HieBejieHHe. CHaiinep, 3aMacKHpoBaBmniica Ha ot- 
KpbiToii no3Hii,HH, paHO hjih no3flHO HieBejibHeTca (hjih noneiHeTca). CnjiysT ero CTaHeT Harjia^HbiM. 

Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa nacTO Bbi^aiOT otSjicckh ctckoji h MaxoBHKOB onTHnecKoro npHii,ejia. C 
H3MeHeHHeM ocBemeHHa npn nepeMemeHHH cojiHii,a oneHb nacTO nponcxoflaT Heo>KHflaHHbie Benin: to, 
hto paHee Sbijio HeBn^HMbiM, CTaHOBHTca oneHb 3aMeTHbiM. 

OSHapyacHB BpaacecKoro CHaiinepa, He cnemnre ero yHHHToacaTb. ^.aiiTe eMy >KH3Hb b paccpon- 
Ky. CnepBa nofl30BHTe k CBoeMy onTHHecKOMy npnSopy HenocpeflCTBeHHoro KOMaH^npa, HaSjiiOAaTe- 
Jieii, pa3BeflHHKOB, KoppeKTHpoBmHKOB. noKa>KHTe hm Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa. CHaiinep onaceH ^Jia 
Bcex. noKa>KHTe ero BceM n paccKa>KHTe, no KaKHM npHMeTaM n KaKHM cnocoSoM bm ero o6Hapy>KH- 
jih. Haynnre Bcex Haxo^HTb ero. CflejiaiiTe 3to HeSojibniHM cnopTOM Ha nepeflOBon. nojib3a ot TaKoro 
3aH3THa orpOMHa. Xots 6m OTToro, hto Banin Sohhm noiiMyT, hto TaKoe CHaiinep, h nepecTaHyT 6ec- 
CMbicjieHHO noflCTaBJiaTbca noA ero oroHb. KpoMe Toro, npn kojijickthbhom noncKe ero 6biCTpeii 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 195 

HaftflyT h noKa>KyT BaM. 

Ecjih BaniH pa3BeflHHKH npHiaiHHJiH "a3biKa", ero HeoSxoflHMO nepBOHanajibHO flonpocnrb Tyr 
)Ke, noKa ero He ^ocTaBHJiH BbiniecToameMy HanajibCTBy. IIpH sthx ^onpocax Bam KOMaH^Hp "bbi- 
TpaxHeT" H3 nueHHoro CBeflemia o nocTaHOBKe npoTHBHHKOM orHeBbix cpe^CTB, a bbi nojiynHie He- 
oueHHMyio HH(})opMaLi,Hio o BaniHx "KOJinerax" - CHaMnepax c toh ctopohw, 06 hx MeTO^ax paSoTbi, 
npHBbiHKax, HaKJiOHHOCTax, BKycax, onaSocTax, BOopy>KeHHH h t. r. 

nPHMAHKH RJW BPA^CECKOrO CHAHIIEPA 

Ilepefl CHaMnepoM ctoht nocToaHHaa 3a#ana - e>KeflHeBHO o6pa6aTbiBaTb nepeflHHH Kpaii npo- 
THBHHKa. Ha no3Hu,Hio CHaMnep BbixoflHT Ka>Kflyio HOHb, noTOMy hto eMy Ha/io paSoTaTb Ka>K#biii 
fleHb. H Ka>Kflbiii fleHb oh #0Ji>KeH Koro-TO ySnib - sto ero SoeBaa 3a#ana h oh HeceT OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 
nepefl cbohmh 3a ee HeBbinonHeHHe. CHannep e>KeMHHyTHO hihct nejib, h nejib 3Ty eMy Jiynnie noKa- 
3aTb, Ty nejib, KOTopyio bbi CHHiaeTe Hy>KHOH, a He Ty, KOTopyio oh HaM^eT caM h ySbeT Koro-HnSyflb. 
CHaiinep MO>KeT 3aMacKnpoBaTbca HacTOJibKO yviejio, hto caMbiM TmaTejibHbiM BH3yanbHbiM HaSjno/ie- 
HHeM o6Hapy>KHTb ero HeB03MO>KHO. H nosTOMy nepBbiii BbiCTpen 6y#eT Bcer^a 3a hhm. Ha^o, htoSw 
3tot nepBbiii BbiCTpen CHaiinep Cflejian Ty#a, Ky^a Ha^o BaM, a He Ty^a, icy^a uajio eMy. IIosTOMy 
CHaftnepy nocToamio no#CTaBJiaiOT npHMaHKH. Ilocjie nepBoro cnpoBonnpoBamioro no npHMaHKe bu- 
CTpena y>Ke mo>kho 6y#eT npH6jiH3HTejibHO (a HHor^a h tohho) y3HaTb, r^e Haxoflmca no3HHHa CHaii- 
nepa. 

CaMOH npocToii npnMaHKoii aBJiaeTca oSbiHHaa coji^aTCKaa Kacica. CHaiinep Bcer^a CTapaeTca 
noflJiOBHTb nejib b nponoMax, OKOHHbix npoeMax, npoxo^ax, b MecTax ocbinaBHinxca hjih oSBaneHHbix 
B3pbiBaMH SpycTBepoB TpaHmeii h b MecTax CKonneHHa Bameii >khboh chum, b cnpaBeflJiHBOM pacneTe 

Ha TO, HTO paHO HJIH n03flHO KTO-TO nOTepaeT SflHTeJIbHOCTb HJIH "npOaBHTCa" B MajI03aiHHIHeHHOM 

MecTe. B 3thx MecTax CHaiinepy h noKa3biBaiOT KacKy, KOTopyio noflHHMaiOT Ha nanKe. Ho Kacica He 
flOJi>KHa Bee BpeMa HaxoflHTbca Ha o#hom MecTe - OHa #ojr>KHa ^BHraTbca. npnneM ^BHraTbca ecre- 
CTBeHHO, TaK, hto6w CHaiinep npoTHBHHica He nonyBCTBOBaji (})ajibnib. no3TOMy noTpeHHpynrecb 3Ty 
KacKy Ha nanKe HecTH n CMOTpme, KaK OHa ce6a Be^eT. OHa KanaeTca b Taier BaniHM maraM, KaK MaaT- 
hhk. 3to y>Ke 4)anbnib. Tenepb, y#ep>KHBaa KacKy Ha nanKe, noBepHHTe 3a yroji TpaHinen. Ta>Kejiaa 
KacKa, coxpaHHB HHepTHOCTb, ocTanacb b npe>KHeii opHenranHH, KaK rapoKOMnac, a HanpaBJieHne ee 
ABH>KeHHa H3MeHHJiocb. Kor^a bh B^ojib TpaHinen HeceTe Ha nanKe KacKy, OHa He flOJi>KHa "hath" 
PObho, a flOJi>KHa HeMHoro, oneHb HeMHoro, b TaKT iuaraM HopManbHoro nejiOBeKa, "npnceflaTb" h 
npHnoflHHMaTbca. Kor^a nejiOBeK b TpaHiuee HaraSaeTca, KacKa y Hero Ha rojiOBe TO>Ke flojraoia nyib 
HarnSaTbca. KpoMe Toro, Ha# SpycTBepoM flOJi>KHa ^BHraTbca BepxyniKa KacKH, h ecjin ee no#HaTb 
CJiHHiKOM bmcoko, oSMaH o6Hapy>KHTca cpa3y. 

HtoSw Bee 3to SbiJio noHaTHO h Harjia^HO, nocMOTpnTe co ctopohw, KaK Bam HanapHHK, He no- 
CBaiHeHHbiii 3apaHee b 3th tohkocth, 6y#eT hccth Ha nanKe KacKy no Tpamnee hjih no pa3BanHHaM. 
Bw npn 3tom o6Hapy>KHTe (J)ajibniH, no>Kajiyii, ^a>Ke Sojibme, neM 3#ecb onncaHO. HtoSw KacKa "cjiy- 
nianacb" accncTenra, KOTopwii c Heii paSoTaeT, Hy>KHO najiQTb ee Ha oSbeMHyio "rojiOBy", KOTopaa H3- 
roTaBJiHBaeTca H3 nero yroflHO, Jinnib 6bi KacKa Ha Heii cn^ejia Sojiee MeHee huotho. Tenepb BHHMa- 
TejibHO noHaSjnoflaiiTe, KaK Be^eT ce6a KacKa Ha rojiOBe nejiOBeKa, Hflymero HopManbHbiM iuaroM, 
Serymero (OHa npn stom nyrb HaiaiOHHTca Bnepefl), nepeSeraioiHero nojiynpHrHyBHincb, H3roTaBJiH- 
BaioiHeroca b CTpejibSe h t. a. noTpeHnpyiiTecb c KacKoii, Ha^eToii Ha oSbeMHyio "rojiOBy" h hochmoh 
Ha nanKe, noBTopHTb ^BH>KeHHa KacKH, Ha^eToii Ha rojiOBy HacToaiHero nejiOBeKa. npoiiflHTecb h npo- 
6e>KHTecb c hhm pa^OM, noBTopaa Bameii KacKoii Ha nanKe ^BH>KeHHa KacKH >KHBoro Soiina. Ecjih bm 
CMO>KeTe H3o6pa3HTb ochobhoh pejibec}) h nepTbi Jinna, TaKyio KacKy mo>kho Sy^eT He SoaTbca Ha 
MrHOBeHHe npHnoflHaTb Bbiiue SopTOB Ha^ SpycTBepoM. TpeHHpyiiTecb ^BHraTb KacKy ^o Tex nop, no- 
Ka Bamn TOBapnniH Ha flHCTaHHHn 50 MeTpoB nepecTaHyT pa3JiHnaTb, r^e MejibKaeT KacKa Ha >khbom 
nejiOBeKe h r^e ^BHaceTca npHMaHKa. OflHa KacKa He flOJDKHa "cBeTHTbca" cjihihkom ^ojiro - Hejib3a 
nepenrpbiBaTb ^Jia Bameii npHMaHKH Jiynme opraHH30BaTb nonepeMeHHoe #BH>KeHHe hcckojibkhx Ka- 
cok b pa3Hbix MecTax. 

OneHb 3(})4)eKTHBHaa npHMaHKa ^Jia Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa - ncKycHO cflejiaHHoe nynejio nejio- 
BeKa b HaTypajibHbiii pa3Mep. Bo Bcex BoiiHax, Sojibiunx h Manwx BOopy>KeHHbix KOH(})jiHKTax, a TaK>Ke 
b 6opb6e c TeppopH3MOM TaKne nynejia-npHMaHKH Hcnojib30BanHCb c HeroMemibiM 3(})4)eKTOM. Hyne- 
jio-MaHeKeH H3roTaBJiHBaeTca H3 noflpynHoro MaTepnana, oneHb nacTO CTapoe oSMyH^HpoBaHHe Ha6n- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 196 

BaeTca TpanbeM, cojiomoh h t. j\., hto nona^eTca nofl pyKy, #Be-Tpn niHHejiH hjih SynuiaTbi HaTaraBa- 
K)Tca pyKaBaMH flpyr b flpyra. BMecTO rojiOBbi npHcnocaSjiHBaiOTca j\rq nianKH - o^Ha Ha/ieTa Ha #py- 
ryio. 'TojiOBa" nofl nianKoM oSTarHBaeTca >KeHCKHM KanpoHOBbiM nynKOM (KCTaTH, Ha HeM noHTH He 
ocTaeTca npoSoHH ot nyneBbix nonaflaHHii). BHyrpb pyKaBOB BCTaBJiaeTca no #Be nanKH ^Jia HMHia- 
hhh >KecTKOCTH KOCTeft h ecTecTBeHHOCTH cruSa b noKTeBOM cycTaBe. Hynejio ^ojdkho SbiTb h3ix)tob- 
jieHO oneHb npaBflonofloSHO, htoSw nocTaHOBKa ronoBbi, rpy/ni, cnHHbi h HBMeroieMoe nojio>KeHHe 
pyK SbiJiH KaK mo>kho Sojiee ecTecTBeHHbiMH. Hynejio-MaHeKeH aojdkho SbiTb KaK mo>kho Sojiee Jier- 
khm h npoHHbiM, noTOMy hto ero H3roTaBJiHBaiOT Ha^ojiro h TacKaiOT 3a coSoii c no3HHHH Ha no3H- 
hhio. B nocneflHee BpeMa fljia 3Toro noaBHJica npeKpacHbiii jierKHH MaTepnan - neHonnacT, mcjikhmh 
oSjiOMKaMH KOToporo HaSnBaiOT CTapwe KHiejia, SyniJiaTbi, rHMHacTepKH, CTapwe CBHTepa h t. j\. Bo 
Bcex BOHHax h Ha Bcex (})poHTax yMejibHbi He >KanejiH BpeivieHH h H3o6peTaTejibHOCTH npn roroTOBJie- 
hhh TaKHx npHMaHOK. IIpH H3roTOBJieHHH nynejia c npHMeHeHHeM neHonjiacTa oneHb #a>Ke mo>kho 
Bbipe3aTb penbecj) jnma. TaKoii pejibecj), 3aT»HyTbiii KanpoHOBbiM nyjiKOM TejiecHoro HBeTa c o6o3Ha- 
neHHbiMH rjia3aMH, Ha paccToamiH 50-60 MeTpoB npaKTHnecKH hcotjihhhm ot Jinua >KHBoro nejiOBeKa. 
Hepe3 MaHeKeH nponycKanacb pe3HHOBaa TpySonKa, o#hh KOHeu, KOTopoii OKaHHHBanca bo "pTy" 
MyH/iHiTyKOM, b 3tot MyHflHiTyK BCTaBJiajiacb cnrapeTa, h nynejio Morao Kypnrb. PyKH nynejia- 
npHMaHKH OKaHHHBanHCb CTapbiMH nepnaTKaMH h Morjin npHB33biBaTbca k aBTOMaTy hjih bkhtobkc 
IIocpeACTBOM tojictoh npoBOJiOKH, nponymeHHoii BHyrpH Kopnyca, ronoBa Kyiaibi Morna BpamaTbca 
BnpaBO-BJieBO. J\jih MacKnpoBKH flec})eKTOB Jinua, HeH36e>KHO ^onycKaeMbix npn H3roTOBJieHHH npn- 
MaHKH, Ha nynejio Ha^eBajiHCb jnoSbie CTapbie ohkh. KpoMe Bcero nponero, 3th ohkh ^aBajiH 3epKanb- 
Hbie OTSnecKH, KOTopwe "fleMacKHpoBajni" npHMaHKy h npHBJieKanH k Hen BHHMaHHe Bpa>KecKoro 
CHaiinepa. cDpohtobmmh yMejibnaMn Hynejia-npnMaHKH H3roTaBJiHBanHCb HacTOJibKO TmaTenbHO, hto 
flaace b6jih3h cxo^ctbo c mchbmm nejiOBeKOM 6bi.no nopa3HTejibHbiM. 

TpeHHpoBanHCb paSoTaTb c HynejiOM TaK >Ke, KaK h c KacKoft, -> BHHMaTejibHO HaSjnoflaa #bh- 
>KeHHa >KHBoro nejiOBeKa h BoenponBBOfla hx paSoTOH "pyK" h "ronoBbi" npHMaHKH. Tohho TaK 5Ke, 
KaK h npn paSoTe c KacKoM, npoTHBHHKy noKa3biBanH nynejia b #BH>KeHHH Ha pa3Hbix ynacTKax, MeHaa 
Ha nynejiax oSivtyHflHpoBaHHe h rojiOBHbie ySopw. Ha nynejia jiobhjihcb He TOJibKO CHaiinepbi, ho h 
fle>KypHbie nyjieMeTHHKH npoTHBHHKa TpeHHpoBKa paSoTbi CHannepoB c KacKaMH h nynejiaMH no3BO- 
jiajia hm npn 3HamiH ocoSemiocTeii ecTecTBeHHbix #BH>KeHHii nejiOBeKa He nona^aTbca Ha TaKne >Ke 
npHMaHKH, npHMeHaeMbie npoTHBHHKOM. 

Hynena-npHMaHKH noKa3biBanH npoTHBHHKy b nponoMax h MecTax c 4)opTH(})HKaHHOHHbiMH pa3- 
pymeHHaMH. Hynena npHBa3biBann k CHannepcKHM BHHTOBKaM h nyjieMeTaM n BbiCTaBJiajiH hx b 
CTpejiKOBbie aneiiKH c npaKTHnecKOH CTpenbSon, ^epraa 3a BepeBOHKH, npHB33aHHbie k cnycKaM 3apa- 
>KeHHoro opy>KHa. Hynena "HeHapoKOM" BbiCTaBJiajin H3-3a yrna b MecTax CKonneHHa BoeHHOCJiyaca- 
mnx, nepefl 3thm HMHTnpya SypHoe flBH>KeHHe n tojikothio BHyTpn oSbeKTa. HHor^a, ^Jia Toro htoSw 
Bbi3BaTb CHaiinepa npoTHBHHKa Ha nepBbin BbiCTpen, pa3birpbiBanHCb ManeHbKHe cneKTaioiH c KyKJia- 
mh. CTapbiii CHaiinep, BoeBaBninii b OTenecTBeHHyio Boiuiy, paccKa3biBan, KaK noHMann oneHb octo- 
po>KHoro HeMeu,Koro CHaiinepa. CHanana ero BHHMaHHe npHBJieKJin TeM, hto H3 OKona BbiSpacbiBanacb 
BBepx 3eMJia. 3Ta MejibKaiomaa 3eMJia He Morna He npHBJienb BHHMaHHa. Pa3 b stom MecTe BbmeTaeT 
3eMJia, 3HanHT, TaM KonaiOT. Ecjih KonaiOT, 3HanHT, TaM kto-to ecTb. PaHO hjih no3flHO stot nejiOBeK 
flOJi>KeH yTOMHTbca, noTepaTb SflHTejibHOCTb n noflCTaBHTbca nofl BbiCTpeji. TaK h nojiynanocb, yTO- 
mhbihhhc» cojiflaT Kuan jionaTy Ha SpycTBep h HannHan KypHTb. Kypnjio, ecTecTBemio, nynejio, y ko- 
Toporo b "nanbnax" SbiJia 3a>KaTa cnrapeTa, a fltiM H30 pTa nycKanca nepe3 TpySonKy. Hynejio nojiy- 
najio nyjno b bhcok, na^ajio, Ha HeM SbiCTpo mchsjih oSMyH^HpoBaHHe h #BH>KeHHeM stoh KyKJibi h 
eme HecKOJibKnx HMHTHpoBann SeroTHio h bo3hio c paHeHbiM. OSmhho jiioSoMy HopManbHOMy CHaM- 
nepy TOJibKO Toro h Ha^o. HeMeu,KHH CHaiinep c y^OBOJibCTBHeM paccTpejiHBan KyKOJi, noKa caM He 
6bui paccTpejiaH pyccKHM CHaMnepoM, He3aMeTHO noflnoji3HiHM cSoKy. 

K co5KaneHHio, Ha nynejia-npHMaHKH jiobhjihcb He TOJibKO HeMu,bi. 

"...Kor^a paccBejio, Jliofla oSpaTHJia BHHMaHHe: o#hh h3 CHe>KHbix Sejibix SyropKOB nyib iueBe- 
jiHTca. "CHaiinep", - no^yMajia OHa h, Tn^aTejibHO npHu,ejiHBHiHCb, BbicipejiHJia. ByropoK KanHyji-" ca, 
pa^OM c hhm MejibKHyjio hto-to HepHoe. "Ctboji bhhtobkh, 3HanHT, u,ejib nopa>KeHa", - peiunjia Jliofl- 
MHJia h, BHHMaTejibHO Brjia^biBaacb b onTHnecKHH npHu,eji, nyib npHnoflHajia rojiOBy H3 yKpwTHa. 3to 
Swjio onjioiHHOCTbio, CTOHBiueii eii >kh3hh. fl,pyroii HeMeu,KHH CHaiinep CMepTejibHO pamui fleByniKy". 

(B TpHHiaeB. H3 cSopmiKa "CHaiinepbi") 

HanHHaiomaa >KeHniHHa-CHaiinep nonanacb Ha KJiaccHnecKyio npHMaHKy. 5Khboh npoTHBHHK 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 197 

Mor ineBejibHyrbca o#hh pa3, ho "nyTb nieBejiHibca" Morao TOJibKO nynejio. BHHTOBKa 3Toro nynejia 
cneiniajibHO He SbiJia 3aKaMyc|)jiHpoBaHa. Hyneno "nyrb uieBenHJi" accncTeHT HeMeuKoro CHaiinepa, 
caM >Ke CHannep 3aHHMan no3HHnio r^e-TO co CTopoHbi. MecTO BbiCTpejia oh "3aceK" no 3Byicy h >Kflan, 
noKa TaM kto-to npoaBHica. 5KeHmHHa-CHaiinep coBepuiHJia BTopyio KnaccHnecKyio oninSKy - OHa 
noflH»jia ronoBy h nojnoSonbiTCTBOBana o pe3ynbraTax CBoero BbiCTpena. IIo Bceii bh^hmocth, y Hee 
He SbiJio c coSoh nepncKona, hto h npHBeno k TparanecKOMy (Jmiiajiy. 

KaK b (|)HHCKyio, TaK h b OTenecTBeHHyio BoiiHy npHMeHajiHCb CBeTOBbie npHMaHKH. Hame Bcero 
3to 6biJia (})apa ot pa36nTOH ManiHHbi hjih MOTOiniKJia. Ee noMemanH b 3aTeMHeHHOM MecTe, oSmhho 
nofl pa36nTOH SpoHeTexHHKOH - H3jno6jieHHbiM MecTOM CHaihiepoB. cDapy 3aKanbiBanH b 3eMJiio "jiy- 
hom BBepx", Ha (J)apy KJianH KycoK >KejiToro CTeKJia hjih >KejiTOH (opaii>KeBoii) Syivtarn h no# yraoM 45° 
Ha/i (})apoH 3aKpenjiajiH jihct Sejioii >KecTH, KOTopbiii Spann ot Sojibninx KOHcepBHbix SaHOK hjih r^e- 
jihSo eme. Ot 3Toro ycrpoiicTBa npoTarHBanca npoBOfl k no3Hu,HH CHaiinepa, KOTO-i paa pacnojiara- 
Jiacb r^e-HHSyflb b CTopoHKe TaK, htoSw He bh^ho Smjio flbiMa ot BbiCTpejia. KoHTaKT 3aMbiKanca ca- 
MOflejibHbiM ycTpoMcTBOM, cpaSaTbiBaiomHM npn OT^ane opy>Kiia nocjie BbiCTpejia; (cennac TaKoii koh- 
TaKT cpaSaTbiBaeT npn OTxofle 3aTBopa aBTOMaTHHecKoro opy>Kiia Ha3a#). CHaiinep CTpejiaji b oahom 
MecTe, a Bcnbiiuica BbiCTpejia BH^Hejiacb b ^pyroM, b raySinie nofl pa36HTbiM TaHKOM hjih SpoHeTpaHC- 
nopTepoM. CHaiinepbi npoTHBHHKa hjih ero nyneMeTHHKH CTpejiaiOT Ha Bcnbiiuicy (})apbi, KOTopaa ot- 
pa>KaeTca ot HaiaiOHeHHoro jiHCTa >KecTH. Hjnno3Ha BcnbiniKH BbiCTpejia nojiynaeTca nojiHeiimeii. 
JIhct >KecTH, OTpa>KaiomHH 3Ty BcnbiniKy, Bbi#ep>KHBaeT 10-15 npaMbix nonaflaHHH, coxpaHaa cbcto- 
OTpa>KaiomHe KanecTBa. 

B HOHHoe BpeMa npnMeHaiOTca TaK>Ke npHMaHKH, HMHTHpyiomne oroHeK cnrapeTbi. 3to name 
Bcero oSbiHHaa cnrapeTa hjih 3JieKipojiaMnoHKa ot KapMaHHoro (J)OHapa c jhoSmm opaH>KeBbiM cbcto- 
(})HJibTpoM. IIpeflnoHTHTejibHee ncnojib30BaTb HacToamyio cnrapeTy. 

JIaMnoHKa "MepTBa h He ^binim". OHa HeecTecTBeHHa. BHHMaTejibHO npoHaSjnoflaiiTe 3a Kypa- 
iijhm TOBapnmeM. OSpaTHTe BHHMaHHe, KaK ero cnrapeTa pa3ropaeTca npn 3aTa>KKe n oroHeK ee CTa- 
HOBHTca HaMHoro apne. OSpaTme BHHMaHHe Ha to, hto npn 3aTa>KKe h yBejinneHnn apKocra oraa cn- 
rapeTa Ha ceKyHfly ocTaeTca HenoflBH>KHOH, a 3aTeM, nocjie 3aTa>KKn, cjierKa noMepKHyBinnii oroHeK 
OTOflBHraeTca ot pTa h ^BH>KeHHeM pyKH KypnjibmHKa yxoflHi bhh3 b CTopoHy. 

A Tenepb noflcoeflnfflrie k cnrapeTe nepe3 MyHflnnyK pe3HHOByio ipySonKy, 3aKpenHTe 3to 
ycTpoMcTBO Ha fljiHHHoii tojictoh npoBOJiOKe hjih Ha nanKe, BOcnpoH3BeflHTe Bee BbiiueonHcaHHoe, 
Haxoflacb 3a yKpbiTneM h y#ep>KHBaa cnrapeTy Ha paccToaHnn. 

OTpaSoTaHHaa TaKHM o6pa30M h 3apaHee TmaTejibHO OTpeneTnpoBaHHaa npnMaHKa bo Bcex 
BOHHax HHKor^a He ^aBana oceneK. B Haiue BpeMa noaBHJincb npnSopw HOHHoro BH^eHna, h htoSw y 
Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa He ocTanocb HHKaKnx coMHeHHH b hoajihhhocth nejin, nocTaBbTe 3a cnrapeToii 
Hynejio-MaHeKeH b KacKe. HMnrnpyiiTe flBn>KeHHa Kypamero nejiOBeKa HaKJiOHaMH h noBopoTaMH ro- 
jiOBbi MaHeKeHa. B onynae nonaflaHna nyjiH b "rojiOBy" BxoflHoe h BbixoflHoe OTBepcTHa noKa>KyT 
HanpaBJieHHe BbiCTpejia. 

nPHMAHKA HA OTBJIECK OIITHHECKOrO nPHBOPA 

JIioSoh onTHnecKHH npiiSop, He 3amHmeHHbiH SjieHfloii (TpySoM nepefl oSbeKTHBOM), ^aeT ot- 
SjiecKH ot nepeflHeM jiHH3bi. B cojiHenHbiM ^eHb 3th otSjicckh bhahw HeBOopy>KeHHbiM rjia30M Ha 
paccTO»HHH flo nojiyKHJiOMeTpa, b oimiHecKHH yBejiHHHBaiomHH npiiSop - flo nojiyropa KmiOMeTpoB. 
OtSjicck nepeflHeM JIHH3M oSbeKTHBa onTHHecKoro npiiSopa 3aMeTeH nofl pa3HbiMH yrjiaMH ot Hero, 
noTOMy hto jiHH3a HMeeT BbinyKJiyio (J)opMy h oipa>KeHHe cojiHenHbix Jiyneii ot Hee pacxoflHTca b pa3- 
Hbie CTopoHbi. OTSjiecKH ot nepeflHeM jiHH3bi oimiHecKoro npim,ejia fleMacKHpoBajm h norySmiii He 
OflHoro CHaiinepa h nosTOMy nacTO Hcnojib30BajiHCb b KanecTBe CHaiinepcKoii npHMaHKH. K MaKeTy 
bhhtobkh (jiioSaa nanKa, oSMOTaHHaa oSpwBKaMH 3ejieHbix TpanoK hjih MacKHpoBOHHoii ceTn) npn- 
KpenjiaeTca Tpo^eiuibiH onTHnecKHH npHu,eji hjih jiioSaa TpySKa (^aace H3 KapTOHa - mo>kho ncnojib- 
30BaTb OTpaSoTaHHbie KapTOHHbie TpySKH ocBeTHTejibHbix paKeT, TOJibKO oSMOTaTb nx neM-HH6yflb 
nepHbiM). B nepeflHioio nacTb TpySKH BCTaBJiaeTca jiioSaa BbinyKnaa Jinroa ot jnoSoro pa36nToro on- 
THnecKoro npnSopa. Bee 3to ycTpoiiCTBO npncTpaHBaeTca k KaKOH-jinSo Kyne BeTBeii, H3o6pa>KaiomHx 
yKpwTne, h BpeMa ot BpeMeHH accncTeHT, noTarnBaa 3a HHTOHKy, npHBOflm npnMaHKy b flBH>KeHHe. 
Ha TaKyio npnMaHKy npeKpacHO jiOBHJiHCb CHaiinepbi-HaeMHHKH, BoeBaBmne b iorocjiaBCKOM koh- 
(J)jiHKTe. OneHb xopomo jiOBHJincb Ha TaKyio npnMaHKy h HeMeu,KHe CHaiinepbi bo BpeMa BTopoM mh- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 198 

poBoft bohhw, ho fljia Bameii pe3yjibTaTHBHOCTH KOBapHbie pyccKHe CHaiinepbi npHBa3biBajin C3a/ni 
"onTHnecKoro npHnejia" kom ipanoK b KacKe hjih b nmiOTKe, H3o6pa>KaBniHH ronoBy. 

BHHMaHHe! OtSjicck oniHHecKoro npnSopa HanSojiee 3aMeTeH co ctopohm npn nieBejieHHH sto- 
ro npnSopa. Ho b stom cnynae rnaBHoe - He nepenrpaTb! Mo>kho nonieBejiHTb oflHH-flBa pa3a b nac, He 
Sojiee. tiHane npoTHBHHK 3anofl03pni (})ajibHib. 3apaHee noTpeHnpyiiTecb nycKaTb TaKne otSjicckh b 
6e3onacHOM MecTe h co CTopoHbi npoHaSjuoflanie, htoSm 3to Bbirjia^ejio ecTecTBeHHO. 

CHAHIIEP nPOTHB CHAHIIEPA 

Jlynmee cpe^CTBO npoTHB CHaiinepa - flpyroii CHaftnep. MeaccHaiinepcKHe noeflHHKH "oahh Ha 
OflHH" npn BefleHHH SoeBbix fleiicTBHH HepeflKH. B 3tom anynae Ha^o noMHHTb, hto Bam npoTHBHHK - 
TpeHHpoBaHHbiH h TaKTHHecKH noflroTOBJieHHbiH, coo6pa3HTejibHbiH h npo(|)eccHOHaji. Bania 3a#ana - 
BbiaBHTb h ySnTb ero. Oh xmep - bm aojckhw nepexHTpHTb ero. Oh CKpwTeH - BaM Ha^o BbinHCJinib h 
o6Hapy>KHTb ero. npocroe cn^eraie b HenoflBH>KHoii 3aca#e Ha npoTHBHHica noHTH Hnnero He flaeT. 
Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa Ha#o "3aBa3aTb Ha ce6a" h 3acTaBHTb paSoTaTb. BacHJiHH 3aiineB hctko, KaK 
hhkto flpyroM, c(J)opMyjiHpoBaji, KaK sto Ha^o cflejiaTb: "Btshh ero b noe^HHOK, 3acTaBb CTpejiaTb, 
npHflyMaM (|)ajibHiHBbie xo^bi, pacceii ero BHHMaHHe, #pa3HH, bmboah h3 ce6a, 3anyTbiBaii cboh cneflbi 
- TOJibKO hto 6bm 3flecb h y>Ke CTpejiaeuib H3 flpyroro MecTa, yiOMJiaii ero 3pHTejibHyio cocpeflOTO- 
neHHOCTb. H3Hypan ero SecnpecTaHHbiM noKa30M MaHeKeHOB. PacKpoii CHCTeMy ero oraa h y3Han 
CTHJib ero paSoTbi. 3acTaBb ero pacKpbiTbca h noHMaii stot momcht. 3acTaBb ero nepeMemaTbca TaK, 
KaK Te6e BbiroflHO, h nycrb oh noflCTaBHica. Oh noflCTaBHica paHO hjih no3#HO. Tbi pyccKHH h tm 
TepnenHBee ero, b stom rjiaBHoe TBoe npenMymecTBO. B CHannepcKOM e^HHoSopcTBe 3anpemeHHbix 
npneMOB HeT. Te6e HaBa3biBaiOT noe^HHOK - OTKa3biBaTbca Hejib3a. Ecjih He tm, to kto >Ke? EcTb He- 
nncaHoe npaBHJio: Ko^eKC nee™ CHaiinepoB npeflnncbiBaeT ^OBOflHTb CHaiinepcKHH noeflHHOK #o koh- 
na. OuinSaTbca Hejib3a. OiunSKa oSxoflmca floporo. B CHannepcKOM noeflHHKe Ha^o flyivtaTb, ^yiviaTb 
h TepneTb, TepneTb h nyBCTBOBaTb npoTHBHHKa. HeTepnejinBbiii h SecnyBCTBeHHbiH - floSbina CMepTH. 
B MOKCHaiinepcKOM noeflHHKe th CMO>KeHib c^ejiaTb oflHH-^Ba BbiCTpena, He Sojibine. H ^Jia noflro- 
tobkh nocneflHero, peinaiomero BbiCTpejia Hy>KHO SbiCTpo, oneHb SbiCTpo cpaSoTaTb tojioboh" (h3 
KOHcneKTa jieKunii B. 3aiineBa). 

MoKCHaiinepcKHe noeflHHKH nponcxoflaT b pa3JiHHHbix ycnoBnax npn pa3JiHHHbix oScToaTejib- 
CTBax. Run o6Hapy>KeHHa Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa 3afleiicTByiOTca Bee MeTOflbi, onHcaHHbie b stom no- 
coShh, a TaK>Ke npaKTHnecKnii onbiT h 3BepHHoe nyibe KOHKpeTHoro CHaiinepa Ha oScraHOBKy. Toto- 
bmx peneniOB npn stom SbiTb He MO>KeT, KaK HeT h HHKor^a He Sy/ieT peu,enTOB Be^eHHa 
Me>KCHaHnepcKOH flyajin. YnHTbiBaiOTca h 3afleHCTByKxrca CHJibHbie h cnaSbie ctopohw no3Hu,HH - cbo- 
qPl h npoTHBHHKa, ocBeuieHHe, pacnojio>KeHHe h ^BH>KeHHe comma, noaBJieHne h Hcne3HOBeHHe TeHefi, 
pejibec}) MecTHOCTH, a TaK>Ke ocoSchhocth iichxhkh npoTHBHHKa. 

npoTHBHHKa Bbi3biBaiOT Ha BbiCTpen h "flpa3HaT M pa3JiHHHbiMH cnocoSaMH. HHor^a flJia 3TOrO 
flOCTaTOHHO BbiCTaBHTb KacKy h He3aBHCHMO ot nona^aHHa no Hen noMaxaTb Ha^ OKonoM Manon jio- 
naTKon - Ha CTpejibSnmax 3to 03HanaeT npoMax. ^obojibho nacTO CHannep npoTHBHHKa CTpenaeT no 
stoh nonaTKe, nocne Hero eMy noKa3biBaiOT "flpa3HHJiKy" enie h enie. Bo Bee BpeMeHa nacTO npnMe- 
hsjicji npneM, Kor^a ^jinHHyio h 6ecc|)opMeHHyio CB»3Ky TpaBbi TaHyjin Ha BepeBKe no cnerKa nepece- 
neHHon MecTHOCTH pbiBKaMH, HMHTHpya ^BH>KeHHe noji3yn(ero nejiOBeKa. Ilocjie BbiCTpena npoTHBHH- 
Ka, He3aBHCHMO ot nona^aHHa, 3Ty CB»3Ky TaHyjin Bee 6biCTpen h SbiCTpen, HMHTnpya ^BH>KeHHe 
nejiOBeKa, cnacaionieroca ot nyjin. Mo>kho h npocTO >K^aTb nofl nepncKonoM, noKa CHannep Ha ot- 
KpbiTOH no3Hu,HH He Bbi^acT ce6a KaKHM-jinSo ^BH>KeHHeM. BapnaHTbi B03MO>KHbix flencTBHH onncaTb 

HeB03MO>KHO, HaCTOJIbKO OHH HeCTaHflapTHbl, h6o pO>KflaiOTCa H306peTaTeJIbH0CTbK) KOHKpeTHOrO 

CHaiinepa, Bbmy>KfleHHoro paSoTaTb b KOHKpeTHoii oScTaHOBKe. 

B HHTepaType HeoflHOKpaTHO onHCbiBanncb cjiynan, Kor^a CHaiinepbi, "cjiynaiiHo" BbiCTaBHB 
nacTb cnjiy3Ta (name Bcero Kpaii CBepHyToii hihhcjih hjih SynuiaTa), nocjie BbiCTpejia npoTHBHHKa ap- 
thcthhho "BbiKHflbiBanHCb b aroHHH" H3 OKona, pacKHHyB pyKH, h na^anH Sokom Ky/ia-TO b CTopoHy 
(ho Bcer^a Ty^a, r^e jie>Kajia Ha ynope 3anacHaa BHHTOBKa) n ■>Kp,aim, noKa npoTHBHHK He 6y#eT jiio- 
SonbiTCTBOBaTb b SmioKOJib pe3yjibTaTax CBoero nona^aHHa. H b nponuioii BoiiHe, h b coBpeMeHHbix 
KOH(|)jiHKTax MHorne jiioSHTejin yBejiHHHBaib jiHHHbiii cneT nacTO nonaflajincb Ha 3to. BbiBann cjiynan, 
Kor/ja CHaiinepbi nepBbiM BbiCTpejiOM Ha no3Hu,HH npoTHBHHKa o6o3HaHajin ce6a h npoBonnpoBajin 
Bpa>KecKoro CHaiinepa Ha BbiCTpeji, ho bmccto ce6a BbiSpacbiBann Ha SpycTBep HCKycHO cpaSoTaHHoe 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 199 

Hyne.no jihuom bhh3 h BMecTe c hhm BbnajiKHBajiH BHHTOBKy. Haxoflacb no# HynejiOM, >KflanH, Kor^a 
npoTHBHHK BtiCTpejiHT no nynejiy fljia KOHipojia (HHor^a Hynejio iueBejiHJiocb, H3o6pa>Kaa "HeflOCTpe- 
jieHHoro") hjih BbicyHeTca fljia HaSjiiOfleHHa b SnHOKJib. 

HHor^a flocTaTOHHO Ha OTKpbiTon no3Hu,HH nocne CBoero BbiCTpena nocTaBHTb BMecTO ce6a ny- 
nejio h c 3anacHOH no3HUHH "HaKpbiTb" npoTHBHHKa, KOTopbin Sy^eT 3to Hynejio paccTpenHBaTb, - b 
npaKTHKe SbiBanH h TaKHe cjiynaH. 

MoKCHannepcKHH noeflHHOK He Bcer^a npoHCxoflm c HenoflBH>KHbix no3Hu,HH. 3Haa pejibec}) 
MecTHOCTH, npoTHBoSopcTByiomHe CHannepbi nepeMemaiOTca noji3KOM hjih kopotkhmh OTKpbiTbiMH 
nepe6e>KKaMH (name Bcero b oSivtaHHbix nejiax), CTapaacb "3aKpyrHTb" none 6oa no-CBoeMy h nocia- 
BHTb npoTHBHHKa b HeBbiroflHbie ycjiOBHa CTpejibSbi. 

B Me>KCHaHnepcKOH flyajin nerKHx noSefl He SbiBaeT. IIo6e>KflaeT Sojiee onbimbiii, TepnejiHBbrii 
h KOBapHbiM. IIo3TOMy ecjiH ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb, CHaiinepa npoTHBHHKa Jiynme h pe3yjibTaTHBHee 06- 
KJiaflbiBaTb, KaK BOJiica, KOjnieKTHBHbiMH ycHJinaMH rpynnw CHannepoB h pa3BeflHHKOB. B KOHTpcHaii- 
nepcKOH paSoTe 3anpemeHHbix npneMOB HeT. IlycTb Bpa>KecKHH CHannep flyMaeT, hto paSoTaeT npo- 
thb oflHoro npoTHBHHKa. B onpeflejieHHbiH momcht Ha Hero "HaBajunca" H3 HecKOJibKnx ctbojiob c 
HecKOJibKHx HanpaBJieHHH. H ecjin KOHipcHannepcKOH rpynne npnxoAHTca BCTynaTb b paSoTy npoTHB 
rpynnbi CHaiinepoB npoTHBHHKa, Bcer^a CTapaiOTca "oTceKaTb" Bpa>KecKHx CTpeiiKOB ot rpynnbi no 
OflHOMy, Hcnojib3ya jiioSbie MeTOflbi, npHBe#eHHbie 3#ecb hjih H3o6peTeHHbie Ha xo#y, kojijickthbho 

SjIOKHpOBaTb 3THX OflHHOHeK H yHHHTO>KaTb TO>Ke no OflHOMy. 

KpoMe Toro, npn KOJuieKTHBHbix ^encTBHax MHoroKpaTHO B03pacTaeT ecTecTBeHHbiii Konrpc- 
HaiinepcKHH (J)aKTop, a hmchho - pa3BHine coSmthh. 

3to pa3BHTHe coSbiTHH Ka>KflbiM Sohhom KOHTpcHannepcKon rpynnw KOHipojinpyeTca c pa3Hbix 

CTOpOH, CTajIO 6bITb, B03paCTaeT B03MO>KHOCTb HX SoeBOH peajiH3au,HH. 

JleTOM 1 942 rofla b CTanHHrpa^cKHx yunnHbix 6oax pyccKHM HecKOJibKO flHeii #oca>Kflaji HeMen- 
khh CHannep, paSoTaBHinn b nape c nyneMeTHHKOM. Ilpn onepeflHOM no^CTpejie oneBHflnbi noacHHJin, 
hto cojiflaT 6bui ySm b rojiOBy OTKy^a-TO CBepxy, h noKa3anH, KaK oh ctojiji b momcht no^orpejia. 
PyccKHH CHaiinep c npoSnron KacKon b pyKax npnMepHO BOCCTaHOBHJi jihhhio nojieTa nyjin. EMy pac- 
CKa3anH, hto BbiCTpejia He Swjio cjiwhiho H3-3a nyjieMeTHOH TpecKOTHH. Bwji c^ejiaH bmboa, hto Ha 
CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa paSoTan rpaMOTHbin CHannep, h Swjio npHHaTO pemeHHe cnepBa jihuihtb 3Toro 
CTpejiKa 3ByKOBoro npHKpbiTna - jinKBH^npoBaTb nyneMeTHHKa. PyccKHH CHannep 3aH»ji no3Hu,nio b 
rjiySnHe pa3BanHH b tchh. AccncTenibi noKaBann b o#hom MecTe cpa3y HecKOJibKO MaHeKeHOB- 
npHMaHOK, "Serymnx" b o#hom HanpaBJieHHH. HeMeu,KHH nyjieMeTHHK "KJiiOHyji" Ha rpynnoByio npn- 
MaHKy h nocTpejiaji no Hen HecKOJibKO ceKyH#, hto ctohjio eMy >kh3hh. 3a 3to BpeMa HanapHHK CHaM- 
nepa npocKOHHJi pa3rpaHHHHTejibHyio jihhhio Me>Kfly cbohmh h ny>KHMH h CTan 3axoflHTb Me>Kfly pa3- 
BanHHaMH bo (J)jiaHr no3Hu,HH HeMeu,Koro CTpejiKa. HeMenKOMy CHaiinepy noKa3anH CHanana KacKy, ho 
ee HecjiH cneinianbHO He6pe>KHO, htoSw oh pacno3Han npHMaHKy. 3aTeM accncTeHTbi noKa3anH Hyne- 
jio, Ha KOTopoe Heivien, TO>Ke He "KJiiOHyji". Ha nrpy nocjieflyiontHx npHMaHOK HeMeii, TO>Ke He nonanca. 
IIoKa Bee 3to npoHexoflHJio n BHHMaHne HeMu,a SbiJio OTBJieneHO, HanapHHK CHannepa npoSpanca c6o- 
Ky h c3a^H no3Hu,HH HeMeu,Koro CHannepa h yBn^eji ero cpe^H pa3BanHH, cocpeflOToneHHO HaSjiiOfla- 
iomero b nepncKon c BepxHHx 3Ta>Keii nojiypa3pynieHHoro flOMa. HeMeii, Swji 3acTpejieH, c BbicoTbi 
3Toro flOMa noMomHHK CHannepa 3acTpejiHJi eme flByx HeMeu,KHx coji^aT n npnHec Ha cboio CTopoHy 
Tpo(J)eHHyio CHaiinepcKyio BHHTOBKy h nepncKon. 3to KnaccHHecKHH npHMep, KaK, ^eiiCTBya kojijick- 

THBHO, npOTHBHHKa MO>KHO OTBJieHb H 06OHTH. 

npn HanieM HacTynjieHnn b npe^ropbax KapnaT y HeivmeB noaBHJica CTpejiOK, ^OBOJibHO MeTKHH, 
KOTopwii tohhoh CTpejibSoH H3flaneKa pa36HBan CTepeoipySbi, nepncKonw h mthobchho Span Ha 
Myimcy Bee, hto flBHranocb. MacKHpoBanca oh 6e3ynpeHHO. nyjieMeTHoro 3ByKOBoro (})OHa He Swjio. 
BcnbiniKH BbiCTpejia hhkto He 3aMeHan. 3ByK Swji npHrjiynieHHbiH - Bpo^e KaK cipejiajin H3flaneKa. 
Hyneji Ha toh CTopoHe TO>Ke hhkto He noKa3biBan. Bpe^a stot CTpejiOK HaHec HeMano, SyKBanbHO 
"ocjiennB" KOMaH^HbiH cocTaB. BH3yanbHbiM HaSjHOfleHneM ero no3Hu,Hio ycTaHOBHTb He y^aBajiocb. 
OHa SbiJia Bpofle KaK "6jiy>KflaiOHieH". nocTeneHHO pa3JiHHHbie HanpaBJieHna h Bepcnn npoBOKanneii 
npHMaHOK OTna^ajiH, paMoH noncKOB cy3HJica h b nojie BHHMaHHa Bee name h nanie CTana nona^aTbca 
Kyna pa36nTbix CHapa^Hbix 3H(hkob h ^pyroro xjiaMa. Honbio canepw npoflejiann npoxofl b mhhhom 
nojie, nofl npnKpbiTHeM CHannepa, ocTaBHieroca B03Jie pa3MHHHpoBaHHoro npoxo/ia, pa3BeflHHKH c^e- 
jiajin 3aca^y B03Jie BbiHieynoMaHyroH Kynn. Uor yTpo b3»jih npHnoji3Hiero Ha no3Hu,Hio CHannepa. 
Ero flonpocHJiH TyT 5Ke 3Kcnpecc-MeTOflOM, h oh noKa3an, hto ero HanapHHK 3amiMaeT OTBJieKaiOHiHe 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 200 

no3Hu,HH no CTopoHaM Ha yflajieHHH 100-150 MeTpoB ot Kynn. Hani CHaiinep 3aHaji CKptiTyio no3HHHio 
3a toh >Ke KyneM h nepe3 HeKOTopoe BpeMa o6e3BpeflHJi BbiCTpenoM b 6ok ^pyroro HeMeu,Koro CHaMne- 

pa, KOTOpblH BblflBHHyjICa CBOHM HepeflOM. IIOTOM BbiaCHHJIOCb, HTO HeMeU,KHH CHaMnep CTpeJiaJI H3 

KyHH Shtwx amnKOB nepe3 HecKOJibKO mejieii. BepHee, oh CTpejian "b Kyny" - ffbiM ocraBanca b 06- 
jiOMKax h nocTeneHHO pacceHBanca, 3ByK npHrjiyniajica, nnaMeHH TO>Ke He 6bmo bh^ho. IIoyHHTejib- 
hwm b 3toh onepau,HH 6bino to, hto nueHHoro nojie3HO flonpaniHBaTb no ropanHM one^aM. 

B flpyroM cjiynae pa3Beflrpynna, noji3aBHiaa Ka>Kflyio Honb no HeirrpajibHOH nojioce, o6Hapy>KH- 
jia b HeSojibinoH 3a6pomeHHOH TpaHmee 3a mcjikhm KycTapHHKOM CTpenaHbie rnjib3bi, yTonraHHbiH 
rpyHT n KapTOHKy oriia c HaHeceHHbiMH Ha Hen opneHTnpaMn Ha HanieM CTopoHe n o6o3HaneHHbiMn 
flHCTami,HaMH ^o hhx. Ha bc»khh cjiynan B03Jie 3toh no3Hu,HH 3a#ep>KajiHCb, h He HanpacHO - nepefl 
paccBeTOM Ty/ja npnnoji3 HeMeu,KHH CHannep, KOToporo noBa3anH h npHTamHJiH Ha cboio CTopoHy. 
Ero HanapHHKa thxo 3ape3anH pa^OM Ha 3anacHOH no3Hu,HH, KOTopaa TO>Ke SbiJia OTMeneHa Ha Kap- 
TOHKe oraa. HeMeu, fljia oSjiernefflia CBoeM paSoTbi ocTaBJiaji TaKne KapTOHKH Ha Ka>Kflon no3Hu,HH, 
HToSbi He TacKaTb nx c coSoii, n cocTaBJiaji hx oneHb nyHKTyanbHO, hto h noflBe.no ero HanapHHKa. Ha 
no3Hu,HH Hejib3a ocTaBJiaTb Hnnero npHBJieKaiomero BHHMaHHe, fla>Ke CTpenaHbix rnjib3. Ha KapTOHKax 
orra 3anpemaeTca ^ejiaTb o6o3HaneHHa nero-JinSo, Haxoflameroca Ha CBoen CTopoHe. Hejib3a Bee 
BpeMa BbixoflHTb Ha o^Hy n Ty >Ke no3HHHio. He TOJibKO Hamn 3axBaTbiBann HeMeu,KHx CHannepoB npn 
HOHHbix Bbixoflax. HeMano n pyccKnx, He npn^aBmnx TaKHM BemaM HHKaicoro 3HaneHHa (sto pyccKaa 
MeHTanbHOCTb), nonano b nneH HMeHHO TaKHM o6pa30M. 0#Ha>Kflbi pyccKHH CHannep BbiSpocnn He- 
Hy>KHyio eMy npHMHTHBHyio KapTOHKy oraa c o6o3HaneHHbiM Ha Hen hcmchkhm HaSjiiOflaTejibHbiM 
nyHKTOM. KapTOHKy nofloSpann HeMeinaie pa3BeflHHKn, h nepe3 cyTKH 3tot CHannep nonan b HeMeu,- 
Kyio 3aca#y, ycTpoeHHyio nepefl 3thm HaSjnoflaTejibHbiM nyHKTOM. 3anoMHHTe: Ha BOHHe HeT Mejionen 
hh b hqm. CnynanHOCTb - sto cueflCTBne onjionmocTH. 

B 1943 rofly HeflaneKO ot nojrraBbi pa3Be#HHKH hohbio npHraminiH "a3biKa". Oh Swji ncnyraH h 
noMaT. EMy pa3Ba3ann pyKn, Bbmyjin Kuan H30 pTa h flann 3a>K>KeHHyio cnrapeTy. Oh ycnoKOHJica n 
cpa3y Hanan roBopnTb. 

Ha Bonpoc o CHaMnepax oh otbcthji, hto cobccm He#aBHO npnSbma HOBaa rpynna CHannepoB, 
KOTopwe paHbme paSoTann Ha ^pyrax ynacTKax, y>Ke oScTpejiaHbi, Ha hx cneTy ecTb ySnrbie. CTpeji- 
KOBaa noflroTOBKa OTJinnHaa, MacKnpoBKa 6e3ynpenHaa. OneHb ocTopo>KHbi. Ha npocTbie npnMaHKn 
He pearnpyiOT. njieHHbin, BH^a, hto ero He coSnpaiOTca ySnBaTb no KpanHen Mepe TyT n cennac n 06- 
pamaKxrca noKa xopomo, oneHb noflpoSHO onncan MeTOflbi paSoTbi stoh CHannepcKon rpynnbi, oco- 
SeHHOCTH xapaKTepa n npHBbiHKH Ka>Kfloro H3 sthx CHannepoB. 

B nacTHOCTH, oh noKa3an, hto KOMaH^np 3Toro CHannepcKoro OT^ejieHna MacKnpoBanca TOJibKO 
npnpoflHbiMH BeTKaMH h TpaBoii, no3HnnH ocoSo He oSopyflOBan, MeHaji hx nacTO, paSoTan Ha pobhom 
MecTe c HeHTpanbHOH nonocbi, ho C3a#n ce6a Bcer^a HMen jioninHy hjih CTapwe TpaHmen ^Jia OTxofla. 
Ero 3aMecTHTejib npeflnoHHTan 3aHHMaTb no3Hu,HH co ctopohw cojiHu,a, b raySoKon tchh nofl bwco- 

KHMH CKaTaMH, oSlCJiaflblBaaCb CO BCeX CTOpOH BeTKaMH HJIH Me>Kfly KyCTOB. 

3th ocoSeHHOCTH SbiJio pemeHO ncnojib30BaTb ^Jia nojib3bi ^ejia. Ha KpynHOMacniTaSHon KapTe 
1:250000 ycTaHOBHJin MecTa pejibec})a mccthocth c noflxoflainnMH jioninHaMH h CKaTaMH c k»khoh 
ctopohw. HoHbio CHannep 3aHaji 3aMacKHpoBaHHyio no3nii,Hio cSoKy ot jioninHbi b CTapwx OKonax. 
^HeM SbiJio >KapKO, n BHHMaHne CHaftnepa b npeflnonaraeMOM MecTe npnBJieK KycT, jiHCTba KOToporo 
"onycTHJiH yniH" - kto-to ero He^aBHO noca^HJi h He nojiHJi. KpoMe Toro, nepefl KycTOM co ctopohm 
HaniHx OKonoB SbiJia BbipBaHa BbicoKaa TpaBa, xoTa pa^OM CToana TaKaa >Ke BbicoKaa TpaBa. 3to Swji 
aBHO pacHHmeHHbiii ceKTop oScTpejia, h, KpoMe Toro, TpaBy Bcer^a b TaKnx cjiynaax BbipbiBaiOT, hto- 
6w OHa He Kananacb ot nopoxoBbix ra30B npn BbiCTpene h He ^eMacKHpoBana no3Hii,Hio. CHannep #0- 
>Kflanca, noKa HeMeu,, npocn^eB 6e3pe3ynbTaTHO nofl HanaBniHM BaHyTb ot >KapKoro cojiHii,a KycTHKOM, 
He ynoji3 b jiomHHy ^Jia CMeHbi no3Hii,HH. B o^hom h3 H3rn6oB 3toh jiomHHbi oh "noflCTaBHJica" h Swji 
3acTpejieH. 

Ero 3aMecTHTejia, npaTaBiueroca b tchh, o6Hapy>KHJiH aHanorHHHbiM cnocoSoM. 3tot CHannep 
TO>Ke npaTanca, HeraySoKO 3aKonaBHiHCb nofl KycTHKOM, HMea, KpoMe Toro, KycTbi cnpaBa h cneBa. 
nofl KOHTponeM nepncKona eMy HanpaBHJiH b onrHnecKHH npHii,eji cojiHenHbiii 3aiiHHK ot KycKa 3ep- 
Kana, yKpenneHHoro Ha nanKe h BbiCTaBJieHHoro H3 OKona. npeflCTaBbTe, KaK nonyBCTBOBaji ce6a stot 
CTpenoK. Oh ^epnyjica TaK, hto KycT Ha^ hhm noKanHyjica. no CBeTOBOMy naTHy ot cojiHenHoro 3aii- 
HHKa, HanpaBJieHHoro b aM6pa3ypy nofl KycT, BbiCTpejiHJiH 3annoM H3 flByx CHaiinepcKHx bhhtobok. 
Tpyn ySnToro CHaftnepa noTOM HauniH npn HacTynjieHHH. 3acoxuiHH KycT CToan Ha^ hhm Ha nepeKpe- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 201 

cthh H3 BeTOK h cynbeB. OcTajibHbie CHaMnepbi 3toh rpynnbi 3aTaHJiHCb h noHTH He npo»BJia.iiHCb. 

BacHJiHH 3aMu,eB onncbiBan cjiynaii yHHHro>KeHHa HeMenKoro CHaiinepa, 3aceBinero 3a SpoHe- 
bmm ihhtkom ot pyccKoro nyneMeTa "MaKCHM". 3aMu,eB flOJiro >Kflan pa3BHTH» coSmthh, noica HeMiiy 
He npHHecnH o6e#, h flo>Kflajica MOMeHTa, Kor^a HeMeii, hto-to iihji H3 TepMOca h, 3a6biBHiHCb, 3anpo- 
KHHyn ronoBy Ha3a#, BbiCTaBHB ee Ha# ihhtkom. 

B flpyroM anynae, Kor^a HeMenKoro CHaiinepa He y^aBajiocb B3aTb "b jio6", 3aHueB 3aHa.11 no3H- 
uhio b CTopoHe ot ocHOBHoro ynacTKa coSmthh, c (})jiaHra no bmcotkc, OTKy^a eivty npocMaTpHBajiHCb 
H3rn6bi Tpamueii. 3aHu,eB >Kflaji pa3BHTH» coSmthh h flo>Kflajica, noica HeMeu,KHH CHaiinep He noKa3a.11- 
ca b oflHOM H3 TaKHx H3ra6oB. Oh Hien c bhhtobkoh, 3a6poHieHHOH 3a cnHHy, h o HeM-TO SeceflOBan c 
ocJmnepoM, KOTopwH mea pa^OM. 3aiiLi,eB 3acTpejiHJi oSohx. 

B jiHTepaType onncaH KJiaccHnecKHH npHMep KonrpcHaiinepcKOH H3o6peTaTejibHOCTH, KOTopbiii 
nocne BTopoM mhpoboh bohhm Smji npnBefleH b yneSHHKax CHaiinepcKOH npaKTHKH MHornx CTpaH 
MHpa. HeMeu,KHH CHaiinep oSopyflOBan b6jih3h jihhhh cbohx TpaHHieii, 3a MHHHbiM noneM, SeTOHHpo- 
BaHHyio "rayxyio" no3Hu,Hio 3a SpoHemnTKOM h oneHb #oca>Kflaji nepeflHeivty Kpaio pyccKnx. PyccKnii 
CHaiinep, KOTopwii nojiynnji npnKa3 yHHHro>KHTb BpeflHoro (^anincTa, k BbinojiHeHHio nocTaBJieHHoii 
3a^anH noflOHien TBopnecKH. Oh TmaTejibHO H3yHHJi pacnopaflOK >KH3HefleaTejibHOCTH CBoero HeMen- 
Koro "KOJiJiera" h ycTaHOBHJi, hto tot c hcthhho HeivteHKoii nyHKryanbHOCTbio b o#ho h to >Ke BpeM» 
ynoji3aeT k cbohm Ha oSe#. Honbio canepbi npoflejianH npoxofl b mhhhmx 3arpa>K/ieHHax, a riiqm pyc- 
ckhh CHaiinep b oSeflemioe BpeMa He3aivteTHO noflnoji3 k SeTOHnpoBaHHoii no3Hu,HH h b OTcyrcTBHe 
xo33HHa 3aKonan nofl SpoHemnTKOM MHHy ot 120-mm MHHOMeTa, Ha B3pwBaTejib KOTopoii npnKpenHJi 
kjiohok Sejioii SyMara. Haca nepe3 nojrropa, Kor^a HeMeii, flOJi>KeH Smji BepHyTbca c oSe^a, pyccKnii 
CHaiinepcKHM BbiCTpenoM no xopomo bh^hoh Sejioii 6yMa>KKe noflopBan MHHy. Tpyn HeMenKoro 
CHaiinepa BMecTe c SpoHemnTKOM otSpochjio flaneico b CTopoHy. 

B flpyroM cjiynae TmaTejibHMM cpaBHHTejibHbiM HaSjiiOfleHHeM Smji Taioice BbiaBJieH HCKyc- 
CTBeHHbiii MacKHpoBOHHbiii neHb, otcto5ibihhh ot no3Hu,Hii Ha flncTamiHH 450 MeTpoB. IIo HeMy no- 
CTpenajiH H3 nyneMeTa ,H,IIIK. IleHb npn nyneBbix nona^aHHax ^epranca, ho He na^an. 3to HaBeno Ha 
Mbicnb, hto oh cpaSoTaH floSpoTHO, KanHTanbHO 3aKpenjieH, nocTaBJieH Ha# raySoKoii no3Hu,Heii, a 
CHaiinep Hcnojib3yeT 3tot KaMy4)jia>KHMH neHb fljia MacKnpoBKH CKpbiToro HaSjiKweHHa b onrHHecKHii 
npnSop - nepncKon hjih apTHJiJiepniicKyio Syccojib, Haxo^acb npn 3tom BHH3y b 6e3onacHOM MecTe. 
Hn>KHaa nacTb nHa Sbi.ua B3>rra HaniHM CHaiinepoM Ha npnneji, a ero accncTeHTbi noKa3anH npoTHBHH- 
Ky KyKJiy-npniviaHKy b H3rH6e TpamueH. Bpa>KecKnii CHaiinep, CHfleBHinii nofl mieM, ycnoKOHJica no- 
cne omeBoii "npoBepKn" n BbiCTpenHJi H3-no# nHa no KyKJie IIpH BcnbiniKe ero BbiCTpena pyccKnii 
CHaiinep #o>Kaji cnycK. Kaic BbiacHHJiocb BnocjieflCTBHH, HeMeii,, He ycneBHinii nocne BbiCTpena yiiTH 
bhh3, nojiynnji Ta>Kejioe paHeHHe h 6bui OTnpaBJieH b tbiji. 

Bo BpeMa BoiiHbi b xo^e 6oeB 3a BocTOHHyio ripyccnio accncTeHT Hamero CHaiinepa Bbi3Ban Ha 
oroHb HeMu,a tcm, hto, Haxo^acb nepefl pa3BeflaHHbiM flajibHOMepHO-HaSjnoflaTejibHbiM nocTOM 
HeivmeB, pacnojio>KeHHbiM Ha BbicoTKe, BbiCTpejiHJi napy pa3 npocTO no MacKHpoBKe 3Toro nocTa h 
cpa3y >Ke BMecTO ce6a BbiCTaBnn nynejio c npnBa3aHHoii k HeMy bhhtobkoh. PacneT Swji BepHbiii: npo- 
thbhhk 3HaeT, hto CHaiinepbi Bcer^a CTapaiOTca no^oSpaTbca k HaSjnoflaTejibHO-KoppeKTHpoBOHHbiM 
nocTaM Bpara h jihhihtb hx bo3mo>khocth nojiHoneHHoii paSoTbi. HeMeu,KHii CHaiinep, KOHTpojinpo- 
BaBHinii cnryanHio, BbiCTpejiHJi no nyneny, h, HecMOTpa Ha to, hto oh nonan, nynejio "BbiCTpenHJio" b 
OTBeT. HeMeu, BbiCTpejiHJi bo BTopoii pa3, h 3Toro Sbijio flOCTaTOHHO, hto6w KOMaH^np Hanieii CHaii- 
nepcKoii rpynnw 3acTpejiHJi ero cSoKy. 

Ilpn oSyneHHH mojioawx CHaiinepoB paHO hjih no3flHO HacTynaeT SoeBaa npaKTHKa b peanbHbix 
SoeBbix ycjiOBHax. TjiaBHbie Bparn MOJio^oro CHaiinepa - npe3MepHaa 3MOii,HOHajibHOCTb h noBbiiueH- 
Hoe caMOMHeHne. Kaimjibm H3 Hac, B3aBHincb 3a KaKoe-TO peMecno, nepe3 flBe-Tpn He^ejiH yBepeH, hto 
3HaeT Boe. CjiynaiiHO BbinaBHiaa y^ana CHH>KaeT cnocoSHOCTb KpnTHnecKH MbicjiHTb. B coctojihhh 
3H(})opHH ot noSeflbi TepaeTca ocTopo>KHOCTb. Cobccm HeflaBHO b oahoh H3 ropannx tohck mojioaoh 
CHaiinep-CTa>Kep y^aHHO "cBannji" CHaiinepa Ha conpeAeJibHoii CTopoHe. Ilepefl sthm stot CTa>Kep 
flOJiro h TepnejiHBO HaSniOAaJi 3a npeflBapHrejibHO BbinncjieHHoii no3nii,Heii npoTHBHHKa h HaKOHeii,- 
TaKH flo>KAajica, noKa cojimi,e He BbiCBeTHJio npn>KaBHiHiica k pa36nTOMy ^feiMOxofly 6ecc})opMeHHbiii 
nepHO-Sypbiii cnjiysT. nocne BbiCTpena 3tot cnjiysT c Kyneii Tpanba Ha HeM pyxHyji bhh3, a BHHTOBKa 
ocTanacb Ha ^biMOxofle, 3anenHBHiHCb peMHeM 3a ocTpwe oSjiomkh. Bee Bbirjumejio, KaK b aMepHKaH- 
ckom KHHoSoeBHKe. CTa>Kep c oneHb ^OBOJibHoii 4)H3HOHOMneii pa^ocTHO 3aBonHJi: 

"3flopoBO a ero flOCTan!" 3a6biB npo ocTopo>KHOCTb, oh BCTan c bhhtobkoh, ho ero HacraBHHK 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 202 

pe3KO flepHyn 3Toro cajiary k ce6e, 3a yron. B CTeHy, r#e tojibko hto cto»ji mojioaoh CHaMnep, yflapn- 
na nyna. YSHTbiH CHaMnep Swji c HanapHHKOM, KOTopbiM CTpejiaji c flpyroro MecTa. Hyib no3#Hee 
HacTaBHHK CTan nepeMemaTbca bjicbo ot ce6a, 3aKpyHHBaa none 6oa no nacoBon CTpenKe. BpeMa ot 
BpeMeHH oh nocTpejiHBan no no3HHHH npoTHBHHica, o6Hapy>KHBaa CBoe nepeMemeHHe. B nonwricax 
"flOCTaTb" npoTHBHHKa Bpa>KecKHH CHaiinep nepeHOcnji oroHb npaBee n npaBee n b KOHue kohhob b 
a3apTe "BbiBepHynca" H3-3a yKpwTna, neM n "pacKpbmca". Bonee Toro, He nivtea yKpwTna cneBa ot ce- 
6a, oh BbicyHynca h "noflCTaBHJica", CTpejiaa b npaByio CTopoHy c npaBoro nnena. CTa>Kep, Bocnojib- 
30BaBniHCb 3thm, 3acTpejiHJi ero, ho 3to 6bma 3acnyra HacTaBHHKa, KOTopbin noflroTOBnn nponecc. 
IIotom "cTapnK" BbiroBapnBan "canare": "HnKorfla He yxo^H c no3Hu,Hn OTKpbiTO. HnKor^a He flyMan, 
hto tboh BbiCTpen nocjieflHHH. HnKor^a He flyvtan, hto noe^HHOK 3aKOHHeH!" 

B ropofle /J. cneiniajibHO fljia npniviaHKH CHannepa h pa3Beflrpynnbi npoTHBHHKa opraHH30BanH 
jio>KHbiH KOMaHflHbiH nyHKT, fljia nero noHacTaBHJiH aHTeHH ot pa36nTOH annapaTypw, HMHTnpoBanH 
"meBejieHne" h cyeTy, no3a#H 3Toro KOMaH^Horo nyHKTa hochjih ra3eTbi, naHKH flOKyMeHTOB h "flejio- 
bwx" Syivtar, rpeMenH KOTenKaMH, paSoTan motop BTP n t. r. 3tot jio>KHbiH KOMaH^HbiH nyHKT opra- 
HH30Bann cnennanbHO b TaKOM MecTe, htoSw y^oSHbie #Jia CHaiinepcKOH CTpejibSbi no3Hu,HH oica3a- 
jincb b 400-500 MeTpax Ha lor ot flamioro oSbeKia n htoSw Bpa>KecKHM CHaMnepaM SbiJio Jierne 
CTpenaTb no ocBememibiM uejiaM. Ytpom, Kor^a nofl CTeHKon npoHecjin Hyne.no ot nponoivia k npojio- 
My, eMy b roiiOBy nonana CHaiinepcKaa nyjia. IIo ^aHHbiM BH3yanbHoro HaSjnofleHna SbiJio OTMeneHO 
HanpaBJieHne BbiCTpena n c^ejiaH bmboa, hto CHannep npoTHBHHKa HaSjiiOflaeT b nepncKon h CTpejiaeT 
HaBCKH^Ky, eflBa BbicyHyBmncb H3 yKpbiTHa. OnepeflHoe nynejio npHB»3ajiH k naTpoHHOMy amnKy, Ha 
cnHHy nynejia Ha^ejiH aBTOMaT h pa36HTyio paunio c aHieHHOH. 3Ty npHMaHKy noTaHyjiH 3a BepeBKy 
no TpaHmee, KaK Ha cana3Kax. Ilocjie BToporo CHaiinepcKoro BbiCTpena nynejio "nonuio" SbiCTpee, 
TpeTbHM BbiCTpeiiOM CHaMnep nonan b painiio, h Hyne.no ynano HaSoK. HeTBepToro BbiCTpena eMy c#e- 
jiaTb He flanH. XoTb no3HHHa 3Toro CTpenKa h SbiJia b pa3BanHHax Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa, ho #Ba>Kflbi 
noflpafl oh CTpejum "BbicyHyBmncb" b o#hom nojio>KeHHH. Ero "flocTajni" "kocwm" BbiCTpenoM cSoKy 
H3 CHaiinepcKOH 3aca#bi. CnynaH 3tot noyHHiejieH ana Bcex: Henb3a c o#hoh no3Hu,HH npoH3BO#HTb 
Sojiee flByx BbicTpenoB. 

OcoSeHHOCTH CHaiinepcKOH TaKTHKH HanSojiee noHjrmo h aoxoahhbo onncaHbi b paccKa3ax bo- 
eHHbix KoppecnoH^eHTOB h caMHx ynacTHHKOB coSmthh. K co>KaneHHio, co BpeMeHeM SecueHHbiH 6o- 
eBoii onbiT 3a6biBaeTca. 

HTaK, HH(})OpMaLI,Ha H3 nepBOHCTOHHHKOB. 

"...HaM 3aflaHHe - ocnenHTb HeMeu,KHx KoppeKiHpoBiHHKOB. Mw SbiCTpo BbiaBHJiH CMOTpoBbie 
menH nofl SeTOHHOH huhtoh uaji 6jiHHfla>KOM. Ch^st TaM, ra^bi, noSjiecKHBaiOT CBoeM npocBeTJiemiOH 
onTHKOH. Cennac mw ee npoflbipaBHM. 

IIIecTb mejien. ^ pa3flenHJi hx cpe^H cbohx TOBapHmeii, nporpeMen 3ann H3 uiecTH bhhtobok. 
Hepes Tpn MHHyTbi - eme o^hh. 3tot BTopoii 3ann cflejiann ^Jia CTpaxoBKn: He npoSyiiTe, noraHu,bi, 
MeHaTb pa36HTyio onTHKy - Bac o>KHflaeT nyjia". 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiHeBa) 

3to npHMep Toro, KaK KOHHeHTpnpoBaHHbiM orHeM no oahoh hjih HecKOJibKHM nejiaM mo>kho 
flOCTaTb npoTHBHHKa, 3aceBinero 3a Sctohhoh njiHTOH. 

"...BbinojiHaa 3aflaHne KOMaH^npa ahbh3hh - copBaTb Bpa>KecKyio aTaKy, - Hania rpynna CHaHne- 
poB npHMeHHJia Heo>KHflaHHyio fljia npoTHBHHKa TaKTHKy. 3apaHee 3Haa HanpaBJieHne aTaKH, mm pe- 
mnjiH B3»Tb Ha MyuiKy npe>Kfle Bcero KOMaH^Hbie h HaSjuoflaTejibHbie nyHKTbi HenpnaTejia. TpnHa- 
jmajb CHannepcKHx bhhtobok, TpHHa/maTb nap raa3, BOopy>KeHHbix ohthhcckhmh npHu,ejiaMH, 
HauejiHBHiHCb c pa3Hbix ToneK Ha y^oSHbie fljia peKorHOCu,HpoBKH nyHKTbi b raySHHe SoeBbix nopafl- 
kob (})aniHCTOB. TpynnoBaa oxoTa. 3aKjnonaeTca OHa b tom, htoSw ^o HacTynjieHna o6e3rjiaBHTb Bpa- 
)KecKne poTbi h SaTanbOHbi. Tyr Bee npocTo: BbiH^yT HeMeu,KHe 0(|)HHepbi b nocjieflHHH pa3 ocMOTpeTb 
nonocy HacTynneHHa - nocbmaii nojiaraiomHHca hm CBHHeu,. Ecjih kto Hpe3BbinaHHO xpaSp h bwcko- 
hhji, hto6m noBecTH 3a coSoh coji/iaT, - Tbi HeMeflJieHHO npouieii eMy ronoBy. 3aMeTHHib, hto c KaKoii- 
to ctopohm Bpar ycneniHO BbiCTynaeT, - HanpaBb Ty^a Bee vpunajmajb CHaMnepoK h CHHMaii CHanana 
oc})HLi,epoB, a y>Ke noTOM Koro npn^eTca, htoSw HHKOMy He xoTenocb nepecTynaTb stot py6e>K, htoSw 
3HanH - Tyr >K#eT CMepTb. Oahhm cjiobom, rpynnoBoii CHaiinepcKHH oroHb pacceaHHoro h KOHu,eHTpH- 
poBaHHoro THna ocjienjian KOMaH^Hbie nyHKTbi Bpara h oSpeKan ero Ha Hey^any c nepBbix >Ke iuaroB. 

Hani nnaH y^anca Ha cnaBy. Ha paccBeTe, nepefl HananoM HacTynneHHa, Ha KOMaH^Hbix h 
HaSjnoflaTejibHbix nyHKTax Bpara 3a6jiecTejin oSbeKTHBbi Shhokjich. To Tyr, to TaM CTann noaBJiaTbca 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 203 

ocjmnepbi c KOKap^aMH Ha (|)ypa>KKax. Hm h HeB^OMeK Swjio, hto KaK tojibko paccBeno, ohh CTanH 
SjiecramHMH MHineHaMH". 

(B. 3aHneB. "3a Bojiron fljia nac 3eMJiH He Swjio") 

3Ta HH^opManna b KOMMenrapHax He HyacflaeTca. HTaK Bee noHjrmo. 

"...pa3BeflHHK h CHannep, oh Sbiji no Hanieivty (})poHTy HenpeB30HfleHHbiH, c HacToamHM TanaH- 

TOM CJieflOnblTa, C JIHCbeM XHTpOCTbK) H C HeHCTOIHHMOH H306peTaTeJIbH0CTbK). KaK OXOTHHK nOMHHT 
ySHTblX HM MeflBefleft, OH 3anOMHHJI TpeX yHHHTO>KeHHbIX HM BparOB. JlfiyX 0(|)HnepOB, KOTOpblX oh 

noflKapayjiHJi, jie>Ka b HeHrpanbHOH nonoce, h chjui bo BpeMa KOMaH^HpcKOH peKoraocnHpoBKn, h oa- 
Horo, KaK oh roBopHJi, "cTpacTb BpeflHoro" HeMenKoro CHaftnepa, noflKapaynHBiuero HecKOJibKnx 

HaiHHX SOHUOB. 

3a 3thm CHannepoM oxothjics He^ejiH #Be. Tot 3Haji 06 stom h b cboio onepeflb oxothjicji 3a 
CTapbiM pa3BeflHHKOM. KaK 6w cocT33aacb b MacTepcTBe, ohh cyTKH 3a cyTKaMH KapayjiHJin flpyr #py- 
ra. Pa3BeflHHK npHxoflnn noxyfleBiunH, oSpocniHH, 3jioh, c BOcnaneHHbiMH raa3aMH, Ha Bonpocbi He 
OTBenan h, no^peMaB HacoK-flpyroii b yrojiKe 3eMn»HKH, yxo^HJi Ha3a#, Ha nepeflOByio. 

TonbKO k Hcxofly BTopoM HeflenH y^anocb eMy tohho ycTaHOBHTb CHe>KHyio Hopy HeMenKoro 
CHannepa. OHa 6bma BbipbiTa 3a TpynoM jionia^H, jie>KaBHiHM Tyr c oceHH, 6e3o6pa3HO pa3#yTbiM h 
y>Ke 3anopoiueHHbiM CHeroM. 

Oh npoSoBan Bbi3BaTb npoTHBHHKa Ha 6oh BbiCTpenoM. Tot He otbcthji. Ho c nepeflOBOH hcmum 
OTKpbiJiH Ha BbiCTpen TaKOH oroHb, hto pa3BeflHHK ene OTJie>Kajica b CBoen 3aca#e. 

rionpoSoBaji ycTaHOBHTb b jiecKe Hyne.no b KacKe h MacKxanaTe. XnrpocTb He HOBaa, oflHaKO h 
Ha Hee nonaflanncb, ho "BpeflHbrii" He KniOHyji. 

H Tor^a OflHa>Kflbi, b TyMamiyio hohb, nepefl paccBeTOM, pa3Be#HHK npoTonraji cneflbi k oahho- 
ko CToaBinen y nepeflHero Kpaa coceHKe, hto SbiJia KaK pa3 HanpoTHB nanon jionia^H, CTpaxHyn c Be- 
tok mien, HacopHJi Ha CHery Kopw h B03Jie e#Ba 3aMeTHO pa3Jio>KHJi 3a Hen cboh MacKnpoBOHHbin xa- 
naT. Bee 3to 3aMacKHpoBan, ho He oneHb TinaTejibHO. Ot ^epeBa oh npoTJiHyn cypoByio HHTKy k 
CBoeMy HacToameMy y6e>KHiny, cflenaHHOMy b CHery, h ^an Bee 3to 3aBOJionb HHeeM oceflaBinero 
yTpeHHero TyMaHa. 

Kor^a coBceM paccBeno h noflHanocb cojmne, pa3Be#HHK Hanaji jieroHbKO flepraTb HHTKy. C BeT- 
Ben cocemcH Hanaji ocwnaTbca CHer. Oh noflepraeT h 3aMpeT. IIoAO>KfleT nojinaca, no^epraeT h onaTb 
3aMpeT. HaKOHeu, b Hope HeMenKoro CHaiinepa nocjibiHianocb HieBeneHHe. Ha/i SypbiM ny30M jionia^H 
o6o3HaHHJiocb hto-to 6ojiee Senoe, neM chokhmh (|)oh. TpaHyji BbiCTpen. Oh cjihjicji c BbiCTpenoM 
CTaporo pa3BeflHHKa. H Bee cthxjio. TojibKO CHer ocbinanca c npoSnroH bctkh coceHKH, B03Jie koto- 
poM pa3BeflHHK HOHbio c TaKOH TmaTejibHOCTbio pacKJiaflbiBan h MacKHpoBan cboh xanaT, cboh 3HaMe- 

HHTblH MaCKHpOBOHHblH HUam, KOTOpblH OH CaM o6lHHJI BeTKaMH H KOpOH H B KOTOpOM erO fleHCTBH- 

TenbHO mo>kho SbiJio He 3aMeTHTb ^a>Ke b #Byx niarax". 

(Bopnc IIojieBOH. "Pa3BeflHHKH M . Otpmbok c coKpameHHaMH) 

B 3tom HeSojibHiOM OTpwBKe flOBOJibHO ocHOBarejibHO OTpa>KeHa cymHOCTb MOKCHannepcKOH 
flysjiH Ha npnpofle. HeMeu,KHH CHannep sbho HaSjnoflan 3a MecTHOCTbio b nepHCKon. Ero oninSKa - oh 
npaTanca 3a yKpbiTneM, He HMea aM6pa3ypbi flua CTpeubSbi, h noaTOMy 6bm BbiHy>KfleH ^Jia BbiCTpena 
"o6o3HaHHTbca" Hafl sthm yKpbiTneM. ^to ero h norySHJio. Ha nynejio HeMeu, He "KjnoHyn", ohcbhaho, 

H3-3a TOrO, HTO OHO CT03JIO HenOflBH>KHO. 

"...Ha oflHOM ynacTKe (|)poHTa noaBHJica 3jioh, raa3acTbiH h npHJie>KHbiH HeMeu,KHH CHannep. J\q- 
jio aohijio ao Toro, hto oh pa36nji nyjieft CTeiaio CTepeoTpySbi, xotji ee Hennoxo 3aMacKHpoBanH Hanin 
apTHJiJiepncTbi. 

OSpaTHJiHCb k HaMOKOHOBy (cHannepy) 3a noMombio. Oh npnexan b nojiK co BceM cbohm CHaii- 
nepcKHM HMymecTBOM: ^Be bhhtobkh, 3anacHaa KacKa, yace noM^Taa, HcnepKaHHaa nyjiaMH, h Sojib- 
hioh ockojiok 3epKana. 

Hayrpo oh Hanan cjie>KKy. HaMOKOHOB jie>Kaji Ha orHeBOH no3Hu,HH, 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiH TaK, 6yp,- 
to Ha^eji Ha ce6a He KacKy c 3ejieHOH Byanbio, a nianKy-HeBH^HMKy. Tpoe cyroK He npeKpaman HaMO- 
kohob cjie>KKy. Oh nofl03peBan, hto (J)aHiHCT ch^ht Ha nep^aKe flOMa, CToaniero CJieBa, Ha Kpaio fle- 
peBHH. Ho noKa 3to SbiJia TOJibKO flora^Ka. HaMOKOHOB yKpbuica 3a KaMHaMH, a 3apa>KeHHyio 
BHHTOBKy 3aKpenHJi Ha SpycTBepe HeoSnraeMoro OKona. Ot bhhtobkh, npnxBaHeHHOH hmchho fljia 
3Toro CJiynaa, oh npoTaHyji k ce6e BepeBKy h b noflxoflaiHHH momcht ^epHyji 3a Hee. cDaniHCT OTBeTHJi 
BbiCTpenoM Ha BbiCTpen. nyna nonana b SpycTBep, h no oSnanKy nbuin HaMOKOHOB ycTaHOBnn 
HanpaBJieHne ee nojieTa, ySe^HJica, hto (^anincT ch^ht hmchho Ha tom nep^aKe. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 204 

Tenepb oh yace He cnycKaji c nepflaica 3opKnx, pe^KO MHraioiHHx rjia3, He cjie3aiHHxca hh ot 
ycTanocTH, hh ot BeTpa. 

BenepHee 3aicaTHoe cojimje ocBeTHJio C3a#H Kpwniy flOMa, h HaMOKOHOB pa3raafleji, hto o#hoh 
nnaHKH b flomaTOH oShbkc nepflaica HeflOCTaeT. Oh enie pa3 flepHyn 3a BepeBKy, npHBa3aHHyio k bhh- 
TOBKe, a Kor^a b mejiH Ha nep^aKe hto-to SnecHyjio, BbiCTpenHJi caM no nepHOMy rormy, noflCBeneH- 
HOMy c3a^H cojiHHeM. OaniHCT, KOTopbift CH^eji Ha CTponnjiax, pyxHyji bhhb". 

(EBreHHii BopoSbeB. "TpySKa CHannepa") 

IIo3hhhio HeMeHKHH CHaMnep 3aHa.11 BecbMa rpaMOTHO h CTpejian b raySHHe noMemeHHa nepe3 
njejib ot HeflOCTaionieH nnaHKH. HnaMa ot BbiCTpena h flbiM He BbixoflHJiH Hapy>Ky, h 3ByK BbiCTpena 
npHrjiynianca. Ho HeMeHKHH CHaMnep Cflenan oiunSKy, ^onycTHB no^CBeTKy y ce6a 3a cnHHOH h He 
3aBecHB neM-HnSyflb nponoM b Kpbiiue, Hep#aHHoe okho, nepe3 KOTopoe ero noflCBeTHJio cojimje, h t. 
r. PyccKHH nocTynnji oneHb pa3yMHO, ynra CMeHy ocBeiHeHHa. K TOMy >Ke TpioK c jio>khoh nejibio - 
CTpejunoiHeii Ha paccToaHHH bhhtobkoh - bo Bee BpeMeHa cpaSaTbiBan Ha Bee 100%. Hy>KHO tojibko 
pacnojio>KHTb 3Ty BHHTOBKy Hyrb Bbinie h c3a^H ee xo3»HHa, Ha oahoh jihhhh c hhm b CTBope c aivtSpa- 
3ypoM npoTHBHHKa - TOJibKO TaK mo>kho flocTaTb npoTHBHHKa, CTpejunomero H3 raySHHbi noMemeHHa. 

"...5{ BbiCTpenHJi. riyneMeT 3aMOJiK. Hhkto 3a hhm He aBHJica, h a noHaji - 3a mhoh cne^aT, Ha^o 
MeHaTb no3HHHio. OcTaBHB BMecTO ce6» Hyne.no b KacKe, a 3axBaTHJi OKonHbiM nepncKon h nouien no 
TpaHmee k ^pyrHM nynenaM, htoSm BCTaTb Ha MecTO OflHoro H3 hhx..." 

(OnbiT B. 3aiineBa) 

TaKne Benin nojiynajincb, ecjin nepeflBH^eHna h noflMeHbi nponcxoflnjiH nofl npnKpbiTHeM #bi- 
moboh 3aBecbi. IIpoTHBHHK, paHee npHyneHHbin k TOMy, hto no3nnna jibho jio>KHaa, BnocjieflCTBHH He 
oSpainaeT na Hee BHHMaHHa h noflCTaBJiaeTca fljia BbiCTpena HMeHHO c stoh no3HHHH. 

"IIpH yHHHTO>KeHHH oflHHOHHoro CTpenKa npoTHBHHKa MOMeHT /ura BbiCTpena Jiynme BbiSpaTb 
TaK, HToSbi aBTOMaT npoTHBHHKa nocne na^eHna ero xo33HHa ocTanca Ha SpycTBepe. Kto-to h3 
HanapHHKOB HenpnaTejia nonbiTaeTca ^ocraTb aBTOMaT n noflCTaBHT-ca nofl BbiCTpen. Ho ecjin B03Jie 
nero hhkto He noaBHTca, 3HannT, no3nnna CHannepa o6Hapy>KeHa h ee Ha#o MeHaTb". 

(OnbiT B 3ajnj,eBa - npnMaHKa ^Jia nejin) 

"OaniHCTCKne CHannepbi, KaK npaBHJio, cboh nocTbi ycTpaHBann b raySHHe CBoeii oSopoHbi, a 
mm BbiJie3anH Ha nepeflHHH KpaM. y HeMneB Sbuio MHoro jio>KHbix no3HHHH. KaK OTJiHHHTb jio>KHyio 
no3HHHio ot HacToameH A Tyr HeoSxoflHMbi HaSniOflaTejibHOCTb h KOJioccanbHaa Bbi#ep>KKa. 

HanpHMep, KaK-TO BenepoM 6-necHeT oroHb 3a>KHranKH - CHaMnep 3aKypnji. 3ac})HKCHpyH 3Ty 
TOHKy h >K^H - bot-bot noaBHTca oSnaHKO TaSanHoro flbiMa. npoH^eT eme KaKoe-TO BpeMa, MO>KeT, h 
Hejibiii fleHb, h cmotph - Ha KaKyio-TO #ojno ceKyHflbi BbiCTaBHTca KacKa. Toraa He npo3eBaii. Ecjih 
fla>Ke h He ycneenib, to tbi y>Ke 3Haenib, r^e cpe^n no>KHbix no3HHHH HacToaiHaa". 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiHeBa) 

"JIokhm MOJina, HaSniOflaeM. Cojihhc ocBeniaeT Ka>KflbiH ropSnK, KOTopbiii mm 3aMeTHJiH eme 
flHeM. HeMHoro HH>Ke jie>KaT CHapa^Hbie rHJib3bi. R HacHHTan hx flBa^HaTb Tpn imyKH. Hoctoh! A 3Ta 
6e3 flHa! B TaKyio rHJib3y, KaK b TpySy, xoponio npocMaTpHBaeTca nepcneKTHBa. Si HeMHoro npHnofl- 
Hanca. Ho Heo>KHflaHHO TaM, b TpySe, KaK 6y#TO kto-to BbiceK HCKpy. 51 KaMHeM ynan Ha ^ho OKona. 
Ha npoTHBonojio>KHOM 6oKy SpycTBepa TpecHyna pa3pbiBHaa nyna..." 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiHeBa) 

MacKHpoBKa HeMna 6bma opHrHHanbHa, h oSopyflOBaHHaa b Kyne rHJib3 no3HHHa 6bma ^ira 
CTpenKa 6e3onacHa co ctopoh. OneBH^HO, rnjib3a 6e3 flHa He SbiJia 3aKpenjieHa HaMepTBO h Moraa 
BpamaTbca fljia H3MeHeHHa ceKTopa oScTpena. OninSKa HeMna coctoht b tom, hto 3a Kynen rnjib3 b 
rnjib3y 6e3 flHa npocBenHBanca CBeTJibiii (})oh, Ha hto HeMen h nonanca. 

"5{ BHHMaTejibHO ocMaTpHBan (b apTHJuiepHHCKyio TpySy) Ka>KflbiH KycTHK, Ka>Kflyio KaHaBKy, 
^ajibHie h flanbHie yraySjiaacb b oSopoHy npoTHBHHKa. Bot BepmnHa, r^e HHor^a noaBJiajica flajibHO- 
Mep. Pa/iOM HeSojibHioe yraySjieHHe. A b HeM rnjib3a 6e3 flHa! 3aMacKHpoBaHHaa b SpycTBep. B ot- 
BepcTne BHflHO rHTJiepoBHa b KacKe HaSjuoflaio npn noMomH onTHnecKoro npHnena CHaiinepcKOH 
bhhtobkh. THJib3a 3aKpbiBaeT onTHKy ot SoKOBoro CBeTa, BSnpaeT "3aHHHKH M , Sjiaroflapa neMy nenb 
BHflHO Soiree OTneTJiHBO. Oh, Ka>KeTca, ^aace 4)OTorpa(})HpoBaji cboh nejiH bo BpeMa BbiCTpena. 

il flep>Ky 4)aniHCTCKoro CHannepa b npnnejie CBoen bhhtobkh y»ce c nojinaca. yTOMnnca, 
Hanpa>KeH j\o KpanHOCTn. Ho Ha sto He oSpaniaio BHHMaHHa. OaniHCT TO>Ke cmotpht nepe3 onTHne- 
ckhh npHneji. 

HnKOJian OTOHien Ha3a#, noflHan Ha^ SpycTBepoM nynejio b KacKe. B tot >Ke momcht (})aHiHCT- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 205 

ckhh CHaiinep BbiCTpenHJi KacKH KaK He 6b>ijio Ha ronoBe KyKJibi. 

H, KaK 3aBefleHO y CHaiinepoB nocne y^aHHoro BbiCTpena, (J)aHiHCT nojio>KHJi pyKy Ha 3aTBop, 
htoSw nepeflepHyTt ero h no#HaTb rnjib3y, OTOflBHHynca ot onrnHecKoro npnuejia. TojiOBa ero nofl- 
Hajiacb. B Ty >Ke ceKyH^y nporpeMeji moh BbiCTpen. nyna Jierna r^e-TO MOK^y raa3, nepeSpocHB KacKy 
Ha jihu.0. BHHTOBKa c onrHHecKHM npnuejiOM ocTanacb b TpySe". 

(OnbiT B. 3anii,eBa) 

HeMeu Cflejian oninSKy, noBTopHB npneivi, xotb h b ^pyroM MecTe. noneMy 3aiiueB ^ojiro #ep- 
acaji HeMu,a Ha npnuejie h noneMy ero accncTeHT, OToiifla Ha3a# (htoSw 3aHu,eB h HeMeu, OKa3anHCb b 
CTBope, Ha oflHOH jihhhh), noKa3an HeMuy Hyne.no? Ha^o SbiJio npoBepHTb, He aBJiaeTca jih no3Huna 
HeMeu,Koro CHaiinepa jio>khoh h He Haxoflnrca jih 3a CHapa^HOH rHJib30H c OTnHJieHHbiM #hom nynejio- 
npHMaHKa. HeMeu, Cflenaji eiue o^Hy KnaccnnecKyio omnSKy - oh noflHaji ronoBy nofl BCTpenHbiii bm- 
CTpen. 

"Pa/iOM c 6jiHHfla>KOM, b Tpamuee, MenbKHyjia (})ypa>KKa. Bh^ho kohhhk 4)aniHCTCKoii 3M6jieMbi. 
cDypa>KKa nocTeneHHO noflHHMaeTca. Bot y>Ke bh^ho bcio 3M6jieMy #o K03bipbKa. 

- Buflunib? - cnpocHJi a y KyjiHKOBa (HanapHHKa) 
-fla. 

- 3to HeMeuKHH CHaiinep b 3aca#e, flemeByio BbiflyMan npuMaHKy. 
cDypaaoca cnpaTanacb. 

- IIepeflep>Kaji, - 3aMeTHJi KynnKOB. 

- A noneMy Ha HanieM ynacTKe noaBHJica CHaiinep? - cnpocuji a. HnKOJiaii no>Kaji rnienaMH: 

- HepT ero 3HaeT. 

- Tbi Bnepa ckochji nyneMeTHHKa h Bca^HJi eMy nynio b ronoBy. Tw KaK 6y#TO Spocuji HXHeMy 
CHaiinepy nepnaTKy. Ohh tboh bw30b npHHajiH. IIo tohhocth nonaflaHHa Te6a y3HanH". 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiueBa) 

OT COCTABHTEJIH. OinnSKa HeMueB b tom, hto (})ypa>KKy fleiicTBHTe.iibHO nepeflep>KajiH. 

"...IlojiHTpyK npoTaHyji pyKy, h pa3pwBHaa nyna y^apujia eMy b 3anacTbe. Tenepb a 3Han, hto 
6y#y HMeTb noeflHHOK c jiobkhm CHaiinepoM, yvieioiuHM CTpenaTb HaBCKH^Ky. IIpHKHHyBniH, Ha KaKoii 
BbicoTe nyna nonana b pyKy CBa3Horo, a cflejian OTMeTKy Ha CTeHe Tpamnen. 

3a nac MHe yflanocb o6o3HannTb Tpn CHaiinepcKHe no3HUHH. 3to Ha BcaKHH cjiynaii, MO>KeT, y>Ke 
ceroflHa npn^eTca BCTynaTb b noe^HHOK. 

Ha TpeTbeM ocTaBHJi fljia npHMamcn KacKy. He ycnen otohth, KaK OHa onyTHJiacb Ha #He TpaH- 
iuen. Cnefl ot nyjin CBn^eTejibCTBOBan tom, hto CHaiinep BbiCTpenHJi c toh >Ke no3HUHH, c KOTopou 
pa3flpo6nji pyKy CBa3Horo. 

r^e-TO k oSe/iy a BbiCMOTpen cnepe^n iuhtok ot Haniero "MaKCHMa", 3a kotopwm CH^eji Bpa>Ke- 
ckhh CHaiinep. 3aMacKupoBaH oh Swji BbiropeBnieii TpaBoii h BeTKaMH KycTapHHKa. Me>Kfly BeTKaMH 
nepHe.no OTBepcTue iunrKa. nocbmaTb Ty^a nyjiio Sbuio 6bi 3pa: OHa noiifleT pracomeTOM ot CTBOJia h 
tojibko HanyraeT CHaiinepa. Ha^o noflO>KflaTb, noKa oh noflHHMeTca hjih xoTa 6bi noflHHMeT ronoBy. 

5Kflan HeflOJiro. CHaiinepy npHHecjin o6e#. Hap, iuhtkom noKa3ajincb pee KacKH. Ho nofl KaKoii 
H3 hhx CHaiinep? ^Ito-to SnecHyjio. HaBepHoe, CTaKaH ot TepMOca. O^hh 3a#HpaeT ronoBy - a BH>Ky 
ero noflSopoflOK. Ha>Kan Ha cnycK. TonoBa ^epHyjiacb Ha? 3ap,". 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiueBa) 

CHaiinep, cnocoSHbiii SbiCTpo h tohho CTpenaTb HaBCKH^Ky, - cepbe3Hbiii npoTHBHHK. B ^aHHOM 
CJiynae ero noflBena caMoyBepemiocTb h Tara k KOM(})opTy. 3aiiueB cflejian npaBmibHO, hto noflO>Kflaji 
pa3BHTHa coSbiTHii, Kor^a ycnoKoeHHbiii n OTBJieHeHHbiii e^oii npoTHBHHK 3a6yfleTca h noflCTaBHTca 
nofl BbiCTpen. 

IIoeAHHOK (onncaHHe ynacTHHKa) 

"HoHbio Hanin pa3BeflHHKH npnTaHyjin b MeniKe "a3biKa". Ha ^onpoce oh noKa3an, hto (})aniHCT- 
CKoe KOMaHflOBaHHe cepbe3HO oSecnoKoeHO ^eiicTBHaMH Haninx CHaiinepoB. H3 BepjiHHa ^ocTaBJieH 
caMOJieTOM pyKOBOflHTejib uikojiw CHaiinepoB Maiiop KeHHHrc, KOTopwii hmcji cneuHanbHoe 3a^aHHe 
ySnTb "raaBHoro "3aiiua". 

${ y>Ke HayHHJica SbiCTpo HHTaTb nonepK hcmcukhx CHaiinepoB, no xapaKrepy oraa n MacKnpoB- 
kh 6e3 ocoSbix ycHJiHii OTJiHuan onbrmbix CTpejiKOB ot hobhhkob, TpycoB - ot HacToiiHHBbix n penin- 
TenbHbix. Ho xapaKTep pyKOBOflHTena hx hikojim flonro 6bm ^Jia MeHa 3araflKoii. E>KeflHeBHbie Hanin 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 206 

HaSniOfleHHa HHnero HOBoro He aaBajni. TpyaHO aa>Ke Smjio CKa3aTb, Ha KaKOM ynacTKe ^aniHCT. 
HaBepHoe, oh nacTeHbKO-TaKH MeHaji no3HHHH h tohho Taic octopo>kho, KaK a ero, HCKan MeHa 

il CTapanca npoaHanH3HpoBaTb coScTBeHHbiH onwT, ontiT cbohx TOBapHmeii, htoSm Hairm ca- 
Moe npaBHJitHoe peiueHne. OnwT noncKa3biBan, hto 6e3 HH^opivtaHHOHHOH noMOiini OKonHbix npyaeri 
- CTpenKOB, nyjieMeTHHKOB, canepoB h cb33hctob - Ha ycnex He paccHHTbiBaM. Korna a BbiaBJiaji ifya- 
niHCTCKoro CHaiinepa, onpenejiaji ero MecTOHaxo>KHeHHe, to 3Ban k ce6e, CKa>KeM, nyneMeTHHKa, aaBan 
eMy TpySy, caM Span OKonHbiM nepncKon, noKa3biBaii caMbiii 3aMeTHbiH npenMeT h Ben nyneMeTHHKa 
no opneHTHpy. H bot, Korna nyneMeTHHK yBnnnT HeMenKoro CHaiinepa h ySeflnrca, KaK oh Bce-TaKH 
xHTpo MacKnpyeTca, TOJibKO Torna 3tot 6oen CTaHOBnrca rpaMOTHbiM noiviomHHKOM. 

KpoMe Toro, Koraa a aejian (J)ajibHiHBbie no3Hu,HH, ycTaHaBJiHBan MaKeT, MacKHpoBan ero, to 
HMen B03MO>KHOCTb H3ynaTb Ka>Knoro conflaTa, HaSjiionaTb, Ha hto oh npHroneH. BbiBaeT cojiaaT hhh- 
HHaTHBHbiH, CMejibiH, a noMOiHHHK H3 Hero HHKyflbiniHbiH - oneHb ropaHHH, BcnwxHeT h noracHeT. Ha 
TaKoro Hejib3a nojio>KHTbca b nponojDKHTejibHon 6opb6e: nocne nepBbix Me onacHbix ncnbrraHHH 
HaMneT npHHHHy h yMaeT ot Te6a, cocjiaBHincb Ha Ba>KHoe aejio. A no cyrer, y Hero npocTO KOHHHJica 
3anac cmcjiocth h Tepnemia. 

TaKne xapaKTepw nacro Ha6jnoaaiOTca n cpean CHaiinepoB-HOBHHKOB. Gno>KHee pa3raaaTb xa- 
paKTep Bpa>KecKnx CHannepoB. 3Haio oaho - ohh Bee ynpaMbi. Ho h ana hhx a Hanieji cboh MeTOfl. xo- 
pouio noflroTOBHHib KyKJiy, He3aMeTHO ee nocTaBnnib h HanHenib nepeaBHraTb - KyKJia, KaK nejiOBeK, 
flOJDKHa MeHaTb cboh no3bi. PanpM c KyKJioM TBoa 3aMacKHpoBaHHaa no3Hnna. Bpa>KecKHH CHannep 
BbiCTpejiHJi b Kyioiy, ho OHa ocrajiacb 5khboh, h Toraa HanHHaeTca neMOHCTpauHa "ynepToro" xapaK- 
Tepa. CTpenaeT BTopoii pa3, noTOM roTOBHTca k TpeTbeMy BbiCTpejiy, ho, KaK npaBHJio, hmchho b 3tot 
MOMeHT caM nonaaaeT Ha MyniKy. 

OnbiTHbie Bpa>KecKne CHannepbi Ha cboh no3nnHH BbixonaT nofl npHKpwTHeM oma h b conpo- 

BO>KneHHH flByX-TpeX aCCHCTeHTOB. 

Hejib HCKan a nByMa 3TanaMH. nepBbin HanHHajica c H3yneHna oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa. Hotom 
fl03HaBanca, rae, Koraa h npn KaKnx ycnoBHax Smjih paHeHbi (hjih y5nTbi) Hanin Sohhm. Tyr MHe 
oneHb noMoranH camrrapbi. Ohh paccKa3biBanH, rae nonpSpajni paHeHoro, a HeMenjieHHO men Tyna, 
HCKan oneBHaneB, no3HaBanca npo Bee aeTanH hctophh paHeHHa h Ha ochobc Bcero 3Toro pacKpbiBan 
CHCTeMy oraa (^aniHCTa. BTopoii 3Tan a Ha3biBaio noncKOM nenn. HtoSm He nonacTb Ha MyniKy 
HeivtenKoro CHannepa, pa3BenKy HaSjnoneHneM mccthocth npoBonnji c noMombio OKonHoro nepncKO- 
na (TpySbi pa3BeaHHKa) hjih apTHJiJiepHHCKoM TpySbi (Syccojni). OnrHHecKHii npnueji CHaiinepcKOH 

BHHTOBKH HJIH SHHOKJIb TyT HenpHrOHHbl. 

OnwT noKa3an, hto TaM, rae paHee Smjio Bpa>KecKoe CKonjieHne, a Tenepb He 3aMeTHHib ManeM- 
iuero ^BH>KeHHa, 3aceji SbiBanbiii xhihhhk. Hmchho nosTOMy apyBbaM-CHaiinepaM a h roBopnji: ecjin 
flOCKOHanbHO He H3yHHJi oScTaHOBKy, He noroBopHJi c jnonbMH (Ha nepenpBoii) - He Jie3b Ha po>KOH. B 
CHaiinepcKOM nejie Ha^o npHflep>KHBaTbca npHHii,Hna HapoflHOH MyapocTH. "CeMb pa3 OTMepb, o^hh 
pa3 OTpe>Kb". H fleiiCTBHTejibHO, fljia hohtotobkh MeTKoro y^aHHoro BbiCTpejia Hy>KHO MHoro pa6o- 
TaTb, H3o6peTaTb, H3ynaTb xapaKrep, cnjiy Bpara, OTbicKHBaTb cjiaSbie ero MecTa h TOJibKO nocjie Bcero 
3Toro peiuaTb 3a^any oahhm BbiCTpejiOM. 

Ycnex HaSjnofleHHa flocTnraeTca TOJibKO npaKTHnecKHMH 3aHaTnaMH, HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha 

MeCTHOCTH. 3th HaBbIKH B SoeBOH oScTaHOBKe npnoSpeCTH HenpOCTO. Ka>KflbIH BblXOfl Ha n03HHHH 

Hy>KHO oneHb xoponio MacKnpoBaTb. CHaiinep, KOTopbiii He yMeeT HaSjno^aTb 3aMacKHpoBaHHO, 3to 
He CHaiinep, a oSbiKHOBeHHaa MnmeHb ^Jia Bpara. 

y Ka>Knpro CHannepa CBoa TaKTHKa, cboh MeTonbi, coScTBeHHbie H3o6peTeHHa. Ho BceM CHaiine- 
paM, onbiTHbiM h HOBHHKaM, Bceraa ctoht noMHHTb, hto HMeenib nejio c TaKTHnecKH 3pejibiM, HHHii,Ha- 
thbhwm, coo6pa3HTejibHbiM h MeTKHM CTpejiKOM. TBoe.3anaHHe - nepexHTpHTb, BTaHyrb ero b cjio>k- 
Hyio 6opb6y. KaK sto ^ocTHraeTca? npHflyMaii (})ajibHiHBbie xo^bi, pacceM ero BHHMaHHe, 3anyTan 
cboh cjieabi, ^pa3HH ^BH>KeHHaMH, yroMJiaii 3pHTejibHyio Ha6jnoaaTejibHOCTb h cocpeflOToneHHOCTb. 5{ 
npoTHB njiHTejibHoro CHaiinepcKoro (J)yHAaMeHTajibHoro nocTa ^a>Ke b ^jiHTejibHOH CHCTeMe oSopoHbi. 
CHaiinep - 3to KoneBHHK, oh BHe3anHO noaBJiaeTca TaM, r^e Bpar ero He o>KHnaeT. 3a orHeByio hhhii,h- 
aTHBy Haflo SopoTbca. noTOMy hto caMH no ce6e pa3ra^KH peSycoB npoTHBHHKa Hnnero He fla/iyT, ec- 
jih b Te6e HeT yBepeHHOCTH, hto pacnnaTHHibca 3a 3th xhtpocth tohhmm orHeM SbiCTpo h peniHTejib- 
ho. KaK-TO CHannepbi A. h K. Ha npoTa>KeHHH ^Ha Ha CBoeM ynacTKe He npoaBHJiH HHKaKnx npH3HaKOB 
>kh3hh, thxo CH^ejiH b TpaHHiee nofl >Kejie3HOflopo>KHbiM nojiOTHOM. H TOJibKO Ha apyroii fleHb npHBa- 
3anH k SeneBKe KOHcepBHbie SaHKH h BbiHecjin hx b cyMepKax Ha HeiiTpajibHyio nojiocy. O^hh KOHeu, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 207 

SeneBKH ocTauca b TpaHinee. KaK TOJibKO B3onuio cojnme, KOHcepBHbie SaHKH 3aTapaxTejiH nop, caMbiM 
hocom y HeivmeB. Te Hanajin BbiraaflbiBaTb. noaBnuacb o^Ha ronoBa, BTopaa. CHannepbi BbiCTpenHJiH. 
Hepe3 nac noBTopHJiocb to >Ke caMoe. J\o Benepa A. h K. yHHHTO>KHJiH nejioe Bpa>KecKoe OT^ejieHHe. 

Kaic-TO bo Bpeivia HeSojibinoro 3aTnniba Ha nepe^HeM Kpae a BCTpeTHJi cpe^n pyHH flByx cojiflaT- 
CHaftnepoB A. h II],. Ohh jichhbo Spejin MHe HaBCTpeny. 

- Ky^a 3to bm Spe^eTe? - cnpocHJi a. 

- B pacnojio>KeHHe poTbi. cDaiuncTbi npnraHJiHCb. Mo>kho HeMHoro OT^oxHyTb, - noacHHJi DJ,. 

- 5{ 6w Ha BanieM MecTe HHKy^a He nien. CaMbin MOMenr npHCTpenHBaTb nenb. 
BwacHHJiocb, hto 06a rancor^a He npHCTpenHBajiH B03MO>KHbix nejien (no opneHTHpaM). CHnra- 

jih 3to jihhihhm. Ohh ce6e SpoflHJiH cpe^n pa3BajiHH no BceMy nepeflHeiviy Kpaio n, 3aBH#eB HeivmeB, 
CTpenajiH. H oneHb nacTO Hey^aHHO. J\& n KaK >Ke HHane: paccToamie j\o uejiH cpa3y He onpeflennnib, 
3apaHee noflroTOBJieHHbix ^aHHbix ana CTpenbSbi HeT, a uejib noaBJiaeTca Bcero Ha HecKOJibKO ceKyH^. 
Ha/io 3apaHee noflroTOBHTb HecKOJibKO nocTOB, ^eTajibHO nBynnrb MecTHOCTb, KOTopaa jiokht nepefl 
toSoh, HaivieTHTb opneHTnpbi, onpeflejiHTb paccToamie j\o hhx, Tor^a h bo Bpeivia 3aTHHiba 6y#eT 
ycnex. 

Mm 3anuiH b pa3pymeHHbiH ^om. TyT Swji moh 3anacHon nocT. 5{ noKa3aji TOBapHmaM, r^e y 
Bpara #30Tbi, nyneivieTHbie tohkh, opy^na npaMOH HaBOflKH, HaSjnoflaTejibHbie nyHKTbi, SoeBaa oxpa- 
Ha, h CKa3aji: "CHannepy Hy>KHO mhoix) 3HaTb npo oSopoHy npoTHBHHKa. IIpHSbui Ha no3Hu,nio, BHec b 
CTpenKOByio KapTOHKy HeoSxoflHMbie nonpaBKn h >k#h y^oSHoro MOMeHTa. Kor^a th xopomo noflro- 
TOBJieH, flocTaTOHHO, HToSbi nenb noKa3ajiacb xoTb Ha o#hh mhi\ 3a sto Bpeivia th flOjraceH B3aTb ee Ha 
MyniKy, npnnejiHTbca h BbiCTpejinTb 6e3 npoiviaxa". 

R BbiTaHyn H3 CTeHKn OKona KycoK (|)aHepbi. Ha HeM 6bi.na HanepneHa CTpenKOBaa KapTOHKa 
(KapTOHKa oraa). HeKOTopwe u,H(})pbi CTepnncb. flocTan orpbi30K KapaH^ania, oShobhji hx, nocTaBHJi 
nprnjeji. ToBapnmH moh nepe3 OKonHbie nepncKonbi HaSjnoflajm Bpa>KecKyio no3Hu,Hio. IIphthxjih. 

CjieflHJIH 3a npOTHBHHKOM floSpOCOBeCTHO H BHHMaTeJIbHO. 

Ilponieji nac. Mon #py3ba y>Ke 3aBauH. Oxothhhhh 3anau Hanaji ncne3aTb. OflHOo6pa3ne Ha^o- 
eflaeT, xoneTca nepeiiTH Ha ^pyryio no3Hu,nio, noroBopnTb c cojiflaTaMH. 

- Ctohtc! - ycnoKanBaio hx. - B 3aca#e Hejib3a pa3roBapnBaTb. 

PeSaTa 3aMOJiHajiH. IlponiJio HecKOJibKO MHHyr. Bo Bpa>KecKOH TpaHmee noaBHJiacb ronoBa. 5{ 
BbiCTpenHJi. HeMeu,Kaa KacKa ynajia Ha SpycTBep. 

Cpefln CHannepoB Hamen #hbh3hh crauo npaBHJiOM coSnpaTbca b oahom 6jiHHfla>Ke h noflBO- 
flHTb HTorn 3a fleHb, BbicKa3biBaTb cboh npeflJio>KeHHa, cooSmaTb HOBHHKax bo Bpa>KecKon TaKTHKe. 

Mw noflCHHTajin: Ha npHuejibHbiH BbiCTpen CHaftnep TpaTHT TOJibKO #ecaTb ceKyHfl. HTaK, 3a or- 
Hy MHHyry oh MO>KeT BbiCTpenHTb naTb pa3. nepe3apaflHTb BHHTOBKy 20-30 ceKyHfl. KaK BHflnre, 3a 
OflHy MHHyTy fleorrb CHannepoB MoryT ySnTb naTb^ecaT rnrjiepoBneB. Cpe^n Hamnx CHannepoB 
BbicniHM cnenHajiHCTOM CHHTanca Cama KoneHbeB. Oh okohhhji MocKOBCKyio niKOJiy CHannepoB, ny- 
flecHO 3Hau npaBHJia BefleHna oma H3 bhhtobkh co CHaiinepcKHM npnii,ejiOM. KaK-TO oh OTKpbm cboio 
npoTHBora3Hyio cyivucy, BbiHyn H3 Hee naTpoHbi, rpaHaTy h MajieHbKyio 3anncHyio KHH>KKy. Pa3BepHyn 
ee h npoHHTaji HaM cjiOBa, KOTopwe a TyT >Ke 3anncaji ce6e: "IlyTb k MeTKOMy BbiCTpeny - 3to MajieHb- 
Kaa TponHHKa, npojio>KeHHaa nap KpyrbiM SeperoM 6e3flOHHOH nponacTn. Kor^a CHannep Bbixo^HT Ha 
flysjib, oh BOJiHyeTca, KaK Sy^TO oahoh Horoft CTaHOBHTca Ha ocTpne HO>Ka. HtoSw BbiCToaTb Ha^ 
nponacTbio Ha TaKOM ocTpne, Hy>KHbi, 6e3ycjiOBHO, CMenocTb, TpeHnpoBaHHOCTb, cnoKoncTBHe n 
xjiaflHOKpoBHe. IIoSeflHTejieM H3 noeflHHKa Bbixo^HT tot, kto nepBbin cyMen noSe^HTb caM ce6a". 

Bot TaK, oSflyMbiBaa h nepeocMbicjinBaa cboh onbiT, BMecTe c TOBapnmaMH a ncKaxr nyrb k pe- 
niHTejibHOMy noeflHHKy c SepjiHHCKHM cynepcHannepoivi, KOTopwii noKa hto jiobko h yMeno Hac nepe- 
nrpbiBaji. 

Ho bot b TeneHHe OflHoro flHa CHannep pa36HJi ohthhcckhh npHu,eji CHannepy M., a CHannepa 
III. paHHJi. 3to SbiJiH onbiTHbie CHannepbi, ohh nacTO Bbixo^HJiH noSeflHTejiaMH b cno>KHeHHiHx 
CTOJiKHOBeHnax. CoMHeHHH Tenepb He SbiJio - ohh HacKonnjiH Ha c^aniHCTa, KOToporo a HCKan. 

Ha paccBeTe a nouien Ha Te no3Hu,HH, r^e Bnepa Swjih HaniH TOBapHmn. 3HaKOMbiH, 3a MHoro 
flHen fleTaubHO H3yneHHbiH nepeflHHH Kpaii npoTHBHHKa. Bee, KaK Bcer^a. KoHnaeTca ^eHb. Ho bot 
Hafl (})aniHCTCKHM OKonoM Heo>KHflaHHO noflHHMaeTca KacKa h nnaBHO ^BnraeTca baojib TpaHmen. 
CTpejiaTb? HeT. 3to xHTpocTb: KacKa noKannBaeTca HeecTecTBeHHO, ee, HaBepHoe, Ha najiKe HeceT 
noMOinHHK CHannepa, a caM CHannep >K#eT, htoSw a npoaBnu ce6a BbiCTpenoM. 

Ham npoTHBHHK Hnneivi He npoaBnu ce6a 3a Becb fleHb, h, cy^a no 3TOMy, a 6bm yBepeH, hto 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 208 

SepjIHHCKHH CHaMnep HMeHHO TyT. Hy>KHO SblTb OCoSeHHO OCTOpO>KHbIM H BHHMaTeJIbHblM. 

Ha TpeTHii jiQUb b 3aca#y c HaMH noiueji nonHTpyK. Mbi, npnnaB k onTHHecKHM npnSopaM, 
HeoTpwBHO cjieflHJiH 3a TeM, hto 6wjio cnepe^H. 

- J\& bot oh, a Te6e nanbueM noKa>Ky ero! - B^pyr BbiKpHKHyji nonHTpyK. Oh e^Ba-e^Ba Ha ce- 
KyH^y npHnoflHanca naj\ SpycTBepoM, ho h 3Toro 6buio ^ocTaTOHHO. Ilyjia, Ha cnacTbe, TOJibico paHHJia 
nonHTpyKa. TaK Mor CTpejunb TOJibKO onuTHLiH h TpeHupoBamibiH CHaiinep. 

5{ flOJiro npHCMaTpHBanca k Bpa>KecKHM no3Hu,HaM, ho Hairm ero no3Hunio He CMor. 3a MHoro 
flHeft TaK BbiyHHJi nepeflHHH Kpaii, hto cpa3y 3aMenaji Ka>K#yio HOByio aivucy, Ka>KflbiH SyropoK. Cero- 
pjm HHnero HOBoro h nofl03pniejibHoro He 6buio. Ho a BH#eJi, KaK jiobko, SbiCTpo h tohho 6bui cflejiaH 
BbiCTpen, h ySe^HJica, hto CHaiinep 6bui r^e-TO nepefl HaMH. 

HaSniOflaio flanbiue. CneBa - noflSnibiii TaHK, cnpaBa - #30t. cDaiuncT b TaHKe? HeT. OnbiTHbiii 
CHaiinep TaM cn^eTb He 6y#eT. B #30Te? HeT - aM6pa3ypa nnoTHO 3aicpbiTa. 

Ha pobhom MecTe, Me>Kfly TaHKOM h A30TOM, nepefl caMOH jikhhch oSopoHbi (^aniHCTOB, jie>KHT 
>Kejie3HbiH jihct c HeSojibHiOH Kyneft Snioro KnpnnHa. ,H,aBHO jiokht, y>Ke h BHHMaHna He oSpaiuaenib. 
CTaBJiio ce6a Ha MecTO npoTHBHHKa: r^e >Ke Jiynme 3aH»Tb CHannepcKHH nocT? He nofl jihctom jih? 
HoHbio cflenaTb k HeMy noTanHbie xoflbi... 

HaBepHoe, oh TaM, nofl 5Kejie3HbiM jihctom, Ha HenTpanbHOH nonoce. 

PeniHJi npoBepHTb. Hauniyji Ha ^oiuenKy pyKaBHuy, noflHaji. KniOHyji 4)aniHCT! Hy^ecHO. Octo- 
po>KHO onycKaio flOiuenKy b TpaHHieio b TaKOM nojio>KeHHH, b kotopom noflHHMan. Cmotpio Ha ^bipKy 
ot nyjiH. np»Moe nona/jamie! CoMHeHHH HeT - 4)aiHHCT nofl jihctom. 

Tenepb ero Ha^o BbiMaHHTb. XoTb 6bi MaKOBKa rojiOBbi noaBHJiacb. 3Toro ceftnac He flO>KfleHib- 
ca. C 3toh y^oSHOH no3HHHH oh HaBpafl jih yii^eT, h xapaierep ero y>Ke H3BecTeH. 

nocT oSopyflOBanH HOHbio. 3acejiH. 

B30HIJ10 cojiHue. KyjiHKOB (HanapHHK) BbiCTpejiHJi HaoSyM: CHaiuiepa Hy>KHO Swjio 3aHmpHro- 
BaTb. PeniHJiH noflO>KflaTb. B 3to BpeMa Haiua onTHKa noSjiecKHBana no# cojniueM, a nocjie o6e#a 
HaniH bhhtobkh SbuiH y>Ke b TeHH. Ha no3HHHio HeMu,a ynanH npaMbie Jiynn cojiHua. Bo3Jie Kpaa jih- 
CTa hto-to 3a6jiecTejio. Hjih cjiynanHbie ockojikh CTeiaia, hjih, MO>KeT, CHaiinepcKHH npnueji? 

KyjiHKOB octopo>kho, KaK caMbiH onbiTHbiii CHaiinep, Hanan noflHHMaTb KacKy. cDaniHCT BbiCTpe- 
jihji. KyjiHKOB Ha MrHOBeHHe npHnoflHajica, rpoMKO KpuKHyn h ynan... "HaKOHeu, cobctckhh CHaiinep, 
"rjiaBHbiii 3aau,", 3a kotopwm oxothjics neTbipe aha, ySm", - noflyMan, HaBepHoe, HeMeu h BbicyHyji 
H3-3a jiHCTa nojirojiOBbi. 5{ y^apHJi. TojiOBa c^aniHCTa ocejia, a onTHnecKHH npnueji ero bhhtobkh h rsl- 
jiee SjiecTeji Ha cojnme". 

(OnbiT B. 3aiiueBa) 

K BbinieH3Jio>KeHHOMy floSaBHTb Henero. 3aiiueB oneHb tojikobo Hcnojib30Ban apceHan paHee 
onHcaHHbix TaKTHnecKHx npneMOB, npoaBHB npu 3tom ocHOBHbie CHaiinepcKHe KanecTBa - HaSjiiOAa- 
TejibHOCTb h HeBepoaTHoe TepneHne. npHu,eji MaMopa KeHHHrca, flocTaBHiniica 3aiiLi,eBy, 3KcnoHHpy- 
eTca b My3ee Boopy>KeHHbix chji Pocchh b Mockbc 

Tot ace caMbifi noe/iHHOK b oiiiicamiii cBHAeTeJien 

"Kor^a flonpoc 3aKaHHHBanca, (njieHHbiii) HeMeu, CKa3an, hto H3 BepjiHHa npuSbui pyKOBOflHiejib 
hikojiw CHaiinepoB Maiiop (J)oh KemiHrc, b CBoe BpeMa jikhhwh Tejioxpamrrejib (J)iopepa. Oh Sy/ieT py- 
KOBOflHTb (4)poHTOBoii) hikojioh CHaMnepoB. Ho rjiaBHoe - oh nojiynnji ocoSoe 3a#aHHe. YHHHTO>KHTb 
3aiiLi,eBa! 

- OTKy^a bw, raynTMaH, 3HaeTe 3Ty (})aMHJiHio? 

- He TOJibKO (})aMHJiHio, ho h BauiH MeTOflbi, rocnoflHH reHepan. Bw oneHb noflpoSHO onHCbiBae- 
Te hx b cbohx jiHCTOBKax. OneHb ueHHbiii onbiT, - He 6e3 exn^CTBa 3aKOHHHJi HeMeu,. 

noTOM, MHoro no3>Ke, Mapnian B.H. HyiiKOB, BcnoMHHaa stot 3nH30fl, HanHHieT: "K 3TOMy Bpe- 
MeHH SbiCTpo nonojiHaiOHiaaca rpynna Haninx CHaiinepoB HCTpeSujia He o^Hy Tbicany rHTJiepoBueB. 
06 3tom nucajiH h b ra3eTax, h b JiHCTOBKax. HeKOTopwe H3 jihctobok nonaflanH k npoTHBHHKy, h 
npoTHBHHK H3ynaji npueMbi Haniux CHaiinepoB, npHHHMaa aKTHBHbie Mepw 6opb6bi c hhmh. CKa>Ky 
OTKpoBeHHO, flejio nponuioe: b tot momcht c nonyjiapH3auHeii Haniero onbiTa He cjieflOBano Topo- 
nHTbca. Ctohjio CHaTb oflHoro-flByx Bpa>KecKHx o(})HuepoB, KaK 4)aniHCTbi OTKpbiBanH no MecTy npeA- 
nojiaraeMoii 3aca^bi apTHJuiepHHCKHn h MHHOMeTHbiii oroHb. npHxoflHJiocb 3anacHbiMH xo^aMH 6mct- 
po MeHJiTb no3HUHio, hto6m BbiSpaTbca H3 nepenjieTa. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 209 

K TOMy BpeMeHH, Kor^a b CTajiMHrpa^e noaBHJica MaMop KeHHHrc, 3aHueB BepHynca H3 rocnn- 
Tana - ero paHHJi HeMeu,KHH CHaMnep, - h BacHJiHH ropen >KejiaHHeM B3arb peBamn. 

Ka3anocb, He cwcKaTb CTpenKa cpe^H MHoroKHJiOMeTpoBbix pa3BanHH, b KOToptix flHeM h HOHbio 
rpeMenH 6oh, He onpeflejiHTb, KaKaa nyna b Te6a nonana - cjiynanHaa hjih BbinymeHHaa pyKOH mctko- 
ro aca. Ho y Haiunx CHamiepoB cymecTBOBajiH tbicjihh hm oahhm H3BecTHbix npHMeT, (|)aKTOB, HaSjiio- 
fleHHH, no3BOJiaBHiHx onpeflejiHTb paMoH, r^e Mor OKa3aTbc» (J)aHiHCTCKHH CHamiep". 

Bee 3to pe3yjibTaT TpeHHpoBaHHOH 3pHrejibHOH HaSniOflaTejibHOCTH, HenejiOBeHecKoro TepneHHa 
b fljiHTenbHOM HaSjuofleHHH 3a nepeflHHM KpaeM npoTHBHHica h cSopa TaKTHnecKOH pa3BeflHH(|)opMa- 

HHH. 

"B 3eMJi»HKe, r^e OTflbixanH hjih roTOBHJiHCb OTnpaBHTbca b noncKH HaniH CHaMnepbi, MHoro 
SbiJio neperoBopeHO, BbiflBHHyro BepcHH h nuaHOB. KaKne tojibko npHMaHKH He npeflJiaranHCb - ot 
jio>KHoro nyneMeTHoro rae3#a #o nepeofleBaHHa b HeMeuKyio (})opMy MaHeKeHa. Ho Bbixo^bi 3aHueBa 
Ha no3Hu,HH KOHHanHCb, KaK Bcer^a, yBejiHneHHeM cneTa - y Hero oh 6bm flaneico 3a TpncTa, ho Ha cuefl 
Maiiopa HanacTb He nocHacTJiHBHJiocb. Tot Swji flbaBOJibCKH TepnenHB h HBompeHHO KOBapeH. Yna- 
CTHJiHCb cjiynan rnSenH o(|)HHepoB h conflaT b caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix h, Ka3anocb 6bi, uejiHKOM 6e3- 
onacHbix MecTax. 3a BceM sthm HyBCTBOBanacb onbiTHaa pyKa. 

3aHueBa Tenepb He y^OBJieTBopajiH "oSbiHHbie" 0(|)HHepbi - oh Swji Becb b Mbicnax o BCTpene c 
KeHHHrcoM, b nacbi OT^bixa 6e3MOJiBHO jie>Kaji Ha Hapax h flyMan cboc 

cDamncT HaKOHeu, ocTaBHJi M BH3HTHyio KapTOHKy" - pa36HJi onTHnecKHH npHueji y CTaporo flpyra 
3aHueBa, a nyrb no3>Ke paHHJi ^pyroro CHannepa. 3to He Monro He HacTopo>KHTb: napmi Swjih, hto 
Ha3biBaeTca, Snrbie, hx Ha mskkhq He npoBeflenib, h Hy>KHO Swjio oSjia^aTb oneHb bmcokhm npo(|)ec- 

CHOHajIbHblM MaCTepCTBOM, HToSbl nepeXHTpHTb TaKHX. 

Mo>kho SbiJio He coMHeBaTbca, hto HeMeu,KHH CHannep floSpoBOJibHO He noKHHeT cboio no3H- 
hhio, ecuH OHa He pacKpbiTa: noflroTOBKa no3Hu,HH (3aca#bi) TpeSyeT cjihhikom MHoro Tpy^a h H3o6pe- 
TaTejibHOCTH, hto6w MeHaTb ee nocne Ka>Kfloro BbiCTpena. (HeMHbi jhoShjih kom(J)opt h He jhoShjih 
MeHaTb oSopyflOBaHHbie, y^oSHbie h Ha#e>KHbie no3HHHH; pyccKne paccTaBajiHCb c hhmh 6e3 co>Kajie- 
HHa, He >Kanea chji h jiHHHoro BpeMeHH Ha CKpbiToe oSopyflOBaHne hobwx 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix no3HHHH 
- Snaroflapa 3TOMy ocTaBanHCb >KHBbi, HMea TaKTHnecKHH Bbinrpbini. - A. 77.) 

PaHHHM yrpoM 3aHueB co cbohm HanapHHKOM HHKOJiaeM KyjiHKOBbiM y>Ke npoSHpajincb nepe3 
pa3BanHHbi k TOMy MecTy, r^e paHHno CHaMnepa III. 3anerjiH, 3aMacKHpoBanHCb h BHHMaTejibHO, Me- 
TOflHHHO npHHajiHCb HCCJieflOBaTb nepeflHHH Kpaii HeMueB. HnKaKHx H3MeHeHHH, cnocoSHbix HacTO- 
po>KHTb. Ha 3tom ynacTKe Swjio OTHOCHTenbHO cnoKOHHo: h hcmum, h HaniH Sohhm npoHHO 3aHHManH 
flOMa-KpenocTH, ^aBHO npncTpejiaB Ka>KflbiH MeTp HHneHHOH 3eMJiH. 

npojie>KaB b HenoflBH>KHOCTH Becb fleHb, TaK h He o6Hapy>KHB rHTJiepoBu,a, 3aiiLi,eB h KyjiHKOB 
B03BpamanHCb k ce6e. 

- Yivia He npHJio>Ky, r^e oh MO>KeT npjrraTbca. 5{ Ka>KflbiH KaMenieK Han3ycTb 3Haio, - roBopnji 

KyjiHKOB. 

- A noMHHTb, Kor^a cojiHu,e ca^HJiocb, Ha# TpaHHieen KacKa HecKOJibKO pa3 noKa3biBanacb? 

- OTnero >Ke, noMHio. 5{ en^e noflyMan - BbiCTpejiHTb, hto jih. 

- H npaBHJibHO Cflejian, hto He BbiCTpenHJi. y MeHa yron BbiroflHee Swji, TaK a 3aMeTHJi - KacKa- 
to Kananacb nyrb H3 ctopohw b CTopoHy, KaK ecjin 6bi ee Hecjin Ha nanKe, a y>K HracaK He Ha ronoBe! 
Cue/iyeT npncMOTpeTbca. 

BTopoM fleHb He npHHec onpeflejieHHOCTH. HeMu,bi ^a>Ke CTpenaTb CTann MeHbme, KaK 6bi npn- 
rjianiaa Ha 3tot "mhphmh" ynacTOK. 

BenepoM 3aHueB CHOBa h CHOBa B03Bpamajica k TOMy KopoTKOMy ynacTKy 3eMJiH, KOTopbrii oh 
3Han, KaK cboh rorrb najibii,eB, ho TaK h He Mor HaiiTH MecTa, r^e CKpbiBanca Bpar. BacnjiHH BH^eji 
Ka>KflbiH KaMeHb, 3Han u,BeT H3ypoflOBaHHbix ctch: cjieBa nepHbie, noKpbiTbie rycToii ca>Ken (bh^hmo, b 
noflBane j\om& paHbnie Swji CKJia^ ropionero). CnpaBa ot 3aca#bi B3flbi6HJica HeMeu,KHH TaHK. Othct- 
jihbo CToana nepefl rjia3aMH H3orHyTaa jihhhji TpaHHieii c aotom b Hempe. 3a 3th ^Ba j\na 3aHueB hc- 
npoSoBan npneMbi, noMoraBHine He pa3 BbiMaHHTb Ha cbct Bo>khh HeMeu,KHx CHaiinepoB, ho SepjiHH- 
ckhh CTpenoK He KniOHyji. "BnepBbie c TaKHM TepnejiHBbiM CTanKHBaiocb, - paccy>Kflan 3aHu,eB, - 
oSbiHHO HeMeii, Ha Bbi#ep>KKy cjiaS. Ha hto y>K Swji Bbiflep>KaH tot, KOTopwii npaTanca b pa36nTOH 
BaHHe, Ha btopom 3Ta>Ke, TaK ^ep>Kajica, hto a fla>Ke eMy noconyBCTBOBaji 3a ^ojiroTepneHHe. A Be^b 
TO>Ke Ha TpeTbH cyTKH cjiOManca - noKa3an cboh K03bipeK. H - xaHa! He HpaBHTca MHe stot Maiiop. 
Mo>KeT, ero h BOBce 3flecb HeT? H cvlrvlm mm KaK flypaKH?" 3Ta Mbicub pacTpeBO>KHJia, h pa3onapoBa- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 210 

HHe totobo SbiJio OBJia^eTb CHannepoM, pa3onapoBaHHe, 3HaKOMoe nioSoMy oxothhky, Kor^a >KejiaH- 
Haa ^HHb BbicKOJib3HeT H3-nofl caMoro Hoca. Ho 3aiineB SbiCTpo B3aji ce6a b pyKH. "Ha mie TepneHna 
30jioto jiokht", - roBapHBan b ^eTCTBe ero OTeu,. 

...CenraSpbCKaa HOHb - hh 3ra He bh^ho. BbiniJin b HOHb, htoSw c paccBeTOM cn^eTb y>Ke b 3a- 
ca^e. noflxofla k no3HUHH, 3aMeflJiHJiH mar - bot Tenepb y>K tohho hh 3ByKa, hh niopoxa He aojdkho 
AOJieTaTb flo Bpara. 3aHajiH CHannepbi cboh rae3fla, nonHTpyK 3aMacKHpoBanca cpe^H KaMHeii Heno#a- 
jieKy ot 3aiiLi,eBa. 

PaccBeTano flouro, c Bourn Hanoji3an rycTOH TyMaH. nocTeneHHO CTan BbipncoBbiBaTbca noflSn- 

Tbffl TaHK, flOT C 3aKpbITOH 3aCJIOHKOH aM6pa3ypbI. nOTaHyjIO C TOH CTOpOHbl flblMKOM - (|)aiHHCTCKHH 

noBap pa3>KHran noxo/fflyio KyxHio. HcnopTHTb 6bi HefrmaM anneTHT napoM mctkhx BbiCTpenoB, j\& h 
ohh CTanH xHTpbi, >KH3Hb Haynnjia, OTBOflHJiH flbiMOxoflbi noflanbiue, HToSbi HeB03MO>KHO SbiJio onpe- 
flejiHTb, r^e yKpwjiacb KyxHa. 3aiineB paccMaTpnBan nepeflHHH Kpan nepe3 onrHHecKnii npnSop, bh- 
HCKHBaa MajieMniHe H3MeHeHHa. 

- Cennac a BaM noKa>Ky, r^e oh, - CKa3an Heo>KHflaHHO nonHTpyK h HenpoH3BOJibHO npHnoflHajica 
Ha CBoeM MecTe. BbiCTpen npo3Bynaji oflHOBpeMeHHO c ero cnoBaMH, h fl,aHHJiOB (nonHTpyK) ocen 

BHH3. 

- PaHeH nerKO, flonoji3y caM. A oh no# jihctom >Kejie3a yKpbmca, - ycjibinian 3aftu,eB ronoc J\a- 

HHJIOBa. 

3anneB cothh pa3 CKOJib3HJi B3rjiaflOM no SojibiuoMy jiHCTy >Kejie3a Ha rpy^e Shtmx KHpnHHeM 
Ha HHneHHOH nojioce. Tpy^a KaK rpy^a. A ecuH k HeM xofl noflBecTH He3aMeTHO? CoBceM Hemioxaa 
no3Hu,Ha. 

3anneB Ha^eji Ha flomenKy Bape>KKy (hohh CTann xonoflHbie, h CHannepaM paHbiue flpyrnx bh- 
flajiH HiepcTaHbie Ba3aHbie BapeacKH, hto6 nanbubi He KoneHejiH) h cuerica BbicyHyn Ha# tojioboh. Bm- 
CTpena He ycjibinian, ho nonyBCTBOBaji y#ap. OnycTHJi Bape>KKy - TaK h ecTb, ^bipKa. npHKHHyji no 
nona^aHHio yron, KaK hh BepTH, a tojibko H3-nofl >Kejie3Horo jiHCTa Mor nanHTb Bpar. 

Ha cneflyiomyio hohb oSopyflOBanH HOBbie no3HUHH h CTann #o>KHflaTbca yTpa. C nepBbiMH jiy- 

HaMH COJIHUa B0306H0BHJIHCb 60H B TOpOfle, rpOXOT HapaCTajI C Ka>KflOH MHHyTOH. 

KyjiHKOB cflejian fljia npoBepKH jio>KHbiH BbiCTpeji, "pacceKpennBaa", KaK h Swjio floroBopeHO, 
no3Hu,HK). yK^aTb flOBenocb flouro, c yrpa cojnme cbcthjio b rjia3a HaniHM CHaMnepaM, a nocjie oSe^a - 
b CTopoHy HeMu,a. 3opKHH raa3 3aHneBa ynoBHJi e#Ba 3aMeTHbiH Sjihk OTpa>KeHHoro nyna. KyconeK 
Snroro CTeiaia hjih onrnHecKHH npnneji? 

KyjiHKOB octopo>kho, HcnoflBOJib noflHHMan BBepx Ha nanKe KacKy. Co 3bohom npoH3HJia nyna 
MeTami. KyjiHKOB Ha MmoBeHne noflnpbirHyn h c kphkom ynan. 

THTJiepoBeii, BbicyHynca H3-3a yKpbrrna (Y>k oneHb MaMopy KeHHHrcy npncnHHHJio ySe^HTbca b 
Shhokjib o pe3yjibTaTax BbiCTpena, caM, HeSocb, ynnji KypcaHTOB He ^enaTb TaK. - A. n.), Tyr-TO ero n 
HacTHraa 3aHneBCKaa nyna. (Tpo(})eHHbiH onrHnecKHH npnneji c bhhtobkh KeHHHrca Monroe BpeMa 
3KcnoHHpoBanca b H,eHTpajibHOM Mysee Boopy>KeHHbix chji CCCP. npnSop oneHb tohhwh, Soubnioro 
yBenHHeHna - HanajibHHK BepjiHHCKon niKOJibi CHannepoB flencTBHTejibHO 6bra KnaccHbiM CTpenKOM. - 

A. n.) 

- nocne Toro j\mi CHannep y HeivtneB nonien nojioxjiHBbiH, - paccKa3biBan 3anii,eB. - Tohho hto- 
to HaflopBanocb y hhx, coBceM pacTepann Bepy b ce6a h Bbmep>KKy. B eflHHoSopcTBO pe^KO BCTynanH. 
Hame Bcero Ha Ka>Kflbin BbiCTpen Haniero CHannepa Bbi3biBanH oroHb apTHJiJiepHH h mkhomctob. Jly- 
naT, SbiBano, nojinaca no nycTOMy MecTy, KaMHH neTaT no CTopoHaM, a CHannepa flaBHbiM-^aBHO cnefl 
npocTbin - BbiCMaTpnBaeT c^aniHCTa b ^pyroM MecTe". 

(M. T BaiiHpyS. "3th CTanbHbie napHn") 

CHAHIIEPCKAJI TAKTHKA B TOPO^E 

B ropoflCKHx 6oax ManbiM noflpa3flejieHHaM (oT^ejieHHe, b3bo#, poTa) nacTO npnxoflHTca bccth 
SoeBbie fleiiCTBHa b OKpy>KeHHH h Ha^eaTbca TOJibKO Ha ce6a. TopoflCKHe pa3BannHbi co3flaiOT oneHb 
yfloSHyio o6opoHHTejibHO-(J)opTH(})HKaLi,HOHHyio CTpyKTypy, b KOTopon M Ba3HyT" jnoSbie HacTynaiomne 
nopa^KH, HMeioniHe SpoHeTexHHKy h Ta>Kejioe BOopy>KeHHe. Boh b ropo^e HanSonee 3(})(})eKTHBeH npn 
fleiiCTBHax HeSonbninx MaHeBpeHHbix y/iapHO-flHBepcHOHHbix rpynn, b cocTaB KOTopwx BKniOHaiOTca 
h CHannepbi. npn 3tom 3a^anH CHaiinepoB ocTaiOTca Bee TeMH 5Ke - BbiBefleHne H3 CTpoa KOMaH^Horo 
cocTaBa npoTHBHHKa, pacneTOB ero oraeBbix cpe^CTB, HanSojiee onacHbix ^Jia cbohx, cpe^CTB CBa3H h 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 211 

npiiSopoB HaSjnoflemia. nepBeMniaa 3aflana - fle3oprami30BaTb TaKHMH fleMcTBHaMH SoeByio paSoTy 
npoTHBHHKa. IIonyTHaa 3aflana, He MeHee Ba>KHaa, - ycTaHOBJieHHe CHaMnepcKoro Teppopa oraeBoM 
o6pa6oTKOH no3Hu,HH npoTHBHHKa h KOMMyHHKauHH 3a ero nepeflHHM KpaeM. 3thm ^ocTHraeTca xaoc 
h CMaTeHHe cpeflH 6ohu,ob npoTHBHHKa, CTpax, fleMopanH3aHHa h naflemie flHCu,HiuiHHbi. HapymaeTca 
noflB03 npoTHBHHKOM SoenpimacoB h ^pyroro MaTepHanbHoro CHaS^emia. TaKne 3a^aHH 3(|)(|)eKTHB- 
Hee Bcero flocTHraKxrca arpeccHBHoM CHaMnepcKOH paSoToii Ha flHCTaHuiiax CTpejibSbi 500- 600 Mer- 
poB. Ha TaKHx paccToamuix b ropo#e CHannep He cjibimeH b o6meM rpoxoTe 6oa h npaierHHecKH He- 
ya3BHM fljia BCTpenHoro oraa npoTHBHHKa. 

IIo3hhhh b ropoflCKHx noflBH>KHbix hjih no3HHHOHHbix 6oax CHaiiiiepbi BbiSnpaiOT no CBOeMy 
pa3yMeHHio #Jia y^oScTBa CTpejibSbi. CHaMnep npn BbinojiHeHnn npnKa3a o noflaBJieHHH u,ejin caM 
nmeT BbiroflHyio fljia CTpejibSbi no3Hu,nio, c KOTopon eMy bh^ho u,ejib n c KOTopon oh 3Ty u,ejib MO>KeT 
flOCTaTb BbiCTpenoM. IIo HeoSxoflHMOCTH CHannep MO>KeT BbiflBHHyrbca ot CBoero noflpa3flejieHna 
Bnepefl, b CTopoHy hjih Ha3a#. B TaKOM cjiynae CHannep ^eiiCTByeT aBTOHOMHO n MO>KeT SbiTb 3axBa- 
neH pa3BeflrpynnoH npoTHBHHKa. 

IIo3TOMy 6jiy>KflaiOHiHH no pa3BannHaM CHaMnep (oh Bbmy>KfleH na3HTb no BepxHHM 3Ta>KaM hjih 
noflBanaM, ocoSeHHO Ha (JwiaHrax CBoero noApa3flejieHHa) He aojckch SbiTb o^hh. Ero flOJi>KeH o6a3a- 
TejibHO conpoBO>KflaTb aBTOMaTHHK, KOTopbiii 3aKpbiBaeT CHaiinepy cnHHy h CTpaxyeT ero ot BHe3an- 
Horo Hana/ieHHa. KpoMe Toro, aBTOMaTHHK hocht pannio h oSecnenHBaeT CB»3b. HHor^a k hhm npn- 
coeflHHaeTca nyneMeTHHK ^Jia ycnjieHHa rpynnbi h rjiynieHHa CHaMnepcKHx BbiCTpejiOB nyjieMeTHOH 
onepeflbio. 

KaK noKa3ana npaKTHKa, npH paSoTe H3 3flaHHa CTpejiaTb Jiynnie OTOH^a ot OKHa, H3 rjiySiiHbi 
noMememia. ripH 3tom flbiM ot BbiCTpejia He bbixoaht Hapy>Ky, co CTopoHbi He bh^ho bchmhikh bbi- 
CTpejia h b flOBOJibHO oiHyiHMOH CTeneHH rjiyniHTca 3ByK BbiCTpejia. 

ripH CTpejibSe H3 rjiySHHbi noMemeHHa CHaMnepy Hejib3a flOJiro ocTaBaTbca Ha stoh iio3hli,hh. B 
ropofle, TaK >Ke, KaK h Ha npHpo^e, CHaiinep flOJi>KeH HMeTb HecKOJibKO 3anacHbix iio3hli,hh Ha o^hom 
oSbeKTe (3flaHHe, KBapTan h t. #.). Ilocjie flByx-Tpex BbiCTpejiOB c pa3pbiBOM no BpeMemi hjih 15-20 
ceKyHfl HenpepbiBHOH CTpejibSw no OKHy, H3 KOToporo CTpejiaji CHannep, o6a3aTejibHO 3anycT»T npo- 
THBOTaHKOByio rpaHaTy H3 rpaHaTOMeTa. IIo3TOMy Jiynnme no3im,HH Bce-TaKH b rjiySime h b Harpo- 
MO>KfleHHH pa3BanHH, oSBajiHBHiHxca h OTKpbiTbix CBepxy. B TaKHx MecTax ((J)oto 189, 190) Jiynnie 
Bcero MacKHpoBaTbca. MacKHpoBaTbca b ropo^e mo>kho c SojibiiiHM 3(})(})eKTOM b MycopHbix Kynax, 
cpeflH HarpoMoacfleHHH CTpoHTejibHbix oSjio mkob h Sirroro KHpmiHa (4)oto 191). 




cDoto 189. CipejiKoii noKa3aHa no3Hu,Ha CHaMnepa b rjiySime pa3BanHH. IlyHKTHpoM o6o3HaHeHO 
MecTO, Ha kotopom CHaiinep OKpomui CHer boaoh 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



212 



cDoto 190. Ta >Ke no3Hu,Ha C3a#n 




cDoto 191. IIo3HLi,Ha cpeflH CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob 

Ecjih y>K BaM npHiiiJiocb oSopyflOBaTb flOJiroBpeMeHHyio 3aicpbiTyio h yKpenneHHyio orHeByio 
no3Hu,HK) (flOT, 6jiHHfla>K), to aivi6pa3ypy fljia CTpenbSbi Ha#o ^ejiaTb pacTpySoM k ce6e (cxeMa 106). 
Taicaa aM6pa3ypa MeHbine no njioma^H h no3TOMy MeHee 3aMeTHa CHapy>KH K TOMy >Ke b TaKoii "06- 
paTHbiM pacTpyS" Sy^yr MeHbine 3aneTaTb nianbHbie nyjin h ockojikh, a "pacTpyS Hapy>Ky" 6y#eT hx 
TOJibKO coSnpaTb. 




CxeMa 106. AM6pa3ypa "oSpaTHbiM pacTpyS"; a - ceierop o6cTpe.na 

BHyTpn jnoSoro flOJiroBpeMemioro coopy>KeHHa o6a3aTejibHO CAejianre BHyTpeHHee yKpbiTHe 
(KpenocTb b KpenocTn) 3to Ha oiynaH, ecjin Bac "3a>KMyT" h HanHyr 3a6pacbiBaTb rpaHaTaMH. BHyT- 
peHHee npHMHTHBHoe yKpbiTHe flenaHTe H3 CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob h Toro, hto OKa>KeTca nofl pyKoM. 
YKpbiTHe b yKpwTHH cnaceT Bac ot ockojikob h /ipyroro ropanero >Kejie3a Ha ronoBy c KacKoii HaT»- 
HHTe SyuiJiaT, niHHejib, o^eajio h nepe3 3Ty TicaHb 3a>KMHTe jia^OHJiMH yiun, KaK CMO>KeTe, - b KaKoii-TO 
Mepe 3to npeflOxpaHHT Bac ot KOHTy3HH. 

Boh b ropofle b o6meM-TO He TepnHT ho3hii,hohhocth h hocht noflBH>KHbiH MaHeBpeHHbiM xa- 
paKTep. Run BpeMemiOH no3Hii,HH mo>kho 3aH»Tb pa36nTyio SpoHeTexmncy, ho TOJibKO fljia BpeMeHHoM 
no3HHHH - npo TaKne Benni BceM H3BecTHO, h npn CHaiinepcKOM npoaBJieHHH fljia npo(|)H.iiaKTHKH no 
3toh SpoHeTexHHKe MoryT nanbHyTb neM-HnSyflb KyMymiTHBHbiM H ecjin b noneBbix ycjiOBHax CHan- 
nep MO>KeT yiiTH H3 noflSnToro TaHKa hjih BTP bhh3, b 3apaHee BbipbiTbiM OKon h 3aTeM BepHyrbca 
Ha3a^, to b ropofle BbipbiTb b acc^anbre hjih b moctoboh OKon BecbMa npoSjieMaTHHHO, h nocne flByx- 
Tpex CHaiinepcKHx BbiCTpenoB nynme He ncnbiTbiBaTb cy^bSy h 3a6jiaroBpeMeHHO TaKoe yKpbiTHe no- 

KHHyTb 

B ropoflCKHx MaHeBpeHHbix 6oax oneHb nacTO npoTHBoSopcTByiomHe ctopohm ocTaBJiaiOT 
CHaiinepcKHe rpynnbi b Hepa36epHxe h xaoce pa3BanHH npn OTxofle CHaMnepbi npn 3tom ^encTByiOT 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 213 

tk) oScTaHOBKe - h 6jiy>KflaiomHM o6pa30M, no jiaSnpHHiy pa3BanHH, HMea HecKOJibKO TaiiHHKOB fljia 
OT^bixa h nonojiHeHHa SoenpnnacaiviH, boaoh h npoflOBOJibCTBneM, h b flOJiroBpeMeHHbix yKpemieH- 
hlix oraeBbix no3Hu,Hax 

TaKHe no3Hu,HH noflnac MacKHpyiOTca HacTOJibKO y^aHHO, Haxo^acb b caMOM srumempe coSbi- 
thh, cpeflH flbiMa, rpoxoTa h Hepa36epHXH, b rpy^ax KaMHeii h CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob, hto ocraiOT- 
c» He3aMeneHHbiMH hh ny>KHMH, hh cbohmh, Kor^a (J)poHT nepeicaTbiBaeTca nepe3 hhx HecKOJibKO pa3 b 
Ty hjih HHyio CTopoHy CeicpeT Hecjio>KeH - CHaiinepbi HaSjnoflaiOT 3a oScTaHOBKoii b nepncKon, bm- 
CTaBJieHHbiii Hapy>Ky, a fljia CTpejibSbi OTKpbiBaKxr "4)optohkh" - KaMeHHbie 3acjiOHKH aM6pa3yp, CHa- 
py>KH aScojiiOTHO Hepa3JiHHHMbie cpeflH CTpoHTejibHbix HarpoMO>KfleHHH, nofl KOTopbiMH CKpbiTa no- 
3hijh». Ilocjie BbiCTpena 3acnoHKa MrHOBeHHO 3aKpbiBaeTca. TaK flejianH h HaniH b CTanHHrpa^e, h 
HeMUbi b KemircSepre. B KanecTBe Taicon 3acjiOHKH h pyccKHe, h HeMUbi Hcnojib30BanH KaKOH-jinSo 

CTpOHTeJIbHblH 06.HOMOK, KOTOpblH npH HeoSxOflHMOCTH CTpeJIbSbl najIKOH H3 yKpblTHa OTOflBHrajIH 

hjih OTBajiHBanH ot aM6pa3ypw, a no OKOHHaHHH CTpejibSbi npHTarHBanH k aM6pa3ype 3a npHB»3aH- 
Hyio k 3TOMy npeflMeTy npoBOJioicy. Aivi6pa3yp c 3acjiOHKaMH ^ejiaeTca HecKOJibKO fljia oSecneneHHa 
ceKTopoB oScTpenoB b pa3Hbie CTopoHbi. CTpenbSa bqrqtch h3 rjiySiiHbi no3Hu,HH, htoSm alim h miaMa 
He BbixoflHJin Hapy>Ky. OneHb nacTO TaKne 3aKpbiTbie no3Hu,HH hmcjih cooSmemie c noflBanaMH 6jih3- 
jie^ainnx 3flaHHH. 

B noflBH>KHOM yjiHHHOM 6010 CHaiinepbi 3aHHMaiOT no3nu,Hn c xo^y, 6e3 noflroTOBKn. H htoSm 
3to nojiynanocb nynme, CHaiinep o6a3aH 3HaTb oSmyio nnaHnpoBKy panoHa SoeBbix flencTBnn b CBoen 
30He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH h 3apaHee npeflCTaBJunb apxnTeKTypy 3flaHnn n pa3BanHH. 06»3aTejibHO Ha#o 
3HaTb opneHTHpbi Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa h Ha CBoeft CTopoHe h nocToaHHO onpeflenaTb paccToaHne 

flO HHX. 

OneHb 3(})4)eKTHBeH cnocoS noflBH>KHOH paSoTbi b CHannepcKOH nape, Kor^a CHaiinep c Hanap- 
hhkom 3aHHMaiOT nepeflOByio no3nu,Hio (hjih Bbi#BH>KHyio no3Hu,Hio "noflCKOKa") 3a yicpbiTHeM (Ka- 
MeHHOH CTeHoii) n HaxoflaTca Ha stoh no3Hu,HH b 6e3onacHOCTH ot HianbHoro n nejieHanpaBJieHHoro 
oraa. HanapHHK b nepncKon H3-3a yKpbiTHa HaSjiiOflaeT 3a nojieM 60a n OTbicKHBaeT nejib. Ilpn o6Ha- 
py>KeHHH nejin HanapHHK "npHBa3biBaeT" ee k xapaKTepHOMy h xoponio pa3JiHHHMOMy opneHTHpy. O 
u,ejiH cooSmaeTca CHaiinepy c yica3aHHeM opneHTHpa h Ha Kaicoe kojikhcctbo TbicanHbix b CTopoHy ot 
3Toro opneHTHpa HaxoflHTca uejib (6jin>Ke hjih flanbiue - b MeTpax). Cpasy >Ke CHaiinepy cooSmaeTca 
flHCTaHHHa ^0 nejin, HanpaBJieHne BeTpa n ^pyrae ncxoflHbie ^aHHbie fljia CTpejibSbi no KOHKpeTHOMy 
MOMeHTy coSbiTHH. Hcnojib3ya npnB33Ky k opneHTHpy, CHaiinep nopa>KaeT nejib, Ha oneHb KopoTKoe 
BpeMa BbiflBHHyBmncb H3-3a yKpwTna, h nocjie BbiCTpejia CHOBa npaneTca 3a Hero. 

Jinn ycneniHoro Be^eHHa TaKon CTpejibSbi CHannep n ero HanapHHK aojckhw HMeTb ^Be oflHHa- 
KOBbie KapTOHKH onui c oflHHaKOBbiM yKa3aHHeM oflHHx h Tex 5Ke opneHTnpoB. IIo oScTaHOBKe CHaii- 
nep h ero HanapHHK Moryr Haxo^HTbca h 3a pa3HbiMH yKpwTnaMH Ha paccToaHHH cjimiuhmocth tojio- 
ca, He o6a3aTejibHO b npe^ejiax npaMoii bh^hmocth, htoSm ohh Morjin OKa3aTb orHeByio noflflep>KKy 
flpyr flpyry npn ocjio>KHeHHH oScTaHOBKH. Jlyniue, pa3yMeeTca, ecjin npn CHaiinepax Sy^yr HaxoflHTb- 
ca aBTOMaTHHKH fljia npHKpbiTHa. 

IIpH BefleHHH HacTynaTejibHbix h oSopoHHiejibHbix ^eiicTBHii b HacejieHHbix nyHKTax h yjinn- 
hwx 6oax CHaiinepaM Sojibineii nacTbio HeT CMbicjia Haxo^HTbca HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha nepeflHeM Kpae. 
HMea CHaiinepcKHe bhhtobkh, npn He ocoSchho OTflaneHHbix flHCTaHu,Hax b ropo^e CHaiinepbi yBe- 
peHHO MoryT ^ocTaTb u,ejib nepe3 rojiOBbi cbohx, He noflBepraacb jimuHeii onacHOCTH. IIpH HacTyna- 
TejibHbix ^eiicTBHax CHaiinep Sy^eT Sojiee 3(})(})eKTHBHO Hcnojib30BaH nofl HenocpeflCTBeHHbiM Hana- 
jiom MJia^Hiero KOMaH^npa, KOMaH^yiomero SoeBbiMH ^eiicTBHaMH Ha MecTe coSbiTnii (KOMaH^npa 
OT/iejieHHa, B3BO#a). npn Bcex HacTynaTejibHbix noflBH>KHbix SoeBbix ^eiicTBHax CHaiinepbi o6a3aHbi 
Hapa/iy c BbinojiHemieM ocHOBHbix (|)yHKLi,Hii KOHTpojmpoBaTb oScTaHOBKy Ha (J)jiaHrax h MrHOBeHHO 
noflaBJiaTb u,ejm, B03HHKaiomHe TaM. BHe3anHbiii (})jiaHroBbiii oroHb npoTHBHHKa Sy^eT rySHTejibHbiM 
fljia CBoero noflpa3flejieHHa, h ero hh b KoeM cjiynae Hejib3a ^onycTHTb. 

B ropoflCKHx 6oax CHaiinepbi #ep>KaT nofl KOHTpojieM fljiHHHbie yjiim,bi, nepeyjiKH, njioma^H, 
npoxoflHbie flBopw, Bee Sojiee-Meiiee oSnmpHbie h OTKpbiTbie MecTa b u,ejiax HeflonymeHHa BbiflBH>Ke- 
hhh npoTHBHHKa h ero neperpynnnpoBKH. 

PABOTA CHAHIIEPA B HACTYnATEJIBHBIX YJIHHHBIX BOHX 

^jia nojiHOu,eHHoii h pe3yjibTaTHBHoii paSoTbi b HacTynaTejibHbix yjiHHHbix 6oax CHaiinep 06a- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 214 

3aH yMeTb CTpejiaTb c xo^y nocjie HeSojibiiiHx nepe6e>KeK. IIlTypMOBbie rpynnti aBTOMaTHHKOB #bh- 
>KyTca BflOJit CTeH nepe6e>KKaMH. Hx nepeflBH>KeHHe npHKpbiBaiOT orHeM CHaiinep, nyjieMeTHHK h rpa- 
HaTOMeTHHK. ABTOMaTHHKH npOflBHraiOTOI SpOCKaMH Bnepe^ OT yKpblTHJI K yKpblTHK), H B MOMeHTbl 

TaKHx npoflBH>KeHHH CHaiinep, nyjieMeTHHK h rpaHaTOMeTHHK Be^yr no oraeBbiM TOHKaM npoTHBHHKa 
3arpaflHTejibHbiH oroHb, He no3BOJiaa npoTHBHHKy CTpejunb no HacTynaiomHM npnnejibHO. CHaiinep b 
MOMeHT SpocKa rpynnw aBTOMaTHHKOB Be^eT oroHb HaBCKH^Ky no Bceivty >KHBOMy, hto noaBJiaeTca Ha 

CTOpOHe npOTHBHHKa. ABTOMaTHHKH fleJiaiOT KOpOTKHe SpOCKH, no 20-25 MeTpOB, H 3a 3TO BpeMa 

CHannep flOjraceH BbiCTpenHTb, neM Sojibiue, TeM Jiynnie. OneHb >KejiaTejibHO, kohchho, nopa3HTb npo- 
THBHHKa, ho ocHOBHaa 3a^ana coctoht Bce-TaKn b tom, htoSm noMemaTb eMy CTpejunb npnnejibHO. 
^a>Ke ecjin CHaiinep n He nonan no KaKoii-TO BbicyHyBiuenca nejiH, He CJie^yeT "3anHKJiHBaTbca" Ha 
Hen h floSnBaTb ee flanbiue. Ilyjia, nonaBiuaa b KaMeHHyio Kna^Ky B03Jie Bpa>KecKoro CTpejnca, npo- 

BH3>KaBHiaa pHKOHieTOM, H OCKOJIKH KaMH», 6pbI3HyBHIHe 3TOMy CTpeJIKy B JIHHO, 3aCTaB3T Toro flep- 

HyTbca b CTopoHy. O npHnejibHoii CTpejibSe b npoTHBHHKa b TeneHne HecKOJibKnx ceKyH^ nocne 3Toro 
He MO>KeT 6biTb h penn 3th HecKOJibKO ceKyHfl Sy^yr BaniH - 3a sto BpeMa bw "o6pa6oTaeTe" TaKHM 
o6pa30M eme HecKOJibKO TaKHx oraeBbix ToneK. 3a sto BpeMa inrypMOBaji rpynna cpaBHHTejibHO 6e3- 
onacHO MO>KeT npoflBHHyTbca Bnepefl ot yKpbmia k onepeflHOMy yKpbiTHio. KaK TOJibKO Sohhm nnyp- 
moboh rpynnbi 3anerjiH 3a yKpwTHa h OTKpbuiH oroHb no oraeBbiM TOHKaM npoTHBHHKa, nofl npnKpw- 
THeM 3Toro oraa Bnepefl BbiflBnraeTca npHRpbiBaiomaa rpynna - CHaiinep, nyjieMeTHHK n 
rpaHaTOMeTHHK. 3Ta npHRpbiBaiomaa rpynna ^ejiaeT pmbok #o 6jin>KaiiHiHx B03MO>KHbix yKpbiTnii n 
3aKpenjiaeTca 3a hhmh. IIotom Becb stot uhkji noBTopaeTca 

PaSoTa CHaiinepa b flHHaMHHHOM HacTynaTenbHOM 6010 TpeSyeT 3HaHHa npneMOB cnenHanbHoii 
TaKTHKH. B ocHOBe TaKTHKH 6oa ManbiMH MaHeBpeHHbiMH rpynnaMH jiokht TaK Ha3biBaeMoe jieBOCTO- 
poHHee npaBHJio. Oho 3aKJnoHaeTca b tom, hto c noBopoTOM BnpaBO CTpejunb HaMHoro Ta>Kejiee, Me#- 
jieHHee h HeyfloSHee, neM c pa3BopoTOM BJieBO. Bo3bMHTe BnnroBKy b pyKH n "noBoponaiiTe" ee BJie- 
BO-BnpaBO. Pa3HHu,a b omymeHHax 6y#eT oneBH^Ha. PaSoTa bhhtobkoh npn pa3BopoTe bjicbo 
npoHexoflHT pe3yjibTaTHBHee eme h noTOMy, hto TaKOBa ncnxo^HBHOJiornHecKaa HanpaBJieHHOCTb op- 
raHH3Ma (pa3yMeeTca, ecjin CTpenoK CTpejiaeT c npaBoro nnena - y jicbihh stot nponecc nponcxoflni 
HaoSopoT) 

IIo3TOMy CTpenoK, CTpenaiomHii c npaBoro miena hjih c npaBoii pyKH, Bcer^a 6y#eT hmctb TaK- 
THnecKoe npeHMymecTBO, ecjin k oSbeKiy niTypMa oh 6y#eT npn6jiH>KaTbca, HMea stot o6beKT cueBa 
ot ce6a. B TaKOM anynae, 3aKpenjiaacb 3a yKpbiTHeM (oSmhho sto yroji 3#aHHa), CTpenoK, HMea stot 
yron cueBa, BbiCTaBJiaeT H3-3a 3Toro yrjia fljia CTpejibSw TOJibKO nacTb ronoBbi, nacTb miena h nacTb 
npaBoii pyKH. Ecjih HMeTb sto yKpbiTHe cnpaBa, to npn^eTca CTpejiaTb c neBoro miena - sto Hey#o6HO 
h He Ka>Kflbiii 3to yMeeT. K TOMy >Ke Ha BHHTOBKe CB^I, npnneji cflBHHyi bjicbo - fljia CTpejibSw c jieBO- 
ro miena sto eme Sojiee HeyfloSHO rHJib3bi jieTaT b jihu,o h, no 3aKOHy noflJiocTH, b rna3a 3to Henpn- 

3THO 

Ecjih bw CTpejiaeTe ctos hjih c KOJieHa, 3to eme nojiSeflbi Ho b yjiHHHbix 6oax, Kor^a KpyroM 
cbhctht ropanee >Kejie30, npnxoflHTca B>KHMaTbca b 3eMJiio h CTpejiaTb H3-3a yrjia jie>Ka c jieBoro njie- 
na. 3to c^ejiaTb y»ce npoSjieMaTHHHO. 

Tenepb npe^CTaBbTe TaKyio paccTaHOBKy no3HLi,Hii, Banie yKpbiTHe (yroji 3flaHHa) cjieBa ot Bac, 
npoTHBHHK, HaxoAamHiica b tom >Ke 3flaHHH, nbiTaeTca OTCipejiHBaTbca ot Bac, ctos 3a ^pyriiM ero 
yrjiOM, HaxoflamHMca cnpaBa ot Hero, hjih h3 OKHa, nbiTaacb ^ocTaTb Bac cjieBa HanpaBO. Bw 6y#eTe 
MaKCHManbHO 3aKpbiTbi BaniHM yKpbiTHeM, a oh 6y#eT BbiHy>KfleH CTpejiaTb c JieBoro njiena, hto He- 
yfloSHO h HenpHu,ejibHO, hjih >Ke c npaBoro njiena, CTpejiaa npHBbiHHbiM o6pa30M, ho BbicoBbiBaacb 
fljia 3Toro h MaKCHManbHO noflCTaBJiaacb HeocnopHMoe npeHMymecTBO 6y#eT 3a BaMH. CTapaiiTecb, 
hto6w BaniH no3Hu,HH He noMeHajiHCb - Tor^a npeHMyn^ecTBO Sy^eT 3a npoTHBHHKOM. HtoSm TaKoro 
He CJiynanocb, ^BH>KeHHe 6oa Hy>KHO opraHH30BbiBaTb caMHM, no bo3mo>khocth nepeMemaacb TaK, 
hto6w nocTaBHTb npoTHBHHKa b HeBbiroflHoe nojio>KeHHe fljia CTpejibSw, "3aKpyHHBaTb" oScTaHOBKy 
6oa npoTHB nacoBoii CTpejiKH 

IIo 3Toii >Ke npHHHHe, paSoTaa b pa3JiHHHoro po^a jiaSnpHHTax, Bee yrjibi 3flaHHii, rapa>Keii, ue- 
xob h npoHHx CTpoeHHii hjokho oSxoflHTb npoTHB nacoBoii CTpejiKH h noflajibiue ot 3thx yrjiOB. IIpH 
TaKOM nepeMenieHHH yKpbiBHmiica 3a yrjiOM npoTHBHHK OTKpbiBaeTca He cpa3y, a nocTeneHHO, neM 
jiranaeTca npeHMymecTBa BHe3anHoro Hana^eHiia 

B TOpOflCKOM 60K) npOTHBHHK MO>KeT nOSBHTbCa H3 pa3BajIHH BHe3anHO H Ha OHeHb 6JIH3KHX flH- 

CTaHu,Hax - 20-30 MeTpoB B TaKOM cjiynae HeKor^a u,ejiHTbca b npimeji - Hy>KHO CTpejiaTb ot >KHBOTa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 215 

nacTbiM orHeM. Ha flHCTaHunax 40 MeTpoB h ^ajiee nona^aTb, CTpejiaa ot >KHBOTa, CTaHOBHica npo- 
SjieMaTHHHO, h no nejin, flBH^ymenca Ha CTpejiica, npHxoflHTca CTpejiaib HaBCKH^Ky, hjih >Ke, ecjiH 
uejib flBH>KeTca no 4)ponry, cipejiaib c noBOflKon (cm. "TexHHKa CTpejibSbi no #BH>KymHMC» nejiaM", 
c. 174), paSoTaa npnu,ejibHbiMH npncnocoSjieHnaMn no "npnnejibHon kphboh" c ynpoK^eHneM nenn 
CTpenaTb npnxoflHTca TaK, KaK 3to ^ejiaiOT oxothhkh. C onTHHecKHM npnnejiOM Serymaa uejib 3axBa- 
TbiBaeTca Jierne, neM c npnuejiOM OTKpbiTbiM. 

Ecjih npoTHBHHK nocjie CHannepcKoro 3arpaflHTejibHoro oraa CTpejiaeT H3 rjiySnHbi noMemeHHa 
n CHannep c nyneMeTHHKOM ero ^ocTaTb He MoryT, TaKoro CTpenKa yHHHio>KaeT rpaHaTOMeTHHK peaK- 
thbhoh rpaHaTOH 

Ilpn 3anHCTKax h onepaTHBHbix noncKax, Kor^a noflpa3flejieHne npoHBBOflnr ^ocmotp CTpoeHHH 
BHyrpn KBapTana hjih KOHKpeTHoro oSbeKia, CHannep h nyneMeTHHK KOHTponnpyiOT 6jiH3Jie>KamHe 
yjiHnbi, ninpoKHe npoxo^Hbie flBopbi n nycTbipn ajih HeflonymeHHa neperpynnnpoBOK npoTHBHHKa 
nun Bbixofla ero H3 3aHHmaeMoro oSbeiera. 

Jljm CHaiinepcKOH paSoTbi b pa3BanHHax hjokho SbiTb ofleTbiM cooTBeiCTBeHHO HeT CMbicjia 
Ha^eBaTb HOBoe oSMyH^HpoBaHHe - nepe3 nac HHTeHCHBHoro noji3aHHa, nepe6e>KeK, nepeKaTOB h t a 
oho Sy^eT BbiMa3aHO H3BecTKOH, ca>Ken, Shtwm KnpnHHOM h pa3opBaHO bo MHorax MecTax. fla>Ke 
flHeM oneHb >KejiaTejieH BaTHbiii SyiujiaT - n He TOJibKO fljia CHaiinepcKOH SKHnnpoBKH. ,3,HeM >KapKO, ho 
nap KOCTeii He jiomht. A bot HOHbio 6y#eT xojioaho, h HoneBaTb npn^eTca b Tex >Ke pa3BanHHax, Hen3- 

BeCTHO, B KaKOM MeCTC 

Ha KOJieHax h Ha jioktax hjokho HMeTb HaKOJieHHHKH h HanoKOTHHKH. B pa3BanHHax KpyroM 
ocipbie yrjiw h ocTpbie oSjiomkh. npeflCTaBbie, ecjin BaM flOBefleTca nocKOJib3Hyrbca, ocTynnibca h t. 
A- h Bac pe3KO "onycTHT" He3aiHnmeHHbiM KOJieHOM hjih jioiereM Ha TaKoM ocTpwii yroji. TaKne na^e- 
HHa BbiBOflaT nejiOBeica Ha HecKOJibKO MHHyr H3 CTpoa, h 3th MHHyrbi Moryr OKa3aTbca poKOBbiMH. Bo 
Bcex BOHHax XX ctojicths CHannepw ^ejiann HaKOJieHHHKH h HanoKOTHHKH caMH H3 CTapwx aBTOMO- 
SnjibHbix noKpbinieK. njiacTMaccoBbie HaKOJieHHHKH Ha CTpoHiejibHbix oSjiOMKax CKOJib3aT, a b pe3H- 
hobmx oneHb ^a>Ke y#o6HO jia3HTb no HarpOMO^eHnaM Snroro KHpnnna, CTeioia, SeTOHa h t. r. 

KoHTpcHaflnepcKaH paSoia b yjiHHHbix 6ohx 

3a#ana CHannepoB npoTHBHHKa npn BefleHHH SoeBbix fleiiCTBHH Ta >Ke, hto h Ha npnpofle, a 
HMeHHo: CHannepcKHH Teppop, jiniueHHe Baiunx KOMaH/nipoB bo3mo>khocth HaSjiiOfleHna 3a ero ne- 
peflHHM KpaeM h TeM caMbiM fle3opraHH3au,Ha paSoTbi Baniero nepeflHero Kpaa, cpbiB BameM aTaKH 
jnoSbiM flocTynHbiM o6pa30M, jiHKBHflauHa Baiuen >khboh chum, npn BceM 3tom CHannep npoTHBHHKa 
CTapaeTca ocTaBaTbca HeBH^HMbiM h HeynoBHMbiM, KaK npn3paK. 3to ^encTByeT Ha HepBbi h po>KflaeT 
HeHy>KHbie MH(|)bi. nopo>KflaiOTC» 3th MH(})bi eme h tcm, hto b ropo^e c ero ManbiMH ^Jia CHaiinepcKOH 
CTpejibSbi flHCTaHu,HaMH Ka>KflbiH, HMeioniHH aBTOMaT, y>Ke MO>KeT CHHTaTb ce6a CHaiinepoM. OcoSeH- 

HO B 3TOM OTHOHieHHH OTJIHHaiOTCa BblXOflHbl H3 CeJIbCKOH MeCTHOCTH, noflSHpaioiHHe SpouieHHoe 

CHaiinepcKoe opy>KHe hjih floSbiBaiomHe ero flpyrHMH cnocoSaMH. npn ^ajibHHx flHCTaHnnax CTpejib- 
6bi Ha npnpofle HeoSyHeHHbin nejiOBeK BnenaTJiaioninx pe3yjibTaTOB aoctkhb He M05KeT h nosTOMy 
KOMneHcnpyeT 3tot HeflOCTaTOK Ha kopotkhx paccToaHnax yjiHHHbix 6oeB. CHannepaMn b nojiHOM 
3HaneHHH 3Toro cjiOBa hx Ha3BaTb Hejib3a, n6o ohh b jiyniueM cjiynae CTpejiaiOT Ha ypoBHe BToporo 
cnopTHBHoro pa3pafla. MH(})bi - 3to eme He fleiiCTBHTejibHOCTb. 

fl,eHCTBHTeJIbHOCTb B TOM, HTO npH HHTeHCHBHOH SoeBOH paSOTe B TOpOfle BepXHHe 3Ta>KH MHO- 

ro3Ta>KHbix 3flaHHH, BbiniKH, SaiuHH h npoHHe B03BbinieHHbie MecTa HacKB03b npocTpejiHBaiOTca ap- 
THJiJiepneH h aBHauneH, h y^ep>KHBaTbca Ha hhx Moryr TOJibKO npo^eccHOHanbHbie h xoponio o6y- 
neHHbie CHaiinepbi. HejiOBeKa, njioxo BJia^eiomero opy>KHeM, njiOTHbiii oroHb 3acTaBJiaeT yxo^HTb 
bhh3, b noflBanbi h nofl SeTOHHbie njiHTbi. TaM ohh BbincKHBaiOT 6e3onacHbie jijm CTpejibSw niejin n 
6oHHHu,bi. Ho B03Jie Ka>Kfloii mejiH h 6oHHHu,bi Ha^o Bee BpeMa cn^eTb h KOHTpojinpoBaTb nojie 6oa, a 
b mejib HeT-HeT #a h 3aneTaeT OTKy^a-TO cSoKy iuanbHOH ockojiok hjih nianbHaa nyjia. H Tor^a hh- 
cthhkthbho CTpejiOK HaHHHaeT HCKaTb no3Hu,HH, HMeiOHiHe ctchkh cnpaBa h cjieBa CHapy>KH ot 6oh- 
HHii,bi, o6pa3yiOHiHe nepefl 6oHHHu,eH CBoeo6pa3Hbiii KopHflopnHK. Ecjih TaKnx no3Hu,HH HeT, a CTpe- 
jiaTb Ha^o (HMHflat CHaiinepa Hy>KHO noflflep>KHBaTb Bee BpeMa, HHane oh pncKyeT noTepaTb jihho 
nepefl cbohmh TOBapHntaMn), CTpejiOK caM ctpoht Sapbepbi B03Jie CBoeii aM6pa3ypw, ncnojib3ya npn 
3tom CTpoHTejibHbie oSjiomkh, BbiKanbiBaa pBbi h Hacwnaa SoKOBbie Banbi H3 3eMJin.. B o6meM-TO H^ea 
He jinnieHa npaKTHHHOCTH, CHaiuiepcKaa 6oHHHu,a OTKpbiTa TOJibKO cnepe^H, c Sokob BcaKoro cjiynan- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 216 

Horo >Kejie3a 3ajieTaeT HecpaBHeHHO MeHbine, a raaBHoe, oneHb h oneHb rjiyniHTca 3ByK BbiCTpejia. Co 
CTopoHbi Ka>KeTca, hto CTpejiaiOT r^e-TO flaneKO, a Ha caMOM rqjiq no3Hu,Ha ana CTpejibSbi HaxoflHica 
nofl hocom. IIpaBfla, ceKTop oScTpejia TaKoM no3HHHH orpaHHneH no CTopoHaM, h uejib "3au,enHTb" c 
TaKoM no3Hu,HH mo>kho TOJibico b tom cjrynae, ecjiH 3Ta uejib caMa "3a6pefleT M b ceierop oScTpejia. Hho- 
r#a CTpejibSa npoHBBOflHTca nepe3 nnipoKHe TpySbi, npojio>KeHHbie H3 noflBana Hapy>Ky hjih "npraco- 
naHHbie" nepe3 SpycTBep OKona. 3to eme 6e3onacHee, ho ceKTop oScTpejia npn 3tom eme MeHbme. 
IIpH TmaTejibHOM HaSjnofleHHH c BameM ctopohw bh ^OBOJibHO SbiCTpo pacno3HaeTe TaKne MecTa. Hx 
Sy^eT HeMHoro. Onpeflejinie npHMepHbiii ceKTop oScTpejia, B03MO>KHbiH npn CTpejibSe H3 TaKoro 
"pacTpySa", h Ha CBoeM CTopoHe nocTaBbTe TaSjiHHKH (xots 6w HanHHiHie MenoM Ha creHe) TaKoro 
coflep>KaHHa. "BHHMaHHe! 3to MecTO npncTpejiaHO CHaiinepoM!" h paccKa>KHTe 06 3tom BceM b CBoeM 
30He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. 3oHa Banieii OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Sy^eT Ta >Ke, hto h 30Ha OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH Bpa- 
>KecKoro CHannepa - Ha npnpofle ot TpexcoT MeTpoB #o nonyTopa KHJiOMeTpoB no (})poHTy, b ropoae - 
oSbiHHO flo nojiyKHJiOMeTpa. 

Hto mo>kho npe^npHHaTb npoTHB BbiHieonncaHHOH no3Hu,HH pacTpySoM? Ilpe>Kfle Bcero ycTpo- 
HTb CKpbiTyio KOJuieKTHBHyio 3aca#y HanpoTHB stoh no3Hu,HH c pacnojio>KeHHeM Bamnx omeBbix to- 
neK no bo3mo>khocth oflHa Hafl flpyron. IlpoHaSjnoflaTb xepnennBO b nepncKon, CTapaacb paccMOT- 
peTb, hto flenaeTca b raySnHe aivi6pa3ypbi. Ilpn ManeHiueM HieBejieHHH no stoh aivi6pa3ype ^ejiaeTca 
OflHOBpeMeHHbiH 3ann H3 flByx-Tpex bhhtobok. PaSoTy Bpa>KecKoro CTpenKa H3 aivi6pa3ypbi mo>kho 
cnpoBonnpoBaTb nrpon Kyiaibi-npHMaHKH, "paSoTaiomeH" nyib Bbinie no3Hu,HH Baniero CHannepa. 
Hy>KHO, hto6w 6oHHHu,a npoTHBHHKa, Bam CHannep-HCTpeSnTejib h Hynejio-npHMaHKa Haxo^HJiHCb b 
CTBope Ha oflHoii jihhhh. BbiCTpen H3 6oHHHu,bi no npniviaHKe Sy^eT CHinajiOM Bameivty CHannepy "k 
flO>KaTHio cnycKa". KaK 6w flaneKO b raySnHe SonHnnbi hh HaxoflHJica Bpa>KecKHH CTpenoK, b TeMHOTe 
hjih nonyMpaKe BcnbiniKa BbiCTpena 6y#eT BH^Ha ^OBOJibHO OTneTJiHBO. 

Mo>kho KycKOM 3epKana Ha nanKe H3-3a yKpbmia, KOHipojinpya npouecc nepncKonoM, Hanpa- 
BHTb b aivi6pa3ypy hjih nofl03pHiejibHyio mejib cojmeHHbin 3aiiHHK h "BbiCBeTHTb", hto TaM Haxo^HTca. 
Ecjih TaM hto-to ecTb, HeMeflJieHHO nocjiaTb Ty^a nyjiio H3 CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh, a eme Jiyniue - H3 
HecKOJibKHx bhhtobok. CojiHeHHbiii 3aiiHHK, nonaBHiHH b onTHHecKHH npHueji, HeHTpanroyeT npOTHB- 
HHKa cpa3y h Ha^ojiro, nosTOMy no# cojmeHHyio 3acBeTKy mo>kho ^ejiaTb CHaMnepcKHH 3ann HaxanbHO 
h "6e3B03Me3flHo". A mo>kho npocTO 3anycTHTb nofl BeTep ^biMOByio 3aBecy. IIpaKTHKa noKa3ana, hto 
CTpejiaTb H3 apTCHCTeM no no3Hu,HH "noflKOJiOflHoro 3Mea", KOTopbiM CTpejiaeT nepe3 "pacTpyS" n cn- 
flHT nofl njiHTaMH, b o6meM-TO 6ecnojie3HO. HacTHJibHbiM nynienHbiM oraeM ero He flOCTaTb, H3 mh- 
HOMeTa ero He B3»Tb, j\& n npn Hanane TaKoro oScTpejia ero TaM y>Ke He 6y#eT. 

OneHb 3(})4)eKTHBHbiM cpeflCTBOM o6Hapy>KeHHa CHannepoB aBJiaeTca jia3epHbiii nejieyica3aTejib 
(jia3epHaa yKa3Ka). TaKoii u,ejieyKa3aTejib Kpemrrca k nepncKony (apTHJuiepniicKOH Syccojin, CTepeo- 
TpySe h t. fl.) TaK, htoSm b nepncKon Swjia BH^Ha KpacHaa TOHKa. IIpH yBejinneHnH coBpeMeHHoro 
nepncKona b BOceMb pa3, a apTHJuiepniicKOH Syccojin b ^ecaTb pa3 fla>Ke b ^HeBHoe BpeMa othctjihbo 
BHflHO, hto Hamynan Jiyn jia3epa b tcmhom OKHe, pacniejinHe hjih aM6pa3ype. Bojiee Toro, jia3epHbin 
Jiyn, nonaBHinn Bpa>KecKOMy CHannepy b rjia3a, Ha^ojiro "BbiSbeT H3 KOJien" 3Toro CTpejiKa. BeccjieflHO 
fljia rjia3 jia3epHaa 3acBeTKa He npoxo^HT. HeM MomHee Sy^eT jia3epHaa yKa3Ka, TeM Jiyniue. 3tot 
cnocoS, OTKpbiTbin coBceM HeflaBHO, bo BpeMa MOKHannoHajibHbix kohc})jihktob, OKa3anca HeoSbinaH- 
ho 3(})4)eKTHBHbiM. JIa3epHyio yica3Ky Ha nepncKone Hy>KHO MacKnpoBaTb "jioxMaTbiM" KaMy<|)jia>KeM, 
n6o 3to ycTponcTBO HacKOJibKO 3(})4)eKTHBHO, HacTOJibKO h 3aMeTHO. AccHCTeHT CHannepa, paSoTaio- 
h(hh c nepncKonoM, Haxo^HTca 3a yKpbiTneM b 6e3onacHOCTn. HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha CHannepcKon 
BHHTOBKe jia3epHbin u,ejieyKa3aTejib 3aKpenjiaTb onacHO. B flbiMy, nbuin n TyMaHe jia3epHbin Jiyn Bce- 
rjia o6Hapy>KHT He TOJibKO npoTHBHHKa, ho n yKa>KeT MecTO CBoero B03HHKHOBeHna. IIocTaHOBKa 
mohihoh jia3epHoii yKa3KH HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha CHaiinepcKyio BHHTOBKy c npHu,ejiOM Sojibnioro yBe- 
jinneHHa fljia noncKa CHaiinepoB-TeppopHCTOB onpaB^biBaeT ce6a TOJibKO npn oxpaHe Ba>KHbix npaBH- 
TejibCTBeHHbix ^eaTejieii npn MHoroKpaTHOM npeBoexoflCTBe chji. 

CHaiinepbi npoTHBHHKa ^Jia CBoen 6e3onacHOCTH n crpbithocth nacTO CTpejiaiOT H3 rjiySnHbi 
noMenieHHH Ha pa3Hbix ypoBHax, c pa3Hbix 3Ta>Keii. CTpejurrb CTapaiOTca H3 KOMHaT, Haxoflaninxca c 
TeHeBOH CTopoHbi. B TeMHOTe noMemeHHa CTpejiKa noHTH He bh^ho h3 rjiySnHbi, ho ero Bcer^a Bbi^a- 
eT BcnbiniKa BbiCTpejia, HecMOTpa Ha nnaMeracHiejiH. IIosTOMy HeKOTopwe CHaiinepbi CTpejiaiOT ^aace 
H3 niKa(})OB b pa36HTbix KBapTHpax. He flO>KHflaacb, noKa no 3TOMy OKHy 6ypyj CTpejiaTb H3 rpaHaTO- 
MeTOB n TaHKOBbix nymeK, cpa3y >Ke nocjie BbiCTpejia CHannepw 3Ty KOMHaTy noKHflann. 

TaKaa CTpejibSa npaKTHKOBanacb ^ojirne ro^bi, noKa KOMy-TO H3 Mna^ninx oc})HLi,epoB He npn- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 217 

mjia b ronoBy Mbicjib iuapaxHyrb oraeM cpa3y Tpex rpaHaTOMeTOB no BcnbiniKe b OKHe h no OKHy 
cnpaBa n cneBa. C Tex nop Taic n CTann ^ejiaTb - BbicKOHHBHiHii b ^pyryio KOMHaTy CHaiinep Bee paBHO 
nona^aji nofl rpaHaTy. 

PaSoTy CHannepa c BepxHen tohkh bhh3 mo>kho ono3HaTb no xapaierepy HanpaBJieHHOCTn paHe- 
hhh Ha nocTpa^aBmnx, a TaK>Ke no paccica3aM oneBHflHeB. IIo3HHHa CHannepa Ha BbicoTe oneHb xopo- 
iuaa, BbiroflHaa n pe3ynbTaTHBHaa, n ee oSbihho 3aHHMaiOT xoponnie CTpejiKn. Ho xopomnn, noflro- 

TOBJieHHblH CTpeJIOK-CnOpTCMeH He JIIoShT MeHJITb n03HHHH, ocoSeHHO eCJIH ohh y^oSHbi h HaxoflaTca 

Ha Sanmax, BbiniKax h BepxHHx 3Ta>Kax. B TaKHx cjrynaax nx yHHHio>KaiOT oraeM apTHJuiepniicKHx 
ctbojiob. CHaiinepoB, CTpejiaiomnx c BepxHHx 3Ta>Keii, yHHHio>KaiOT H3 3aMacKHpoBaHHbix BCTpenHbix 
no3Hu,HH, Haxoflamnxca Ha TaKHx >Ke BbicoTHbix 3#aHHax HanpoTHB, Ha TaKOM >Ke ypoBHe. Ilpn 3tom 
nacTO flua Toro, Hro6bi He j\&ti> CHaiinepy BbiCTpenHTb, Bee 3aTeMHeHHbie OKHa, o^ho 3a ^pyraM, npo- 
CBenHBaiOT cojiHenHbiM 3anHHKOM, 3anycKaeMbiM KycKOM 3epKana Ha nanKe H3-3a yKpbiraa nofl koh- 
TponeM nepncKona, hjih jia3epHon yKa3Kon, hjih #a>Ke HecKOJibKHMn jia3epHbiMH yKa3KaMH. Ilpn y#an- 
hom MOMenre Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa mo>kho "BbiCBeiHTb" n noflJiOBHTb Ha BbiCTpen. 

r^e KOHKpeTHO ncKaTb Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa b ropo#e? HeflaneKO ot Toro MecTa, rae fljia Hero 
Sy^eT u,ejib, h eme KOHKpeTHee - b tom MecTe B03Jie 3toh uejin, OTKy^a 3Ta uejib 6y#eT CHannepy bh#- 
Ha, OTKy^a eMy 6y#eT y^oSHee CTpejiaTb, h TaM, rae CHaiinepy Jierae 3aMacKnpoBaTbca h OTKy/ja eMy 
ecTb nyTH OTxo#a. CHannepa Bceraa npHBJieKyr aHTeHHbi - sto yseji cb»3h hjih Hna6. CHaiinep npn/ieT 
Ha 3anax KyxHH - He noTOMy, hto oh ranofleH, a noTOMy, hto b stom MecTe 6y#eT CKonneHHe Tex, kto 
xoneT ecTb. CHaiinep o6a3aTejibHO nocTapaeTca bmhth b tmji h OKa3aTbca b6jih3h apTHJiJiepniicKOH h 
MHHOMeTHoii SaTapen - ero TaM Ha^o o6a3aTejibHO noncicaTb naTpyjibHO-noncKOBbiMH MeTO^aMH, npn- 
neM Jiyniue #ByMa npnKpbiBaiomHMH flpyr flpyra rpynnaMH. CHaiinep o6a3aTejibHO npnnoji3eT Ha jiio- 
6we myMbi - ot 3BaKaHba coji^aTCKHx kotcjikob ro poKOTa paSoTaiomnx flBnraTejieii. T^e ecTb myMbi, 

TaM eCTb H JIIOflH. 

Ilepefl jiHHHeii (|)poHTa Ha CBoeii CTopoHe CHaiinep o6a3aTejibHO ycTpoHT no3HHHio HanpoTHB 
npoxoflOB h nponoMOB, nepe3 KOTopbie bo3mo>kho BbiflBH>KeHHe BaniHx Sohhob b aTaicy. 

IIpH BceM BbiHieonncaHHOM CHaiinep yrpoM o6a3aTejibHO nocTapaeTca CTpejiaTb c boctohhoh 
ctopohm - He CTOJibKO noTOMy, hto cojnme Sy^eT y Hero 3a cnHHoii, a noTOMy, hto b yrpeHHeii aTMO- 
c(J)epHoii flbiMKe, Haxo^acb b 3aTeHeHHOM MecTe, oh 6y#eT npaKTHnecKH hcbhahm h #ojiroe BpeMa 
6e3HaKa3aH. 

IIo3TOMy Sy^eT nojie3HbiM, ecjin Banin naTpynn xoTa 6w BpeMa ot BpeMeHH 6y#yT nponecbiBaTb 
MecTHOCTb B03Jie Bbinieo3HaHeHHbix oSbeKTOB Ha cbok) CTopoHy ot jihhhh (})poHTa Ha y/iajieHHH pe- 
anbHoro CHaiinepcKoro BbiCTpena - 600-700 MeTpoB. H He npocTO nponecbiBaTb, a BbiaBJiaTb MecTa, 
npHroflHbie fljia oSopyflOBamia CHaiinepcKHx no3HHHii, h npo(|)HJiaKTHpoBaTb hx. H ecjin c KaKoii-TO H3 
hhx rpoxHeT BbiCTpen, bm y>Ke flOJi>KHbi 3HaTb, c KaKoro MecTa CTpejiajiH, neM mo>kho 3to mccto 
"HaicpbiTb", Ky^a h KaK c 3Toro MecTa MO>KeT yxo^HTb CHaiinep h rae ero mo>kho "nepexBaTHTb". 
Ytpom cojnme nepeMemaeTca aobojibho Sbicipo, h CHaiinep nepeMemaeTca BCJiefl 3a hhm Ha ior. 
OcTaBaTbca Ha BOCTOKe oh He MO>KeT, noTOMy hto nepeMecTHBiueeca h noflHaBiueeca cojnme hbmchht 
KapTHHy 3aTeHeHHOCTH h BbiCBeTHT ero cSoicy. CojiHu,e C03flaeT nrpy TeHeii Ha npoTa>KeHHH j\na, h no- 
3TOMy CHaiinep b cboSoahoh oxoTe Bcer^a nocTapaeTca nepeMecTHTbca TaK, htoSm SbiTb co ctopohw 

COJIHU,a. Bbl flOJDKHbl 3HaTb 06 3TOM H COOTBeTCTBeHHO OpHeHTHpOBaTbCa B oScTaHOBKe. 

AKTHBHbiii CHaiinepcKHii npoMbicen b ycnoBHax ynHHHbix 6oeB cpe^n pa3BaiiHH He Tepnnr oj\- 
HOo6pa3Ha h aBJiaeTca pe3ynbTaTHBHbiM TOJibKO Tor^a, Kor^a CHaiinep npoaBJiaeT flbaBOJibCKyio H3o6- 
peTaTenbHOCTb, HHane oh HHKoro He ySbeT. KoHTpcHaiinepcKHii npoMbicen b ropo^e flaeT 3(})4)eKT 
TOJibKO b pe3yjibTaTe aKTHBHoro h onepe>Kaiomero KOJuieKTHBHoro noncKa Bpa>KecKHx CHaiinepoB. H, 
KaK noKa3ana npaKTHKa, jiynniHM cpe^CTBOM npoTHB CHaiinepcKoro Teppopa aBJiaeTca BCTpenHbiii ^h- 
BepcHOHHO-CHaiinepcKHii Teppop. riojiynaiOTca Taraie Benin tojibko b pe3yjibTaTe arpeccnBHO- 
HacTynaTejibHbix ^eiicTBHii KOHTpcHaiinepcKoro noflpa3flejieHHa b cocTaBe CHaiinepoB c npHflaHHbiMH 
k hhm flHBepcaHT-pa3BeflHHKaMH (hjih, HaoSopoT, pa3BeflflHBepcHOHHoii rpynnoii c npnflaHHbiMH k Heii 
CHaiinepaMH, CMOTpa no oScTaHOBKe). 

Ilpn KonrpcHaiinepcKHx MeponpnaTnax He MO>KeT SbiTb noBTopaiOHinxca iuaSjiOHHbix ^eiicTBHii. 
TaKne MeponpnaTHa He npeflycMOTpeHbi b ycTaBax. IIo hhm He nHHiyrca HHCTpyKu,HH. IIosTOMy 6ec- 
KOHenHO nieBejiHTb M03raMH npHxoflHTca h KOMaHflnpy TaKoii rpynnbi, h Ka>KflOMy H3 ee 6ohu,ob, h 
BceM BMecTe. IIoAxoflHTb k peiueHHio npoSjieM yHHHTO>KeHHa Bpa>KecKHx CHaiinepoB Hy>KHO c ne3yHT- 
ckoh H3onipeHHOCTbio, npoaBJiaa MaKCHMyM TepneHHa h octopo>khocth, htoSm He nonacTb nofl 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 218 

BCTpenHyio nyjiio. 

IIpoKfle Bcero, r^e 6w hh OKa3ajiocb Banie noflpa3flejieHHe, b KaKOM 6w MecTe oho hh 3aH»jio 
py6e>K, npoBOflHTe KompcHaftnepcKyio npo(|)HJiaKTHKy h He >K#HTe, noKa CHaftnep npoTHBHHKa HanHeT 
BaM floca>KflaTb. Okohhwh npoeM, 3aBeiueHHbift #a>Ke pBaHbiM ofleajiOM, ^ejiaeT CTpejibSy CHaftnepa no 
3TOMy OKHy aScojiiOTHO 6ecnojie3HOH - oh He bh^ht nejin, KOTopaa 3a sthm ofleajiOM HaxomiTca. BaM 
>Ke nepe3 flbipKH b ofle»Jie 6y#eT npeKpacHO bh^ho, hto flenaeTca CHapy>KH. Ho He noflxomrre k sthm 
"cMOTpoBbiM menaM" oneHb 6jih3ko - Bac MO>KeT Bbi^aTb He CTOJibKO 6.necK rjia3a, CKOJibKO KOJiwxaHHe 
TicaHH. Abtop 3Han oiynaft, Kor^a Taicoe pBaHoe Ofleajio "HeHapoKOM" KOJibixann CTapoft niBaSpoft, 
HaH^eHHOH b SponieHHOH KBapTHpe, h Ha 3to KOJibixaHHe nonanca Bpa>KecKHft CTpenoK - oh BbiCTpe- 
jihji ^Ba pa3a, a Ha TpeTHH no HeMy CTpejibHynn onepeflbio H3 SaiueHHoft nyniKH BMII. OTKpbiTbie 
npoxoflbi, nponoMbi, xo^bi cooSmeHna, no KOTopbiM npHxoflHTca nacTO nepeMemaTbca, 3aBeniHBanTe 
rycTon MacKHpoBOHHOH ceTbio TaK, HToSbi c Bameft ctopohm 3Ta ceTb He npocBemiBajiacb h npoTHB- 

HHKy He SblJIO BHflHO, KTO 3a Heft HaXOflHTCa. C Bameft CTOpOHbl 3a 3THMH CeTflMH flOJDKHbl SblTb TeM- 

Hbie MecTa. Bee OTKpbiTbie MecTa "npocKaKHBaiOTca" Ha npeflejibHbix CKopocrax. He BbiCTaBJiairrecb b 
nponoMax n npoeivtax n He CTecHairrecb nponoji3TH jinniHero - ocTaHeTecb nejibi. Bcer^a CMOTpnTe, 
KaKoft (})oh MecTHOCTH HaxoflHTCJi 3a BaMH, h He noKa3biBaftTecb b pa3BajiHHax b TeMHoft OflOK^e Ha 
(})OHe noSejieHHbix cTeH. 

Ecjih BaM Hy>KHO no OTKpbiTOMy npocTpenHBaeMOMy npocTpaHCTBy nepeTamHTb rpy3 (flerajiH 
MHHOMeTa, Soenpnnacbi b aiimKe h t. #.), Jiyniue c^ejiaTb sto, npocKOHHB HanerKe pmbkom nepe3 
onacHoe MecTO (hjih nepenoji3TH), a 3aTeM noflTjmyTb Ta>Kejibift npe^MeT Ha BepeBKe. 

naTpyjibHbie rpynnw Bamnx, paSoTaiomne b Tbiny, aojckhw BbiaBJiaib noTeHUHajibHO bo3mo>k- 
Hbie fljia CHaftnepcKoft CTpeubSbi oraeBbie tohkh b pa3BanHHax, yHHHio>KaTb hx (pa3pymaTb) hjih mh- 
HnpoBaTb. B npaKTHKe He eflHHHHHbi cjiynan Bbixo^a BpaacecKnx CHaftnepoB b TbiJi k hjokhm h nocra- 
HOBKa CHaftnepcKnx 3aca/i Ha TpaHcnopTHbix pa3Ba3Kax, >Kejie3HOflopo>KHbix h aBTOMoSiuibHbix 
KOMMyHHKannax h B03Jie MecT B03MO>KHoro CKonjieHHa Bameft >KHBoft chjim nepefl HacTynaTejibHbiMH 

fleftCTBH»MH. 

KaK y>Ke 6bi.no CKa3aHO paHee, Bee MejiKne TpanonKH, Shhtm, nmypKH, BepeBOHKH h nponne 
"4)aHTHKn", KOJibimyniHeca Ha BeTpy, aBJiaiOTca (|)JiiorepoM fljia Bpa>KecKoro CHaftnepa. TaKne pa3Be- 
BaiomHeca "4)aHTHKH" no3BOJiaiOT eMy onpeflejimb CHuy h HanpaBJieHne BeTpa Ha BameM ynacTKe n 
BHOCHTb cooTBeTCTByioniHe KoppeKTnpoBOHHbie nonpaBKn b cipejibSy. nosTOMy cpbiBaftTe h yHHHio- 
>KaftTe Bee, hto noflBeiueHO h KOJibiiueTca. B ropoAe T. B03Jie no3Hinift HecKOJibKO flHeft KOJibixanca 
>KeHCKHft nyjioK, h My>KHKH flOJiro BonponiajiH: "KaKoro oh TaM SojrraeTca?" 3a sto BpeM», noKa nynoK 
Sojrrajica, TaM ySnjin mecTepbix. Ce^bMoro ySnnH, Kor^a oh none3 stot nynoK CHHMaTb. no3TOMy, 
Kor^a CHHMaeTe (jwnorep, He noflCTaBJiairrecb no# BbiCTpeji. H 3anoMHnre - ecjin Ha Bameft CTopoHe 
TaKoro (})Jiiorepa He SbiJio h oh B^pyr nojiBHJica, 3HanHT, ero noBecnjia pa3Beflrpynna npoTHBHHKa. no 
bo3mo>khocth nycTb BaniH pa3BeflHHKH noflBeniHBaiOT TaKne (})jnorepa Ha conpeflejibHoft CTopoHe. 

Ecjih co ctopohw npoTHBHHKa rpoxHyn SecnpHHHHHbift BbiCTpeji h nyjia nonana npocTO b CTeHy, 
nojnoSonbiTCTByftTe, HeT jih b6jih3h 3Toro nona^aHHa KaKoro-HnSyflb 3aMeTHoro naTHa, ^e(J)eKTa 
KJia^KH h Bcero, k neMy mo>kho "npnnenHTbca" npn CTpejibSe. CHaftnepw oneHb nacTO TaKHM o6pa30M 
npncTpejiHBaiOTca no opHemnpaM ^Jia BbmepeHHa flHCTaHu,HH CTpejibSw. ^.ejiaiOT ohh 3to noTOMy, 
hto b ropoAe BOoSme h npn CTpejibSe CBepxy bhh3 b nacTHOCTH paccToamie Bcer^a Ka>KeTca MeHtine 
^eftcTBHTejibHoro npHMepHO Ha 1/8. JleTOM HarpeTbift B03flyx ^eftcTByeT, KaK jinH3a, ^OBOJibHO nacTO 
npn6jiH>Kaa u,ejib Ha 3Ty >Ke BejiHHHHy. 

CHaftnep npoTHBHHKa - >KHBoft nejiOBeK, n xopomyio, BbiroflHyio no3HUHio fljia CTpejibSbi eMy 
BbiSpaTb oneHb HenpocTO. 3anoMHHTe sto h nocTapaftTecb no^yMaTb 3a Bpa>KecKoro CHaftnepa, OTKy^a 
h Ky^a eMy BbiroflHee CTpejiaTb, r^e oh CMO>KeT yKpbiTbca h r/ie oh CMO>KeT HaftTH nejib hjih CKonjie- 
Hne nejieft. Bbi aojckhw 3HaTb n npeflCTaBJiaTb, KaK ^yMaeT Bam KOJuiera-KOHKypeHT Ha conpeflejibHoft 
CTopoHe h KaK oh BHflHT oScTaHOBKy h Bac caMoro b cbohx paKypcax. OneHHBaftTe KOHKpeTHyio 06- 
CTaHOBKy 3a Hero h flyMairre 3a Hero. B mTaSax 3a Bac hhkto ^yMaTb He Sy^eT. 

JlioSoft HopManbHbift KOMaH^np, Kor^a ero noflpa3flejieHne 3aHHMaeT py6e>K r^e 6bi to hh Smjio, 
cpa3y >Ke BbiCTaBJiaeT HaSjnoflaTejieft fljia ycTaHOBJieHna Bpa>KecKHx omeBbix ToneK h yronHeHHa ^h- 
CTaHu,nft ^0 hhx. K 3TOMy HaSjnofleHHio Tyr >Ke noflKmonaiOTca CHaftnepw. HaSjnofleHHe npoH3BOflHT- 
ca He b Shhokjih h onTHnecKne npnii,ejibi, a b nepncKonbi jnoSbix KOHCTpyKu,Hft, h6o HaSjHOflaioniHe b 
SHHOKJib name flpyrnx CTaHOBaTca CHaftnepcKoft floSbineft. 

npn HaSjnofleHHH nepeflHHft Kpaft npoTHBHHKa H3ynaeTca flo Ka>Kfloro KBa^paTHoro fleu,HMeTpa. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 219 

IIpH 3tom Bcer^a o6pa3yiOTca mejin, aivi6pa3ypbi h aM6pa3ypKH, 3aTeHemibie MecTa, yraySjieHHa b 
(J)yHflaMeHTax h CTeHax, H3 KOTopwx b npHHu,Hne mo>kho bccth oroHb. IIpH3HaKOM He tojibko CHaM- 

nepCKOH, HO H OrHeBOH n03HHHH B006me MO>KeT CJiy>KHTb paCHHmeHHBIH flJia CTpeJIbSbl B03Jie Sohhh- 

u,bi ceKTop oScTpena ((J)oto 192). YcTaHOBKB jiioSyio nofl03pHTejibHyio h b npHHu,Hne npiiroflHyio aM- 
6pa3ypy-mejib, He MeiuaeT fljia npoc})HJiaKTHKH oSBajiHTb ee H3 npoTHBOTaHKOBoro rpaHaTOMeTa, 
CTpeubSoH H3 nyiueK EMII h ^pynix apTHJuiepHHCKHx CHCTeM, fla>Ke ecun CHaiinepa TaM h HeT. Hjih 
>Ke npn flHBepcHOHHOH Bbuia3Ke OTKy^a-TO cSoKy 3acyHyrb Ty^a Kycoic TOJia c 6HK(|)opflOBbiM niHypoM 
(Ha fljiHHHOH nanKe, htoSw ero He BbiKHHynH OTiy^a na.3a.j1) hjih rpaHaTy c pacTJDKKoii. Hjih >Ke npo- 
cto nocTpejiHBaTb noname no TaKHM meji»M, aivi6pa3ypaM h TeMHbiM nofl03pHiejibHbiM MecTaM. TaKaa 

npO(})HJiaKTHKa H36aBHT npOTHBHHKa OT C06jia3H0B nOCTpeJISTb HMeHHO H3 3THX TOHeK. Hy>KHO, HT06bI 

CHaiinep npOTHBHHKa Soajica k hhm noflxoflHib, ocoSeHHO nepefl BamHM HacTynjieHHeM h bo BpeMa 
Hero. 




1 

cDoto 192. CipejiKH noKa3biBaiOT pacHHmemibiii ot npoinjioroflHefi TpaBbi ceKTop oScTpejia 
JIioSoh HaSjiiOflaTejib flOJi>KeH SbiTb HaSjiiOflaTejibHbiM. TpemipoBaHHoii HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTbio 
Hy>KHO "3aceKaTb", KaKHe uejiH h aM6pa3ypbi, KpynHbie h MejiKHe CTpoHTejibHbie oSjiomkh Ha CTopoHe 
npOTHBHHKa SbuiH Bnepa h KaKne noaBHJiHCb ceroflHa, nocjie hohh (a HHor^a h /nieM, nepe3 nac, oco- 
SeHHO nocjie ^biMOBbix 3aBec), h hto hmchho nocjie hohh (^biMOBoii 3aBecw, apT06cTpe.na, #o>Kfl» h t. 
#.) H3MeHHJiocb b pacnojio>KeHHH npeflMeTOB Ha toh CTopoHe. AM6pa3ypbi h mejiH Moryr SbiTb 3aKpw- 
tm CHapy>KH jiioSoh noflpyHHOH "3aanoHKoii" ot npoHHKHOBeHHa nyjib n ockojikob, name Bcero Ka- 
khm-jih6o MeTajuiHHecKHM npe^MeTOM (TpaKOM TaHKOBoii ryceHHHbi hjih (})parMeHTOM 3toh ryceHH- 

Hbl), HJIH 3aTKHyTbI CTpOHTeJIbHblMH oSjIOMKaMH, HO TaK, HToSbl npH HeoSxOflHMOCTH 3TH "KpblHIKH" H 

"3aTbiHKH M mo>kho Sbijio jierKO OTBanHTb Hapy>Ky, a noTOM 3a npoBOJiOKy npHiaHyrb na3aj\. IIo3TOMy 
no 3pHiejibHOH naMaTH najxo onpe^ejiaTb, KaKne mejin Swjih He3aKpbiTbiMH n KaKne B^pyr "3aKpbi- 
jiHCb", n flejiaTb cooTBeTCTByioinne bubo^u. 

TpeHnpoBaHHaa HaSjiiOflaTejibHOCTb no3BOJiHT onpeflejinib HBMeHeHHa Ha mccthocth, xapaKiep- 
Hbie fljia oSopyflOBaHHa CHaiinepcKHx no3Hu,HH. KoHipcHaiinep cpa3y oueHHi jiaHflHia(|)T c MecTa co- 
SbiTHa, apxHTeKTypy pa3BanHH, ocoSchhocth pacnojio>KeHHa KpynHbix h mcjikhx CTpoHiejibHbix 06- 
jiomkob, npoxoflOB h npoeMOB. B 3aBHCHMOCTH ot 3Toro BbiHHCJiaeTca MecTOHaxo>KAeHHe CHaiinepoB. 
HanpHMep, b TeMHOM okohhom npoeMe CHaiinepa cjie^yeT HCKaTb b npaBOM (ot Bac) HH>KHeM yrjiy - 
noTOMy, hto ecTecTBeHHoe fljia CHaiinepa yKpbiTHe (yroji OKHa, noflOKomniK h CTeHa) Sy^yr cjieBa ot 
Hero, ecjiH oh, pa3yMeeTca, CTpejiaeT c npaBoro miena. AHanorHHHO 3TOMy npnHUHny ninnTe CHaiine- 
pa h 3a CTpoHiejibHbiMH oSjIOMKaMH: oh 6y#eT HaxoflHTbca npeHMyniecTBeHHO cjieBa ot hhx, BbiCTa- 
bhb fljia CTpejibSbi jiHHib nacTb rojiOBbi h miena. H no3TOMy oSmee HanpaBJieHHe npn bo3mo>khoh aTa- 
Ke Manoii rpynnoM Ha 3tot oSbeKi aojdkho SbiTb cjieBa HanpaBO, HaHCKOcoK, htoSw BaniH Soiinbi 
BbixoflmiH H3-nofl ceKTopa oScTpejia 3Toro CHaiinepa. CaM oh BbiHy>KfleH Sy^eT b nonbiTKax "3au,e- 
nHTbca" 3a u,ejib "BbiBopaHHBaTbca" H3-3a yKpwTHa h no^CTaBJiaTbca nofl KOHTpcHaMnepcKyio nyjiio. 

CHaMnepbi npOTHBHHKa He Bcer^a ch^st nofl SeTOHHbiMH njiHTaMH hjih CTpejiaiOT H3 niejieii - 
ceKTopa oScTpejia npn 3tom Manw h nopa>KaiOTca u,ejiH, cjiynaiiHO nonaBnme b 3th y3KHe ceKTopa. 
TaKHe no3Hu,iiii 6e3onacHbi ^Jia CHaiinepa, ho Manope3yjibTaTHBHbi ^Jia BefleHHa orHa. Jlynniiie pe- 
3yjibTaTbi flocTHraiOTca CHaMnepaMH bo Bee BpeMeiia tojibko npn 3aMacKHpoBaHHoii CTpejibSe c ot- 

KpblTblX n03HU,HH. Il03HLI,HH 3TH 3aHHMaiOT CKpblTHO H CKpblTHO >Ke Ha HHX HaXOflSTCa flO yfloSHOrO 

MOMeHTa. OneHb nacTO BbiaBHTb TaKyio no3Hu,Hio no3BOJiaeT ^HeBHoe H3MeHeHHe ocBemeHHa. B Tene- 
Hne flHa cojiHue ocBemaeT no3Hu,HH c pa3Hbix ctopoh. IIo3HLi,Ha, 3aH»Taa CHaiinepoM yrpoM b tchh, c 
BbiroflHbiM ocBemeHHeM uejiH nepefl coSoii, npn nepeMemeHHH cojiHu,a MO>KeT CTaTb oneHb HeBbirofl- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 220 

hoh fljia CHaftnepa h BtiroflHOH fljia "oxoTHHKa" 3a sthm CHaMnepoM, c hohh M 3aKOHcepBHpoBineroca" 

Ha pOBHOM H OTKpblTOM MeCTe, KOTOpOe BO BTOpOH nOJIOBHHe flH3 OKa>KeTC» B TJiySoKOH TeHH. OneHb 

nacTO nojiynaeTca Taic, hto npoTHBHHK, c yTpa "3aKOHcepBHpoBaBHiHHca" b tchh #a>Ke b CKna^Kax 
MecTHOCTH, c nepeMemeHHeM cojnina Heo>KHflaHHO BbiCBennBaeTca h OTKpbiBaeTca cSoKy, OKa3aBiiiHCb 
npaKTHnecKH 6e33amHTHbiM. HepeflKO ero npn stom Bbi^aiOT Sjihkh oniHHecKHx npnSopoB, KOTopwe 
TO>Ke B03HHKaiOT h nepeMemaiOTca npn H3MeHeHHH HanpaBJieHHa ocBemeHHa. OneHb nacTO npn H3Me- 
HeHHH ocBemeHHa BbiaBJiaKxrca H3MeHeHHa b pacnojio>KeHHH CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob h nponnx 
npeflMeTOB, CBn^eTejibCTByiomHe noflroTOBJieHHoii no3HUHH CHaMnepa. IIpH H3MeHeHHH ocBemeHHa 
^a>Ke MacKHpoBKa mtokct H3MeHHTbca - npoaBJiaiOTca aBHbie KOHTypbi 3aMacKHpoBaHHOH no3HHHH hjih 
3aMacKHpoBaHHoro cnnysTa. Cbct cojnma (h He tojibko cojnina) OTpa^aeTca ot CBeTJibix ctch, h b 
CBoeM nepeiviemeHHH 3tot OTpa>KeHHbiH cbct 3anpocTO mtokct "3acBeTHTb" oSopyflOBamiyio no3HHnio 
hjih 3aMacKHpoBaHHbiH cnnysT CHaiinepa caMbiM Heo>KHflaHHbiM o6pa30M. H3yHHie Bee 3th bo3mo>k- 
Hbie CBeTOBbie H3MeHeHHa fljia KOHKpeTHOH mccthocth, h BaM OTKpoiOTca oneHb HeTOKH^aHHbie h no- 
jie3Hbie Benin. 

BoeBaa oScTaHOBKa jnoSoro CHannepa #a>Ke b ropofle 3acTaBJiaeT SbiTb kohcbhhkom - HHane ero 
SbiCTpo ySbiOT. 

OTKpbiTbie h 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie no3Hu,HH, ocoSeHHO pacnojio>KeHHbie Ha BbicoTe, oSecnennBaiOT 
CHaMnepy HecpaBHeHHO Sojibinyio floSbiny, neM CH^eHHe nofl miHTaMH. Ho nocToamioe Haxo>K/ieHHe 
Ha TaKoii no3Hu,HH onacHO H3-3a npHJieTaiomnx c pa3Hbix ctopoh nianbHbix nynb h ockojikob. Mo>KeT 
noflBecTH MacKHpoBKa. 3hmoh OTKpbiTyio no3Hu,Hio Bbi^aeT nap H30 pTa. IIpothbhhk MO>KeT bmhhc- 
jiHTb TaKyio no3Hu,Hio c conpeflejibHOH ctopohm h uejieHanpaBJieHHbiM orHeM Bcex ^ocTynHbix eMy 
cpeflCTB "HaKpbiTb" ee BMecre c xo3jihhom. JleTOM Ha Hen >KapKO, a 3hmoh xojioaho h MOKpo. IIonieBe- 
jiHTbca Hejib3a. IIo3TOMy CHaMnepbi, oSjiaflaiomne TpeHnpoBamiOH HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTbio h 3pHiejib- 
hoh naMaTbio, cnocoSHbie hctko h apKO BH^eTb no naMjrrn o6beMHyio n nepcneKTHBHyio "KapTHHKy" 
ynacTKa SoeBbix flencTBnn, npeflnoHHiaiOT H3-nofl njinT b 6e3onacHOM MecTe HaSjiiOflaTb b nepncKon, 
a npn noaBJieHnn nejien hjih npn oSemaiomeM ^oSbiny nepeMemeHHH >khboh chjim npoTHBHHKa Bbme- 
3aiOT H3-nofl njinT n noji3KOM (a HHor^a n BHarjiyio, nepe6e>KKaMH) Sbicipo BbiflBnraiOTca Ha no3H- 
u,hio. Ilocjie BbiCTpejia TaKoii "noflKOJiOflHbrii 3Meii" cpa3y >Ke npaneTca Ha3a#. 

TaKne "no3Hnnn no#CKOKa" CHannep npoTHBHHKa onpe^ejiaeT 3apaHee, n no3TOMy BaM TO>Ke 
6y#eT nojie3HO onpeflejinTb nx oflHOBpeMemio c sthm CHannepoM. nocTapairiecb npeflCTaBHib ce6e, 
KaK apxHTeKTypa pa3BanHH Ha py6e>Ke npoTHBHHKa 6y#eT Bbirjia^eTb c ero TbiJibHOH ctopohm, h sto 
noMO>KeT BaM b onpeflejieHHH TaKnx no3HUHH. 

3Haa MecTa 3thx no3HUHH, #BH>KeHHeM h noaBJieHneM KyKOJi-npHMaHOK Ha Baineii CTopoHe 
cnpoBonnpyHTe BbiflBH>KeHHe Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa ^Jia CTpejibSbi. 3apaHee flep>KHTe TaKyio no3Hu,Hio 
Ha npHu,ejie (pa3yMeeTca, flejiairre sto ckpmtho h 3aMacKHpoBaHHo) h, KaK TOJibKO TaM hto -to noaBH- 
Jiocb, cpa3y »ce flo>KHMaHTe cnycK h cpa3y >Ke nocjie 3Toro npanbTecb h He BbicoBbiBaiiTecb. Ecjih npo- 
THBHHK y6nT, 3HanHT, ySnT, bw h TaK 06 3tom y3HaeTe. B KOHTpcHaiinepcKOM npoMbicjie Ha^o Tepne- 
jihbo paSoTaTb n noMeHbiue jiioSonbiTCTBOBaTb pe3yjibTaTax CBoeii paSoTbi. Ecjih ohh Sy^yT, BaM 
paccKa>KyT hhx. 

"IIo3hli,hh noflCKOKa" npoTHBHHKa nojie3HO 3aMHHHpoBaTb. Ho Kor^a Sy^eTe jia3HTb no conpe- 
flejibHoii CTopoHe, He 3a6biBaiiTe MHHax npoTHBHHKa. He o^hh bbi TaKoii xnrpbiH. 

Boh b ropofle HMeeT #HHaMHHHbiH xapaKTep, h py6e>KH He ctoat Ha MecTe. JlioSoe HopManbHoe 
noflpa3flejieHne He ynycTHT iuaHC no bo3mo>khocth aKTHBHO BKJiHHHTbca b oSopoHy npoTHBHHKa. HeT- 

KOH JIHHHH pa3rpaHHHeHH3 Me>Kfly CBOHMH H Hy>KHMH HeT, H HepeflKO flHCJIOKaU,HH CBOHX H HJOKHX 

HanoMHHaiOT "cjioeHbiii nnpor" - npoTHBHHK nacTO OKa3biBaeTca cSoKy. He 3a6biBairTe 06 stom npn 
HaSjiiOfleHHH. Bo3MO>KHa CTpejibSa Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa "kocwm" oraeM b CTopoHy c (})jiaHroB H3 
MecT, KOTopbie no (})poHTy He npocMaTpnBaiOTca. npn stom CHannep MO>KeT ^ocTaTb Bac b H3rn6ax 
TpamneH, xoflOB cooSmeHHH n 3a, Ka3anocb 6bi, Ha^e>KHbiMH yKpwTHaMH, CTpejiaa H3 caMbix Heo>KH- 
flaHHbix MecT. no3TOMy b cjiynae noflorpejia Koro-JinSo H3 cbohx o6a3aTejibHO neperoBopnTe c one- 
BH/maMH coSbiTHa, c TeMH, kto bo BpeMa no^orpejia 6bui pa^OM. Ohh Bcer/ja paccKa>Kyr oneHb MHoro 
HHTepecHoro n nojie3Horo. 

CHannep npoTHBHHKa nacTO paSoTaeT nop, myMOBbiM npnKpbiTHeM nyjieMeTHon onepeflH hjih 
B3pwBa - HiHHTe ero r^e-TO pa^oM c TeM MecTOM, r^e CTpejiaji nyneMeT hjih hto-to B3opBanocb b mo- 
MeHT no^CTpejia. 

npn BbiaBJieHHH jiioSoh nofl03pHTejibHOH mejin, H3 KOTopon MO>KeT b npnHii,Hne CTpejiaTb npo- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 221 

thbhhk, Haflo nonbiTaTbca npeflCTaBHTb, hto mtokct HaxoflHTbca 3a stoh mejibio (bo3mo>kho, 3to npo- 
cto xaoTHHHoe HarpoMTOK^eHHe TJDKejibix h KpynHbix CTpoHTejibHbix oSjiomkob, h3 kotopmx Tpy^HO h 

TeXHHHeCKH HeB03MO>KHO oSopyflOBaTb n03HU,HI0) ECTb JIH OT 3TOH meJIH H KyHH oSjIOMKOB, H3 koto- 

pwx OHa o6pa30BaHa, xofl k nepeceneHnio mccthocth, noflBany, KaHajiroannoHHon ceTH npoflyMairre, 

MO>KHO JIH TaKOH XOfl npOJIO>KHTb h 3a KaKoe BpeMa 

IU,ejib hjih aM6pa3ypa, Haxoflamaaca b icyne oSjiomkob hjih rpyHTa, mtokct SbiTb CB»3aHa c KaHa- 

JIH3aU,HOHHOH CeTbK) ((})OTO 193). IlpH B03MO>KHOCTH 3TO MO>KHO H HJOKHO yiOHHHTb Ha TpO(})eHHbIX 

TexHHnecKHx nnaHax. TaKHe TexHHHecKne iuiaHbi, 3axBaneHHbie pa3BeflrpynnaMn npn b33thh Ey#a- 
neniTa, Eejirpa^a h BeHbi, O Ka3anH HamHM Haciyna iomHM nacTSM HeoneHHMyio ycnyry. 




' 



^v- 






cDoto 193. IIo3HLi,Ha CHaMnepa no# mimon, HaKpbiBaiomen KaHajiroannoHHbin jiiok CipejiKn no- 
Ka3biBaiOT npoTonTaHHyio b CHery flopo>KKy 

Pa3Beflrpynnw, KOTopwe flemio h HomHO jia3»T b ropo^e no Bpa>KecKOMy nepeflHeMy Kpaio h 
HenocpeflCTBeHHO 3a hhm, OKa>KyT Sojibinyio ycnyry cbohm, ecuH BbiaBaT h yiOHHaT B03MO>KHbie no- 
3hli,hh CTpenbSbi CHaMnepoB npoTHBHHKa no Hajinnnio B03Jie hhx aneflOB n ^pyrnx npn3HaKOB noce- 
meHna - KOHcepBHbix SaHOK n cipejiaHbix rnjib3, nycTbix naTpoHHbix KopoSoK, Shhtob h t.^. Ecjih 
pa3BeflHHKn npnTamnjin 3axBaHeHHoro "a3biica" (hjih npocTO b3»t njieHHbiii), ero Tyr >Ke HeoSxoflHMO 
flonpocHTb h y3HaTb KaK mo>kho Sojibine o CHaiinepax, hx no3Hu,nax, CTHJie paSoTbi n t.^., noKa 3Toro 
njieHHoro He noBOJiOKJin ^ajibme, Ha ^onpoc k BbicoKOMy HanajibCTBy. Tor^a BaM 6y#eT no3#HO 3a#a- 
BaTb Bonpocw flencTByHTe HenocpeflCTBemio Ha MecTe coSbirnn 

CHaiinep Bcer^a 3aroTaBJiHBaeT HecKOJibKO no3Hnnn OneHb nojie3HO ycTaHOBHTb, b Kaicon no- 
CJieflOBaTejibHOCTH oh hx 3aHHMaeT OnpeflejiHB ee, mo>kho c^ejiaTb CHannepcicyio hjih flHBepcnoHHyio 
3aca^y Ha nyTH nepeMeineHna 3Toro CTpejiKa 

Ilo coBOKynHOCTH pe3yjibTaTOB HaSjnofleHnn, pa3BeflflaHHbix, ^onpocoB njieHHbix mo>kho h 
HeoSxoflHMO cnporH03HpoBaTb nepcneKTHBHbie MecTa no3Hnnn Bpa>KecKHx CHaiinepoB 3to no3BOJiaeT 
nocToaHHO bccth npoc})HJiaKTHKy npoTHB hhx - noflpbiBOM no3Hu,HH, flHBepcHOHHbiMH peiiflaMH, 3aca- 
flaMH, MHHHpoBaHHeM b OTcyTCTBHe xo3>ieB, CBeTOBbiMH rpaHaTaMH, SpoiueHHbiMH nepefl n03HHHeH B 
Hy>KHbIH MOMeHT, JIIoSbIM OCJienJI5HOIHHM CnOCoSoM, CJie30TOHHBbIM ra30M, rpaHaTOMeTaMH, KpynHO- 

KanHSepHbiMH flanbHoSoHHbiMH BHHTOBKaMH, KOHneHTpnpoBaHHbiM omeM HecKOJibKHx CHannepcKnx 

BHHTOBOK no OflHOH meJIH, HO TJiaBHblM o6pa30M, B3pbIBHaTKOH BHyipH 3flaHH3 (paflHOnOflpblBOM) 

BbiBaiOT n flpyrne BapnaHTbi. B oahoh h3 ropannx tohck CHr Soiinbi cneniia3a opHrnHanbHO 
jiHKBHflHpoBanH CTpejiKa, BOopy>KeHHoro bhhtobkoh c pa3rpa6jieHHoro CKJia^a ^.OCAAO YcTaHOBHB 
ero no3Hu,Hio no ocTaBJieHHbiM cipejiaHbiM rnjib3aM, pa3BeflHHKH b OTcyTCTBne 3Toro "cHannepa" 
ycTaHOBHJin b rjiySnHe aM6pa3ypw 3apa>KeHHbin o6pe3, CHaTbin paHee c ySmoro SaHflHia JIoByniKa- 
caMOCTpeji cpaSoTana, Kor^a npnnoji3ninH Ha no3nnnio CTpejiOK CTan 3acoBbiBaTb bkhtobohhwh ctboji 
b aM6pa3ypy h 3a^eji npn stom cnycKOBoe ycTponcTBO ((})oto 194). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 222 




it— . 

cDoto 194. CHaMnep npoTHBHHKa, nonaBinHnca Ha jiOByniKy-caMOCTpeji. CTpenKa yKa3biBaeT Ha 

CTpenaHbie rnjib3bi, no kotopwm 6bi.ua ycTaHOBJieHa ero no3Hu,Ha 

IIpH BbiCTpene H3 KaKOH-jinSo mejin bw flOJi>KHbi npeflCTaBnib ce6e B03MO>KHyio apxHTeKTypy 
3Toro CTpoeHHa h 3anycTHTb rpaHaTy H3 rpaHaTOMeTa b jiioSyio flpyryio menb - cnpaBa hjih cneBa ot 
npoaBHBiueH ce6» SonHnnbi. B Kaicyio CTopoHy CTpejunb? CTpejunb cjie^yeT c ynpe>KfleHHeM Ty#a, 
Ky/ja Sy^eT Sojibinaa CBoSo^a MaHeBpa ^Jia npoTHBHHKa. IIpH 3tom nojie3HO nocMOTpeTb Ha no3nnnio 
npoTHBHHKa nofl flpyraM yrnoM, h oneHb nacTO mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb "anaSHHy" b ero oSopoHe. IIpaK- 
THKe H3BecTeH cjiynan, Kor^a CHannep, CTpejiaa H3 noflBanbHoro OKHa, nocne BbiCTpena bmckohhji b 
noflBanbHbiH Kopnflop h nonan nofl rpaHaTy, KOTopyio fljia npo(|)HJiaKTHKH 3anycTHJiH no 3TOMy Kopn- 
flopy b TopneBoe KopH^opHoe okho. 

nocne Toro KaK npoTHBHHK H3yneH, mo>kho c#ejiaTb TaK, hto oh 6y#eT SoaTbca BbicyHyrb hoc. 
OneHb xoponiHH 3(|)4)eKT b 6opb6e c Bpa>KecKHM CHannepoM b ropofle ^ocTHraeTca kojijickthbhoh pa- 
Sotoh rpynnw CHaiinepoB. flencTBya corjiacoBamio, Tpn-neTbipe CHannepcKHe napw MoryT pacceaTb 
BHHMaHne CHannepa npoTHBHHKa (noica3aB eMy KyKOJi c pa3Hbix HanpaBJieHHH noonepeflHO, npoBOHH- 
pyiomHM oflHHOHHbiM omeM, "meKonymHM" HepBbI npoTHBHHKa) h c pa3HbIX CTOpOH KOJIJieKTHBHO 
KOHnenrpHpoBaHHbiM oraeM "3a>KaTb" Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa h BbiraaTb ero b HyscHyio CTopoHy nofl 
BbiCTpen. Hjih >Ke OTBJienb ero BHHMaHne n paccTpejnrib cSoKy, OTKy^a oh otkpwt n He o>KHflaeT bbi- 
CTpena. Hjih >Ke njiOTHbiM MaHeBpeHHbiM omeM 3araaTb 3Toro CHannepa b rjiyxoe MecTO, OTpe3aB eMy 
nyTb k OTCTynjieHHio, h nycTb oh ch#ht TaM #o hohh, Soacb BbicyHyibca. Honbio Ha nyrn OTxofla ero 
Sy^eT >K^aTb kto-to h3 Bauinx /niBepcaHTOB c hohhmm npHuejiOM Ha SeciuyMHoii bkhtobkc A SbiBaeT, 
k TaKOMy "xHTpoMy^poMy" CTpejiKy, KOTopwii Ha^eeTca OTCH^eTbca b 6e3onacHOM MecTe, ^ejiaiOT 
rpynnoBOH pwbok (cm. ^anee) h 3a6HBaiOT ero pyHHbiMH rpaHaTaMH. no xo^y coSmthh MoryT bo3- 
HHKHyib h flpyrne BapnaHTbi. Ha# hhmh Ha^o ^yviaTb h ^yMaTb, ^yviaTb BceMy KOJiJieKTHBy KOHipc- 
HaiinepcKOH rpynnw, n npnynaTbca ^ejiaTb 3to nocToamio, SwcTpo n Ha xo#y. no xo#y flejia MoryT 
B03HHKHyrb caMbie Heo>KHflaHHbie, opHrHHanbHbie h e^HHCTBeHHO npaBHJibHbie peiueHHa. 

B npaKTHKe Swji cjiynaii, Kor^a CHannepa npoTHBHHKa "BbiKypHJin" H3 noflBana oSbiKHOBemiOH 
MHJinneHCKOH nepeMyxoii. npaB^a, HaSpocanH ee Ty^a ctojibko, hto b stot noflBan Hejit3a Swjio 3aM- 
th eme flHeii ^earn.. 

Bbui cjiynaH, Kor^a pa3Be#HHK cn^eji c hohh, HaKpbiTbiii KyneH Mycopa h CTpoHiejibHbiMH 06- 
jiOMKaMH, Ha btopom 3Ta>Ke nojiypa3pyuieHHoro flOMa h "b3jiji" CHaiinepa. Hm OKa3anca ManeHbKHH, 
njnoraBbiii My>KHHOHKa, KOTopbiM Kpanca octopo>kho, SeciuyMHO h y>K KaK -to oneHb HenpHMeTHO (pa- 
Hee oh H3 BepxHHx 3Ta>Keii paccTpejiHBan h BoeHHbix, h rpa>KflaHCKoe HacejieHHe npocTO TaK, ^Jia co6- 
CTBeHHoro y^OBOJibCTBHa). B tom >Ke MecTe nepe3 napy He^ejib b3jijih BToporo TaKoro >Ke CTpejiKa - Ha 
Hero cnycTHJiH cjiy>Ke6Hyio coSaKy, KOTopaa MOJina B3»Jia ero 3a ropjio. C ajihhhoh HenoBopoTJiHBOH 
bhhtobkoh CB,H, 3tot CTpejiOK He Mor pa3BepHyibca h OKa3anca SeccnjieH nepefl coSaKoii. 

Ha Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa oxotstcs h ^HeM, h hohbio. He TaK #aBHO noaBHJiacb npaKTHKa hoh- 
hmx CHaiinepcKHx nocTOB. Ha nepeflHeM Kpae, b pa3BanHHax, ckpwtho oSycTpanBaeTca CHaiinepcKaa 
napa - o^hh h3 CHaiinepoB ^peMJieT (jihiub 6bi He xpaneji), a ^pyroii cjiyiuaeT h BpeMa ot BpeMeHH 
ckpwtho HaSjnoflaeT b npnSop HOHHoro BH^eHHa, He BKJnonaa HH(})paKpacHOH noflCBeTKH. Hepes HeKO- 
Topoe BpeMa ohh MeHaiOTca pojiaMH. OTfloxHyBiuHH CHannep c oSocTpeHHbiM cjiyxoM MO>KeT ^OBOJib- 
ho OTneTJiHBO ycjibiiuaTb h BbiaBHTb no cipoHTejibHbiM iuyMaM h flpyrHM 3ByKaM HiaHu,eByio noflro- 
TOBKy no3Hu,HH CHannepa Ha conpeflejibHOH CTopoHe. TaKoii "cjiyniaiomHii" CHaiinepcKHH nocT He 
o6a3aTejibHO ^ojckch SbiTb Ha o^hom MecTe - npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH mo>kho SeciuyMHO h ckpmtho ot 
Bpa>KecKoro HOHHoro npHu,ejia CMeHHTb no3Hu,Hio. B jiioSom cjiynae CHaiinepbi He aojckhm jia3HTb no 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 223 

pa3BajiHHaM b oflHHOHKy - TaK oneHb #a>Ke mtokho nonacib b nanw pa3Beflrpynnbi npoTHBHHKa hjih 
npocTO nponacTt 6e3 bccth. 

IlepeMemaTbca no pa3BajiHHaM Hy>KHO b^bocm h o6a3aTejibHo' HMea B03MO>KHOCTb nojiynnib or- 
HeByio noflflep>KKy ot cbohx. Cboh flOJiaoibi 3HaTb, Ky^a h 3aneM bbi nojie3JiH K TOMy ace jia3HTb no 
pa3BanHHaM b^bocm ropa3#o npaKTHHHee - o#hh noflca>KHBaeT hjih BbiraraBaeT HaBepx /ipyroro. 

HOHbK) MO>KHO HMHTHpOBaTb flBH>KeHHe Ha CBOeft CTOpOHe nepeMemeHHeM KyKOJI H JIO>KHbIM 

myMOM. CflenaTb sto HOHbio mo>kho 3(|)4)eKTHBHee, neM riiqm, h6o pa3peniaioniaa cnocoSHOCTb (neT- 
KOCTb) npnSopoB h npnnejiOB HOHHoro BH^eHHa HaMHoro HH>Ke, neM y .KHeBHbix onTHnecKHx npnSo- 
poB. IIo3TOMy npoTHBHHKy npaKTHnecKn He3aMeTHbi fle(})eKTbi H3roTOBJieHna Hyneji-npHMaHOK. ,3,bh- 
>KeHneM 3thx npniviaHOK CHannep-HOHHHK npoBonnpyeTOi Ha CTpejibSy, B03Jie ynaBiunx KyKOJi 
HMHTHpyeTca B03Ha c paHeHbiMH, HeM npoBonnpyeTca ero flanbHeHHiaa CTpejibSa. MecTO no3Hu,HH 
"HOHHHKa" TaKHM o6pa30M BblSBJiaeTCa, H OH yHHHTO>KaeTCa HJIH SecniyMHOH CTpejibSoii, hjih paSoTOH 
flHBepcanra. fljia BbiaBJieHna CHaiinepa-HOHHHKa Hcnojib3yiOTca ropamne cnrapeTbi (cm. paHee) Ha 
(J)OHe jincTHKa 6ejio-6ypoH SyMarn. 3to Hexmpoe ycTpoiiCTBO 3aKpenjiaeTca Ha npoBOJiOKe h bwco- 
BbiBaeTca H3 yKpbiTna. K cnrapeTe mo>kho npnKpenHTb pe3HHOByio ipySicy h HMHTHpOBaTb 3aTa>KKy. 

IIpH ^BH>KeHHH CHrapeTbl BBepX-BHH3-B CTOpOHy 3Ta npHMaHKa eCTeCTBeHHO BbirJISflHT CO CTOpOHbl H 

cpaSaTbiBaeT HeoSbinaiiHO 3(|)4)eKTHBHO. ByMa>KHbiH sicpaHHHK C3a;ni cnrapeTbi HMHTnpyeT jihuo Ky- 
pnjibHiHKa n cjiy>KHT fljia KOHipojia nonaflaHHn. HHor^a Hcnojib3yiOTca ManeHbKHe sjieKipniecKne 

JiaMnOHKH, HO 3TO BbirJISflHT He TaK eCTeCTBeHHO. 

HOHblO MO>KHO CnpOBOHHpOBaTb CHaiinepa-HOHHHKa KpaTKOBpeMeHHOH paSoTOH HH(})paKpaCHOH 

(J)apbi. IIpH 3tom mo>kho CHaiinepa He yHHHTO>KaTb, a BbiaBHib ero oraeBbie no3HHHH, npnroflHbie /uis 
AHeBHOH paSoTbi. 

HeoflHOKpaTHO npHMeHajica cnocoS hohhoh 3acBeTKH CHaiinepa cbctom Monnioro npo>KeKTopa, 
ho caM npo>KeKTop npn stom He BbiCTaBJiaeTca, TaK KaK ^ocTaTOHHO OflHoii nyjin ^Jia BbiBefleHna ero 
H3 CTpoa. IIpo>KeKTop 3aKanbiBaeTca 3a yKpbiTHeM, a CBepxy Ha Hero ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca jhoSwm cnoco- 
6om jihct Sejioii >KecTH nofl yrjiOM 45°. OTpa>KeHHbiH ot 3Toro jiHCTa CBeTOBoii noTOK HanpaBJiaeTca 
Ty^a, Ky^a hjokho, h 3acBenHBaeT rae3flO npoTHBHHKa. ripouecc stot KOHipojiHpyeTca nepncKonoM. 
Ilo TaKOMy >KecT3HOMy jiHCTy mo>kho CTpejiaTb ^0 SecKOHenHOCTH - >KecT3HKa HcnpaBHO OTpa>KaeT 
CBeT ^a>Ke nocjie nojiycoTHH nona^aHnii IIocjieflHHii H3BecTHbiii aBTopy cnynaii TaKoro npHMeHemra 
npo>KeKTopa Swji b npn/niecTpoBCKOM KOH(|)jiHKTe - Ha BepTHKanbHO nocTaBJieHHyio aBTOMoSmibHyio 
(})apy c >KecT3HbiM OTpa>KaTejieM KpoMe CHaiinepa nonanca h #e>KypHbiii nyneMeTHHK. CnocoS TaKoii 

HOHHOH nOflCBeTKH BeCbMa HarJIblH H 3(})4)eKTHBHbIH. TeM, KTO erO npHMeHJieT, Hy>KHO 6bITb totobbim 

MrHOBeHHO noKHHyib TaKoe CBeTOBoe ycrpoiicTBO npn OTBeTHOM mkhomcthom hjih rpaHaTOMeTHOM 
oScTpejie. 

KaK momcho yHHHToacnTb CHaiinepa HOHbio nocjie ero oSHapyaceHHJi? IIpaKTHKa noKa3biBaeT, hto 
HepeflKO 3to mo>kho cflejiaTb ^a>Ke npome, neM #HeM. Honbio mo>kho b CKna^Kax mccthocth ckpmtho 
nofloSpaTbca k pacmejiHHe, b KOTopoM Bpa>KecKnii CTpejiOK oSopyflOBan no3imiiio, h 3a6pocHTb Ha 3Ty 
no3im,Hio rpaHaTy. Honbio mo>kho 3(})(})eKTiiBHO c^ejiaTb 3aca^y cSoKy ot HOHHoro CHaiinepa h pac- 
CTpejiaTb ero H3 SecniyMHoro opy>Kiia, noKa oh 3aH»T paccTpejiOM KyKOJi-npHMaHOK. Bwji cjiynaii, ko- 
rjia rpaHaTOMeTHHK c hohhmm npimejiOM Ha npoTHBOTaHKOBOM rpaHaTOMeTe, npocH^eB CKpbimo h 
TepnejiHBO flBoe cyroK nepefl npeflnojiaraeMoM no3im,iieii CHaiinepa-HOHHHKa, Bce-TaKH noflJiOBHJi ero 
h "pa3Ma3an" rpaHaToM, Kor^a tot nocjie BbiCTpejia otckohhji ot aM6pa3ypbi, ho eme He ycneji bbicko- 
HHTb H3 noMemeHHa. 

B ropofle T. Ha CHaiinepa-SecHiyMHHKa, CTpejiaBinero no HonaM H3 bhhtobkh BCC c npimejiOM 
HCIiy (HOHHbiM) c 6jiH3Koro paccToaHHa (250 MeTpoB), cnycTHJiH cjiy>Ke6Hyio coSaKy, TpeHHpoBaH- 
Hyio Ha 3anax CBOKecropeBinero nopoxa. HHCTpyKTop-KHHOJior no^Beji ee cSoKy ot no3Hii,iiii CHaiine- 
pa, hto6w ySepenb ot nonaflamia b nojie 3peHHa HOHHoro npimejia. YMHaa h xoponio ^pecciipoBaHHaa 
coSaKa SecniyMHO noflonuia k no3im,iiii HOHHoro cipejiKa h 3arpw3Jia ero. 

IIoflroTOBKa k yHHHTO>KeHiiio CHaiinepa, CTpejiaiomero flHeM, flOJi>KHa npoH3BOflHTbca HOHbio, a 
HMeHHo: pa3BeflKa CHCTeMbi ero no3HLi,HH, MHrnipoBamie 3thx no3HLi;HH, 3axBaT hjih yHHHio>KeHHe 
CHaiinepa pa3BeflflHBepcnoHHoii rpynnoii, Kor^a oh 6y#eT 6jiH>Ke k yrpy Bbi^BHraTbca Ha 3th no3H- 
u,hh. CHannep BOioeT HecTaH^apTHO h He no ycTaBy - b stom ero npeHMymecTBO. H htoSw ero "flo- 
CTaTb", ^eiiCTBOBaTb npnxoflHTca TO>Ke HecTaH^apTHO, MeTO^aMH, KOTopwe HenMOBepHO ^aneKH ot 
ycTaBHbix HopM. KojioccajibHbiii 3(})4)eKT npHHOon THiaTejibHO 3aMacKHpoBaHHbie 3aca^bi 3a nepe^HHM 
KpaeM npoTHBHHKa. Pe3yjibTaTbi HaSjiiOfleHHH H3 TaKnx 3aca^ 6e3 CTpejibSw b TeneHHe flByx-Tpex 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 224 

flHen, a HHor/ia h MeHbiue, OTKpwBaiOT oneHb MHoro HHTepecHoro. TaKne Ha6jnofleHna npon3BOflaTca 
h HOHtio, KaK npocjiyniHBaHHeM, TaK h c npnSopaMH hohhoix) BH^efflia. IIo pe3ynbTaTaM HaSjiiOfleHHH 
H3 TaKoM 3acaflbi mo>kho 6y#eT jiKKBH^HpoBaib He TOJibKO CHaMnepoB npoTHBHHKa, ho h ero KOMaHfl- 
hmh cocTaB. PacneT TaKoM rpynnbi oSmhho rorrb nejiOBeK - b Hanie BpeMa rpaHaTOMeTHHK h nyneMeT- 
hhk co BTopbiMH HOMepaMH h CHaMnep c SecuiyMHbiM opy>KHeM. B ycjiOBHax ropo#a TaKoM rpynne 
npHxoAHTca SpaTb c co6oh noSojibiue pynHbix rpaHaT #jia B03MO>KHoro ^HBepcHOHHoro HaneTa hjih 
npopbiBa H3 OKpy>KeHHa. BTopwe HOMepa oSecnenHBaiOT SbiCTpyio h 6ecnepe6oHHyio paSoTy ochob- 
hwx HOMepoB h nepeHOcaT noBbinieHHoe kojihhcctbo SoenpmiacoB. B CBoe BpeMa TaKne 3aca#bi c 
ycHJieHHbiM (no HeoSxoflHMOCTn) rpaHaTOMeTaHHeM ^ejiajiH (Jjhhhu b (|)HHCKyio KaMnaHHio h pyccKne 
- b CTanHHrpa/ie h KeHnrcSepre. 

OSbiHHaa CHaMnepcKaa /piBepcHOHHaa napa, 3a6paBiuaaca b tmji npoTHBHHKa h HaTBopnBiuaa 
TaM jxqji, MO>KeT nooie BbinojmeHHa 3a#aHHa SjiaronojiynHO BepHyibca Ha3a# tojibko Ha npnpofle, Ha 
oSpaTHOM nyrn o6xo#a ^ecaTOH floporon onacHbie MecTa, a b ropo^e nocne pe3ynbTaTHBHoro CHaft- 
nepcKoro hjih /niBepcnoHHoro "yKyca" Hepe^KO npopBaTbca k cbohm mo>kho, tojibko npoSnBaa "ko- 
pnflop" moihhmm oraeBbiM KyjiaKOM, co3flaBaa xotb h KpaTKOBpeivteHHoe, ho 3aTO "orjiyiuaioiHee" or- 
HeBoe npeHMymecTBO nepefl pacTepaHHbiM npoTHBHHKOM. BaM Hy>KHO SbiTb noflajibiue ot MecTa 

CoSblTHH. 

34)(J)eKT ot TaKHx HaxanbHbix flHBepcHOHHbix fleficTBHH flocTHraeTca tojibko b pe3ynbTaTe Tiija- 
TejibHoro npeflBapHTejibHoro HaSjnofleHHa 3a MecTHOCTbio, aHanH3a paHee nojryneHHOH pa3BeflHH(|)op- 
ManHH, npoflyMaHHOCTH fleiiCTBHH h octopo>khocth BbinojiHeHHa. ripe>Kfle Bcero, flHBepCHOHHaa 
rpynna He flOJi>KHa hhhcm naxHyib, htoSw ee He nonyajin co6aKH Ha CTopoHe npoTHBHHKa. JJjia 3Toro 
opy>KHe TmaTejibHO BbiHHmaeTca ot CMa3KH h "BbiBeTpnBaeTca" p,o nojmoro HCHe3HOBeHHa 3anaxa >Ke- 
Jie3a - TaK Bcer^a ^ejiaiOT npoMbicjiOBbie oxothhkh. He aojdkho SbiTb HHKaKoro Ka3apMeHHoro flyxa, 
KOTopbiii HacTOJibKO cneHH(J)HHeH, hto ero 3anpocTO nonyBCTByeT #a>Ke nejiOBeK. Ecjih cpe^n Baiunx 

npOTHBHHKOB eCTb BblXOflHbl C BoCTOKa, B pa3BeflflHBepCHOHHbIX BbIJia3KaX SyflbTe OCoSeHHO BHHMa- 

TejibHbi. 5KHrejiH BocTOKa ot poac^eHna cnocoSHbi Ha paccToaHHH omyiHaTb npncyTCTBHe flpyrnx jiio- 
flen, h TaKaa cnocoSHOCTb y hhx 3aTeM pa3BHBaeTca nocToaHHbiMn TpeHnpoBKaivtH. 3to aBJiaeTca nx 
MeHTajiHTeTHon TaiiHOH, KOTopon, KaK ohh CHHTaiOT, eBponennaM 3HaTb Heo6a3aTejibHO. "Boctoh- 
hhkh" ycTpoeHbi He TaK, KaK eBponenubi: eBponeiiHbi flyMaiOT tojioboh, a "boctohhhkh" BoenpnHn- 
MaiOT OKpy^aiomne aBJieHna (J)H3HHecKHMH h ncHxnnecKHMH omymeHnaMn, KOTopbie flencTBHiejibHO 
HHKor^a He noflBeflyT h He oSMaHyr. EBponencKOMy nejiOBeKy, ocoSemio ropo>KaHaM, noHaTb sto 
Tpy^HO. 

IIo3TOMy npn hohhmx flHBepcnoHHbix noncKax nocTynairre tohho TaK >Ke - noMeHbuie Hanpa- 
rairre ronoBy h noSojibine oSmee BHHMaHne, oSocTpeHHbin cnyx, oSoHaHne n HOHHoe 3peHne. KaK 3to 
flenaeTca npaKTnnecKn, npeKpacHO H3Jio>KeHO b 3aMenaTejibHon KHnre n. SL. IIonoBCKHx "YHeSmiK 
pa3BeflHHKa B^B". 

OcTaeTca co>KajieTb, hto HMemio 3TOiviy pa3flejiy npn noflroTOBKe flHBepcaHTOB, pa3BeflHHKOB n 
CHannepoB cennac y^ejiaeTca oneHb Mano BHHMaHna. 

KompcHannepcKaa rpynna MO>KeT jinKBH^npoBaTb BpaacecKoro CHannepa, He TOJibKO 3a6paB- 
niHCb k HeMy b Tbin. Echh 3apaHee H3yneHbi no3HHHH CHannepa, cncTeivia ero xo^ob h nepeMenieHHH, 
nepHOflHHHOCTb h xpoHOMeTpa>K ero bbixoaob Ha no3HHHH (TaKoe H3yneHHe h npomo3HpoBaHHe Ha^o 
HayHHTbca ^enaTb nocToaHHO, KanecTBeHHO n oneHb SbiCTpo), to TaKoro CTpenKa mo>kho B3aTb pe3KHM 
Heo>KHflaHHbiM pmbkom "nepe3 (J)poHT". TaKoii HaxajibHbin pmbok KOHTpcHannepcKon rpynnw ^ejiaeT- 
ca nofl npnKpbiTneM ^biMOBon 3aBecw npn BeTpe b CTopoHy npoTHBHHKa. flbiMOBaa 3aBeca oneHb xo- 
poniee H3o6peTeHne, KOTopoe C03AaH0 cneHnajibHO fljia TaKHx cjiynaeB h nponnx CKpbiTHbix nepeMe- 
iHemiH. OflHOBpeMeHHO BceMH B03MO>KHbiMH oraeBbiMH cpe^CTBaMH c3a^H h c Sokob CHaiuiepa 
npoTHBHHKa co3flaeTca orHeBon Sapbep, htoSw eMy HeKy^a Swjio fleTbca. IlyTH ero OTxofla npocTpe- 
jiHBaiOTca H3 CHaiinepcKHx bhhtobok. OflHOBpeMeHHO H3 apTHJiJiepniicKHx CHCTeM (hjih c BepTOJieTOB) 
npocTpejiHBaiOTca BepxHHe 3Ta>KH (ecjin stot CTpejiOK 3aceji b MHoro3Ta>KHOM flOMe). CHannep, OTce- 
neHHbiH oraeM ot cbohx, Bbmy>KfleH yiiTH bhh3, b noflBan, nofl SeTOHHbie njiHTbi, n jniiuaeTca cboSo- 
ffbi MaHeBpa. 

3arpaflHTejibHbiM huothmm oraeM no BceM niejiaivi h B03MO>KHbiM SonHnnaM BpaacecKOMy CHaii- 
nepy He ^aiOT BbicyHyibca h BbiCTpejimb npHnejibHO. Kor^a MaHeBpeHHaa KOHTpcHaiinepcKaa rpynna 
BbiflBHHyjiacb Ha SpocoK rpaHaTbi, oroHb H3 CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh hjih rpaHaTOMeTa pe3KO TepaeT 
3(})4)eKTHBHOCTb H3-3a HenoBopoTJiHBOCTH opy>KHa. CHannepa, cnacaioiHeroca ot rpaHaT b noflBane, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 225 

rayxHx yraax, no^ 6eTOHHHMH njiHTaMH, 3a6HBaiOT pyHHbiMH rpaHaTaMH h cpa3y >Ke OTxofljn, noKa 
cymecTByeT orHeBoe npracpbiTHe cbohx - He Ha^o >K#aTb, noKa no 3TOMy oSbeKiy npoTHBHHK y^apHT 
H3 Bcex ctbojiob hjih npe^npHMeT KOHTpaTaKy. 

BbinieonHcaHHbie MeTOflbi BCTpenHbix hohhmx h ^HeBHbix 3aca#, a Taioice ocTopo>KHoro BCTpen- 
Horo 6jiy>Kflaiomero noncKa h aTaKyiomnx SpocKOB Ha yHHHio>KeHHe mo>kho c ycnexoM Hcnojib30BaTb 
h npoTHB 6jiy>KflaiOHiHx no pa3BanHHaM yflapHO-TeppopncTHHecKnx rpynn npoTHBHHKa, cocToannrx 
oSbiHHO H3 CHannepa, nyneMeTHHKa h rpaHaTOMeTHHKa. 

Ilpn oSopoHe CTajinHrpa^a, r^e no3HnnH Hamnx n HeivineB nepeMeniajiHCb n Ha KapTe 3Ta Kap- 
THHa Sbuia noxo>Ka Ha "cjioeHbin nnpor", ynacTHJincb noflCTpejibi Ha nepeKpecTKe flByx yjinn. Heivien- 
khh CHannep #ep>Kaji nepeKpecTOK nofl npnnejiOM, Haxoflacb MOK^y pa3BanHH flByx ^omob b rjiySnHe 
3a hhmh. no3nnna 3Ta 6bi.ua fljia Hero oneHb BbiroflHa. Oh npocTpejiHBan yjinny B^ojib, yKpbiTbca ne- 
pefl hhm ot oraa SbiJio Her^e. Ero HaxanbHO B3ajin b jio6, otkpwb H3 aBTOMaTOB rniOTHbin 3arpa^n- 
TejibHbiii oroHb, HacTOJibKO njiOTHbrii, hto oh He CMor BbicyHyTbca. K HeMy noflxoflnjin pbiBKaMH, no 
KJiaccHnecKon TaKTHKe yjiHHHbix 6oeB: noKa o^Ha rpynna aBTOMaiHHKOB npn>KHMajia oraeM CHannepa 
3a yKpbiTneM, ^pyraa npocKaKHBana pmbkom MeTpoB 40-45 n b cboio onepeflb OTKpbiBana njiOTHbiii 
oroHb, nofl npHKpbiTHeM KOToporo noflTarHBanacb npmcpbiBaiomaa rpynna. IIo no3HnnH CHannepa 
CTpejiajin Bee BpeMa. tfopacxoflOBanH Maccy naTpoHOB, ho Macca naTpoHOB - sto He Macca ySnTbix. y 
HeMenKoro CHannepa He Bbi#ep>KajiH HepBbi, h oh nonbiTajica othoji3th. Ero 3a6pocann rpaHaTaMH. 

Bwxofl - SpocoK KOHTpcHannepcKOH rpynnbi Ha 3axBaT hjih yHHHio>KeHHe CHaiinepa flOJi>KeH 

SblTb MaKCHMajIbHO nOflCTpaXOBaH CO CTOpOHbl CBOHX B03MO>KHOCTbIO OTKpblTb npefleJIbHO HUOTHblH 

noflAep>KHBaiOHiHH oroHb. Hmchho nnoTHbiii h KpaTKOBpeMeHHbiH - rpynna flOJi>KHa oneHb SbiCTpo 
cnpaBHTbca c flejiOM n BepHyibca Ha3a#. TaKHe "KHH>KajibHbie" y^apw c MrHOBeHHbiM nepeBecoM chji b 

OflHOH TOHKe MO>KHO fleJiaTb KaK flHeM, TaK H HOHbK). IIpHSopbl HOHHOrO BHfleHHJI 3TO n03BOJIJIIOT. Ec- 

jih TaKoe CflenaTb Bce-TaKH HeB03MO>KHO, Bpa>KecKoro CHannepa 6-noKHpyiOT h 3a>KHMaiOT KOjnieKTHB- 
hwm CHaiinepcKHM orHeM c pa3Hbix ctopoh h no# pa3HbiMH yraaMH. KojnieKTHBHbie ycHJina cneinia- 
jiH3HpoBaHHOH rpynnbi CHaiinepoB h ^HBepcaHiOB no3BOJiaiOT s^ckthbho "cbeflaTb" CHaiinepoB 
npoTHBHHKa h nooflHHOHKe, h no onepeflH. 

B nocjieflHee BpeM» 3aMeneHO, hto MHorne CHannepw npoTHBHHKa nojib3yiOTca paflHOCBJBbio. 
CaMH ohh b 3(J)np He BbixoflaT n b paflHOoSivieH He BCTynaiOT. Hx accncTeHTbi hjih npmcpbiBaiomaa 
rpynna ^aiOT hm H3MeHeHna oScTaHOBKH, opneHTHpbi, noaBJieHne nejien, cooSmaiOT 06 yrpo3e 3axBa- 
Ta h flpyrnx BHe3anHbix onacHOCiax. IIosTOMy, BbicjieflHB CHannepa n xopomo ero H3ynnB, Ha ero pa- 
Sonen nacTOTe b peiuaioiiniH MOMeHT ero yHHHTO^eHna rjiymaT nepe#aBaeMyio eMy HH^opMainiio. 
Jlynine Bcero 3to c^ejiaTb, ncnojib3ya Tpoc^einibie painiH. B o#hom H3BecTHOM aBTopy cjiynae npocTO 
pbinajin, KaK 3Bepn, b mhkpo(J)oh TaKoii painiH, noKa ^pyrne noflSHpanncb k Bpa>KecKOMy CTpejncy. 

AHeKflOTHHHO, HO CpaSoTajIO 6e30TKa3HO. 

Bpa>KecKHH CHannep npoaBJiaeTca cpa3y >Ke nocjie Bamen apTnoflroTOBKn. Oh 3HaeT, hto Bamn 
Sohhm nocjie 3toh apTnoflroTOBKH noHflyr b aTaKy, 6y/iyT npe^CTaBJiaTb ^Jia Hero xopomne h yfloS- 
Hbie nejin. IIosTOMy Sy^eT Jiynme, ecjin cpa3y >Ke nocjie apTnoflroTOBKH bm ^Jia npo(J)HJiaKTHKH c^ejia- 
eTe omeByio o6pa6oTKy (KaK Sbuio onncaHO paHee) Bcex pa3BeflaHHbix BaMH mejieM h Sohhhu, h no- 
CTaBHTe xoponiyio ^biMOByio 3aBecy (KaKaa 3to Bce-TaKH nojie3Haa niTyKa!). KoHTpcHaiinepcKaa 
rpynna ^encTByeT npn stom HacTynaTejibHO, TaK, KaK onncaHO paHee. B CTapbie BpeMeHa nexoTa n 
niTypMOBbie rpynnbi BbiflBnranHCb Ha py6e>K oSopoHbi npoTHBHHKa cpa3y >Ke BCJiefl 3a oraeBbiM Ba- 
jiom, npH6jin>Kaacb k oSbeKiaivi niTypMa Ha SpocoK rpaHaTbi eine Tor^a, Kor^a TaM pBanncb apTHjnie- 
pnHCKne CHapa^bi cbohx. IIo pa3BeflaHHbiM SoHHHnaM bobcio paSoTann npoTHBOTaHKOBbie py>Kba. H3 
hhx >Ke "flocTaBann" CHaiinepoB, KOTopwe paSoTann "kocmm" oraeM no nsrnSaM TpaHmen Ha Hameii 
CTopoHe. CoBpeMeHHbie flajibHoSoiiHbie 12,7-mm bhhtobkh - oneHb xoponiaa Bemb ^Jia noflaBJieHHa 
orHeBbix ToneK npoTHBHHKa b flOJiroBpeMeHHbix yKpenjieHnax h ero CHaiinepoB, paSoTaiomnx c OT^a- 
jieHHbix no3Hu,HH 3a jiHHHeii (})poHTa. Ho HeyMejioe npHMeHeHHe sthx bhhtobok Ha kopotkhx paccTO- 
aHHax npHHOCHT Mano nojib3bi. ^jiHHHoe "HenoBopoTHoe" h ManonoflbeMHoe opy>KHe b pa3BanHHax 

MajI03(|)(})eKTHBHO. 

OcHOBHbie TaKTHHecKne MeTOflbi 6opb6bi co CHaiinepaMH b yjiHHHbix 6oax Swjih OTpaSoTaHbi 

QUiQ BO BpeMJI BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl H B o6meM-TO OCTajIHCb TeMH >Ke - floSbIHa HH(})OpMaLI,HH 

CHaiinepe, npo(})HJiaKTHKa CHaiinepcKoro orHa, KOHTpcHaiinepcKHe xhtpocth, BCTpenHbiii pa3BeflflH- 
BepcHOHHbiii noHCK. Hy^ec b KOHTpcHaiinepcKOM npoMbicjie He SbiBaeT. Pe3yjibTaT npHHOCHT aKTHB- 
Haa, CBoSoflHaa h arpeccHBHaa oxoTa "Ha BOJibHbix CTpejiKOB" kojijickthbom cneu,HajiH3HpoBaHHOH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 226 

KOHTpcHaMnepcKOH SpHra^bi. TaKaa Spnra^a KOMrnieKiyeTca Ha MecTe coSwthh h ynnrca paSoTaTb 
TO>Ke HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha MecTe coSmthh, npnivieHaacb k oScTaHOBKe SoeBbix fleiiCTBHH, BapnaHTbi 
KOTopwx SecKOHenHbi. He Bee nojiynaeTca cpa3y h B^pyr, ho npn HacTOHHHBOH M03roBOH ^eaTejibHO- 
cth Sohhob Spnraflbi h HaKomieHHa npaKTHnecKnx HapaSoTOK paHO huh no3#HO HacTynaeT Kane- 
CTBeHHbiH npopbiB, h KonrpcHannepcKaa rpynna HannHaeT fleiicTBOBaTb oneHb scJ^eKTHBHO h npn- 

BblHHO. 

B cocTaB KOHTpcHaMnepcKOH rpynnw Bxo^aT nyneMeTHHKH-npo(|)eccHOHajibi h HacToamne Tpe- 
HHpoBaHHbie CHaMnepbi (hh b KoeM cnynae He flnjieTanrbi-jnoSHTejiH). 5KejiaTejibHO, htoSm h3 rpaHa- 
TOMeTa paSoTan TO>Ke CHaMnep. BTopwe HOMepa b KonrpcHaHnepcKon rpynne KOMnneKiyiOTca He 
npocTO noflCoSHbiMH HOCHJibmHKaMH SoenpnnacoB, a SonnaMH-pyKonaniHHKaMH, KOTopwe HaTpeHH- 
poBaHbi SpocaTb pynHbie rpaHaTbi SwcTpo, flaneKO h tohho. fl,ejiaiOT ohh 3to oSmhho no# npnKpbiTH- 
eM nyjieMeTHHKa, KOTopbiM orHeM 3aroHaeT npoTHBHHKa 3a yKpbiraa h He #aeT eMy BbicyHyrbca fljia 
npHu,ejibHoii CTpenbSbi. PyKonaniHHKH Taioice He3aMeHHMbi ^Jia CHJiOBoro 3axBaTa >KHBoro npoTHBHH- 
Ka. 

Ha CBoeM ynacTKe paSoTbi KonrpcHannepcKaa rpynna HecTaH^apTHbiMn, Heo>KHflaHHbiMH n 6e3- 

HaKa3aHHbIMH fleHCTBHaMH MO>KeT npOH3BOflHTb He TOJIbKO pa3pyniHTeJIbHbIH SoeBOH 3(})4)eKT, HO H 

OKa3biBaTb KOJioccanbHoe fleMopanHByiomee B03fleHCTBne Ha ncnxnKy npoTHBHHKa, nocroaHHO y#ep- 
>KHBaa ero b cocto3hhh HepBHoro Hanpa>KeHna. 

Bojiee Toro, TaKaa rpynna, paSoTaBinaa b ycnoBnax pa3Hbix ropoflOB, npnBbiKaeT BoeBaTb npn 
nocToaHHOM H3MeHeHHH ycjiOBHH SoeBbix flencTBHH, npn pa3Hon ropoflCKon nnaHnpoBKe n apxnreK- 
Type, npn pa3JinnHOM Mem-anmeTe npoTHBHHKa. 

Cpa3y, ecTecTBeHHO He nojiynaeTca Hnnero. Ho b KOHTpcHannepcKOH rpynne nocToamioro co- 
CTaBa npn nocToamiOM BbinojiHeHHH npaKTHnecKnx KOHTpcHannepcKHx MeponpnaTHH no Mepe HaKon- 
jieHna onbiTa, KOjnieKTHBHoro o6cy>KfleHHa cnryanHH n pa3BHTHa TeopeTnnecKoro MbinuieHna paHO 
hjih no3flHO HacTynaeT KanecTBeHHbin npopbiB. 

npn 3tom y Sohuob cnenrpynnbi SbiCTpo pa3BHBaeTca cnocoSHOCTb nonTH MraoBerao nporao- 
3npoBaTb npnHnnnbi paSoTbi Bpa>KecKHx CHannepoB b KOHicpeTHbix yanoBHax. 

npn HajiHHHH TaKnx KonrpcHannepcKHx rpynn nx Sonnaivi n KOMaH^npaM He CJie^yeT a^Hinn- 
poBaTb ce6a #a>Ke Ha CTopoHe cbohx, htoSm He Bbi3biBaTb Ha cboio ronoBy Jinnmnx oano>KHeHHH. npn 
SoeBOH HeoSxoflHMOCTH 2-3 TaKne cneurpynnbi (He Sojiee B3BO#a) MoryT oSbeflHHHTb /uia pemeHna 
Sojiee KpynHbix h cjio>KHbix 3a#an yflapHO-flHBepcHOHHoro npHMeHeHHa, b HOHHoe BpeMa "Bbinninaa" 
H3 SecmyMHoro opy>KHa c hohhmmh npnnejiaMH nejibie KBapTanbi Ha nepe^HeM Kpae npoTHBHHKa h 3a 
nepeflHHM KpaeM. CnennajiH3HpoBaHHbie AHBepcHOHHO-CHaiuiepcKHe noflpa3flejieHHa cnocoSHbi #e- 
jiaTb (J)aHTacTHHecKne Benin. npnivteHeHHe TaKnx hohhmx /niBepcnoHHO-CHannepcKHx rpynn 3aHOBO 
OTKpbiBaeT 3a6biTyio npaKTHKy npHBJieneHna KOJioccanbHbix TaKTHnecKHx pe3epBOB SoeBoro npnivte- 
HeHHa. 

B noflroTOBKe KOHrpcHaiinepcKoro MeponpnaTHa maSjiomibie, noBTopaiomHeca, HenpoflyMaH- 
Hbie h HeocTopo>KHbie ^encTBHa ncKjnonaiOTca. 

HeonbiTHbiH CTpenoK Sonbmen nacTbio nona^aeT cnynaHHO, ho oh Bcer^a Sy^eT H3o6peTaTejieH 
n HaxoflHHB b OTJiHHHe ot CTpoeBbix BoeHHbix, KOTopbiM ycTapeBniHe ycTaBbi 3aMeHaK)T aKTHBHOe 
MbinuieHne. Oh MO>KeT SbiTb ncnxonaTOM - TaKne BxoflaT b CTpejiKOBbin yrap h CTpenaiOT 6e30CTaHO- 
bohho; c TaKHMH ocoSbix npoSjieM He B03HHKaeT. Oh MO>KeT SbiTb Hpe3BbinanHO ocTopo>KeH - TaKnx 
oSKJia^biBaiOT co Bcex ctopoh, KapaynaT h yHHHTO>KaiOT hjih CHannepcKHM oraeM, hjih mrypMOBOH 
rpynnoii Ha ^HCTami,HH "b ynop", noKa He ySbiOT (raKon CTpejiOK npn onacHOCTH 3a6nBaeTca b 
yKpoMHbin yroji, ero OTceKaiOT ot cbohx h yHHHTO>KaiOT ecuH He CTpejibSoii, to rpaHaTaMH hjih co6a- 
KaMH. Ho b jiioSom cjiynae ero jhoShmmh CTHJib h ero npenMymecTBO b tom, hto oh CTpejiaeT H3 6e3- 
onacHbix mejien n cpa3y >Ke yxo^HT. CnaSoe MecTO HeonbiTHoro CTpejiKa - CTpax. Kor^a oh HannHaeT 
oniyniaTb KOJuieKTHBHbiH n xopomo opraHH30BaHHbiH arpeccnBHbin Hnrepec k CBoen ocoSe, 3to noji- 
HOCTbio H3MeHaeT xoa ero Mbicjien. B TaKne momchtm HeonbiTHbin CTpejiOK MeHbme Bcero ^yiviaeT 
tom, KaK y^ep>KHBaTb no3nii,HH, - oh TBep^o y6e>KfleH, hto HeJiOBeK HMeeT npaBO BbDKHTb. Ho ySera- 
lomero c no3Hii,HH Bcer^a HacTHraeT CMepTb. OSbiHHO 3to nponcxoflHT Ha nyrax OTxofla, r^e "BOJibHO- 
ro CTpejiKa" y>Ke >KflyT. H Tor^a BceM coMHeBaioniHMca mo>kho npofleMOHCTpnpoBaTb, hto HHKaKOH 
3to He npn3paK, a npocTO HeMbiTbiii maKan c HenHnieHOH bhhtobkoh. 

CTPEJIbBA B nPOTHBOrA3E 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 227 



KaK 6bi OTpHu,aTejibHO CHaMnepbi hh OTHOCHJiHCb k caMoii mmcjih o CTpejibSe b npoTHBora3e, pe- 
anbHaa SoeBaa oScraHOBKa 3anpocTO mtokct 3acTaBHTb Ha^eTb ero. 06 stom CBH^eTejibCTByeT nenajib- 
Hbiii onbiT BoeHHOCJiy>KamHx, BoeBaBinnx b noaneflHHe roflbi, KOMy npHinnocb fleMcTBOBaTb b 3aB0#- 
ckhx h npoMbiinjieHHbix pa3BanHHax, b HacToamee BpeMa nepenojiHeHHbix xhmhhcckhmh SoHKaMH, 
SajuiOHaMH h npoHHMH ynaKOBKaMH c pa3HOo6pa3Hoii xHMHHecKoii HanHHKOH. Ha Boinie Bee 3to ro- 
pHT, h Bbi^ejiaeMbie npn stom a^OBHTbie ra3bi OTnpaBHJiH Ha tot cbct y>Ke He OflHoro SoHua. ABTopa 
noflflep>KaT no>KapHbie, KOTopwe hh Ha o#hh no>Kap He e3fl>rr 6e3 npoTHBora30B, - coBpeMeHHbie OT^e- 
jiOHHbie MaTepnanbi npn ropeHHH Bbi^ejiaiOT ra3bi, no CBoeM tokchhhocth HHor^a npeBoexoflamne 60- 
eBbie OTpaBJiaiouiHe BemecTBa. nojiHueiicKHe CHaMnepbi h CHaMnepbi aHTHieppopHCTHHecKHx no#pa3- 
flejieHHH y>Ke He pa3 no>KajiejiH, hto Smjih 6e3 npoTHBoraBOB, - cjie30T0HHBbie ra3bi, poKymne raa3a, 
HanpoHb BbiSnBaiOT CHaMnepoB H3 KOJien (KCTaTH, sto oneHb xoponiHH npneivi SopbSbi co CHaMnepaMH 
npoTHBHHKa b ropo#e - Haflo TOJibKO xoponio paccHHTaTb HanpaBJieHHe BeTpa). ,fl,a>Ke npn SojibiuoM 
KOJiHnecTBe oSbiKHOBeHHoro flbiMa Jiynnie Ha^eTb npoTHBoras (Ka>KflbiH 3HaeT, KaK flbiM "BbieflaeT" 
rjia3a). 

^jia CHaMnepcKoii CTpejibSbi noflSnpaiOTca npoTHBora3bi, y KOTopwx CTeKJia nepefl CTpejiaiomHM 
rjia30M cto»t nepneH^HKyjiapHO k jihhhh npHuejiHBaHHa. OSbiHHbie MacKH c "kocoh" nocTaHOBKoft 
CTeKon HCKa>KaiOT npHu,ejibHoe H3o6pa>KeHHe. IIpoTHB 3anoTeBaHH» CTeKon npHMeHaiOT cneu,HanbHbie 
KapaH^aniH, a ecjin hx HeT, CTeKJio o6pa6aTbiBaiOT TaMnoHOM c MbmoM (hjih #a>Ke cuerKa CMa3biBaiOT 
py>KeiiHbiM MacnoM). K CTecHeHHio b flbixaHHH npn paSoTe c npoTHBora30M Hy>KHO npHBbiKHyTb. H c 
flecaTOK pa3 nocTpejunb b npoTHBorase TO>Ke HeoSxoflHMO - flaM Bor, htoSw BaM sto He npHroflmiocb. 

PABOTA CHAHIIEPOB B KOHTPTEPPOPHCTHHECKHX OIIEPAIJH5IX 

HaHHeM c Toro, hto pojib CHannepa h nooneflOBaTejibHOCTb ero fleMcTBHH b KOHipTeppopHCTHHe- 
ckhx onepaipiax no o6e3Bpe>KHBaHHio BOopy>KeHHoro n ocoSo onacHoro 6aHfl(|)opMHpoBaHHa n npn 
ocBo6o>KfleHHH 3ano>KHHKOB BbicoKoe HananbCTBO npeflCTaBJiaeT ce6e BecbMa npn6jin3HTejibHO n He- 

HeTKO. 

IIpHMeHeHHe CHannepa b MnpHoe Bpeivta flHKiyeTca >KecTOKon HeoSxoflHMOCTbio. Ecjih Ha Boinie 
CHannep - fljinHHbin ho>k b cepflue npoTHBHHKa, to b mhphoh oScTaHOBKe - sto CKanbnejib b pyKax xn- 
pypra. B MnpHoe BpeMa npn npoBefleHnn nojinnencKnx onepau,nn CHannepy Hejib3a npoMaxHyTbca - 
npoMax npeBaT npoBanoM onepau,nn. Bonee Toro, CHannep MopanbHO He HMeeT npaBa #a>Ke cjiynaiiHO 
3a^eTb nyneii HeBHHOBHoro nejiOBeKa. Hmchho nosTOMy paSoTa CHannepa flOJi>KHa SbiTb lOBejmpHoii b 
ncnojiHeHHH BbiCTpena n BbicoKonpo^eccnoHajibHon b TaKiHnecKOM OTHOineHHH. 

YBejiHHeHHe oimiHecKoro npimejia h cnocoSiiocTb MrHOBeHHO B03fleiicTB0BaTb Ha npoTHBHHKa 
no3BOJiaiOT CHannepy pe3K0 noBopannBaTb xo# coSmthh b Hy>KHyio CTopoHy. CHannep co CBoen bm- 
roflHon no3Hu,HH (oHa npocTO He MO>KeT SbiTb HeBbiroflHon) MO>KeT h #0Ji>KeH TaKTHnecKH OHemiBaTb h 
nocToaHHO KOHipojinpoBaTb oScTaHOBKy Ha oSbeKie OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH h MrHOBeHHO cpaSaTbiBaTb npn 
ocjio>KHeHHH oScTaHOBKH hjih b peuiaiOHiHH momcht HiTypMa. CHannep o6a3aH npeflCTaBHTb ce6e ap- 
xHTeKTypy 3Toro oSbeKTa h "nocMOTpeTb" Ha Hero H3HyrpH, onpeflenHB BHyTpemnie nyrn B03M0>KHbix 
nepeflBH>KeHHH npoTHBHHKa k OKHaM, flBepaM, npoxo^aM h noaBJieHne npoTHBHHKa b sthx MecTax. 
3to no3BOJiaeT CHannepy nporH03HpoBaTb TeneHne coSmthh h B03MO>KHoe noaBJieHne nejieii b onpe- 
flejieHHbix MecTax. 

IIo3TOMy cmmcji npoHCxoflauiero cpa3y >Ke aoxoaht npe>Kfle Bcero p,o CHannepa h yace noTOM p,o 
pyKOBOflCTBa onepau,HeH. H cpaSoTaTb MrHOBeHHO npn ocjio>KHeHHH oScTaHOBKH (HanpHMep, Kor^a 
TeppopncT npHCTaBHJi nncTOJieT k ronoBe 3ano>KHHKa hjih ho>k k ero ropjiy) MO>KeT TOJibKO CHannep, h 
Sojiee hhkto KpoMe Hero. Hjih >Ke Kor^a TeppopncTbi, npHKpbiBaacb 3ano>KHHKaMH, H^yr Ha npopbiB. 
Hjih >Ke Kor^a TeppopncTbi npocTO, KaK TapaKaHbi, pa36eraiOTca b pa3Hbie CTopoHbi. B H^eane CHannep 
CTpejiaeT Ha nopa>KeHHe, He flO>KHflaacb, noKa HananbCTBO cpearnpyeT h OT^acT npmca3. Ha OT^any 
npHKa3a, ^Jia Toro htoSw hctko ero npoH3HecTH, Hy>KHO BpeMa - HecKOJibKO ceKyH^, - h 3a 3th He- 
CKOJibKO ceKyHfl MoryT npoH30HTH HenonpaBHMbie Bemn. 

PaHbiue npn JIaBpeHTHH BepHH, Kor^a Ha^o Swjio nojiynHTb peajibHbiii pe3yjibTaT, Bee TaK h 
npoHexoflHJio - b H^eajie. CHannep He npocTO npeceKan "cBoeBOJine" npoTHBHHKa, CTpeManieroca H3- 
MeHHTb coSbiTHa b CBOio nojib3y. CHannep CTaBHJi TOHKy b onepannn BOoSnie. Oh ^ejian sto caMOCTO- 
aTejibHO. Ecjih y Hero He nojiynnjiocb (SbiBano h TaKoe), c Hero CHHManH niKypy. Ecjih nojiynnjiocb, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 228 

eMy 3a 3to npocTO Hnnero He Smjio. TaKne Smjih BpeMeHa. 

CeMnac BpeMeHa flpyrae. Cennac HanaubCTBO cnepBa ^ojdkho noHaTb, hto Ha oSbeKie Hanaro 

npOHCXOflHTb HTO-TO CTpaiHHOe, nOTOM OUeHHTb oSCTaHOBKy, npHHSTb peiHeHHe H OTflaTb SoeBOH 

npHKa3. IIpeflCTaBbTe, CKOJibKO Ha 3to hy>kho BpeMeHH. Ho nepe# TeM, KaK OT^aTb SoeBoii npnKa3, 
HanaubCTBO aojdkho npnHaTb KOJiJieierHBHoe peiueHHe. IIoTOMy hto SoeBoii npHKa3 CHaiinepy Ha 6oe- 
Boe npHMeHeHHe aojckch SbiTb hctkhm h onpeflejieHHbiM - CTpejiaTb npn^eTca no >KHBOMy Teppopn- 

CTy, KOTOpblH C TOHKH 3peHHa 3aKOHa CHHTaeTCa JIHHHOCTbK) H HMeeT npaBO Ha a^BOKaTa. Il03T0My 

neTKHH npHKa3 He OT^acT hhkto. Hhkto He 3axoneT OTBenaTb KOHKpeTHO. HanHHaeTca nponecc, koto- 
pbift CHaiinepbi Me>K#y coSoii Ha3biBaiOT ">KeBaHHeM conjien". IIo pa^no ^aiOT KOMaH^y: "3h, CHaiinep, 
flaBaii, HanHHaii!" Ho CHaiinep TO>Ke He AypaK, oh He cjibinian neTKoro npnKa3a h TO>Ke He xoneT OTBe- 
naTb. CHaiinep npmcHflbiBaeTca "BaneHKOM" h BonpouiaeT no pannn: "HeBO HanHHaTb?" HanaubCTBO 
npHxoflHT b apocTb: "flaBaii, paSoTaii! Kaicoro x... Te6a cio^a npHBe3Jin?" CHaiinep ororrb BonpomaeT: 

"Kyp,a paSoTaTb? KaK?" Oh He cjibiHian cjiob "BbiCTpejinrb", "oTKpbiTb oroHb", "nopa3HTb b py- 
Ky", "nopa3HTb b Hory", "o6e3BpeflHTb omeM" h t. p. 3to neTKne CJiOBa, ho hx HanajibCTBO He CKa>KeT. 
Oho kpqt, noica CHaiinep He HanHeT CTpejiaTb caMOCTOjrrejibHO h, b cjiynae HenpnaTHoro OKOHnaHna 
coSbiTHii, ca^eT b TiopbMy, a HanaubCTBO 6ypQT hh npn neM. A b cjiynae y^aHHoro OKOHnaHna naBpbi 
Sy^yT npnHafljie>KaTb HananbCTBy, a CHaiinepy 3a 3to minero He 6ypQT (a MoaceT, 6ypQT Sjiaroflap- 
HOCTb hjih noneTHaa rpaMOTa). Ho CHaiinepbi npeflnoHHTann He HCKaTb Ha cboio ronoBy npnionoHeHHii 
n ynopHO He noHHMann HeneTKnx yKa3aHnii. 

Me>KAy TeM ot 6e3fleiicTBHa cjiy>KHBbix coSbiraa npHHHManH CTpaniHbiii oSopoT c nejiOBene- 
ckhmh >KepTBaMH h flpyrHMH >KyTKHMH noaneflCTBnaMH. H no3TOMy Ha 3ape nepecTpoiiKH MenbKHyjio 
SbiJio poSKoe yica3aHHe: "B onynae ocjio>KHeHHa oScraHOBKH, KOTopoe MO>KeT noBJienb 3a coSoii rn- 
6enb HeBHHHbix jnofleii, o6e3Bpe>KHBaHHe TeppopncTOB BnnoTb po hx (J)H3HHecKoro yHHHio>KeHHa 
npoH3BOflHTca BceMH flocTynHbiMH cpeflCTBaMH h cnocoSaMH. CnrHanoM k ^eiicTBHio 6ypQT oSmaa 
KOMSiRp,a no pa^HO 444, nepe^aBaeMaa HecKOJibKO pa3". 3to y>Ke Smjio Koe-Hio. Cjiy>KHBbie BoenpaHy- 
jih ayxoM. Ho y CHaiinepoB CTauo nojiynaTbca cjihuikom xopomo: nop CHaiinepcKHe nyjin npn no#aB- 
jieHHH Me>KHanHOHajibHbix koh(})jihktob h b ropannx TOHKax CTauo nona/iaTb CJIHUIKOM MHOrO Hy>K- 
hwx, 3HeprHHHbix h 6jih3khx k oneHb BbicoKOMy HanaubCTBy jnofleii. H no3TOMy KOMaH^a 444 KaK-TO 
3araoxjia caMa no ce6e. 

"5KeBaHne conjieii" - CTpejiaTb hjih He CTpejiaTb - npoflOJDKaeTca bo Bcex CTpaHax CHr. KaK 
npaBHJio, ceiinac ero hjih npoBonnpyeT, hjih npeKpamaeT npoKypaTypa. B o^hom h3bccthom aBTopy 
CJiynae, Kor^a peiuanca Bonpoc, hto ^ejiaTb c paHee cy^HMbiMH SjiOKnpoBaHHbiMH Ha oSbeKie npe- 
CTynHHKaMH, o KOTopwx Bee SbiJio H3BecTHO, Bee c HeTepneHneM o>KHflajin, kto h3 npoKypaTypw npn- 
qpqt Ha 3to npoHCiuecTBne. npoKypop OKa3anca H3 cbohx - oh paHbine cjiy>KHJi b cncreMe BoeHHO- 

MOpCKOH KOHTppa3BeflKH. Y3HaB TOM, HTO Ha oSbeKie HaXOflJTTCJI 3ajIO>KHHKH, Ha BOnpOC MHJIHU,eii- 

CKoro HananbCTBa o ^onycTHMOCTH npHMeHeHHa CHaiinepoB npoKypop otbcthji: "A 3aneM hx ciofla 
npnBe3JiH? Bbi^aTb hm 4)OTorpa(|)HH npecTynHHKOB, htoSm ohh 3HanH, no KOMy CTpejiaTb, h nycTb 
6bK)T Ha nopa>KeHHe!" nocjie Hanana imypMa, Kor^a ^Boe H3 npecTynHHKOB nonbnanHCb npopBaTbca, 
OflHH 6bui cpa3y 3acTpejieH, a ^pyroii Taacejio paHeH. HeTKO h scho! Ho TaKoe SbiBaeT pe^KO. TaKoe 
SbiBaeT, Kor^a KOMaH^yeT kto-to o^hh. flpyroii H3BecTHbiii aBTopy y^anHbiii cjiynaii npHMeHeHna 
CHaiinepa nponBOiueji b ropo^e H., Kor^a CHaiinep MHJiHneiicKoro cneu,noflpa3flejieHHa BbiCTpejiOM b 
rojiOBy o6e3BpeflHJi yrojiOBHHKa, BOopy>KeHHoro ^ByMa rpaHaTaMH. HeTKnii npHKas OT^an ero Heno- 
cpeflCTBeHHbiii KOMaH^np, KOTopwii b3»ji OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb Ha ce6a. 

Eme OflHH npHMep neTKoii KOMaH^bi Ha nopa>KeHHe, H3BecTHbiii aBTopy, npoH3onieji b mecTHfle- 
caibix roflax b KneBe. npnKa3 o6e3Bpe#HTb CHaiinepcKHM oraeM npecTynHHKa, pa3ryjiHBaiomero c 
nncTOJieTOM h rpaHaToii no KpemaTHKy cpe^n TOJinw, OT^an jihhho mhhhctp BHyrpeHHHx ^eji YKpaH- 
hm HBaH TojiOBHeHKO. Hop cboio OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb. EaHflHia oneHb y^anHO no^CTpejinjiH b njieno Ha 
xo^y H3 ManiHHbi, BbiSpaB momcht, Kor^a tot cjierKa OTopBanca ot TOJinbi. 

Ho CJiynan, Kor^a HananbCTBO SepeT Ha ce6a OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a hctkhh npnKa3, BecbMa Hena- 
CTbi. H nosTOMy CHaiinep ^ojckch ycjibimaTb neTKyio KOMaH^y ^Jia CTpejib6bi Ha nopa>KeHHe: "CHaii- 
nepy - oroHb" hjih KaKyio-JinSo flpyryio, yTBep>KfleHHyio cneu,HajibHbiM npnKa30M. HHane oh 6y#eT 
CHfleTb b TiopbMe. 

TaK nojiynaeTca, hto npn aHTHTeppopncTHHecKoii onepau,HH CHaiinep nmeT h 3aHHMaeT Bbirofl- 
Hyio ^Jia CTpejibSbi no3Hu,Hio caMOCToaTejibHO, h6o TaKne onepau,HH nponcxoflaT b HenpeflCKa3yeMoii 
oScTaHOBKe. HananbCTBO 3a Hero no3Hu,Hio He onpe^ejiHT - CHaiinep Bcer^a Sy^eT CTpejiaTb OTTy/ja, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 229 

OTKy^a eMy bh^ho uejib. H OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a BbiSop h OTbicKaHHe no3HHHH Bcer^a jitokhtcs Ha ca- 
Moro CHaMnepa. KaK oh HaM^eT 3Ty no3HHHio - HHKoro He BOJiHyeT. Ey/ieT oieHb xopoiuo, ecjin 
HanajibCTBO npnKa>KeT ynacTKOBOiviy HHcneKTopy, KOTopbiii 3HaeT Bee xo^bi h Bbixo^bi, conpoBO>KflaTb 
CHaiinepcKyio rpynny b KanecTBe npoBOflHraca h oSeperaTb ee ot jnoSonbimbix. B rpa>KflaHCKOH 06- 
CTaHOBKe CHaMnep Bbi^BHraeTca Ha no3Hu,Hio CKpbiTHO, b rpa^aHCKOii paSoieii ofle>Kfle, He B036y>K- 
paa HeHy>KHoro jiioSonbiTCTBa HacejieHHa h He BbiCTaBJiaa CHaiinepcKyio BHHTOBKy Hanoica3. HtoSw 
CHaiinep, KOTopbiM b nc-HCicax no3Hu,HH Jia3HT no caMbiM Heo>KHflaHHbiM MecTaM, rayxHM n 6e3JiK>fl- 
hmm, He nonyHHJi ho>kom b cnHHy hjih KnpnnHOM no ronoBe n He ocTanca 6e3 bhhtobkh h naTpoHOB, 
ero o6a3aTejibHO flOJi>KeH conpoBO>KflaTb MHHHMyM o#hh BOopy>KeHHbiH coTpy^HHK, KOTopbiii noMora- 
eT CHannepy npeoflOJieBaTb 3aBanbi h ^pyrne nperorrcTBHa, noflCTpaxoBbiBaeT ero ot Heo>KHflaHHoro 
Hana^eHna C3a/ni n, raaBHoe, HMeeT npn ce6e painiio. IIpH SoeBon paSoTe pyKn CHannepa 3aH3Tbi 
TOJibKO bhhtobkoh, h ero BHHMaHHe flOJi>KHO SbiTb HanpaBJieHO TOJibico Ha u,ejib. CB»3b ocymecTBJiaeT 
tot, kto CTpaxyeT CHannepa, h 3tot >Ke nejiOBeK b cjrynae pa36HpaTejibCTBa noflTBep>KflaeT nojiyneHHe 

KOMaHfl H npHKa30B. 

Ha naMSTH aBTopa Smji cjiynan, Kor^a b ropo^e /J. npn npoBefleHHH cneiniajibHOH onepauHH bm- 
cokhh hhh CKa3an: "y MeHa HeT jnoflen, htoSw k flByM CHannepaivt npncTaBJiaTb C3a^n eme no nejiOBe- 
Ky. B npHKa3e HanncaHO - CHannepcicaa napa. Bot nycTb h CTpaxyiOT flpyr flpyra". B xo#e onepauHH 
noAenbHHKH npecTynHHKOB noflKpajnicb c3a#H k CHaMnepaM, KOTopwe jie>KajiH Heflaneico flpyr ot #py- 
ra, h T5DKe.no paHHJin oSohx. ,H,Be bhhtobkh CBfl, h 50 naTpoHOB Ha Ka>Kflyio flocTanncb npecTynHH- 
KaM. flajibine coSmthji pa3BHBanHCb He no MHJiHueiicKOMy cueHapHio. 

CHannepaM, ecun hx Sojibine flByx, HeT CMbicua HaxoflHTbca BMecTe. Ohh aojckhm #ep>KaTb no^ 
npnnejiOM npoTHBHHKa c pa3Hbix no3HHHH h nop, pa3HbiMH yraaMH. B stom cjiynae to, hto He 6y#eT 
bh^ho OflHOMy, Sy^eT otkpwto fljia flpyroro. Ha oahoh no3HHHH CHaiinepbi HaxoflflTca TOJibKO Tor^a, 
Kor^a Ha/io CTpejnrib b npoTHBHHKa, Haxoflameroca 3a ctckjiom. KaK hbbcctho, ctckjio pa36nBaeT bhh- 
TOBOHHyio nyjno Bflpe6e3rn h ^ejiaeT flanbHeHmee HanpaBJieHne nojieTa ee <|)parMeHTOB Henpe#CKa3y- 
eMbiM. no3TOMy oflHH H3 CHamiepoB nepBbiM BbiCTpejiOM pa36nBaeT ctckjio (okho h t.#.), a btopoh 
KOHKpeTHO "flocTaeT" u,ejib. 

Onepanna no ocBo6o>KfleHHio 3ano>KHHKOB aBJiaeTca oahhm h3 caMbix Ta>Kejibix momchtob b pa- 
6oTe cneu,noflpa3flejieHHH hojihhhh h cneu,CJiy>K6. no3TOMy n HiTypMOBaa rpynna, h CHannepbi ^ojdk- 
hw ^0 Mejionen 3HaTb, kto TeppopncTbi, KaK ohh Bbirjia^aT, B03pacT, pocT, non, b HeM o^eTbi, hx cjio- 
BecHbin nopTpeT, ocoSbie npHMeTbi, a Jiynme Bcero HMeTb nepefl coSon (J)OTorpa(})HH npecTynHHKOB. 
Bee 3to CHannepbi flOJi>KHbi neTKO npeflCTaBJiaTb, htoSw HMeTb B03MO>KHOCTb CTpenaTb BbiSoponHO, b 
Toro, b Koro Ha^o, n He 3anennib 3ano>KHHKOB. 3Ty HH^opMannio, a TaK>Ke H3MeHeHHa no MOMeHTy 
coSbiTHH CHannepbi nocToaHHO nojiynaiOT ot pyKOBOflCTBa. HH(J)opMaLi,Ha 3Ta flOJi>KHa SbiTb tohhoh, h 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb 3a ee nojiyneHne h ^ocTOBepHOCTb jie>KHT Ha bmcokom HananbCTBe. HHane CHannepbi 
pncKyiOT noflCTpejiHTb HeBHHHoro nejiOBeKa, h 3to 6y#eT He Ha hx cobccth. 

B KompTeppopHCTHHecKHx onepau,Hax CHaMnep TaK>Ke o6a3aH ^eiiCTBOBaTb ckpmtho h He pac- 
HiH(})poBbiBaTbca. ^Jia 3Toro oh flOJi>KeH He 3a6biBaTb npo nepncKon, cneuHajibHbiH KaMyc})jia>K h nonb- 
30BaTbca hmh. KaK TOJibKO no3HHHa 3aH»Ta, CTpaxyiomHii CHaiinepa coTpy^HHK flOKJia^biBaeT: "il 
TpHfluaTbiii, no3Hu,Hio 3aHaji". npn o6Hapy>KeHHH uejiH flOKJiaflbiBaeT: "5{ TpHflu,aTbiH, u,ejib 3axBaTHJi". 
ByKBa "P" b no3biBHOM flOJi>KHa npncyTCTBOBaTb o6a3aTejibHO - OHa xopoiuo npoxo/urr no 3(})Hpy ^a>Ke 
npn CHJibHbix aTMOC(})epHbix noMexax. 

B nojiHueiicKOH npaKTHKe HHor^a, no bo3mo>khocth, bo H36e>KaHHe CTpeubSbi b ropo^e, Boopy- 
>KeHHoro h ocoSo onacHoro npecTynHHKa oSKJia^biBaiOT co Bcex ctopoh h BbiroHaiOT Ha nycTbipb hjih 
b /ipyroe 6e3onacHoe MecTO, r^e, pyKOBOflCTByacb BbinieonHcaHHbiMH MeTOflHKaMH, ero o6e3Bpe>KHBa- 
eT CHaMnep. TaK nocTynaiOT c TeppopncTaMn, ocoSeHHO ecjin ecTb flaHHbie, hto ohh BOopy>KeHbi rpa- 
HaTaMH. 

^jia Toro hto6w He TpaTHTb BpeMa Ha noncKH no3Hu,HH, CHaiinepcKOH aHTHieppopHCTHHecKOH 
rpynne CJie^yeT 3apaHee onpeflejiHTb no3Hu,HH h ceKTopa oScTpejiOB npn CHaiinepcKOM SjiOKHpoBaHHH 
MecT, b noTeHu,Hajie B03MO>KHbix fljia npoBefleHHa TepaKTOB - BOKBanoB, SaHKOB, asponopTOB, npaBH- 
TejibCTBeHHbix h oSmecTBeHHbix ynpe>KfleHHH, TpaHcnopTHbix pa3B330K, MecT npoBefleHHa MaccoBbix 
MeponpnaTHH. Ha 3thx oSbeKTax ckpmtho, He npnBJieKaa BHHMaHHa, cjie/iyeT npoBecTH HiTaTHbie 

TpeHHpOBKH C npOITI03HpOBaHHeM BapnaHTOB B03MO>KHOrO pa3BHTH3 CoSbiTHH. 

CHAHnEPW nPOTHB BOH B TOJIIIE (BOCnPOH3BE^EHHE COBBITHH) 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 230 



B MnpoBOH npaKTHKe nojinnnH h cnencjiy>K6 cjiynaeTca n eme o#hh HenprormbiH momcht, Bep- 
Hee, ra/iKHH nojinrHHecKHH npneivi Bcaicoro po#a onno3HnnH. Boii b Tonne. 3aKjnoHaeTca oh b tom, hto 
npn npoBefleHHH MaccoBbix MeponpnaTnn - MHTHHroB, fleMOHCTpannii h t. %., - Kor^a CTpacTH Haica- 
jiaiOTca, npoBOu,HpyeTca ^paica. flua ee npeceneHHa, pa3yMeeTca, noflCKaKHBaeT SjiH^anmnn nojin- 
u,eHCKHH Hapafl. Ero npnSbrrna y>Ke o>KHflaiOT, h Ha nojinneHCKHx HaSpacbiBaiOTca npeBoexoflainHMn 
CHJiaMH. Ha BbipynKy H36HBaeMbix KOJiner BbiflBHraeTca Sojiee MHoroHncneHHbiH OTpafl nojinneHCKHx, 
KOTopbiM BbiHy>KfleH npoSnBaTbca nepe3 cnennajibHO co3flaBaeMyio nnoTHyio Tonny, npnneM areHTbi 
onno3Hu,HH cneu,HanbHO co3flaiOT KOH(})jiHKTHbie CHTyau,HH, flOBOfla nojinneHCKHx #o 03BepeHH». B xofl 
HanHHaiOT HflTH flySHHKH. OScTaHOBKa HaKanaeTca. HanHHaeTca noBanbHaa ^paica. 03BepeBniHe no- 
jinnencKHe 6bK)T flySHHKaMH h npaBoro, h BHHOBaToro. B pa^bi nojinneHCKHx 3a6pacbiBaeTca neTap^a. 
Co3flaeTca rpoxoT. Uor stot rpoxoT CHaMnep onno3nnHH c nepflaica hjih ^pyroro yfloSHoro fljia 
CTpenbSbi MecTa noflCTpejiHBaeT jiioSoro HenpnnacTHoro k coSbiTHaM 3eBaKy, OKa3aBineroca b6jih3h 
noSonma. Tonna 3BepeeT. CHaMnep He o6a3aTejibHO BbiCTpejinr b oSbiBaTena. CHannep MO>KeT 3acTpe- 
jiHTb opaTopa Ha MHTHHre, KOToporo "noflCTaBnr" onno3Hnnji. CHaMnep MO>KeT noflCTpejinrb Kaicoe- 
jihSo BbicoKonocTaBJieHHoe hjih BJinaTejibHoe jihuo, npncyrcTByiomee Ha MaccoBOM MeponpnaTHH 
(KOTopoe TO>Ke noflCTaBHT onno3Hu,Ha). 

Kto-to SpocaeT rpaHaTy. HannHaiOTca xaoc n ^aBica. Bo Bcex >KepTBax onno3Hu,Ha o6BHH»eT 

BJiaCTH. KpOBaBblH KOH(})JIHKT - JiyHHiee CpeflCTBO, HT06bI CflBHHyTb c MecTa nOJIHTHHeCKyK) HHepT- 

HOCTb HacejieHHa. DiaBHoe, htoSw stot Jiefl TpoHynca (BceM 3HaKOMaa (J)pa3a), a ^anee nojinTHHecKne 
coSbiTHa SyflyT pa3roH3Tbca 6e3yMHon SHeprneii Mace, KOTopbie Bcer^a h npn jiioSom nojinrnHecKOM 
pe>KHMe 6yp,yi hcm-to HeflOBOJibHbi. IIotom, pa3yMeeTca, Bee BepHeTca, KaK h Swjio, ho y>Ke npn ho- 
bwx nojiHTHKax. ,Z],ypaKaM 3Toro HMKor^a He nororrb. 

TaKne coSbiTHa BpeMa ot BpeivteHH npoHCxofljrr b pa3JiHHHbix TOHKax 3eMHoro niapa. Mep30CTb 
3Ta flOKaTHJiacb n #o Hac. 

HOJIHUeHCKHM BCeX CTpaH TpH>KflbI HanJieBaTb Ha aMSnUHH IIOJIHTHKOB. HO nOJIHU,eHCKHX 3a- 

CTaBJiaiOT OTBenaTb 3a HanHnne HeBHHHbix >KepTB. npaBHrejibCTBO, He >Kejiaa CKaH^ajia, TpycnHBO CBa- 
jiHBaeT Bee nponcmeflinee Ha nojinnHio, oSbacroia cjiynHBineeca HeKOMneTeHTHOCTbio n 6e3rpaMOT- 
HbiMH fleMcTBHaMH CTpa>KeH npaBonopaflica. fljia npaBHTejibCTBa 3to HacTOJibKO y^oSHO, hto CTano 
fle>KypHOH peaKnnen npaKTHHecKH bo Bcex CTpaHax h npn Bcex nojiHTHnecKHx pe>KHMax. 

H no3TOMy b CTpaHax c pa3BHToii fleMOKpaTHeM (a fleivtoKpaTHJi oneHb Hy>KflaeTca b nojiHu,eHCKOH 
AySHHKe) nojiHu,Ha HaynHJiacb npeceKaTb nojiHTHHecKHe npoBOKau,HH b 3apoflbinie. H ^ejiaeT sto 
oneHb SbiCTpo, HenpeKJiOHHO h >KecTKO. 

nojiHu,eHCKHe MeponpnaTHa npoTHB 6oeB b TOJine - 3to ciuioiiihoh HecTaH^apT, CBoeo6pa3Haa 
nrpa b niaxMaTbi, b KOTopoM nojiHu,Ha flOJi>KHa cbirpaTb Jiynnie npoTHBHHKa. 

OflHH H3 BapnaHTOB pa3BHTHa TaKHx coSbiTHH, npoHCineflniHH Ha naMaTH aBTopa He TaK ^aBHO b 
eBponeiicKOM ropo^e B., He OTJiHHanca opHrHHanbHOCTbio h 6bm ^OBOJibHO paflOBbiM. CoSbiTna pa3BH- 
BanHCb no HaicaTaHHOMy cu,eHapHio. 3a ^eHb #o MaHH(})ecTaLi,HH nojiHu,eHCKHH hhh flaBan cneflyiomHH 
HHCTpyKTa>K noflHHHeHHbiM npaMO Ha MecTe npeflnonaraeMbix coSbiTHH: "fl.paKy 3aBa>KyT bot 3flecb, 
B03Jie TpnSyHbi, r/ie Sy^yr TOJinHTbca BbiCTynaiOHiHe. nocTaBbTe 3flecb jHOfleii noKpenne. Ot 3Toro 
MecTa boh k TOMy noflbe3fly >KHJioro flOMa b TOJiny He3aMeTHO BUQffpine noSojibnie Haninx jnoflen b 
HiTaTCKOM. nycTb ohh pacnojio>KaTca "nojiocKoii" h npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH co3flaflyr CBoeo6pa3HbiH 

"KOpHflOp" flJia CHJIOBOH 3BaKyai],HH 3aHHHH(HKOB flpaKH. C oSpaTHOH CTOpOHbl noflbe3fla, bo flBope, y 

nepHoro xo^a, nocTaBbTe nojiHHeHCKHH (})yproH. ycnjieHHbiH Hapafl c no>KapHbiMH ManiHHaMH MO>KeT 
BbiflBHHyrbca TOJibKO c toh yjiHu,bi. Ho3TOMy CTpenaTb no hhm, a Taioice no TpnSyHe BbiroflHee c nep- 

flaHHblX OKOH BOT 3TOrO flOMa, KOTOpblH HaXOflHTCfl B CTBOpe C 3THMH B03MO>KHbIMH U,eJIHMH, B CTBOpe 

Me>Kfly flpyrHMH flOMaMH h ^OBOJibHO flaneKO 3a jinmieH onenneHna. (fl,ocTaeT SnHOKJib n ^aeT no- 
CMOTpeTb noflHHHeHHbiM.) OcHOBHaa Macca jnoflen Bcer^a ctoht bot 3#ecb (noKa3biBaeT MecTo), n no- 
3TOMy rpaHaTy Sy^yr SpocaTb HMemio ciofla. H CKopee Bcero, ee Sy^yr SpocaTb H3-3a stoto CTOJiSa - 
Tyr ee mo>kho He3aivteTHO ^ocTaTb h SpocHTb npaBOH pyicon, ocoSeHHO He npnBJieKaa BHHMaHHa (noica- 
3biBaeT ctojiS, HaxoflaniHHca "3a cnHHaMH TOJinw"). CTpenaTb H3 nncTOJieTa no Tonne Sy^yT, CKopee 
Bcero, OTCiOfla, H3 3Toro npoyjiKa - OTCiOfla y^oSHO CTpenaTb c pa3BopoTOM bjicbo, n yKpbiTne cjieBa ot 
CTpenKa. ApaKy B03Jie TpnSyHbi 3aTeiOT Bep3HJibi, a c rpaHaTon h flpyrnivt opy>KHeM Sy^yT MajieHbKne, 
HeB3panHbie n rHycHoro BH^a. 3to MoryT SbiTb h >KeHH(HHbi. CHaiinepcKyio BHHTOBKy aojckhm npn- 
HecTH Ha no3Hu,Hio y>Ke ceroflHa BenepoM n TaM 3aMacKnpoBaTb. CTpenaTb Sy^yT H3 rjiySnHbi nep^a- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 231 

Ka, BcnwniKH bh^ho He 6y#eT n rpoxoT BbiCTpena npnrjiyniHTca. Bo3Jie no3HUHH CHannepa SynroB- 
mHKH BbiCTaBaT onepaTHBHoe npHKpwTHe. Cennac hx TporaTb He 6y#eM, a B03bMeM Tor^a, Kor^a 
CHaMnep Bbin^eT Ha py6e>K. 

Bwxofl Ha flBe Sojibinne yunnbi ocTaBJiaeM cboSoahmm - b cjiynae CMjrreHna Tonne hjokho icy^a- 
to pacceaTbca. 

IIocKOJibKy CHannepa o6e3Bpe#HM, a SyHTOBinHicaM nocTaBJieHHyio 3a#any Ha^o 6y#eT Bbinoji- 
H»Tb, ohh CTaHyr cyflopo>KHO HCKaTb no3Hu,Hio Ha xofly h, CKopee Bcero, CTpenaTb 6y#yT c Kpbim sthx 
flOMOB (noKa3biBaeT KaKnx). IIocTaBbTe jnoflen bo Bee MecTa, OTKy^a TOJibKO mo>kho 6y#eT CTpenaTb, 
nycTb CHflaT Ha sthx no3Hu,Hax CKpbiTHO h He BbicoBbiBaiOTca. 3a^ana HaniHM CHaiinepaM - jhoSoh hh- 
flHBHfl, noaBHBHiHHca c opy>KHeM Ha Kpbinie, b Hep/iaHHOM OKHe, CTeHHOM npoeivte, npeflCTaBJiaeT co- 
6oh nenb h flOJi>KeH SbiTb yHHHTO>KeH caMOCToaTenbHbiM oraeM 6e3 npnica3a. Hanin CHannepbi onpe- 
flejiaiOT h 3aHHMaiOT no3Hu,HH caMOCTOjrrejibHo". 

Ha cjieflyiOHiHH p,QHb B03Jie #OMa, yKa3aHHoro me(})OM, cjiohjhotcji MOJiOflbie h KpenKne napHH. 
3to h ecTb onepaTHBHoe npnicpbiTHe CHaiinepa onno3Hu,HH. Ha nnomafln coSnpaeTca Hapofl. HencTOB- 
CTByiOT opaTopw. Tonna HaicajiaeTca. Bo3Jie TpnSyHbi nponcxoflnr hto-to HenoHjrmoe. JIioflH b nrraT- 
ckom SeroM TaHyr nepe3 TOJiny mojioahhkob, 3aKOBaHHbix b HapynHHKn h c KJianaMH bo pTy. .flpyrne 
jnoflH b niTaTCKOM co3flaiOT nepefl hhmh "BaKyyM", jiobko h bokjihbo OTrecHaa b CTopoHy Hnnero He 

nOHHMaiOHlHX MaHH(|)eCTaHTOB. napHeil C 3aTKHyTbIMH pTaMH BTaCKHBaiOT B nOflbe3fl >KHJIOrO flOMa, 

KOTopwH cpa3y >Ke 3aKpwBaeTca. Hhkto minero He MO>KeT noHaTb. C oSpaTHoM ctopohm no#be3fla, y 
nepHoro xo#a, mojioawx jnoflen ca>KaiOT b nojinneHCKHH (})yproH, KOTopbiii TyT >Ke OTbe3>KaeT. 

Mojiofloii My>KHHHa MOJina npoxo/nrr mhmo napHen, npHKpbiBaBHiHx CHannepcKyio no3nnnio. 
noAHHMaeTca HaBepx. ,3,ocTaeT H3 TaiiHHKa 3aBepHyTyio b 6pe3eHT BHHTOBKy "3acTaBa" c onrnHecKHM 
npHuejiOM. 3aHHMaeT no3Hnnio B03Jie nepflaHHoro OKHa. B sto BpeMa BHH3y jhoah b niTaTCKOM yace 
KJia/iyT jihhom Ha ac(j)ajibT napHen H3 npnicpbiBaiomeH CHaiinepa rpynnw. BBepxy, Ha nepflaice, CHaii- 
nep cjibiniHT c3a^H ce6a HenoHjrmbiii Jiencnii myM. Oh oSopannBaeTca h B03Jie CBoero Jinna bh^ht 
ocKaneHHyio coSanbio nacTb. H3 TeMHoro yraa KOMaH^a coSaice: "CrepeHb!" KoMaH^a CHaiinepy: 
"JIhuom Ha non! He flBnraTbca!" 

Ha njioma^H, B03Jie CTOJiSa, o6o3HaHeHHoro me(|)OM, jhoah b nrraTCKOM Ha^eBaiOT HapynHHKH Ha 
HeB3panHoro BH^a My>KHHOHKy. TpaHaT y Hero He Swjio, ho no# rniamoM o6Hapy>KHBaiOT #Be SyTbijncn 

C 6eH3HHOM. 

B npoyjiKe, kotopom ynoMHHan HaHanbHHK, BOJiOKyT b ManiHHy noTacKaHHoro BH^a fleBnny c 
KopHHHeBbiMH pa3BO#aMH no# raa3aMH. OHa jibho no# HapKOTHKOM. nofl KypTKoii y Hee Haxofljrr HTa- 
jibaHCKyio "BepeTTy" c nonHbiM Mara3HHOM. 

nojiHu,eHCKHe CHannepbi 3aMenaiOT Ha Kpbinie OflHoro H3 aomob nejiOBeica c fljiHHHbiM npeflMe- 
tom, 3aBepHyTbiM bo hto-to CBerjioe. EMy flaiOT noflHSTbca Ha KOHeK KpbiuiH h pacnexjiHTbca. B onTH- 
necKne npHuejibi bh^ho, hto 3to onaTb-TaKH BHHTOBKa "3acTaBa". HenoBeK, npHrnSaacb, nmeT MecTO 
fljia CTpejibSbi. Tpn nojiHu,eHCKHx BbiCTpena c pa3Hbix ctopoh. HenoBeK na^aeT. JIokht HenoflBH>KHO. 
3to eflHHCTBeHHbiH Tpyn b ceroflHauiHeH MaHH(J)ecTaLi,HH" Ho oh flaneico ot Tonnbi, h ero He bh^ho. 

Ha njioniaflH minero HOBoro He nponcxoflHT. OpaTopw roBopaT 06 o^hom h tom >kc Tonne CTa- 
HOBHTca CKyHHO. BHHMaHHe nepeiaiiOHaeTca Ha nHBHbie Sohkh h jiotohhhkob, Topryiomnx cbecTHbiM. 
JIotohhhkob CTaHOBHTca Bee SojibHie. Tonna HanHHaeT ecTb h noHeMHory paccacbiBaeTca no pa3HbiM 
HanpaBJieHHaM. nojiHTHnecKaa fleMOHCTpau,Ha KOBapHbiMH ycHJinaMH nojiHu,eHCKHx npeBpaTHJiacb b 
oSbiHHoe HapoflHoe rynaHHe. OcTaBiuaaca Ha njiomaflH HeSojibiuaa HHHu,HaTHBHaa KynKa SyHTOBHiH- 
kob onacHOCTH y>Ke He npeflCTaBJiaeT. 

CEKblOPHTH nPOTHB CHAHnEPA (BOCnPOH3BE^EHHE COBWTH5I) 

B tom ace ropo^e B. nepHbin jiHMy3HH ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca B03Jie 0(})Hca. B conpoBoacfleHHH oxpa- 

Hbl 60CC BblXOflHT H3 MaiHHHbl H 3aXOflHT B nOflbe3fl. 3Ty CU,eHy HaSjHOflaiOT HITaTCKHH H My>KHHHa 
Cpe^HHX JieT B naTHHCTOH (|)OpMe. 

BOEHHBIH: Bocca MO>KeT chstb CHaiinep. Bot cmotph, ManiHHa Ka>KflbiH pa3 ocTaHaBJiHBaeTca 
b oahom h tom >Ke MecTe. Boccy OTKpwBaiOT flBepny, h oh, Bbixofla H3 ManiHHbi, BbiHy>KfleH npoiiTH no 
npaMOH MeTp-nonTopa, orpaHHHeHHbin nojiyoTKpbiTon flBepnen h caMOH ManinHOH. nocne nero 6occ 
H^eT no npaMon MeTpoB ^ecaTb k ^BepaM oc})Hca. J\im CHaiinepa sto oneHb y^oSHO. 

IIITATCKHH: Hy h hto? Tenepb Sy^eM CTaBHTb ManiHHy b pa3Hbix MecTax; 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 232 

BOEHHblH. OcoSeHHOCTb 3Toro MOMeHTa b tom, hto, KaK 6bi hh CTaBHJiH ManiHHy, conpa>Ke- 
HHe HanpaBJieHHa Bbixoaa H3 Hee Bcer^a 6y#eT b CTBope c HanpaBJieHHeM 3axo#a b ^Bepn, npaKTHne- 
ckh flecaTb MeTpoB niec}) Bee BpeMa 6y#eT ^BHraTbca no npaMOH c He3HaHHrejibHbiMH OTKnoHeHHaMH b 
ctopohm, He3aBHCHMO ot Toro, noH^eT oh H3 ManiHHbi npaMO b flBepb hjih Sy^eT ornSaTb ManiHHy no- 
cjie Bbixofla H3 Hee 

IIoflroHaiOT ManiHHy, 3KcnepHMeHTHpyiOT, nojiynaeTca TaK, KaK CKa3an BoemibiH. 

IIITATCKHH: Ille^a 3aKpwBaeT oxpaHa co Bcex ctopoh, h oh b SpoHOKHJieTe; 

BOEHHblH: Ot CHannepa He cnaceT hh oxpaHa, hh 6poHe>KHJieT. C Sokob ero 3aKpbiBaiOT, a 

CBepxy OH OTKpbIT nOJIHOCTbK). BOT CMOTpH, KaK HapOHHO, H flOM BblCOTHbffl Ha JIHHHH 3THX fleCaTH 

MeTpoB. H b HeM a BH>Ky HecKOJibKO ToneK /uia CTpeubSbi. A bot h onepaTHBHoe npmcpbiTHe fljia CHaM- 
nepa. (Bo3Jie noflbe3fla BbicoTHoro flOMa cn^aT Ha CKaMeHKe flBoe napHen h KypaT.) H TpaHcnopT hx 
ctoht - nerKOBaa ManiHHa, b Mepy noMaTaa, htoSm BHHMaHHa He npHBJieKaTb, h HOMep rpa3bio 3a- 
6pbi3raH. BHHTOBKa HaBepHaKa y>Ke Ha no3Hu,HH A h ohh 3to Bee oxpaHaKxr. 

IIITATCKHH: H BepHO, 3thx peSaT a 3#ecb paHbine He BH^eji, h ManiHHbi 3toh TO>Ke. Hto npefl- 
jiaraenib? 

BOEHHblH: Ohh HaBepHaKa npoHaSjnoflanH 3a me(|)OM h 3HaiOT, hto oh Bbin^eT yrpoM, KaK 
Bcer^a b 9.30. HanHeivt nepeA paccBeTOM. 

YTpo. Ha nacax 9.00. K no#be3fly BbicoTHoro flOMa noflxoflHT coSpaHHbin My>KHHHa b flbiMnaTbix 

OHKaX. npOXOflHT MHMO 3eBaK>mHX MOJIOflblX JHOfleH, nOflHHMaeTCa B JIH(|)Te. HOflXOflHT K BeHTHJiaHH- 

ohhoh OTflyniHHe, H3 TaiiHHKa H3BJieKaeT BHHTOBKy, jio>KHTca, npnKHflbiBaeT H3roTOBKy. C3a^H eMy Ha 
meio HacTynaeT Ta>KejibiH apMencKHH Sothhok. ^pyroii Sothhok HacTynaeT Ha BHHTOBKy. 3anaMbiBa- 
k)t pyKH, Ha^eBaiOT HapynHHKH. Bo3Jie noflbe3fla napHeii H3 onepaTHBHoro npnKpbiTHa BanaT BCTpen- 
hmmh npneivtaMH, caacaioT b nojiHueiicKyio ManiHHy. Bee oSoiujiocb 6e3 CTpejibSbi. Jlynmaa onepauHa 
- Bce-TaKH SecKpoBHaa. 

3to peaKHH cjiynan, Kor^a Bee oSohijiocb SjiaronojryHHO h 6e3 CTpejibSbi. Ot CHainiepa- 
BnpTyo3a, KaK npaBHJio, cnaceHba HeT. B naTH^ecaTbix ro^ax b EBpone npoH3omeji HaiuyMeBHiHH 
CJiynan, Kor^a HeroBecTHbm CHannep 3acTpejiHJi H3BecTHoro 6H3HecMeHa Ha xoay, b SpoHHpoBamiOH 
ManiHHe c SpoHHpoBaHHbiMH CTeKJiaMH. Boccy CTano >KapKO, h oh otkpmji Kocyio SoKOByio (J)opTOHKy - 
TaKne SbiJiH Ha CTapwx ManiHHax. HeSojibmon mejiH OKa3anocb ^ocTaTOHHO, htoSm CHannep "nofljio- 
bhji" MOMeHT Ha noBopoTe floporn h flocTan "KnneHTa" Ha xo#y b ronoBy. Cy#a no pe3yjibTaTy bm- 
CTpena h ycjiOBHaM, b KOTopwx oh 6bi.11 cflejiaH, sto 6bi.11 flencTBHTejibHO HacToamHH CHannep. CHan- 
nep, 3acTpejiHBniHH aMepnKaHCKoro npe3H^eHTa ,3,>KOHa KeHHefln Ha flHCTaHHHH He Sojiee 200 MeTpoB 
h CTpejiaBniHH no ManiHHe, eflymeji co CKopocTbio Serymero nejiOBeKa, He 6bi.11 CTpenKOM BbicoKoro 
Knacca. 

nosTOMy oxpaHe CJie^yeT noMeHbme 3eBaTb n noname npo(|)HJiaKTHpoBaTb MecTa, OTKy^a Socca 
MoryT flocTaTb ropanen nyneH. noncK h BbiaBJieHne sthx no3Hnnn npoBO^aTca aHanornnHO KOHrpc- 
HannepcKHM MeponpnaTHaM, npoBOflHMbiM b ynHHHbix 6oax (cm. paHee). CHannep KOBapeH, oh He 
o6a3aTejibHO MO>KeT CTpenaTb c nep^aKa hjih OKHa HanpoTHB (KOTopbie ceKbiopnrn n TaK o6a3aHbi 
KOHTpojinpoBaTb nocToaHHo). CHannep MO>KeT CTpenaTb H3 noflBanbHbix mejieM h #a>Ke H3 MycopHon 
Kynn. noBepbTe, y Hero xBaTHT Tepnemia cn^eTb b Hen ctojibko, CKOJibKO Ha^o. HanBHO nojiaraTb, hto 
Socca MO>KeT 3an(HTHTb SpoHHpoBaHHbin Kopnyc ManiHHbi. Y>Ke HeoflHOKpaTHO CTpenKn, 3aceBinne b 
noABanbHbix OKHax Ha flpyroM CTopoHe yjiHii,bi hjih nnontafln, CTpejiajin no HoraM mec})a nepe3 npo- 
CTpaHCTBO nofl flHHmeM ero jiHMy3HHa, flo>KflaBHiHCb MOMeHTa, Kor^a oh npn Bbixo^e BCTaHeT Ha Horn. 
A noTOM CTpejiajin no caMOMy me(|)y, Kor^a oh na^an, - TO>Ke nepe3 npocTpaHCTBO nofl riuiuiqm. H 
neM fljiHHHee jiHMy3HH, TeM Jiyniue y CHaiinepoB sto nojiynaeTca. nosTOMy nepefl Bbixo^OM oxpaHae- 
Moro jiHua H3 ManiHHbi BbiBemnBaeTca kobphk - ot ^HHina h ^o acc})ajibTa. 

BbiBaiOT h ^pyrne BapnaHTbi. He TaK ^aBHO b ra3eTax onncbiBajiH TaKoii cjiynan: Kor^a 6occ 
Bbinieji H3 ManiHHbi, OKpy>KeHHbiH njiOTHbiM KOJibnoM TejioxpaHHTejieii, OTKy^a-TO Spocnjin rpaHaTy 
O-l c /niKHM BonjieM "jio>KHCb!". CeKbiopHTH noBanHJiH nie(})a Ha 3eMJiio. H corjiacHO HHCTpyKii,HH, 
jierjiH c Sokob ot Hero. Bee >KflanH, Kor^a rpaHaTa epaSoTaeT. Ho OHa SbiJia 6e3 3anana h TaK h He B30- 
pBanacb, a Bee npncyTCTByiOHiHe >KflanH B3pwBa h Ha BcaKHH cjiynaii He noflHHManHCb h CBepxy npefl- 
CTaBJiajiH coSoh npeBoexoflHbie OTKpbiTbie u,ejiH, jieacaniHe Ha acc|)ajibTe. HeH3BecTHbiH CTpejiOK (H3-3a 
6jih30Cth flHCTamniH CTpejibSw oh He "TaHyji" Ha 3BaHne CHannepa) CBepxy paccTpejiaji Socca, KaK b 
THpe. 

KaK noKa3biBaeT MnpoBaa CTaTHCTHKa, b oSopoHe ceKbiopnTH ot CHannepa orojieHHbix mcct 60- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 233 

nee neM flocraTOHHO. TejioxpaHHiejiH - Sojibineii nacTbio pyKonaniHHKH h CTpejiaiOT HeBa>KHO. IIpo- 
(})HJiaKTHpoBaTb paSoTy CHaiinepa-TeppopHCTa no oxpaHaeMOMy Jinny mo>kho tojibko BCTpenHbiMH 
ycHJiHaMH rpaMOTHoro CHaiinepa, HCKynieHHoro b CHaiinepcKHx n KOHipcHaiinepcKHx xmpocTax. 
Crpejurrb npn stom no TeppopncTy He o6a3aTejibHO. CTpejiKa-TeppopncTa mo>kho Bee BpeMa "ocTaB- 
jiaTt c hocom" h HenTpajiH30BaTb TaierHHecKHM HanpaBJieHHeM coSbnnii. B noncKax hobwx MeTOflOB, 
cnocoSoB n no3Hu,HH fljia CTpejibSbi CHannep-TeppopncT o6a3aTejibHO npoaBmca. Ilpn CMeHe oScToa- 
TejibCTB Bcer^a 6y#eT 3aMeneH o#hh h tot 5Ke nejiOBeic n o#hh h Te >Ke coBna^eHHa b H3MeHeHHH 06- 
CTaHOBKn. 3a pa3BHTneM coSmthh Ha^o BHHMaTejibHO HaSjiiOflaTb TpeHnpoBaHHbiM B3rjiaflOM. H b Ta- 
kom cjiynae o6e3Bpe/niTb CHaiinepa mo>kho nyreM cnnoBoro 3axBaTa. Jlynmaa onepan,na - Bce-TaKH 
SecKpoBHaa. 

OxpaHa Socca flOJi>KHa BHHMaTejibHO ocMaTpnBaTb npnneraiomyio 30Hy OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH n 06- 
pamaTb BHHMaHne Ha cboSoaho KOJibimymneca Ha BeTpy jiemoHKH, Tpanomcn, >KeHCKHe KanpoHOBbie 
nyjiKH h nponee, hto MO>KeT cjiy>KHTb (JwnorepoM ^Jia CHaiinepa. Ecjih hto-to nofloSHoe SojrraeTca Ha 
flepeBe hjih BeTBax KycTapHHKa, #0Ji>KeH B03HHKaTb ecTecTBeHHbin Bonpoc: 3aneM oho 3#ecb bhcht, 
ecjiH oho flOJi>KHO no jiornKe BerneM jie>KaTb? CneflyeT oSpamaTb BHHMaHHe Ha noaBJieHne cbokhx 
BbimepSnH Ha CTeHax ^omob no MapmpyTy cneflOBaHHa Socca - sto MO>KeT SbiTb cnefl ot npncTpejiKH 
CHaiinepa no opnenrnpaM. Cjie^yeT oSpamaTb BHHMaHne Ha rpoMKO paSoTaiomne MexaHH3Mbi b 30He 

OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH H Ha BpeMa HX BKJIIOHeHHa H BblKJIIOHeHHa - OHH MOryT 3arJiyHIHTb CHaiinepCKHii Bbl- 

CTpen Jiynnie jnoSoro rjiyniHiejia. B ropo^e B. 6occ, Bbiiifla H3 ManiHHbi, b KOJibue oxpaHbi noflHHMaji- 
ca no jiecTHnne k ^Bepn ocjmca. IIoflHHMajica! HacTb oxpaHHHKOB OKa3anacb Bbinie ero, a nacTb HH>Ke. 
Oh OKa3anca OTKpbiTbiM Ha Tpn ceKyH^bi, h 3Toro SbiJio flOCiaTOHHO, htoSm #o chx nop Hen3BecTHbiii 
CTpeiiOK H3 MajioKajinSepHoii bhhtobkh aKKypaTHO nojio>KHJi eMy nyjuo b 3aTbmoK. Pa^OM, b 150 MeT- 
pax, paSoTan 3KCKaBaTop, h BbiCTpejia hhkto He cjibiniaji. IIo3flHee onepaTHBHO-KpHMHHanHCTHHecKaa 
rpynna, npHSbiBHiaa Ha MecTO npoHcniecTBHa, o6Hapy>KHJia b 15 MeTpax ot MecTa noflorpejia BHca- 
myio Ha flepeBe rpa3Hyio CTpoHiejibHyio pyicaBHiiy, npoSHiyio flByMa nynaMH, o^Hy H3 KOTopwx H3- 
BJieiaiH H3 CTBOJia 3Toro flepeBa npn ero pacnHJiHBaHHH. Kaic noKaBajin CBH^eTejiH, 3Ta pyicaBHua Bnce- 
na Ha flepeBe HecKOJibKO flHeii h Ha Hee hhkto He oSpaman BHHMaHHa. fla>Ke cbuhhich noHanany 
necanH b 3aTbuiKax - Ha Koii nepT sto 6bmo Hy>KHO? flna 3Haiomero nejiOBeica coBepnieHHO oneBHflHO, 
hto HeH3BecTHbiii CTpenoK (He ocoSeHHO BbicoKoro KJiacca) TaKHM o6pa30M npHCTpejiHBanca no opn- 
eHTnpaM KOHKpeTHoro MecTa. 

fljia npo(})HJiaKTHKH CHaiinepcKoii CTpejibSbi no Soccy ero oxpaHe nojie3HO BbiaBJiaTb n ripo(})H- 
jiaKTnpoBaTb MecTa, b npHHunne npnroflHbie fljia oSopyflOBamia CHaiinepcKHx no3Hu,Hii b KOHKpeTHoii 

30He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. KaK ripO(J)HJiaKTHpOBaTb? B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT 06cT0aTeJIbCTB HaKpenKO 3aKpw- 

BaiOTca, 3aMbiKaiOTca hjih 3a#ejibiBaiOTca CTpoHiejibHbiM o6pa30M noflxoflbi Ha Taicne BbiaBJieHHbie no- 
TeHHHanbHbie no3HHHH. Ha caMHx no3Hu,Hax ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca annapaTypa (jiynuie eMKOCTHaa), cnr- 
HanH3Hpyiomaa HanHHHH Ha 3Toii TOHKe nocTopoHHero nejiOBeica. CaMH 3th noTeHHHajibHbie 
no3Hu,HH nepnoAHHecKH npoBepaiOTca h BbiaBJiaiOTca npH3HaKH hx nocemeHHa. Bee menn, noflBanb- 
Hbie h nepflaHHbie OKHa h nponee b OTBeTCTBeHHbie MOMenrbi npocBenHBaiOTca jia3epHbiMH u,ejieyKa3a- 
TenaMH nofl KOHTponeM onTHnecKHx npHSopoB c yBejinneHHeM 20-KpaTHbiM h Sonee. Ckpwtho Sepyr- 
ca Ha yneT h Kompojib Bee jiHu,a, nocToaHHO npo>KHBaiOHiHe hjih paSoTaiomne b 30He 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH, npopaSaTbiBaiOTca h BbiaBJiaiOTca hx CBa3H h KOHTaKTbi. OSpamaeTca ocoSoe BHH- 
MaHne Ha noBefleHne n nepeMemeHna HeroBecTHbix jihu,, OKa3aBHiHxca b 30He OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. J\o- 
SbiBaeTca HH(J)opMaLi,Ha "npHMejibicaBHiHxca" Jiio^ax, He npo>KHBaiomHx h He paSoTaiomnx b 30He 
OTBeTCTBeHHOCTH. BpeMa ot BpeMeHH H3MeHaeTca npHBbiHHbiii pacnopa^oK paSonnx coSmthh Ha 
oxpaHaeMoii (})HpMe. IIpH CHaiinepcKOM npoaBJieHHH MrHOBeHHO 6-noKHpyiOTca nyiH OTxofla c H3BecT- 
hmx h paHee pa3BeflaHHbix CHaiinepcKHx no3Hu,Hii. 

Boccy h ero oxpaHe Hy>KHO SbiTb Sojiee ocTopo>KHbiMH h MeHee oShahhewmh. IIpH nonaflaHHH 

HeM-HH6yflb B OKHO He CneiHHTe BblCOBblBaTbCa H CMOTpeTb, HTO 3TO h KTO 3TO KHHyjI. O^HH OHeHb 

KpyToii h oSHflHHBbiii 6H3HecMeH, TBepflO yacHHBiHHii, hto HHKOMy HHnero Hejib3a npomaTb, na TaKoii 
CTyK noflouieji k OKHy c 3apa>KeHHbiM "noMnoBHKOM" h Tyr >Ke nojiynnji nyjuo b rojiOBy. 

HEnOCPE^CTBEHHAH nO^rOTOBKA CHAHnEPOB B nO^PA3^EJIEHHHX 

CHaiinepoB b ^eiicTByiomHx nacTax Bcer^a He xBaTano, h He Be3#e ohh Swjih nojio>KeHbi no 
niTaTy. 3to nponcxoflHT noTOMy, hto b MnpHoe BpeMa, Kor^a cocTaBJiaiOTca niTaTbi, CHaiinepbi He 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 234 

Hy>KHfei. Hop niTaTHoe pacmicaHHe Bbi^ejiaiOTca opy>KHe, Soenpnnacbi h BpeMa Ha CHannepcKne 3aHa- 
th» (aBTop He oroBopHJica - hmchho Ha 3aH3THa, a HHKaic He Ha TpeHnpoBKH). Abtop homhht, KaK Ha 
CHannepcKne CTpenbSbi cornacHO npHKa3aM nojiaranocb 9 (fleBaTb) naTpoHOB Ha o^Hy crpejibSy. IIo- 
ApoSHbix HHCTpyKu,HH, a TaK>Ke TpeHHpoBaHHoro HHCTpyKTopcKoro cocTaBa CHaiinepoB b MnpHoe Bpe- 
m TO>Ke npeflycMOTpeHO He 6bmo. 

Ha/ioSHOCTb b CHaiinepax pe3KO h BHe3anHO B03pacTaeT npn Be^emm SoeBbix KaMnaHHH, Kor^a 
CHaiinepbi TpeSyiOTca b Sojibhihx KOJinnecTBax. OcoSemio ocTpo 3to omymaeTca b ropax h ropo#ax, 
trq SoeBbie pqPlctbkr cnnonib h pjmoM hocst HecTaH^apTHbiH xapaierep. Ho payKQ b BoeHHoe BpeMa 
nepeflenaTb HiTaTHyio paccTaHOBKy He no3BOJiaeT Boemio-SiopoKpaTHHecKHH ciaiepo3, H3BenHoe 6ep- 

CTBHe POCCHHCKOH ApMHH. 

B coBpeMeHHbix ropannx TOHKax npoTHBHHK onepe>KaeT (})eflepajibHbie Boncica TeM, hto eMy, 
npoTHBHHKy, niTaTHoe pacnncaHHe He Hy>KHO. IIpothbhhk npocTO pa3#aeT CHannepcKHe bhhtobkh 
TeM, kto Sojiee-MeHee CTpenaeT nojiynnie, h opraHH3yeT oSynefflie CHaiinepoB npaMO b xopc SoeBbix 
flencTBHH. 

3to Hani pyccKHH mctoa, KOTopbiM mm nojib30BanHCb npn oSopoHe CTanHHrpa^a h o kotopom 
mm >Ke h 3a6biJiH. B CTanHHrpa^cKOH KaMnaHHH CHaHnep-npo^eccHOHan Span b yneHHKH h accHcreH- 
tm cnocoSHbix CTpejiKOB h oSynan hx 6e3 OTpbiBa ot SoeBoii paSoTbi. MacTepa roTOBHJiH MacTepoB - 
TeM h cnacjiHCb b 1942- 1943 it. 3to y>Ke noTOM opraHH30BanH TpexMecanHbie, a 3aTeM h BOCbMHMe- 
caHHbie Kypcbi CHamiepoB (sto b to CTpaniHoe BoeHHoe BpeMa!). 

Cennac HeT pawe TaKoro. IToaTOMy b coBpeMemiOH SoeBoM oScTaHOBKe CHamiepoB npHxoflHrca 
roTOBHTb npaMO Ha nepeflOBoii, OTSnpaa pirn 3Toro HanSonee cnocoSHbix crpejiKOB. HeTKoii, pacnn- 
caHHOH n yTBep>KfleHHOH HanaiibCTBOM nporpaMMbi npn stom SbiTb He MO>KeT. B xop kpqt SeccncTeM- 
ho jnoSaa HH(})opMaii,Ha, nocTynaiomaa H3 jhoSmx cnpaBOHHbix hctohhhkob. 5KecTOKaa SoeBaa Heo6- 
xoflHMOCTb BonnomaeT nojiyneHHbie 3HaHna b npaKTHnecKoe npHMeHeHne. IIpH stom H3-3a 
OTcyTCTBHa HHCTpyKii,HH ynycKaeTca n He Hcnonb3yeTca Macca nojie3Hbix npaKTnnecKHx momchtob. 
IIo3TOMy payKQ Ha Boiuie npn noflroTOBKe CHaiinepoB Hy>KHO coSniOflaTb onpefleneHHyio nocjieflOBa- 

TeJIbHOCTb. 

IIocKOJibKy no nrraTy CHaMnepcKHx bhhtobok npe^ycMOTpeHO CTOJibKO, CKOJibKO npeflycMOTpe- 
ho CHaiinepoB, a B03pocmee KonnnecTBO CHaiinepoB Hy>KHO neM-TO BOopy>KaTb, to b xop npyr caMbie 
pa3HOo6pa3Hbie bhhtobkh, OTenecTBeHHbie n Tpoc^einrbie, aSconiOTHO HOBbie n oneHb H3HomeHHbie. 

BBe^eHHe b CHaMnepcKHH npoMbicen HanHHaiOT c H3yneHHa ycrpoHCTBa opy>KHa pa3JinnHbix cn- 
CTeM, npHHnnna ero paSoTbi, B3aHMOflencTBHa nacTen n MexaHH3MOB npn BbiCTpene, TeopnH CTBOJia h 
SoenpnnacoB. HoBHHKy noKa3biBaiOT npneMbi yxo^a 3a opy>KHeM h ero c6epe>KeHHa b npaKTnnecKHx 
noneBbix ycjiOBnax. B KpaTnanmee BpeMa HOBHHKa 3acTaBJiaiOT ocBOHTb npaBHJibHOCTb paSoTbi c on- 
TnnecKHM npnnejiOM. H TOJibKO nocjie 3Toro HannHaiOT xonocTbie TpeHnpoBKH H3 CHaiinepcKoro opy- 
>Kna ne>Ka c HapaSoTKOH npaKTHnecKOH ycTOHHHBOCTH. HoBHHKa 3acTaBJiaiOT nepeSeraTb h non3aTb c 
bhhtobkoh, TpeHHpyiOT ero b pa6oTe H3 bhhtobkh c KoneHa h CToa. Hcnojib3yiOT fljia 3Toro nioSyio 
B03MO>KHOCTb. Ilocjie Toro KaK HapaSoTaHa ycTonnnBOCTb, npoH3BOfl»T npoBepKy HapaSoTaHHoro 
npaKTHnecKOH CTpenbSoii. HoBHHKa o6a3aTejibHO oSynaiOT CTpenaTb c npHMeHeHneM peMHa, nocne 
nero H3ynaiOT npHHnnnbi CHannepcKOH SamiHCTHKH, CHannepcKHe SamiHCTHHecKHe TaSjinnbi, BBefle- 
Hne nonpaBOK. OflHOBpeMeHHO npoxofljrr TpeHnpoBKH Ha onpefleneHne flanbHOCTH po nejieft. Ilocjie 
nero npoH3BOflHTca nepBbin BbiCTpen nepe3 (J)poHT - npncTpenKa no opneHTHpaM b rjiySnHe oSopoHbi 
npoTHBHHKa. C 3Toro MOMeHTa HOBHHKa npHKpemunoT k SbiBanoMy CHaHnepy-HacTaBHHKy, h oh 
HanHHaeT SoeByio paSoTy c hhm b nape. C nepBbix >Ke MHHyr HacTaBHHK oSynaeT HanapHHKa ocHOBaM 

MaCKHpOBKH, CHaMnepCKOH TaKTHKH H CHaftnepCKHM XHTpOCTSM. HaCTaBHHK npOH3BOflHT CTpeJIKOBbie 

TpeHnpoBKH co CTa>KepoM, TmaTenbHO pa36npaa h BbiacHaa npHHHHbi Ka>Kfloro HeyflanHoro BbiCTpena 
h ycTpaHaa nx. 3a Bee fleiiCTBHa CTa>Kepa, KanecTBO ero SoeBoii paSoTbi h 3a ero 6e3onacHOCTb 
HacTaBHHK OTBenaeT tojioboh. OflHOBpeMemio o6a OTBenaiOT nepefl KOMaH^OBaHHeM 3a pe3ynbraTHB- 
HOCTb flencTBHH Ha nepe^HeM Kpae. BoeBaa yneSa, noflKpemiaeMaa >KecTOKon SoeBoii HeoSxoflHMO- 
CTbio, pe3KO noBbiniaeT yneSHyio BoenpHHMHHBOCTb h pe3yjibTaTHBHOCTb SoeBoii ^eaTejibHOCTn. 06y- 
neHne b TaKOH CHannepcKOH nape npoflOJi>KaeTca po Tex nop, noKa HanapHHK-CTa>Kep, fla>Ke 

OTKpblBHIHH JIHHHblH CHeT, He oSpeTeT nOJIHyK) yBepeHHOCTb B CaMOCTOaTeJIbHOH pa60Te. TOJibKO TO- 

rpa ero nepeBO^aT b pa3pafl HacTaBHHKOB h b cboio onepeflb Ha3HanaiOT k HeMy CTa>Kepa. 

KaK noKa3biBaeT npaKTHKa, >KenaiOHiHx HaynnTbca CHannepcKOMy npoMbicny Sonee neM ^ocTa- 
tohho. 3HaiomHH KOMaH^Hp Bcer^a 6ypQT npnBeTCTBOBaTb TaKoe CTpeMneHne, otboas pus 3Toro nacTb 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 235 

CJiy>Ke6Horo BpeMeHH h jinnHoe BpeMa SoiinoB, co3flaBaa hm yanoBHa, pa3yMeeTca, He b ymepS cny>K- 
6e. OneHb SbiCTpo noBbiinaeTca oSmnii ypoBeHb oraeBoii noflroTOBKH, h k TOMy >Ke y SoiinoB bo3hh- 
KaeT HHflHBHflyanbHoe TaKTnnecKoe MbinuieHne. Pa3BeflHHK h CHaiinep - bohhckhc npo(|)eccHH, H^y- 
mne paflOM. IUraTHbiii CHaMnep mtokct h He SbiTb pa3BeflHHKOM, no pa3BeflHHK o6a3aH SbiTb 
CHaftnepoM. CHaiinepcKaa noflroTOBKa - 3to y>Ke SoeBaa TexHOJiorna cneu,Ha3a, ocBoeHHe KOTopoii 
pe3KO noBbiniaeT SoeByio >KHBynecTb jnoSoro noflpa3flejieHHa. Bjihahhc paSoTbi onbiTHoro CHaiinepa 
Ha pa3peuieHHe SoeBoii 3a#aHH, CToameii nepefl noflpa3flejieHHeM, oneHb bcjihko. PeanbHbiH pe3yjibTaT 
CHannepcKOH CTpenbSbi nepeoueHHTb Tpy/jHO - oneHb nacTO paSoTa CHaiinepa noBopannBaeT xofl 6oe- 

BblX CoSblTHH CaMbIM HeO>KHflaHHbIM o6pa30M. 

Bo BpeMa BenHKOH OreHecTBeHHOH bohhm, HecMOTpa na no#roTOBKy CHaiuiepoB b Tbiny, b boh- 
CKax Ha nepeflOBoii pa3BepHyjiocb CHaiinepcKoe #BH>KeHHe, BcanecKH noompaeMoe HananbCTBOM. Mo- 
Jioflbie coji/iaTbi oSynanHCb CHannepcKOMy fleny Ha nepeflOBOH, b kopotkhh cpoK ^OBO^a nojiyneHHbie 
HaBbiKH ^0 aScojiiOTHoro coBepnieHCTBa, h caMH CTaHOBHJiHCb HacTaBHHKaMH. CHaiinepcKoe flBH>Ke- 
Hne b KpacHOH ApMHH SbiJio MaccoBbiM h onpaBflano ce6a. 

B MHpHoe BpeMa noflroTOBKa CHaiinepoB oSwhho He orpaHHHHBaeTca CTpenKOBbiMH TpemipoB- 
KaMH Ha CTpejibSHHie. KoMaH^np rpynnbi CHaiinepoB o6a3aTejibHO TpeHHpyeT noflHHHeHHbix Ha 
CKpbiTHoe h He3aMeTHoe npeoflOJieHHe flHCTaHunii 200-300 MeTpoB no-njiacTyHCKH, B>KHMaacb b 
CKJia^KH MecTHOCTH. 06a3aTejibHO npoBOflaTca TpeHnpoBKH BbiSopa, oSopyflOBaHHa h MacKnpoBKH 
no3HHHH b HOHHoe BpeMa. JlfiQM npoH3BOflHTca HaraaflHbiH noKa3 norpeuiHOCTeH, ohihSok h He#o- 

CTaTKOB TaKOH MaCKHpOBKH. 

06a3aTejibHO npoBO#aTca TpeHnpoBKH o6Hapy>KeHHa no3Hu,HH, oSopyflOBamibix /ipyroii rpyn- 
noft CHaiinepoB, c onpeflejiemieM ^HCTaHHHii #o hhx. Pa3birpbiBaiOTca yneSHbie KOHrpcHaiinepcKHe 
Ay3JiH c npHMeHeHHeM xonocTbix naTpoHOB. 

TaKne TpeHnpoBKH npoHCxoflJiT b pa3JiHHHbix MecTax - b none, b Jiecy, Ha nepeceneHHH OBparoB, 
OKpaHHax 3a6ponieHHbix ^epeBeHb, CBanicax, CTpoihcax, b jhoSmx pa3BanHHax, b pa3Hoe BpeMa cyTOK h 
npn pa3Hbix noroflHbix ycnoBHax. YneSHaa CHaiinepcKaa paSoTa b HenpepbiBHO MeHaiomeiica oScra- 
HOBKe c o6a3aTejibHbiM nojiyneHHeM peanbHoro pe3yjibTaTa pa3BHBaeT y CHaiinepa TaKTHnecKoe Mbim- 
jieHne. 

Pa3BHToe TaKTHnecKoe MbinuieHHe y CHaiinepoB jnoSbix po^OB bohck - n y BoeHHbix, n y onepa- 
THBHoro cneu,Ha3a - no3BOJiaeT SbiCTpo opneHTHpoBaTbca b He3HaKOMoii oScraHOBice, arpeccHBHO 
SpaTb SoeByio HHHHHaTHBy b cboh pyKH h He BbinycKaTb ee npn caMbix HeoacHflaHHbix noBopoTax co- 
SbiTHii. 

HtoSw HMeTb npn6jiH3HTejibHoe npeflCTaBJieHne, KaK Bee 3to flenaeTca Ha npaierHKe, nponoji3n- 
Te c BHHTOBKoii 200-300 MeTpoB, He OTpbiBaacb ot rpyHTa. A noTOM cflenaiiTe 3to nocne flO>Kfla, js,a 
TaK, HToSbi 3to Sbijio He3aMeTHO co CTopoHbi. CHaiinepcKoii nonaTKoii BbiKonaiiTe okohhhk h 3aMac- 
KnpyiiTe ero CBepxy. B CTopoHe BbiKonaiiTe napy OKonnnKOB noMejibne r^e-TO cSoKy. 3aceKHTe BpeMa, 
KOTopoe ymno Ha 3Ty paSoTy. IIpeflCTaBbTe, hto BaM Hy>KHO c^ejiaTb 3to HOHbio n noSbiCTpee. IIoTpe- 
Hnpynrecb onpeflenaTb paccToaHne flo pa3JiHHHbix oSbeieroB n npoBepbTe npaBHJibHOCTb pe3yjibTaTa. 
IIojie>KHTe fla>Ke 6e3 bhhtobkh 7-8 nacoB He niejioxHyBnincb, aSconiOTHO HenoflBn>KHO. IIpoHaSjno- 
flaiiTe b Shhokjib, a eme Jiynme b nepncKon, 3a oahhm h TeM >Ke ynacTKOM MecTHOCTH Te >Ke caMbie 7-8 
nacoB, He OTpbiBaacb ot HaSniOfleHHa. CoMHHrejibHO, hto BaM Bee 3to noHpaBHTca. IIosTOMy b CHaii- 
nepcKoii paSoTe 3HTy3na3M Ba>KHee TanaHTa. 

IIoflroTOBKa apMeiicKHx CHaiinepoB no nonHoii BOCbMHMecaHHoii nporpaMMe npoBOflHJiacb b 
CoBeTCKoii ApMHH BmioTb ^o 1956 r. h pe3KO npeKpaTHJiacb nocne OTCTaBKn MHHHCTpa oSopoHbi T. K. 
5KyKOBa. OSyneHne ocymecTBJiajiocb >KecTKO. Ha npoTa>KeHHH BTopoii nojiOBHHbi nepnofla oSyneHna 
CHaiinepcKHe TpeHnpoBKH npoBOflnjincb b ycnoBnax, MaKCHManbHO npn6jiH>KeHHbix k peanbHbiM. 
Tpynny CHaiinepoB BbiBOflnjin Ha nojinroH, h, He o6o3Hanaa py6e>K CTpenbSbi, HHCTpyKTop KOMaH^o- 
Ban: "CrpejiaTb Sy^eM OTCiOfla!" r^e-TO B^aneKe noKa3biBanHCb rojiOBHbie, rpy^Hbie h jiBuyKyin}iQcs 
noacHbie MHHieHH. CHaiinepbi-KypcaHTbi k TOMy BpeMeHH oSyneHHa o6a3aHbi Smjih Ka>Kflbiii caMOCTO- 
aTenbHO SbiCTpo h 6e3 KaKHx 6w to hh Smjio npnSopoB onpeflenHTb paccToaHne flo u,enH, nonpaBKH Ha 
BeTep h Ha ckopocth flBH>KeHHa noflBH)KHbix u,ejieii. HHCTpyKTop xoahji ot KypcaHTa k KypcaHTy h 
"cTaBHJi" hm TexHHKy CTpenbSbi, HemaflHO Kapaa HepaflHBbix Hapa^aMH BHe onepeflH. IIo Tejiec})OHy ot 
jihhhh MHHieHeii nepeflaBanH pe3yjibTaTbi nonaflaHHii, Ha ocHOBaHHH nero ^ejianHCb BbiBOflbi h bhoch- 
jiHCb nonpaBOHHbie KoppeKTHpoBKH. KypcaHTOB 3acTaBJiajiH CTpejiaTb c Kocoropa bhh3 h no cicaTy 
OBpara BBepx. B noaneflHHe ^Ba Mecau,a oSyneHna CTpenbSbi npoBOflHJincb HCKJuonnTejibHO no ^bh- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 236 

acymHMca h noaBJiaiomHMca Ha KopoTKoe BpeMa uejiJiM, a TaK>Ke no uejiHM HecTaH^apTHbiM (ockojiok 
SnecTamero CTeKJia, CTapaa KacKa h t. #.) b ycnoBHax 3a#biMJieHHOCTH, cyMepeK, npoTHB comma h t. 

Bojitnioe BHHMaHHe yflenajiocb OTpaSoTKe KanecTBa CTpeiibSbi nocne SbiCTpwx nepeMemeHHii h 
no^SoKeK. MaTepHajibHaa nacTb pa3JiHHHbix bhhtobok tohhoix) 6oa - pyccKHx, hcmchkhx, KaHa^cKHx, 
anoHCKHx - H3yHanacb flocKOHanbHO. ^ocKOHanbHO HBynanacb Teopna ctbojiob h SoenpmiacoB. CHaft- 
nepoB y^HJiH npaBHJibHO OTSnpaTb ctbojim KyHHoro 6oa h OTJia>KHBaTb opy>KHe. KpHrepneM cnocoS- 
hocth CHaiinepa tohho nopa>KaTb nejib cjiy>KHJio nona^aHHe c nepBoro pa3a b CTpejuiHyio bhhtoboh- 
Hyio rHJib3y Ha flHCTaHHHH 50 MeTpoB. CymecTBOBan h ^pyroii cnocoS HcnbiTaHHa CTpejiKOB: mojioaoh 
CHaiinep nocne nepnofla oSyneHna aojckch Swji cSnrb rorrbio BbiCTpenaMH Tpn H3 rami coji/iaTCKHx 
jio>KeK, BOTKHyrbix HepeHKaMH b rpyHT Ha ^HCTaHnnH 400 MeTpoB. 3to He nereHflbi - Kor^a-TO aBTopa 
TO>Ke ynnjiH TaK flenaTb. TaK roTOBnnn CHannepoB He fljia cneu,Ha3a - ^Jia oSkhhoh nexoTbi. 

nOCJIECJIOBHE K TEME 

Ha BOHHe CHaiinep MO>KeT oneHb MHoroe. OTBeTCTBeHHOCTb ero BennKa. PaSoTa ero HecraH- 
flapTHa, onacHa h (|)H3HHecKH T»>Kejia. Ha BOHHe HeT Bbixo^Hbix h HeT nepepbiBOB. flna noflroTOBKH 
OflHoro-eflHHCTBeHHoro BbiCTpe.na paSoTaTb npnxoflHTca Ka>Kflbin #eHb, n paSoTaTb oneHb MHoro. 

CHaiinep - 3to He npocTO coiiflaT n He npocTO 0(})HLi,ep. CHannep no CBoeivty yHHKajibHOMy 6oe- 
BOMy npo(})HJiio - Soeu, cneu,Ha3a, b KaKnx 6bi BoncKax oh hh cjijokhji. Ero flencTBna TpeSynxr oco- 

3HaHHOH CaMOCTOaTeJIbHOCTH. 

BoeByio cnocoSHOCTb CHaiinepa HaSniOflaTb h noflMenaTb ManeiiiHHe H3MeHeHHa b OKpy^aiomeii 
oScTaHOBKe Tpy^HO nepeoneHHTb. TpeHnpoBaHHaa HaSjnoflaTejibHOCTb CHaiinepa, ^OBefleHHaa Bbinie- 
onHcaHHbiMH ynpa>KHeHHaMH #o ypoBHa hhcthhrthbhofo h Heoco3HaHHoro nojiyneHna HH(|)opManHH, 
b ycjiOBHax >KecTOKOH HeoSxoflHMOCTH SoeBOH oScTaHOBKH oSocTpaeTca flo CTeneHH 3BepHHoro nyTba. 
MomHbiH HH(J)opMaLi,HOHHbiH noTOK TaK hjih miane npo6y>KAaeT y CHaiinepa cnocoSHOCTb k 6ecco3Ha- 
TejibHOMy SbiCTpoMy cnnre3y hcxoahmx ^aHHbix h SoeBoe npeflBH^eHHe. TpeHHpoBaHHbiH h oScTpe- 
jiaHHbiH CHaiinep cnocoSeH cnepBa aScTpaKmo, a 3aTeM h o6pa3HO npeflCTaBHTb ce6e to, hto npoTHB- 
hhk THiaTenbHO nbrraeTca CKpbiTb. HeoSxoflHMOCTb Bbi^aTb peanbHbiii SoeBoii pe3yjibTaT 3acTaBJiaeT 
CHaiinepa pyMajb, pywiaTb h eme pa3 flyMaTb. npn stom pa3BHBaeTca cnocoSHOCTb k HeopflHHapHOMy 
TaKTHnecKOMy MbiniJieHHK). PaHO hjih no3flHO y CHaiinepa npoaBJiaeTca TaKTnnecKaa h TexHnnecKaa 
H3o6peTaTejibHOCTb. OHa He MO>KeT He npoaBHTbca - HHane pe3ynbTaTHBHOCTb CHaiinepcKoii paSoTbi 
pe3KO yna^eT. J\im CHaiinepa He cymecTByeT Tynoro icaHnejuipcKoro niTaMna: "3to HeB03MO>KHO no- 
TOMy, hto He MO>KeT SbiTb HHKorfla". CHaiinepy MO>KeT npniiTH b roiiOBy TaKTHnecKaa H^ea, npo koto- 
pyio oSbiHHbiii nejiOBeK CKa>KeT: "3to bo3mo>kho b npHHu,Hne, ho TaKoro hhkto He flenaji". OneHb bbi- 
coKoe HananbCTBO b hhhc ot nojncoBHHica h Bbinie 6e3anejuiaii,HOHHO 3aaBHT: "3to Spefl! He 
3aHHMaiiTecb nenyxoii!" 

Ho pa3 TaKne Benin B03MO>KHbi b npHHu,Hne, CHaiinep o6a3aTejibHO hx c^eJiaeT. HananbCTBy 
CHaiinep aojio>kht, hto oh coSnpaeTca RQiiaTb h r/ie oh 3to Sy^eT ^ejiaTb, ho o tom, Kaic oh Bee 3to 
CflenaeT, CHaiinep ckpomho yMOJiHHT. HHane HananbCTBO yKa>KeT, KaK hmchho sto HyacHO ^enaTb, h 
Bee Sy^eT HcnopneHO. HananbCTBO KOMaH^yeT no Tejiec})OHy, a CHaiinepy Hy>KHO paSoTaTb Ha MecTe 
coSbiTHii noji3KOM Ha >KHBOTe h no yniH b rpa3n. no3TOMy yMHbie KOMaHflHpw npeflOCTaBJiaiOT CHaii- 
nepaM nojmyio CBoSo^y fleiicTBHii, pa3yvieeTca, npn TniaTenbHOM corjiacoBaHHH TaKTHnecKHx momch- 
tob penieHHa oSnieii 3a^aHH. 

CBoSofla CHaiinepa - noHaTne OTHOCHTenbHoe. Co CHaiinepa >KecTOKO cnpamnBaiOT 3a peanbHbiii 
e>KecyTOHHbiii pe3yjibTaT SoeBoii paSoTbi, KOTopwii CHaiinepy nonaraeTca ^aBaTb npn jnoSbix oSctos- 
TejibCTBax. no3TOMy Ha BoiiHe y CHaiinepa CBoSoflHoro BpeMeHH HeT. Ero xpoHnnecKH He xBaTaeT. 
CHaiinep, ecjin oh He HaxoflHTca Ha nepeflHeM Kpae, SecKOHenHO MacTepHT BcaKne xHTpoMy^pwe jio- 
ByniKH h MacKnpoBOHHbie npHcnocoSjieHHa pjm 6opb6bi c TaKHMH >Ke CHaiinepaMH, nibeT KaMyc})jia>KH 
nofl (J)oh MecTHOCTH, naTaeT pBaHbie h oSTpenaBHineca cpe^CTBa MacKHpoBKH, npncTpejiHBaeT opy>KHe 
h totobht cpeflCTBa coScTBeHHoro >KH3Heo6ecneHeHHa. H oneHb MHoroe eme CHaiinep flOjraceH CMa- 
CTepHTb cbohmh pyicaMH, noTOMy hto 3a Hero 3to hhkto He CflenaeT. 

KpoMe Toro, CHaiinep nocToaHHO paSoTaeT c KapToii MecTa coSbiTHa, yroHHaeT oScTaHOBKy c 
KOMaH^npoM, pa3BeflHHKaMH h HaSniOflaTejiaMH. B CHJiy cneu,H(})HKH SoeBoii paSoTbi CHaiinep fleii- 
CTByeT b paMKax nocTaBJieHHoii 3a^aHn, ho ^eiicTByeT He no HHCTpyKunaM. HeT TaKHx HHCTpyKu,Hii. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 237 

HeT h He MO>KeT SbiTb KaSHHeTHtix penenroB rjw CHaiinepcKoii npaKTHKH. Ha HeiiTpajibHoii nonoce 
Bee npoHexoflHT no >KecTOKHM 3aKOHaM noeflHHKa, r^e no6e>KflaeT CHJibHeftinHH, a HHor^a hcxoa pe- 
niaeT poKOBaa cjiynaiiHOCTb. TaKHe coSbiTHa nponcxoflJiT npn nojiHOH MoSmiroanHH (|)H3HHecKoro no- 
TeHu,Hajia, SoeBbix HaBbiKOB, 3BepHHoro nyrba h HanpjDKeHHoii paSoTbi M03ra. PaSoTa CHaiinepa - nrpa 
b KapTbi, r^e ycnex 3aBHCHT ot H3o6peTaTejibHOCTH h TepneHna. BbmrpbiiH - noSe^a. IIpoHrpbini - 
CMepTb. IIpHBbiHHaa flua CTpoeBbix BoeHHbix ycTaBHaa TaierHKa KOHnaeTca fljia CHaiinepa c ero bwxo- 
flOM Ha HeHTpanbHyio nojiocy. flna CHaiinepa TaM HanHHaeTca chuohihoh TaKTHnecKHH HecraHflapT. H 
hhkto He HMeeT npaBa h He mtokct BMeniHBaTbca b ero ^eiicTBHa. H hhkto He 3axoneT - HHane najio 
6yjiQT caMOMy SpaTb BHHTOBKy c onrHnecKHM npnnejiOM h jie3Tb b HeH3BecTHOCTb Ha 3Ty caMyio 
HeHTpanbHyio nonocy. CHaiinep ^eiicTByeT caMOCTOjrrejibHO, Ha cboh CTpax h phck, h ot Hero TpeSy- 
Kxr peanbHoro pe3yjibTaTa, a >KecTOKaa Heo6xo#HMOCTb 3acTaBJiaeT CHaiinepa Bbi^aTb OTJiHHHbiii pe- 
3yjibTaT: o#hh BbiCTpen - o#hh Tpyn. 

Bo Bee BpeMeHa CHaiinepbi npHMeHJumcb b cnennoflpa3flejieHH5ix pa3JiHHHoro npo^njia. Ho b 
nenoM 3a^aHH CHaiinepa ocTaBajincb oahhmh h tcmh >Ke. H npnHiiHn BbinojiHeHna 3thx 3a#an o#hh h 
tot 5Ke - aScojnoTHaa TOHHOCTb npn nojiHeiinieii CKpbrmocTH. npaKTHKa noKa3biBaeT, hto HacToamne 
CHaiinepbi nojiynaiOTca He npocTO H3 xopomnx CTpenKOB, a HMeHHO H3 Tex, Hbe CTpenKOBoe MacTep- 
ctbo noflTBepflnjiocb Ha HeiiTpajibHoii nonoce npn >KecTOKoii SoeBoii HeoSxoflHMOCTH, b >Kapy, b mo- 
po3, b rpa3H nofl flO>KfleM. ToubKO b TaKHx yanoBHjix MO>KeT noaBHTbca cnnaB 3BepHHoro nyTba c 6oe- 
bmm HHTenjieKTOM. TaKoii CHaiinep, oSjia^aiomHii flbaBOJibCKHM TepneHHeM h HeBepoaTHoii, 
H3onipeHHoii H3o6peTaTejibHOCTbio, Hbe #ep3Koe yMeHHe Mo6HJiH30BaHO >KecTOKoii SoeBoii npaierHKoii, 
npHrofleH ^Jia BbinojmeHHa jhoSwx CHaiinepcKHx 3aflaHnii. 

Bo3HHKaeT Bonpoc: mo>kho jih yKpbiTbca ot CHaiinepa? MnpoBaa CTaTHCTHKa paBHOflynma h 
oSbeKTHBHa - ot rpaMOTHoro h TpeHHpoBaHHoro CHaiinepa cnaceHHJi HeT. KaK roBopaT b AivtepHice, 
"nyjia - sto cyfl Bo>KHii". HacToamnii CHaiinep MO>KeT BbicneflHTb nenb n noflCTepenb ee npaKTHnecKH 
Be3fle, b caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix MecTax h npn caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix oScTOjrrejibCTBax. CHaiinep KOBa- 
peH, paBHOflymeH h 6ecnoina#eH. nepefl HacToaiHHM CHaiinepoM SeccnjibHbi oxpaHa, paccTOjnrne h 
6poHe>KHJieT. MeTKHii CTpenoK - sto ^eiicTBHTejibHO fljiHHHbiii ho>k b cep^ne npoTHBHHKa. CHaiinep, 
oSjiaflaiomHii cothjimh xHTpocTeii h SoeBbix ynoBOK, npoaBHTca TaM, r^e ero He ayiyT, "^ocTaHeT" 
nenb h CKpoeTca 6e3HaKa3aHHO, B03HHKHeT Ha nycTOM MecTe h yii^eT b nycTOTy. 

PaSoTa CHaiinepa Bcer^a 6y#eT Hajinno, caM >Ke oh Bcer^a ocTaHeTca 3a Ka/ipoM. CHaiinepa He 
flOJDKeH BH^eTb npoTHBHHK, h 6y#eT jiyHiue, ecuH o HeM Sy^yr noMeHbine 3HaTb cboh. B Hame BpeMa 
HacToainne CHaiinepbi HHKorfla h HHKOMy He paccKa3biBaiOT, hto ohh flejiann Ha BoiiHe, Koro, Kor^a h 
npn KaKHx oScTOjrrejibCTBax hm npnHiJiocb noflCTpenHTb. H 3thm rapaHTHpyiOT ce6a ot MHorax He- 
npHaTHOCTeii b MnpHoii >kh3hh. B SoeBbix 3mi30flax jihuo CHaiinepa Bcer^a 6y#eT ckpwto KaMy4)jia- 
>KeM. JIioSonbiTHbie Sy/iyT pa3onapoBaHbi: y CHaiinepoB oneHb cnoKoiiHbie h #a>Ke flo6po>KejiaTejibHbie 
jiHii,a. CHaiinep He MO>KeT 3JiHTbca - 3moii,hh ^Jia Hero Heno3BOJiHTejibHaa pocKonib. TaKne jhoah He 
HcnbiTbiBaiOT CBameHHoii HeHaBHCTH, apocTH n CTpaxa - Bee 3to "roHHT nyjibc" n MeiuaeT tohhoh 
CTpeubSe. ,H,Jia CHaiinepa nenb - He Sonee HeM MHHieHb, KOTopyio eMy Ha^o nopa3HTb oahhm BbiCTpe- 
jiom; ecjiH ynycTHHib o^hh niaHC, BToporo MO>KeT He OKa3aTbca. 

CHaiinepbi-npo(})eccHOHajibi He TyneiOT Ha BoiiHe ot BH^a KpoBH - cbohx ySnTbix ohh pe^KO bh- 
fl»T b6jih3h. A OT^ajieHHaa nenb - 3to npocTO nenb, KaK Ha CTpeubSHHie. H CTpenbSa no Heii - npocTO 
BbinojiHeHHe nocTaBJieHHoii 3aflann. 

Pofl 3aHaTHii Bcer^a HaKJia^biBaeT OTnenaTOK Ha nenoBeKa. B HeBoeHHoii oScTaHOBKe CHaiinepbi 
oneHb cnoKoiiHbie, coSpaHHbie, ypaBHOBenieHHbie h flo6po>KejiaTejibHbie jhoah. Ohh He jhoSst cno- 

pHTb H CHHTaiOT 3TO JIHIHHeii TpaTOH HepBHOH 3HeprHH. JlK)6oii CHaiinep no HaType - 3TO HHHfl3a, hc- 

noBeflyiOHiHii nocTynaT anoHCKoii SopbSbi: noflflanca n noSeflnn. CHaiinepbi He jhoSst 3aHHMaTbca 
nonHTHKoii - Ha pe3ynbTaTbi nonHTHnecKHx nponeccoB hm npnxoflHTca CMOTpeTb nepe3 onTHnecKHii 
npHii,eji. 3to He Bcer^a npnaTHO. H nosTOMy ohh paBHOAynmbi k npn3biBaM hojihthkob 3aH»Tb neT- 
Kyio >KH3HeHHyio no3Hii,Hio, npo^eccHOHanbHO CHHTaa 3to onepeflHoii CHaiinepcKoii npHMaHKoii. B 
noHaTHH CHaiinepa no3Hii,Ha flon>KHa SbiTb 3(})4)eKTHBHoii h hcbhahmoh. 

HeMeu,KHe CHaiinepbi hochjih 6poH30Byio 3M6jieMy: pbicb Ha apSaneTe. 3tot chmboji HanSonee 
y^anHO OTpa>KaeT He tojibko cneu,H(})HKy paSoTbi mctkhx CTpenKOB, ho TaK>Ke hx BHyTpeHmoio cym- 
HOCTb. Mano3MOii,HOHajibHbiii xapaKTep CHaiinepa h ero noflnac BKpa^HHBaa MaHepa noBefleHna - 3to 
TO>Ke MacKnpoBKa. nofl cnoKoiiHoii BHenmocTbio CKpwBaeTca npo(J)eccHOHajibHaa roTOBHOCTb k arpec- 

CHBHblM H 6e30HIH60HHbIM fleHCTBHSM. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



238 



IIpHoSpeTeHHoe SoeBoe yMeHHe coxpaHaeTca y CHaMnepoB flouro - HHor^a #o npeKnoHHbix neT. 
CHaftnepoB mo>kho pacniH(j)poBaTb no TOMy npn3HaKy, hto ohh #a>Ke b no>KHJiOM B03pacTe He nojib- 

3yK)TCa OHKaMH, HaCTOJIbKO CneU,H(})HKa MHOrOJieTHHX CTpeJIKOBblX TpeHHpOBOK BJIHaeT Ha nOCTaHOBKy 

3peHHa. H no BHyTpeHHen cyTH 3th My>KHKH TaK h ocTaiOTca CHannepaMn, KaK 6bi ohh hh Bbipocjin no 
CJiy>K6e h KaKne 6bi nocTbi hh 3aHHManH. 

Ha rocyflapcTBeHHon cny>K6e CHannep SecnpeKoanoBHO h tohho BbinonHHT jhoSoh npnKa3, ho b 
nacTHOH >kh3hh HHKorfla He CTaHeT KHjniepoM. B HaeMHbie ySnnnbi oSmhho H^yr CTpejiKH-^HJieTaHTbi. 
HacToaniHH CHannep, SecmiaTHO CTpejiaBninii Ha bohhc, nocne ee OKOHnaHHa HHKor^a He 6y#eT y6n- 
BaTb 3a fleHbrn. IIpo^eccHOHajibHbie CHaHnepbi-HHTejuieKTyajibi b mhphoh >kh3hh HHor^a CTaHOBaTca 
oxoTHHKaMH Ha KHJinepoB. Ho 3to y>Ke coBceM /ipyraa, OT^ejibHaa h oSmnpHaa TeMa. HcKyccTBO Tep- 
nenHBbix - Bcer^a b neHe. 



PA3^EJI 8. TEOPHfl OPy^KHfl H BOEnPHnACOB 
BHYTPEHHHH BAJIJIHCTHKA 

Jinn Sojiee nojiHoneHHon h KanecTBeHHOH 3KcnjiyaTau,HH opy>KHa CHannep o6a3aH 3HaTb, KaKne 
oraeBbie nponeccw npoHCxofljrr BHyTpn ero bhhtobkh npn BbiCTpene. HeTKoe npeflCTaBJieHne o Tene- 
hhh 3thx npou,eccoB CMO>KeT oSbacHHTb HenpeflBHfleHHbie norpeuiHOCTH b paSoTe opy>KHa h ho3bojiht 

H36e>KaTb HX. 

ycTPoiicTBo eoeiiphiiacob 



BoeBOH naTpoH ^Jia CTpenKOBoro opy>KHa coctoht H3 nyjin, nopoxoBoro 3apa^a, rnjib3bi h Kan- 
ciojia (cxeMa 107). 




CxeMa 107. EoeBOH naTpoH 

THJib3a npeAHa3HaneHa ^Jia coeflHHemia Boe#HHO Bcex 3JieMeHTOB naTpoHa, ^Jia npeflynpoK^e- 
HHa npopwBa nopoxoBbix ra30B npn BbiCTpene (o6TiopaLi,Ha) h fljia coxpaHeHHa 3ap>ma. 

THJib3a HMeeT ayjibije, CKaT, Kopnyc h #ho (cm. cxeMy 107). B ffne rHJib3bi HMeeTca KancioJibHoe 
rae3flo c neperopoflKoii, HaKOBanbHeii h 3aTpaBOHHbiMH OTBepcTHaMH (cxeMa 108). HaKOBanbHa bw- 
CTynaeT b KancioJibHoe rHe3#o, KOTopoe BbinonHeHO c Hapy>KHOH noBepxHOCTH ^Ha rajib3bi. Ha HaKO- 
BanbHe pa36HBaeTca Sohkom y^apHbiH cocTaB Kanciojia fljia ero BOcnnaMeHeHHa, nepe3 3aTpaBOHHbie 
OTBepcTHa iuiaMa ot Kanciojia npoHHKaeT k nopoxoBOMy 3apa^y. 

Kaiiciojib npeflHa3HanaeTca fljia BOcnuaMeHeHHa nopoxoBoro 3apa^a h npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoii na- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



239 



nieHKy-KOJinanoK, Ha rhq KOToporo 3anpeccoBaH y^apHbin cocTaB, noicpbiTbin (})OJibroBbiM kpy>kohkom 
(cm. cxeMy 107). Run BOcnnaMeHeHna nopoxa Hcnojib3yiOT TaK Ha3biBaeMbie HHnnnnpyiomHe Beme- 
CTBa, KOTopbie oSjia^aiOT Sojibinon nyBCTBHTejibHOCTbio h B3pbiBaiOTca ot MexaHnnecicoro B03flen- 

CTBH3. 

KojinanoK, cny>KamHH pjm cSopicn 3JieMenroB Kanciojia, BCTaBJiaeTca b KancioJibHoe rHe3#o c 
HeKOTopbiM HaTaroM c nejibio ycTpaHeHna npopbiBa ra30B MOK^y ero CTeHKaMH h CTeHKaMH Kanciojib- 
Horo rHe3fla. ,3,ho KOJinanica ^ejiaeTca ^ocTaTOHHO npoHHbiM, htoSm oho He npoSnBanocb HacKB03b 
Sohkom y/iapHHKa h He npopbiBanocb ot ^aBJieHHa nopoxoBbix ra30B. Kojinanoic KancKxnen H3roTOBJia- 
eTca H3 naTyHH. 

YflapHbiM cocTaB oSecnennBaeT 6e30TKa3Hoe BOcnuaMeHeHHe nopoxoBoro 3apa^a. Ha npnroTOB- 
jieHHe yflapHoro cocTaBa n^eT rpeMynaa pTyTb, xnopaT Kanna h aHTHMOHnn. 

TpeMynaa pTyTb Hg(ONC)2 aBJiaeTca HHnnHnpyiomHM BemecTBOM b y^apHOM cocTaBe. flocTO- 
HHCTBa rpeMynen pTyTH: coxpaHeHne cbohx icanecTB npn fljinrejibHOM xpaHemiH, Ha^oKHOCTb flen- 
ctbhs, jierKOCTb BOcnuaMeHeHHa h cpaBHHTenbHaa 6e3onacHOCTb. HeflOCTaTKn: HHreHCHBHoe B3anMO- 
flencTBHe c MeTamiOM CTBOJia, hto cnocoScTByeT ycnjieHHio Koppo3HH KaHana CTBOJia, 
aManbraMHpoBaHHe (noKpbiTHe pTyrbio) KOJinanica Kanciojia, hto npHBOflnr k caMonpoH3BOJibHOMy ero 
pacTpecKHBaHHio h npopbiBy nopoxoBbix ra30B. flua ycTpaHeHna nocneflHero He^ocTaTKa BHyrpeH- 
hiok) noBepxHOCTb KOJinanKa jiaKHpyiOT. 

XnopaT KanHa KC103 aBJiaeTca OKHCJiHTeneM b y^apHOM cocTaBe, oSecnenHBaeT nonHoe cropa- 
HHe KOMnoHeHTOB, yBejiHHHBaeT TeivtnepaTypy ropeHHa y^apHoro cocTaBa h oSjiernaeT BOcnnaMeHe- 
HHe nopoxa. Oh npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoh SecnBeTHbin KpncTajiJiHHecKHH noponioK. 

Ahthmohhh Sb2S3 aBJiaeTca ropiOHHM b y^apHOM cocTaBe. Oh npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoh nepHbin 
noponioK. 

YflapHbiH cocTaB Kanciona bhhtobohhofo naTpoHa coflep>KHT: rpeMyneii pTyTH 16%, xnopaTa 
Kajina 55,5% h anrHMOHHa 28,5%. 

OojibroBbiM Kpy>KOK npe/ioxpaHaeT KancioJibHbiH cocTaB ot pa3pynieHHa npn coTpaceHnax na- 
tpohob (npn nepeB03Ke, noflane) h ot nona/iamia BJiarn. cDojibroBbiM Kpy>KOK jiaKHpyeTca inejuiaHHO- 

KaHH(})OJIbHbIM JiaKOM. 

Kanciojib 3anpeccoBbiBaeTca b KancioJibHbie rae3fla c TaKHM pacneTOM, htoSm (J)OJibra, npnicpbi- 
Baiomaa KancioJibHbiH cocTaB, jio>KHJiacb 6e3 HanpjDKeHHa Ha HaKOBanbmo (cxeivta 109). 




CxeMa 108. CxeMa KancioJibHoro rae3fla c KancioJieM: 

1 - HaKOBanbHa 

1- 




CxeMa 109. Kanciojib: 

1 - KonnanoK; 2 - y^apHbiH cocTaB; 3 - (|)OJibroBbiH Kpy>KOK 

CKopocTb ropeHHa 6e3flbiMHoro nopoxa n KanecTBO BbiCTpejia b Sojibihoh Mepe 3aBHcaT ot icane- 
CTBa cpaSaTbiBaHna KancKma. Kanciojib flOJDKeH o6pa30BbiBaTb 4)aiceji njiaMeHH onpeflejieHHon ^jinHbi, 
TeMnepaTypw n npoflOJDKHTejibHOCTn flencTBna. 3th KanecTBa oSbeflHHaiOT TepMHHOM "(})opc nuaivie- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



240 



hh". Ho KancioJiH, #a>Ke oneHb xoponiero icanecTBa, Moryr He jxarb HeoSxoflHMoro (})opca nnaMeHH 
npn nnoxoM yflape Soraca. flna nojiHOueHHOH Bcnbinncn 3Heprna y^apa flOJi>KHa SbiTb 0,14 kt m. Ta- 
Kyio 3HeprHio HMeiOT y^apHbie MexaHH3Mbi coBpeMeHHbix CHannepcKnx bhhtobok. Ho fljia nojmoneH- 
Horo BoenjiaMeHeHHa SoeBoro BemecTBa Kanciojia HMeiOT 3HaneHne TaK>Ke (})opMa h BejinnnHa Sonica. 
npn HopManbHOM Somce h CHJibHOH SoeBon npy>KHHe BbiHHmeHHoro yflapHoro MexaHH3Ma (J)opc nna- 
MeHH Kanciojia nocToaHHbin h oSecnennBaeT CTaSmibHoe BoenjiaMeHeHHe nopoxoBoro 3apa#a. npn 
3ap>KaBJieHHOM, 3arpa3HeHHOM, H3HOineHHOM cnycKOBOM MexaHH3Me 3Heprna y#apa no KancKxrao 6y- 
fleT pa3JiHHHon, npn 3arpa3HeHnax Bbixofl Soraca fljia y#apa 6y#eT Man, cneflOBaTejibHO, (})opc nnaMeHH 
6y#eT pa3JiHHHbiM (cxeMa 110), croparaie nopoxa 6y#eT HeoflHOo6pa3HbiM, ^aBJieHne b CTBOJie ot bh- 
CTpena k BbiCTpeny 6y#eT Merarrbca (Sojibine - MeHbnie - Sojibine), h He yflHBJiaiiTecb, ecjin Hennme- 
Hoe opy>KHe B^pyr 6y#eT ^aBaTb 3aMeTHbie "oTpbiBbi" BBepx-BHH3. 



mm 

■ w m 



CxeMa 110. cDopc nnaMeHH oflHHaKOBbix KancKmen b pambix yoiOBnax: 

A - 6oeK npaBHJibHOH (J)opMbi h BejinnnHbi npn HeoSxoflHMon 3Heprnn y#apa; 

B - oneHb ocTpbiii h tohkhh 6oeK; 

B - 6oeK HopMaiibHOH (J)opMbi npn Manon 3Heprnn y^apa 

IIopoxoBOH 3apHA npeflHa3HaHaeTca fljia o6pa30Baraia ra30B, BbiSpacbiBaiomnx nynio H3 KaHana 
CTBOJia. Hctohhhkom SHeprnn npn BbiCTpene aBJianxrca TaK Ha3biBaeMbie MeTaTejibHbie nopoxa, koto- 
pwe HMeiOT B3pbiBnaToe npeBpameHne npn cpaBHHTejibHO MeflJieHHOM HapacTaHnn flaBJieHna, hto 
no3BOJiaeT ncnojib30BaTb nx /uia MeTaHna nyjib n CHapa^OB. B coBpeMeraiOH npaKTHKe Hape3Hbix 
ctbojiob npHMeranoTca tojibko 6e3flbiMHbie nopoxa, KOTopwe ^ejiaTca Ha nnpoKCHJiKHOBbiH n Hnrpo- 
rjinnepHHOBbin nopox. 

nnpoKCHJiHHOBbiH nopox H3roTaBJiHBaeTca nyreM pacTBopeHHa CMecn (b onpeflejieHHbix npo- 
nopunax) BJia>KHoro nnpoKcnjinHa b cnnpT03(})HpHOM pacTBopnTene. 

HnTporjinnepHHOBbin nopox H3roTaBJiHBaeTca H3 CMecn (b onpeflejieHHbix nponopuraix) nnpoK- 
cnjiHHa c HnrporjinnepHHOM. 

B 6e3flbiMHbie nopoxa ^oSaBJiaiOTca: CTa6njin3aTop - fljia npeflOxpaHeHna nopoxa ot pa3Jio>Ke- 
Hna, (J)jierMaTH3aTop - fljia 3aMeflJieHna CKopocTH ropeHna n rpa<|)HT - /uia #0CTH>KeHHa cbinynecTH n 
ycTpaHeHna cnnnaHna 3epeH nopoxa. 

nnpoKCHJiHHOBbie nopoxa npnMeHaiOTca raaBHbiM o6pa30M b Soenpraiacax k CTpenKOBOMy 
opy>Knio, HnrporjinnepHHOBbie, KaK Sonee MomHbie, - b apTHJiJiepnncKHx cncTeMax n rpaHaTOMeTax. 

npn ropeHHH nopoxoBoro 3epHa ero rniomaflb Bee BpeMa yMeHbmaeTca, n cooTBeTCTBeHHO 
yMeHbinaeTca ^aBJieHne BHyrpn CTBOJia. HtoSw BbipoBHaTb paSonee ^aBJieHne ra30B n oSecnennTb 6o- 
jiee-MeHee nocToaHHyio rniomaflb ropeHna 3epHa, nopoxoBbie 3epHa BbinojmaiOTca c BHyrpeHHHMH 
nojiocTaMH, a hmchho - b BH^e nojion TpySicn hjih KOJibua. 3epHa TaKoro nopoxa ropaT oflHOBpeMeraio 
n c BHyTpeHHen, n c BHenmen noBepxHOCTn. YMeHbineHne Hapy>KHon noBepxHOCTn ropeHna B03Me- 
maeTca yBejinneHneM BHyTpeHHen ropamen noBepxHOCTn, TaK hto oSmaa ruioinaflb ocTaeTca nocTO- 

aHHOH. 

orHEBoii iipoijecc b ctbojie 



nopoxoBoii 3apafl BHHTOBOHHoro naTpoHa BecoM 3,25 r npn BbiCTpene cropaeT npnMepHO 3a 
0,0012 c. npn cropaHHH 3apa#a Bbi^ejiaeTca okojio 3 Kanopnii Tenna h o6pa3yeTca okojio 3 n ra30B, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 241 

TeMnepaTypa KOTopbix b momcht BbiCTpejia paBHa 2400-2900°C. Ta3bi, Sy^ynn CHJibHO HarpeTbiMH, 
OKa3biBaiOT BbicoKoe ^aBJieHHe (#o 2900 kt/cm2) h BbiSpacbiBaiOT nynio H3 CTBOJia co CKopocTbio 
CBbinie 800 m/c. OSmnft o6beM pacKaneHHbix nopoxoBbix ra30B ot cropaHna nopoxoBoro 3apa^a bhh- 
TOBOHHoro naTpoHa npHMepHO b 1200 pa3 Sojibiue no oSbeMy, neM Smjio nopoxa #o BbiCTpena. 

BbiCTpen H3 CTpenKOBoro opy>KHa npoHCxo#HT b cjieflyiomeM nopa^Ke, ot y#apa Soiftca no Kan- 
ciojik) SoeBoro naTpoHa, 3anepToro b naTpoHHHKe, ero HHHiniHpyiomee BemecTBO, 3a>KaToe MOK^y 
>KanoM y^apHHKa n HaKOBanbHeft rnjib3bi, BOcrniaMeHaeTca, 3to nuaivia nepe3 3aTpaBOHHbie OTBepcrna 
BbiSpacbiBaeTca k nopoxoBOMy 3apa^y n oxBaTbiBaeT 3epHa nopoxa. Becb 3ap?m nopoxa 3aropaeTC>i 
noHTH oflHOBpeMeHHO. 06pa3yiomeeca n P H cropaHnn nopoxa Sojibinoe KOJinnecTBO ra30B co3#aeT bm- 
coKoe ^aBJieHne Ha #ho nyjin n ctchkh rnjib3bi. 3to ^aBJieHne ra30B co3#aeT pacT»>KeHHe b ninpnHy 
CTeHOK rnnb3bi (npn coxpaHeHnn nx ynpyroft fle^opMannn), n rnnb3a iijiotho npn>KHMaeTca k CTeH- 
KaM naTpoHHHKa, nperoncTBya, Kaic oSTiopaTop, npopwBy nopoxoBbix ra30B Ha3a# k 3aTBopy. 

B pe3yjibTaTe flaBJiemia ra30B Ha #ho nyjin OHa cflBnraeTca c MecTa h Bpe3aeTC» b Hape3bi. Bpa- 
maacb no Hape3aM, nyna npoflBnraeTca no KaHany CTBOJia c HenpepbiBHO B03pacTaiomeft CKopocTbio n 
BbiSpacbiBaeTca no HanpaBJieHnio och KaHana CTBOJia. 

^aBJieHne ra30B Ha npoTHBonojio>KHbie ctchkh CTBOJia n naTpoHHHica TaK>Ke Bbi3biBaeT hx He- 
3HaHHTejibHyio ynpyryio flec^opMauiiio h B3anMHO ypaBHOBemnBaeTca. ^aBJiemie ra30B Ha ^ho rnjib3bi 
3anepToro 3aTBopoM naTpoHa Bbi3biBaeT ppwyKeime opy>KH» Ha3a#. 3to aBJieHHe Ha3biBaeTca OTflaneft. 
CorjiacHO 3aKOHaM MexaHHKH OT^ana B03pacTaeT c yBejiHHeHHeM nopoxoBoro 3ap>ma, Beca nyjin n c 
yMeHbineHHeM coScTBemioro Beca opy>KHa. 

Bo Bcex CTpaHax Soenpimacbi CTapaiOTca ^ejiaTb oneHb BbicoKoro KanecTBa. HecMOTpa Ha sto 
BpeMa ot BpeMeHH HMeeT MecTO npoH3BOflCTBemibift 6paK hjih Soenpnnacbi nopTaTca ot HenpaBHJib- 
Horo xpaHeHna. HHor^a nocjie y#apa Sohkom no Kanciojno BbiCTpejia He nocneflyeT hjih oh nponcxo- 
flHT c HeKOTopwM 3ano3flamieM. B nepBOM cjiynae HMeeT MecTO oceiKa, bo btopom - 3aT»>KHoft bbi- 
CTpen. IIpHHHHOH oceHKH name Bcero SbiBaeT OTCbipeBamie yflapiioro cocTaBa Kanciojia hjih 
nopoxoBoro 3ap>ma, a Taioice cnaSbift y#ap Soiftca no Kanciojiio. IIosTOMy HeoSxoflHMO oSeperaTb Soe- 
npnnacbi ot BJiarn h co#ep>KaTb opy>Kne b ncnpaBHOM cocto»hhh. 

3aTa>KHon BbiCTpeJi aBjiaeTca cJieflCTBHeM MeflJiemioro pa3BHTHa nponecca BOCiuiaMeHemia no- 
poxoBoro 3ap>ma. IIo3TOMy nocjie ocenKn He CJie/iyeT cpa3y 5Ke OTKpbiBaTb 3aTBop. OSmhho nocjie 

OCeHKH OTCHHTblBaiOT naTb-HieCTb CeKyHfl H TOJIbKO nOCJie 3TOrO OTKpblBaiOT 3aTBOp. 

Ilpn cropaHnn nopoxoBoro 3apa^a TOJibKO 25-30% Bbi^ejiaeMoft SHeprnn 3aTpanHBaeTca b Kane- 
CTBe nojie3Hon paSoTbi Ha BbiSpoc nyjin. Ha coBepineHHe BTopocTeneHHbix paSoT - Bpe3aHne b Hape3bi 
h npeoflOJieHne TpeHna nyjin npn flBH>KeHHH no KaHany CTBOJia, HarpeBaHne CTeHOK CTBOJia, nuib3bi n 
nyjin, nepeMememie noflBH>KHbix nacTeft b aBTOMaTHHecKOM opy>KHH, BbiSpoc ra30oSpa3Hoft h Hecro- 
peBHien nacTH nopoxa - ncnojib3yeTca #o 20% aHeprnn nopoxoBoro 3apa^a. Okojio 40% SHeprnn He 
Hcnojib3yeTca h TepaeTca nocjie BbmeTa nyjin H3 KaHana CTBOJia. 

3a^ana nopoxoBoro 3apa^a h CTBOJia - pa3oraaTb nyjiio flo HeoSxoflHMoft nojieTHoft ckopocth h 
npn^aTb eft ySoftHyio SoeByio 3Heprnio. IIpoLi,ecc 3tot HMeeT cboh ocoSchhocth h nponcxoflHT b He- 
CKOJIbKO nepnoflOB. 

IIpeflBapHTejibHbift nepnofl ^jihtcs ot Hanana ropeHHa nopoxoBoro 3apa^a p,o nojiHoro Bpe3aHHa 
oSojiohkh nyjin b Hape3bi CTBOJia. B TeneHne 3Toro nepnofla b KaHane CTBOJia co3flaeTca ^aBJieHHe ra- 
30b, HeoSxoflHMoe fljia Toro, htoSw cflBHHyib nyjiio c MecTa h npeo^ojieTb conpoTHBJieHHe ee oSojioh- 
kh Bpe3aHHK> b Hape3bi CTBOJia. 3to ^aBJieHHe Ha3biBaeTca ^aBJieHHeM (|)opcHpoBaHHa, oho flocTHraeT 
250-500 Kr/cM2 b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot reoMeTpHH Hape30B, Beca nyjin h TBepflOCTH ee oSojiohkh. TopeHHe 
nopoxoBoro 3apa^a b stom nepnofle npoHCxoflHi b nocToaHHOM oSbeMe, oSojiOHKa Bpe3aeTca b Hape- 
3bi MrHOBeHHO, a ^BH>KeHHe nyjin no CTBOJiy HannHaeTca cpa3y >Ke npn fl0CTH>KeHHH b KaHane CTBOJia 
^aBJieHHa (J)opcHpoBaHHa. IIopox b 3to BpeMa en^e npoflOJiacaeT ropeTb. 

IlepBbift, hjih ocHOBHoft, nepHOfl fljiHTca ot Hanana ^BH>KeHHa nyjin ^o MOMeHTa nojiHoro cropa- 
HHa nopoxoBoro 3apa^a. B 3tot nepnofl cropaHne nopoxa nponcxoflHT b Sbicrpo H3MeHaiOHieMca oSb- 
eMe. B Hanane nepno^a, Kor^a CKopocTb ^BH>KeHHa nyjin no KaHany CTBOJia enie He BejinKa, KOJinne- 
ctbo ra30B pacTeT SbiCTpee, neM oSbeM npocTpaHCTBa Me>Kfly ^hom nyjin h ^hom rajib3bi (3anyjibHoro 
npocTpaHCTBa), ^aBJieHHe ra30B SbiCTpo noBbiniaeTca h ^ocTHraeT HanSojibnieft BejiHHHHbi - 2800- 
3000 Kr/cM2 (cm. cxeMbi 111, 112). 3to ^aBJieHHe Ha3biBaeTca MaKCHMajibHbiM ^aBJieHHeM. Oho co- 
3flaeTca y CTpejiKOBoro opy>KHa npn npoxo>KfleHHH nyjieft 4-6 cm nyiH. 3aTeM, BCJie^CTBHe SbiCTporo 
yBejinneHHa ckopocth flBH>KeHHa nyjin, oSbeM 3anyjibHoro npocTpaHCTBa yBejiHHHBaeTca SbiCTpee 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



242 



npHTOKa HOBbix ra30B, flaBJiemie b CTBOJie HanHHaeT na^aTt h k KOHiry nepnofla oho flocTHraeT npn- 
MepHO 3/4 hckomoh HanajibHOH CKopocTH nyjiH. IIopoxoBOH 3apafl cropaeT He3aflOJiro #o Toro, KaK 
nyna BbmeTHT H3 KaHana CTBOJia. 




a 



st 



CxeMa 111. H3MeHeHHe ^aBJieHHa ra30B h HapacTaHHe ckopocth nyjin b CTBOJie bhhtobkh 06- 
pa3ua 1891-1930 it. 



s «* 



^^^^^^ 




^ mrt* , , — 


H4 
















* 

M 






t 41 


* 


st m H * Mt 





CxeMa 112. H3MeHeHHe flaBJieHHa ra30B h ckopocth nyjin b CTBOJie MajioKajniSepHOH bhhtobkh 

BTopoM nepnofl fljiHica ot MOMeHTa nonHoro cropaHHa nopoxoBoro 3ap%p,a flo MOMeHTa BbmeTa 
nyjin H3 KaHana CTBOJia. C HananoM 3-Toro nepnofla npHTOK nopoxoBbix ra30B npeKpamaeTca, oflHaKO 
CHJibHO OKaTbie h HarpeTbie ra3bi npo#OJi>KaiOT pacninpaTbca h, npoflOJDKaa OKa3biBaTb flaBJiemie Ha 
nyjiio, yBejiHHHBaiOT CKopocTb ee flBiDKemia. Cna^ flaBJieinia bo btopom nepnofle nponcxoflHT ^o- 
BOJibHO SbiCTpo h y flyjibHoro cpe3a cocTaBJiaeT y bhhtobkh 570-600 Kr/civi2. 

TpeTHH nepnofl, huh nepnofl noanefleiicTBHa ra30B, pjiwrcn ot MOMem-a BbmeTa nyjin H3 KaHana 
CTBOJia flo MOMeHTa npeKpamemia flencTBHa nopoxoBbix ra30B Ha nyjiio. B Teneinie 3Toro nepnofla 
nopoxoBbie ra3bi, HCTeKaiomHe H3 KaHana CTBOJia co CKopocTbio 1200-2000 m/c, npoflOJi>KaiOT fleM- 
CTBOBaTb Ha nyjno h cooSmaiOT eM flonojifflrrejibiiyio CKopocTb. HanSojibnieH, MaKCHMajibHOH, CKopo- 
cth nyjia ^ocTHraeT b Koime TpeTbero nepnofla Ha yflajiemiH HecKOJibKHx ^ecaTKOB caHTHMeTpoB ot 
AyjibHoro cpe3a CTBOJia. 3tot nepnofl 3aKaHHHBaeTca b tot momcht, Kor^a flaBJiemie nopoxoBbix ra30B 
Ha flHO nyjin 6y#eT ypaBHOBenieHO conpoTHBJieHHeM B03#yxa. 

KaKoe npaKTHnecKoe 3HaneHHe HMeeT Bee BbinieH3Jio>KeHHoe? IIocMOTpHTe Ha cxeMy-rpa(|)HK 
1 1 1 no BHHTOBKe KannSpa 7,62 mm. Hcxo^a H3 ^arnibix 3Toro rpac})HKa, CTaHOBHTca nomiTHbiM, none- 
My fljiHHy BHHTOBOHHoro CTBOJia npaKTHHecKH He HMeeT CMbicjia flejiaTb Sojiee 65 cm. Ecjih ero ^ejiaTb 
fljiHHHee, CKopocTb nyjin B03pacTaeT oneiib He3HaHHTejibHO, a raSapiribi opy>KHa SeccMbianemio yBe- 
jiHHHBaiOTca. CTaHOBHTca noHaTHO, noneMy TpexjiHHeiiHbiH KapaSiiH c ajihhoh CTBOJia 47 cm h CKopo- 
CTbio nyjin 820 m/c HMeeT npaKTHHecKH TaKHe >Ke SoeBbie KaneciBa, KaK h TpexjiHHeHHaa BHHTOBKa c 
fljiHHoii CTBOJia 67 cm h HanajibHOH CKopocTbio nyjin 865 m/c. 

AHanorHHHaa KapTHHa HaSjHOflaeTca h y MajioKajinSepHbix bhhtobok (cxeMa-rpa(})HK 112) h 
ocoSeHHO y opy>KHa nofl 7,62-MHJiJiHMeTpoBbiii aBTOMaTHnecKHH naTpoH o6pa3u,a 1943 ro^a. 

^jiHHa Hape3Hoii nacTH CTBOJia aBTOMaTa AKM cocTaBJiaeT Bcero 37 cm npH HanajibHOH CKopo- 
cth nyjin 715 m/c. ^jiHHa Hape3Hoii nacTH CTBOJia pynHoro nyjieMeTa KajianiHHKOBa, CTpejunomero 
TeMH >Ke naTpoHaMH, - 54 cm, Ha 17 cm Sojibiue, a nyjia pa3roHaeTca He3HaHHiejibHO - HanaiibHaa cko- 
pocTb nyjin 745 m/c. Ho y bhhtobok h nyjieMeTOB ctboji npHxoflHica ^ejiaTb y^jiHHeHHbiM ^Jia Sojib- 
HieM KynHOCTH 6oa h ^Jia y^jiKHeHHa npHuejibHOH jihhhh. 3th napaMeTpw oSecnenHBaiOT noBbiiueH- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 243 

HyK) TOHHOCTb CTpeJIbSbl. 

HAHAJIbHAil CKOPOCTb IiyJIH 

HananbHaa CKopocTb aBJiaeTca o#hoh h3 Ba>KHeninHx xapaKrepncTHK SoeBwx cbohctb opy>KHa. 
IIpH yBejiHneHHH HanajibHon ckopocth yBejinnHBaeTca ^ajibHOCTb noneTa nyjiH, #ajibHOCTb npaMoro 
BbiCTpena, ySoiiHoe n npoSnBHoe flencTBHe nyjiH, a TaK>Ke yMeHbinaeTca BJinaHHe BHeniHHx ycjiOBHH 
Ha ee noneT. B HacmocrH, neM SwcTpee jieTHT nyna, TeM MeHbine OHa CHoenrca b CTopoHy BeTpoM. 
BejiHHHHa HananbHOH ckopocth nyjiH o6a3aTejibHO yKa3WBaeTca b TaSjinnax CTpejibSw h b SoeBbix 
xapaierepHCTHKax opy>KHa. 

BejiHHHHa HananbHOH ckopocth nyjiH 3aBHCHT ot ajihhw CTBOJia, Beca nyjiH, Beca, TeMnepaTypw 
h BJia>KHOCTH nopoxoBoro 3apa#a, (J)opMbi n pa3MepoB 3epeH nopoxa h iijiothocth 3apa>KaHna. 

HeM fljiHHHee ctboji, TeM Sojibinee BpeMa Ha nyjno fleftcTByiOT nopoxoBbie ra3w h TeM Sojibiue (b 
H3BecTHbix TexHHnecKHx npe/iejiax, cm. paHee) HananbHaa CKopocTb. 

IIpH nocToaHHOH fljiHHe CTBOJia h nocroamiOM Bece nopoxoBoro 3apa#a HananbHaa CKopocTb 
TeM Sonbnie, neM MeHbnie Bee nyjin. 

H3MeHeHne Beca nopoxoBoro 3apa#a npnBOflnr k H3MeHeHHio KOJinnecTBa nopoxoBbix ra30B, a 
CJieAOBaTenbHO, h k H3MeHeHHio BejiHHHHbi MaKCHMajibHoro ^aBJieHHa b KaHane CTBOJia h HananbHOH 
ckopocth nyjin. HeM Sojibine nopoxa, TeM Sojibine ^aBJieHne h TeM Sojibine pa3roHaeTca nyna no 

CTBOJiy. 

fljiHHa CTBOJia h Bee nopoxoBoro 3apa#a SanaHcnpyiOTca corjiacHO BbmienpnBefleHHWM rpac})H- 
KaM (cxeMbi 111, 112) BHyTpeHHnx oraeBwx nponeccoB b bhhtobohhom CTBOJie npn KOHcrpyHpoBaHHH 
h KOMnoHOBKe opy>Kna /jo HanSojiee pannoHajibHwx pa3MepoB. 

C noBbinieHHeM BHenmen TeMnepaTypw yBejinnHBaeTca CKopocTb ropeHna nopoxa, h nosTOMy 
yBenHHHBaiOTca MaKCHManbHoe ^aBJieHne n HananbHaa CKopocTb. Ilpn noHH>KeHHH BHenmeH TeMnepa- 
Typw HananbHaa CKopocTb yMeHbinaeTca. KpoMe Toro, npn H3MeHeHHH Hapy>KHOH TeMnepaTypw H3- 
MeHaeTca h TeMnepaTypa CTBOJia, h Hy>KHO Sojibinee hjih MeHbmee kojihhcctbo Tenna /ma ero Harpe- 
Bamia. A 3to b cbok) onepeflb BJinaeT Ha H3MeHeHHe ^aBJieHHa b CTBOJie h cooTBeTCTBeHHO Ha 
HananbHyio CKopocTb nyjin. 

OflHH H3 CTapwx CHannepoB Ha naMaTH aBTopa b cnennajibHO ciuhtom naTpoHTame hochji no# 

MWIHKOH fleCaTOK BHHTOBOHHWX naTpOHOB. Ha BOnpOC, KaKOe 3TO HMeeT 3HaneHHe, nO>KHJIOH HHCTpyK- 

Top OTBeTHJi- "OneHb Sojibinoe 3HaneHHe. Mw c toSoh ceimac 06a CTpejiajin Ha 300 MeTpoB, ho y Te6a 
pa36poc men no BepTHKann BBepx-BHH3, a y Memi - HeT. IloTOMy hto nopox b mohx naTpoHax corpeT 
flo 36 rpa^ycoB no# mwihkoh, a tboh b no^cyMKe 3aMep3 p,o MHHyc 15 (flejio Swjio 3hmoh). Tw bhh- 
TOBKy npHCTpenHBan oceHbio npn nuioc 15, htoto pa3HHna 30 rpa^ycoB. Tw CTpejiaenib nacrwM or- 
HeM, h y Te6a ctboji Harpejica, noaTOMy y Te6a nepBwe nyjin nomjin Hn>Ke, a BTopwe - Bwme. A a Bee 
BpeMa CTpejiaio nopoxoM ommaKOBon TeMnepaTypw, nosTOMy y MeHa Bee jieTHT, KaK nojio>KeHo". 

YBejinneHne (yMeHbineHne) HanajibHon ckopocth BW3WBaeT yBejinneHne (yMeHbineHne) flanbHO- 

CTH CTpeJIbSbl. Pa3HOCTH 3THX BeJIHHHH HaCTOJIbKO CymeCTBeHHW, HTO B npaKTHKe OXOTHHHben 

CTpejibSw H3 rjiaflKOCTBOJibHwx py>Keii npHMeHaiOT jieTHne h 3HMHne ctbojiw pa3Hon ajihhw (3hmhhc 

CTBOJIW oSblHHO Ha 7-8 CM flJIHHHee JieTHHx) flJia flOCTH>KeHHa OflHOH H TOH >Ke flajIbH060HH0CTH BW- 

CTpejia. B CHafinepcKOH npaKTHKe o6a3aTejibHO ^ejiaiOTca nonpaBKn ^ajibHOCTH Ha TeMnepaTypy bo3- 
flyxa no cooTBeTCTByiomnM TaSjinnaM (cm. paHee). 

C noBwmeHneM BJia>KHOCTH nopoxoBoro 3apa#a yMeHbmaeTca CKopocTb ero ropeHna h cootbct- 
CTBeHHO na^aiOT ^aBJieHne b CTBOJie h HananbHaa CKopocTb. 

CKopocTb ropeHHa nopoxa npaMO nponopnnoHanbHa OKpy>KaioineMy ero flaBJiemno. Ha OTKpw- 
tom B03Ayxe CKopocTb ropeHna 6e3flWMHoro BHHTOBOHHoro nopoxa paBHa npn6jiH3HTejibHO 1 m/c, a b 
3aMKHyroM npocTpaHCTBe naTpoHHHKa h CTBOJia BCJieflCTBne noBwmeHHa ^aBJieHna CKopocTb ropeHna 
nopoxa yBejiHHHBaeTca h flocTnraeT HecKOJibKHx ^ecaTKOB MeTpoB b ceKyH^y. 

OTHomeHne Beca 3apa#a k oSbeMy rnjib3w npn BCTaBJieHHon nyjie (KaMepw cropaHna 3apa^a) 
Ha3WBaeTca njiOTHOCTbio 3apa>KaHna. HeM Sojibme "TpaMSyeTca" nopox b rnjib3e, hto npoHCxoflnr 
npn nepefl03npoBKe nopoxa hjih rjiySoKoii noca^Ke nyjin, TeM Sojibme B03pacraiOT ^aBJieHHe h cko- 
pocTb cropaHHa. 3to HHor^a npHBOflHT k pe3KOMy CKanKy ^aBJieHna h ^a>Ke k fleTOHannn nopoxoBoro 
3apa/ia, hto MO>KeT npnBecTn k pa3pwBy CTBOJia. HnoTHOCTb 3apa>KaHHa npoH3BOflHTca no cjio>khwm 
HH>KeHepHWM pacneTaM h ^Jia OTenecTBeHHoro BHHTOBOHHoro naTpoHa paBHa 0,813 Kr/^M3. npn 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 244 

yMeHbineHHH nnoTHOCTH 3apa>KaHHa yMeHbiuaeTca CKopocTb ropeHHa, yBejiHHHBaeTca BpeMa npoxo>K- 
^emia nyjiH no CTBOJiy, hto, KaK hh napaflOKcanbHO, npHBOflHi k SbicipoMy neperpeBy opy>KHa. IIo 
BceM 3thm npHHHHaM nepecHapa>KaTb SoeBbie naTpoHbi 3anpeiuaeTca! 

OCOBEHHOCTH CPAEATBIBAHH5I MAJIOKAJIHEEPHBIX (5,6 MM) IIATPOHOB 

BOKOBoro orira 

KancioJibHbiH 3apa# b naTpoHax Sokoboix) oraa 3anpeccoBbiBaeTca H3HyrpH b 3aKpaHHy rHJib3bi 
(TaK Ha3biBaeMbiii naTpoH cDjioSepa), h y#ap Sohkom ^Jia BbiCTpena ocyiuecTBJiaeTca cooTBeTCTBeHHO 
He no nenrpy, a no 3aicpaHHe #Ha rnjib3bi. y ManoKannSepHbix naTpoHOB, hmcioiuhx cnjionmyio cbhh- 
UOByio 6e3o6ojiOHeHHyio nyjno, nopoxoBon 3apa# BecbMa He3HaHHiejieH n c Manon njiOTHOCTbio 3apa- 
>KaHna (nopox HacbinaH #o nojiOBHHbi oSbeivia rnjib3bi). ,H,aBJieHHe nopoxoBbix ra30B He3HaHHiejibHO n 
BbiSpacbiBaeT nyjno c HanajibHOH CKopocTbio 290-330 m/c. 3to ,zjejiaeTca no toh npuHHHe, hto Sojib- 
niee ^aBJieHHe MO>KeT copBaTb Mancyio CBHHuoByio nyjno c Hape30B. ,H,jia cnopTHBHbix nenen n 6naT- 
jiOHa BbinieyKa3aHHon CKopocTH nyjin BnojiHe ^ocTaTOHHO. Ho npn noHn>KeHHOH BHeniHen TeMnepa- 
Type B03flyxa npn #a>Ke He3HaHHTejibHon HeflOCbinKe nopoxa ^aBJieHHe b MajioKajniSepHOM CTBOJie 
MO>KeT pe3KO ynacTb, npn na^eHHH ^aBJieHHa nopox nepecTaeT ropeTb n Hepe^KH cjiynan, Kor^a npn 
MHHyc 20°C h HH>Ke nyjiH npocTO-HanpocTO 3acTpeBaiOT BHyrpH CTBOJia. IIo3TOMy b 3HMHee BpeMa 
npn OTpHuaTejibHbix TeMnepaTypax peKOMeH^yeTca npHMeHaTb naTpoHbi noBbiiueHHOH moiuhocth 

"3KCTpa" HJIH "BHaTJIOH". 

teoph5i nyjiH 

Ilyjia aBJiaeTca nopa>KaiomHM 3JieMeHiOM. ,3,ajibHOCTb ee noneTa 3aBHCHT ot y#ejibHoro Beca Ma- 
Tepnajia, H3 KOToporo OHa cflejiaHa. 

KpoMe Toro, 3tot MaTepnan flOJi>KeH SbiTb nnacTHHHbiM /uia Bpe3aHHa b Hape3bi CTBOJia. TaKHM 
MaTepnanoM aBJiaeTca CBHHeu, KOTopbiM npuMeiiaeTca fljia roroTOBJieHHa nynb y>Ke HecKOJibKO CTOJie- 
thh. Ho Mancaa CBHHuoBaa nyna npn yBejiHneHHH nopoxoBoro 3apa#a h ^aBJieHHa b CTBOJie cpbiBaeTca 
c Hape30B. HananbHaa CKopocTb chuohihoh cbhhuoboh nyjin bhhtobkh Eep^aHa He npeBbiniana 420- 
430 m/c, h fljifl cbhhuoboh nyjin 3to 6bm npeflen. no3TOMy CBHHuoByio nyjno CTanH 3aKHK)HaTb b 060- 
jiOHKy H3 Sojiee npoHHoro MaTepuana, BepHee, b 3Ty npoHHyio oSojionKy CTann 3anHBaTb pacnnaBJieH- 
Hbift CBHHeu,. TaKne nyjin paHbnie HaBbiBann flByxcjiomibiMH. npn ^ByxcjiOHHOM ycTpoMcTBe nyna co- 
xpaHajia bo3mo>kho SojibHiHH Bee h HMena cpaBHHTejibHO npoHHyio oSojiOHKy. 

OSojiOHKa nyjin, H3roTOBJieHHaa H3 Sojiee npoHHoro, neM HanojiHaBuiHH ee CBHHeu, MaTepHana, 
He flaBana nyne cpbiBaTbca c Hape30B npn CHJibHbix flaBJieHHax BHyrpH CTBOJia h no3BOJiajia pe3KO yBe- 
jiHHHTb HananbHyio CKopocTb nyjiH. Bonee Toro, npn npoHHoii oSojiohkc nyna MeHbine flec|)opMHpoBa- 
jiacb npn nonaflaHnn b uejib h 3thm ynynmajiocb ee npoSnBHoe (nponiHBHoe) fleucTBue. 

nyjiH, cocToaiuue H3 njiOTHoM oSojiohkh h MarKoro cepflenHmca (cbhhuoboh 3anHBKH), noaBH- 
jiHCb b 70-x roflax XIX CTOJieTHa Banefl 3a H3o6peTeHHeM 6e3flbiMHoro nopoxa, oSecnenHBaioiuero no- 
BbimeHHoe paSonee ^aBJieHHe b CTBOJie. 3to 6bui pwbok b pa3BHTHH orHecTpenbHoro opy>KHa, hto 
no3BOJiHJio b 1884 r. co3p,ajb nepBbifi b MHpe h BecbMa y^anHbiH 3HaMeHHTbiM nyneMeT "MaKCHM". 
OSojionenHaa nyna oSecnenHBana noBbinieHHyio 5KHBynecTb Hape3Hbix ctbojiob. ,ZI,ejio b tom, hto Mar- 
khh CBHHeu, "HaBOJiaKHBanca" Ha CTeHKH CTBOJia, 3a6HBan Hape3bi, hto paHO hjih no3flHO Bbi3biBano 
pa3flyrHe ctbojiob. fljia Toro hto6m 3Toro He npoHexoflHJio, CBHHuoBbie nyjiH 3aBopaHHBanH b npoca- 
jieHHyio njiOTHyio SyMary, h Bee paBHO 3to Marro noMorano. B coBpeMeHHOM MajioKajinSepHOM opy- 
>khh, CTpejiaioiueM cbkhuobbimh 6e3o6ojiOHeHHbiMH nyjiaMH, bo H36e>KaHHe HaBOJiaKHBaHna CBHHua 
nyjiH noKptiBaiOT cneuHanbHbiM TexHHnecKHM canoM. 

MaTepuan, H3 KOToporo H3roTaBJiHBaeTca oSojionica nyjiH, flOJi>KeH SbiTb ^ocTaTOHHO njiacTHH- 
hwm, HToSbi nyjia Morjia Bpe3aTbca b Hape3bi, h ^ocTaTOHHO npoHHbiM, htoSw nyjia npn ^BH>KeHHH no 
Hape3aM c hhx He copBanacb. KpoMe Toro, MaTepuan oSojiohkh nyjiH flOJi>KeH HMeTb KaK mo>kho 

MeHblHHH K03(})(})HUHeHT TpeHHa, HToSbi MeHbHie H3HaiHHBaTb CTeHKH CTBOJia H oSjia^aTb CTOHKOCTbK) 

npoTHB p>KaBJieHHa. 

BceM 3thm Tpe6oBaHH»M HauSojiee nojiHO OTBenaeT Mejibxnop - cnjiaB 78,5-80% Me^H h 21,5- 
20% HHKejia. nyjiH c MejibXHopoBOH oSojiohkoh 3apeKOMeHflOBanH ce6a b SKcnnyaTauHH Jiynnie, neM 
KaKHe-JiuSo flpyrue. Ho Mejibxnop 6bui oneHb floporHM b MaccoBOM npoH3BOflCTBe SoenpHnacoB. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



245 



IlyjiH c MenbXHopoBOH oSojiohkoh BtmycKajiHCb b flopeBOJTionHOHHOH Pocchh. Bo BpeMa Ilep- 

BOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl npH OTCyTCTBHH HHKeJI» 0SOJIOHKH nyjlb SblJIH BbIHy>KfleHbI H3rOTaBJIHBaTb H3 

jiaTyHH. B rpa>KflaHCKyio BOHHy h KpacHbie, h Sejibie flejianH Soenpnnacbi H3 nero npH^eTca. ABTopy 
npHxoflHJiocb BH^eTb naTpoHbi BbinycKOB Tex jieT c oSojionKaMn nyjib H3 JiaTyHH, tojictoh Me#H h 
MarKoii CTanH. 

B CoBeTCKOM CoK)3e nyjiH c MenbXHopoBOH oSojiohkoh BbinycKann #o 1930 r. B 1930 r. B3aMeH 
MenbXHopa fljia H3roTOBJieHH» oSojiohck HanajiH npHMeronb ManoyrjiepoflHCTyio Mancyio cram., nna- 
KHpoBaHHyio (noKpbiTyio) TOMnaKOM. TaKHM o6pa30M, oSojiOHKa nyjiH crana SHMeTajiJiHHecKOH. 

ToMnaK npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoh cnnaB 89-91% Me#H h 9-11% umnca. Ero TOJimHHa b SHMeTanjiH- 
necKOH oSojiOHKe nyjiH cocTaBJiaeT 4-6% ot TOJimHHbi ctchkh oSojiohkh. EHMeTajiJiHHecKaa oSojiOHKa 
nyjiH c TOMnaKOBbiM noKpbiTHeM b ochobhom y^OBJieTBopajia npeflbaBJiaeMbiM TpeSoBamuiM, xots h 
HecKOJibKO ycTynana oSojiOHKaM MenbXHopoBbiM. 

B CB33H C TeM, HTO H3rOTOBJieHHe TOMnaKOBOrO nOKpblTHa TpeSyeT fle(|)HnHTHbIX UBeTHblX Me- 

TanjiOB, nepefl bohhoh b CCCP ocbohjih nponBBOflCTBO oSojioneK H3 xojiOflHOKaTaHbix ManoyrjiepoflH- 
ctwx CTaneii. OSojiohkh 3th noRpbiBann tohkhm cuoeM Me#n hjih JiaTyHH 3JieKipojiHTHHecKHM hjih 

KOHTaKTHbIM CnOCoSoM. 

MaTepHan cep#eHHHKa b coBpeMeHHbix nynax oSjia^aeT flocTaTOHHoii Mancocrbio fljia oSjierne- 
HHa Bpe3aHHa nyjiH b Hape3bi h HMeeT #ocTaTOHHO BbicoKyio TeMnepaTypy miaBJieHHa. J\jis 3Toro hc- 
nojib3yeTca cnjiaB CBHHna h cypbMbi b cooTHOineHHH 98-99% CBHHna h 1-2% cypbMbi. IIpHMecb cypb- 
mw flenaeT CBrnmoBbin cepflenHHK HecKOJibKO npoHHee h noBbiniaeT TeMnepaTypy ero nuaBJieHHa. 

BbinieonHcaHHaa nyjia, HMeioinaa oSojionKy h CBHHnoBbiii cepflenHHK (3ajiHBKy), Ha3biBaeTca 
oSbiKHOBeHHoii. Cpe^H oSbiKHOBeHHbix nyjib BCTpenaiOTca cnjioniHbie, HanpHMep (J)paHny3CKaa 
cnnoniHaa TOMnaKOBaa nyna (cxeMa 113), (J)paHny3CKaji y^jiMHeHHaa cnjioniHaa ajnoMHHneBaa nyna (4 
Ha cxeivte 1 14), a TaK>Ke oSjierneHHbie co CTanbHbiM cepflenHHKOM. IIoaBJieHHe b oSbiKHOBeHHbix nyjiax 
CTanbHoro cepflenHHKa Bbi3BaHO TpeSoBamieM y^enieBJieHHa KOHCTpyKnnH nyjiH nyreM yMeHbineHna 
KOJiHnecTBa CBHHu,a h yMeHbineHHa flec^opMauHH nyjiH b nejiax yBejiHieHHa npoSnBHoro rqPlctbiw. 
Me>Kfly oSojiohkoh nyjiH h CTanbHbiM cepfleiHHKOM HaxoflHTca CBminoBaa pySannca ^jih oSjierneHHa 
Bpe3aHHa b Hape3bi. 




CxeMa 113 cDpaHny3CKaa cnjioniHaa TOMnaKOBaa nyjia 




CxeMa 1 14. OSbiKHOBemibie nyjim 

1 - OTenecTBeHHaa jierKaa, 2 - repMaHCKaa jierKaa; 3 - OTenecTBeHHaa TJDKejiaa; 4 - (J)paHny3CKaa 
cnjioniHaa; 5 - OTeHecTBemiaa co CTanbHbiM cepflenmiKOM; 6 - repMaHCKaa co CTanbHbiM cepflenHHKOM; 
7 - aHrjiHHCKaa; 8 - anoHCKaa A - KOJibueBoii >Kejio6oK - HaKaTKa fljia KpernieHHa nyjiH b rmib3e 

J\o chx nop b npnMeHeHHH BCTpenaiOTca nyjin CTaporo roroTOBJiemui. HMeiOTca jierKne nyjin 
o6pa3u,a 1908 r. c MejibxnopoBon oSojiohkoh 6e3 KOJibneBOH HaKaTKn ^Jia 4)HKcau,Hn nyjin b rnjib3e 
(cxeMa 115) n Jiencaa nyjia oSpa3na 1908-1930 rr. co CTanb-Bon, njiaKnpoBamiOH TOMnaKOM oSojioh- 
koh, HMeiomaa KOJibneByio HaKaTKy fljia Jiynmero 3aKpenjieHna nyjin b flyjibu,e rnjib3bi npn cSopKe na- 
TpoHa (A Ha cxeMe 114). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



246 




I— J^?-J 

CxeMa 115. Jlencaa nyna o6pa3u,a 1908 r. 6e3 HaicaTKH 

MaTepHanbi, H3 KOTopwx H3roTOBJieHa oSojiOHKa nyjin, no-pa3HOMy H3HaniHBaiOT ctboji. Ochob- 
hoh npHHHHOH H3HOca CTBOJia aBJiHeTca MexaHHnecKoe HCTHpaHHe, h no3TOMy HeM TBep>Ke oSojiOHKa 
nyjin, TeM HHTeHCHBHee h3hoc. IIpaKTHKa noKa3ana, hto npn CTpenbSe H3 OflHoro h Toro >Ke o6pa3u,a 
opy>KHa nynaMH c pa3JiHHHbiMH oSojiOHKaMH, H3roTOBJieHHbiMH b pa3Hoe BpeMa Ha pa3Hbix 3aBO#ax, 
>KHByHecTb CTBOJia pa3JiHHHa. IIpH CTpeubSe nyjieii co CTanbHOH, He njiaiaipoBaHHOH TOMnaKOM 060- 
jiohkoh BbinycKa BoeHHoro BpeivteHH h3hoc CTBOJia pe3KO noBbimaeTca. Hhhcm He noKpbrraa CTanbHaa 

OSojiOHKa HMeeT CKJIOHHOCTb K Op>KaBJieHHK), HTO pe3KO CHH>KaeT TOHHOCTb CTpeJIbSbl. TaKne nyjin 

BbinycKanH HeMUbi b nocjieflHHe Mecaubi BTopoM mhpoboh bohhw. 

B KOHCTpyKHHH nyjin pa3JiHnaiOT rojiOBHyio, Beflymyio h xBOCTOByio nacTH (cxeMa 116). 




CxeMa 116. 4)yHKHHOHajibHbie nacTH nyjin o6pa3ua 1930 r.: 

A - rojiOBHaa, B - Be^ymaa, B - xBOCTOBaa oSTeKaeMaa 

TojiOBHaa nacTb coBpeMeHHoM bhhtobohhoh nyjin HMeeT KOHHnecKyio BbrraHyryio (})opMy. HeM 
Sojibuie CKopocTb nyjin, TeM 

fljiHHHee flOJDKHa 6biTb ee ronoBHaa nacTb. TaKoe nojio>KeHHe npoflHieroBaHO 3aKOHaMH aapoflH- 
HaMHKH. BbiTaHyrbiH KOHHnecKHH hochk nyjin HMeeT MeHbHiee aapoflHHaMHnecKoe conpoTHBJieHHe 
npn nojieTe b B03#yxe. fljia npHMepa - o>KHBajibHaa TynoKOHenHaa nyna TpexjiHHeiiHOH bhhtobkh 
nepBoro o6pa3u,a Bbinycica #o 1908 ro#a ^aBana 42% noHJDKeHHa ckopocth Ha nyrn ot 25 #o 225 m, a 
ocTpoKOHenHaa o6pa3u,a 1908 r. Ha tom mq nyTH - TOJibKO 18%. B coBpeMeHHbix nynax fljiHHa tojiob- 
hoh nacTH nyjin BbiSnpaeTca b npeflenax ot 2,5 flo 3,5 KannSpa opyacna. BeflymeM nacTbio nyna Bpe- 
3aeTca b Hape3bi. 

Ha3HaneHHe BeflymeM nacTH - npn^aTb nyne Hafle>KHoe HanpaBJieHHe h BpamaTenbHoe ^BH>Ke- 
HHe, a TaK>Ke iuiotho 3anojiHHTb KaHaBKH Hape30B KaHana CTBOJia ajm Toro, htoSm ycTpaHHTb bo3- 
MO>KHOCTb npopbiBa nopoxoBbix ra30B. IIo 3toh npHHHHe nyjin no TOJimHHe BbinonHaiOTca SojibniHM 
^HaMeTpoM, neM HOMHHajibHbm KannSp opy>KHa (/raSji. 38). 

TaSjiHua 38 

^aHHbie BHHTOBOHHbix naTpoHOB KannSpa 7,62 mm, npoH3BOflHBniHxca b CCCP b pa3Hoe BpeMa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 



247 



HaHMemBame 


Bee nyjiw, £ 


Bee 
nopoxa. 


4>aifnii4B«w 
nianerp 


crpenb6eH3 
ipexnHHeJHH 

BMHTOBKM, m/c 


crpenbfe 

H3 

CB/Lm/c 


riaipoH BbriycKa 1945 r. 
(naiymaa rwftsa, naiymaa 
o6oncn-Ka nyxii) 


9,6 toS3& c 
BHyrpeH-m koh/com) 


3,3 


7,84 


865 


836 


riaipoH BbriycKa 1942 r. 


9,5 (agnjafl, c 
BHyrpeH-m KOHyton) 


3,1 


7,87 


865 


840 


riaipoH cHawiepaoM lBB-ro 
3aeoqa 


9,9-9,8 ((MJS^ c 

KOf*f-ie<Kl*l 
XBOCTOBHCOM) 


3,1 


7,8B 


650 


836 


naTpoH^cepeSpamS hook" 
(nyra co crafu-bn 
cepfle»-n*:oH) 


9,6 (nerxaa) 


3,15 


7,69 


650 


836 


EpoHe6oJ«io-3aH[H~aTejiii-bii 


10,4 (TaiKenaa) 


3,1 


7,67 


620 


800 


Tpaccn>yioiij*i 


9,7 (jientafl) 


3,2 


7,65 


660 


636 


OwpTVBHO-qejieBoii oc«6oii 
Ky^nocm 


13,0 (raxenasi) 


3,0 


7,87 


735 


715 


nyra) 


13,5 (TSHKenas) 


3,2 


7,9 


735 


715 


CnopuBHO-LteneBOii 


11,76 (Tflxenaa) 


3,24 


7,87 


760 


740 


riaipoH c Tflxejiou nyneti §j§u, 
1930 r. 


11,6 (raxenasi) 


3,2 


7,67 


760 


740 



KaK npaBHJio, Be^ymaa nacTb nyjin - nnjinHflpHHecKaa, HHor^a fljia nnaBHOCTH Bpe3aHna Be#y- 
men nacTH nyjin npnflaeTca He3HaHHTejibHaa KOHycHOCTb. fljia Jiynmero HanpaBJieHna RBWiKemw nyjin 
no KaHany CTBOJia h fljia yMeHbineHna BepoaTHOCTn cpbiBa c Hape30B BbiroflHee HMeTb Sojibinyio ^jih- 
Hy BeflymeM nacTH, k TOMy >Ke npn ee Sojibinen ^jinHe noBbimaeTca KynHOCTb 60a. Ho c yBejinneHneM 
fljiHHbi BeflymeM nacTH nyjin yBejinnnBaeTCJi ycnjine, HeoSxoflHMoe fljia Bpe3aHna nyjin b Hape3bi. 3to 
MO>KeT npHBecTH k nonepeHHOMy pa3pbiBy oSojiohkh. B OTHonieHHH >KHBynecTH CTBOJia, npe#oxpaHe- 
HHa oSojiohkh ot pa3pwBa h oSecneneHHa jrynmero oSTeKaHna B03#yxa b noneTe BbiroflHee Sojiee ko- 
poTKaa Be^ymaa nacTb. 

^jiHHHaa Be^ymaa nacTb HHTeHCHBHee H3HaniHBaeT ctboji, neM KopoTKaa. IIpH CTpejibSe CTapon 
pyccKoii TynoKOHenHOH nynen c Sojibinen Beflymen nacTbio >KHBynecTb ctbojiob SbiJia B^Boe MeHbine, 
neM npn CTpejibSe hoboh ocTpoKOHenHOH nyneii oSpa3na 1908 r. c MeHbineft ajihhoh Beflymen nacTH. 
B coBpeMeHHoii npaKTHKe npniiaTbi npe^ejibi fljimibi BeflymeM nacTH ot 1 ^o 1,5 pa3Mepa KannSpa. 

C tohkh 3pemia mctkocth CTpejibSbi fljiHHy Beflymen HacTH HeBbiroflHO SpaTb MeHee OflHOrO 
^HaivieTpa KaHana CTBOJia no KaHaBKaM Hape30B. IlyjiH MeHbmen pjimnn, neM flnaivieTp KaHana CTBOJia 
no Hape3aM, #aiOT SojibiuHH pa36poc. 

KpoMe Toro, yMeHbmeHne fljiHHbi Beflymen nacTH Be^eT k bo3mo>khocth ee cpbiBa c Hape30B, k 
HenpaBHJibHOMy nojieTy nyjin b B03#yxe n yxy^HieHHio ee oSTiopanHH. Ilpn Manon fljiHHe Beflymen 
nacTH nyjin oSpa3yiOTca 3a3opw Me>Kfly nyneii n #hom KaHaBKn Hape3a. B 3th 3a3opw c Sonbmon cko- 
pocTbio ycTpeMJiaiOTca pacKaneHHbie nopoxoBbie ra3bi c TBepflbiMn nacTHnaMn HecropeBmero nopoxa, 
KOTopwe SyKBanbHO "cjin3biBaiOT" MeTanji n pe3KO yBejiHHHBaiOT h3hoc CTBOJia. Ilyjia, H^ymaa no 
CTBOJiy He nnoTHO, a "rynaiomaa" no Hape3aM, nocTeneHHO "pa36nBaeT" ctboji h yxy^maeT KanecTBO 
ero ^ajibHenmen paSoTbi. 

Pau,noHajibHoe cooTHomeHne Me>Kfly fljinHon Beflynten nacTn nyjin n flnaivieTpoM KaHana CTBOJia 
no KaHaBKaM Hape30B BbiSnpaeTca TaK>Ke b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot MaTepnana oSojiohkh nyjin. IlyjiH c Sojiee 
MarKHM MaTepnanoM oSojiohkh, neM CTanb, Moryr HMeTb ^jinHy Beflymen nacTH HecKOJibKO Sojibiuyio, 
neM /niaMeTp CTBOJia no Hape3aM. 3Ta BejiHHHHa MO>KeT SbiTb He Sojiee neM Ha 0,02 KannSpa no Hape- 
3aM. 

KpenjieHne nyjin b rnjib3e ocymecTBJiaeTca nyTeM 3aBajibu,OBKH hjih o6>KHMa flyjibu,a rnjib3bi b 
KOJibueByio HaKaTKy nyjin, KOTopaa ^ejiaeTca oSbihho 6jin>Ke k nepe^HeMy KOHu,y Beflymeii nacTH. 
fl,yjibii,e CTanbHbix rnjib3, 3aBajibnoBaHHbix b HaKaTKy, He Sy^eT "cHHMaTb CTpy>KKy" h ^e(})opMHpoBaTb 
naTpoHHHK npn noflane b Hero naTpoHa. 

Ot KpenjieHna nyjin b rnjib3e 3aBHCHT oneHb MHoro. IIpH cjiaSoM KpenjieHnn He pa3BHBaeTca 
^aBJieHHe (J)opcHpoBaHHa, npn oneHb hjiothom nopox cropaeT b nocToaHHOM oSbeMe rnjib3bi, hto bm- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 248 

3biBaeT pe3KHH CKanoK MaKCHMajibHoro flaBJieHna b CTBOJie, BimoTb p,o pa3pwBa. IIpH crpejibSe naTpo- 
HaMH c pa3HOH 3aBajibu,OBKOH nyjiH Bcer^a 6y#eT pa36poc nyjib no BbicoTe. 

XBOCTOBaa nacTb nyjin mtokct SbiTb rniocKon (icaic y Jiencon nyjin o6pa3u,a 1908 r.) hjih oSTeica- 
eMoii (icaic y TJDKejion nyjiH o6pa3u,a 1930 r.) (cm. cxeMy 116). 

BAJIJIHCTHKA nYJIH 

IIpH CBepx3ByKOBbix CKopocTax noneTa nyjin, Kor^a ochobhoh npnHHHon conpoTHBJieHna B03- 
flyxa aBJiaeTca o6pa30BaHHe ynjiOTHeHna B03#yxa nepefl tojiobhoh nacTbio, Bbiro^Hbi nyjin c y^nn- 
HeHHbiM ocTpoKOHenHbiM hochkom. 3a flOHHofi HacTbio nyjiH o6pa3yeTC» pa3pe>KeHHoe npOCTpaHCTBO, 
BCJie/iCTBHe nero noflBJiaeTca pa3HOCTb flaBJieHnn Ha ronoBHyio n ^OHHyio nacTn. 3Ta pa3HOCTb n o6y- 
CJiOBJiHBaeT conpoTHBJieHHe B03#yxa noneTy nyjiH. HeM Sojibine ^naMeTp #Ha nyjiH, TeM Sojibine pa3- 
pe>KeHHoe npocTpaHCTBO, n, ecTecTBeHHO, hqm MeHbine ^naMeTp pjia, TeM 3to npocTpaHCTBO TO>Ke 
MeHbine. IIo3TOMy nyjiaM npn^aiOT oSTeicaeMbiH KOHycoo6pa3Hbin xboctobhk, a #ho nyjin ocTaBJiaiOT 
bo3mo>kho MeHbinero flnaMeTpa, ho ^ocTaTOHHoro fljia Toro, htoSw 3anHTb ee cbhhtj,om. 

H3 BHeUIHeH SajIJIHCTHKH H3BeCTHO, HTO npH CKOpOCTH nyjiH SoJIbHieH, HeM CKOpOCTb 3ByKa, 

(})opMa xboctoboh HacTH nyjin OKa3biBaeT cpaBHHTejibHO MeHbHiee BJinaHne Ha conpoTHBJieHHe B03#y- 
xa, neM ronoBHaa nacTb nyjin. IIpH Sojibnioii HananbHOH ckopocth nyjin Ha flncTaHnnax CTpenbSbi 
400-450 m oSmaa aapoflHHaMHnecKaa KapTHHa conpoTHBJieHna B03#yxa y nyjib h c rniocKon, h c o6tc- 
KaeMoii xboctoboh HacTbio npHMepHO oflHHaKOBa (A, B Ha cxeMe 117). 




CxeMa 117. BajuiHCTHKa nyjib pa3Hon (J)opMbi Ha pa3Hbix CKopocTax: 

A - SanjiHCTHKa nyjin c KOHycoo6pa3HbiM xboctobhkom Ha Sojibinnx CKopocrax; 

B - 6anjiHCTHKa nyjin 6e3 KOHycoo6pa3Horo xBOCTOBHKa Ha Sonbinnx h Manbix CKopocTax; 

B - SanjiHCTHKa nyjin c KOHycoo6pa3HbiM xboctobhkom Ha Manbix CKopocTax: 

1 - BOJiHa ynnoTHeHHoro B03#yxa; 2 - OTpbiB norpaHHHHoro cnoa; 3 - pa3pe>KeHHoe npocTpaH- 

CTBO 

BjIHSHHe (})OpMbI XBOCTOBOH HaCTH Ha BeJIHHHHy CHJIbI conpoTHBJieHna B03#yxa yBejiHHHBaeTca c 

yMeHbnieHHeM ckopocth nyjin. XBOCTOBaa nacTb b BH^e yceneHHoro KOHyca npn^aeT nyne Sojiee 06- 
TeKaeMyio (})opMy, 6-naroflapa KOTopon Ha Manbix CKopocrax yMeHbniaiOTca oSnacTb pa3pe>KeHHoro 
npocTpaHCTBa h 3aBHxpeHHa B03#yxa no3a#n #Ha jieTamen nyjin (B Ha cxeMe 117). 3aBnxpeHna h 
HanHHHe oSnacTH noHH>KeHHoro ^aBJieHHa 3a nynen npnBOfljrr k SbiCTpoM noTepe ckopocth nyjin. 

KoHHnecKaa xBOCTOBaa nacTb Sojiee u,ejiecoo6pa3Ha ^Jia Ta>Kejibix nyjib, npHMeroieMbix rjw 
CTpenbSbi Ha SojibHine flncTamiHH, TaK KaK b KOHu,e noneTa Ha Sojibinyio ^ajibHOCTb CKopocTb nyjin 
Mana. B coBpeMeHHbix nynax fljiHHa xboctoboh KOHnnecKon nacTH jie>KHT b npe^ejiax 0,5-1 KannSpa. 

OSmaa fljiHHa nyjin orpaHHHHBaeTca ycnoBHaMH ycTOHHHBOCTH ee npn noneTe. IIpH HopManb- 
hoh KpyrH3He Hape30B ycTOHHHBOCTb nyjin b noneTe oSecnennBaeTca npn ee fljinHe He Sojiee 5,5 Ka- 
jinSpa. Ilyjia Sojibinen ajikhw 6y#eT neTeTb Ha npe^ejie ycTOHHHBOCTH h ^a>Ke npn ecTecTBeHHbix 3 a- 

BHXpeHHSX B03flyiHHbIX nOTOKOB MO>KeT nOHTH KyBbipKOM. 

JIErKHE H TH^CEJIWE nYJIH. nonEPEHHAH HArPY3KA nyjin 

IIonepeHHOH Harpy3Koii nyjin Ha3biBaeTca OTHonieHHe Beca nynn k njioma^H nonepenHoro ce- 
neHHa ee uHJiHHflpHHecicoH nacTH. 
an = q/Sn (iVcm2), 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



249 



trq q - Bee nyjin b rpaMMax; 

Sn - njioma^b nonepenHoro ceneHHa nyjin b cm2. 

HeM Sojibine Bee nyjin npn tom >Ke KannSpe, TeM Sojibiue h ee nonepeHHaa Harpy3Ka. B 3aBHCH- 
mocth ot BejiHHHHti nonepeHHOH Harpy3KH pa3JiHHaiOT JierKne h Ta>Kejibie nyjin. OSbiKHOBeHHbie ny- 
jih, HMeiomHe npn HopManbHOM KannSpe (cm. ^anee) nonepenHyio Harpy3Ky Sonee 25 t/cm2 h Bee 60- 
nee 10 r, Ha3biBaiOTca T»>KejibiMH, a nyjin HopManbHoro KannSpa, HMeiomHe Bee MeHee 10 r h 
nonepenHyio Harpy3Ky MeHee 22 iVcm2, Ha3biBaiOTca nerKHMH (TaSji. 39). 

TaSjinna 39 



Xa pa KTepHCTW ica 


ilencan nynn o6p. 19DS r. 


TflHcenan nynn o6p. 1930 r. 


Bee nyjin, £ 


9,6 


11,8 


Annua ny/iH, (jtj 


28,5 


33,2 


Bbict>Ta MKHBana, jjjj 


18,4 


16, S3 


Annua aeflyn^eii Macm, nannSpos 


1,3 


1,0 


nonepeMHaa narpv3Ka, r/c^ 


21,2 


25,9 



IlyjiH c SojibuiOH nonepeHHOH Harpy3KOH HMeiOT MeHbniyio HananbHyio CKopocTb, neM jierKne 
nyjin, npn o^hom h tom ace MaKCHManbHOM flaBJiemiH b ctbojic IIoaTOMy Ha Majibix flanbHOCTax 
CTpeubSbi Jiencaa nyna #aeT Sonee HacTHJibHyio TpaeKTopnio, neM TJDKejiaa nyjia (cxeMa 118). OflHaKO 
c yBejinneHHeM nonepeHHOH Harpy3Kn yMeHbniaeTca ycKopemie chum conpoTHBJieHHa B03flyxa. A Taic 
KaK ycKopeHHe chjim conpoTHBJieHHa B03#yxa ^encTByeT b HanpaBJieHnn, oSpaTHOM ckopocth nyjin, 
to nynn c SojibHieii nonepeHHOH Harpy3KOH MeflJieHHO TepaiOT CKopocTb no# BJinamieM conpoTHBJie- 
HHa B03flyxa. TaK, HanpnMep, OTenecTBeHHaa TJDKejias nyjia Ha flanbHOCTH Sonee 400 m HMeeT Sonee 
HacTHJibHyio TpaeKTopnio, neM Jiencaa nyna (cm. cxeMy 118). 




CxeMa 118. TpaeieropHH jierKoii h Ta>Kejion nynb npn CTpeubSe Ha pa3JiHHHbie ^ajibHOCTH 

HeManoe 3HaneHHe HMeeT h to, hto TJDKejiaa nyjia HMeeT kohhhcckhh xboctobhk h ee aapofln- 
HaMHKa Ha hh3khx CKopocTax Sonee coBepiueHHa, neM aapoflHHaMHKa nynn JierKoii (cm. paHee). 

IIo BceM 3thm npHHHHaM npn fl0CTH>KeHHH flHCTaHu,HH 500 m jierKaa nyjia o6pa3na 1908 r. 
HanHHaeT npnTopMa>KHBaTbca, a Ta>Kejiaa - HeT (Ta6n. 40). 

TaSjinua 40 

BpeMa noneTa nynn, c 



flHcran|HH crpenuGbi g§ 


otip. 1930 r. 


oGp. 1908 r. 


100 


0,13 


0,11 


200 


0,27 


0,25 


300 


0,42 


0,40 


400 


0,58 


0,57 


500 


0,76 


0,76 


600 


0,95 


0,97 


700 


1,16 


1,21 


600 


1,39 


1,47 


900 


1,64 


1,75 


1000 


1,91 


2,06 


1100 


2,20 


2,40 


1200 


2,51 


2,77 


1300 


2,S4 


3,16 


1400 


3,19 


3,5B 


1500 


3,55 


4,02 



IIpaKTHKOH ycTaHOBJieHO, hto Ta>Kejibie nynn Ha flHCTaHnnax 400 m oSecnennBaiOT Sonee Kyn- 
Hbifi 6oh h CHJibHee fleiiCTByiOT no nejiH, neM JierKne nynn. H3 bhhtobok h nyneMeTOB MaKCHManbHaa 
^ajibHOCTb noneTa TaHcejiOH nynn cocTaBJiaeT 5000 m, a JierKoii - 3800. 

Jinn oSbiHHbix nexoTHbix bhhtobok, h3 KOTopwx CTpenbSa Mano noflroTOBJiemibiMH CTpenKaMn, 
KaK npaBHJio, Be^eTca Ha flHCTaHnnax #o 400 m, CTpenbSa nerKHMH nyjiHMH 6y#eT npaKTHHHon, h6o Ha 
3toh flHCTaHu,HH TpaeKropHa JierKoii nynn Sy^eT Sonee HacTHJibHOH, a cneflOBaTejibHO, Sonee pe3yjib- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



250 



TaTHBHOH. Ho fljia CHannepoB h nyneMeTHHKOB, kotopwm Ha^o flocTaTt nejib Ha 800 m (a nyneMeTnn- 
KaM n flanbine), Sojiee nejiecoo6pa3Ha n pe3ynbTaTHBHa cipejibSa hmchho T»>KejibiMH nyjiHMH. 

Jlim Jiynmero yacHeHna nponecca npnBe^eM SajiJincTnnecKoe TOJiKOBaHne cxeMbi 118. HtoSm 
npn CTpenbSe Ha flncTaHnnn 200 m Ta>Kejiaa nyna nonana b Ty >Ke TOHKy, hto h jierKaa, qPl Ha^o npn- 
flaTb npn BbiCTpene SojibinnH yron B03BbiiueHHa, to ecTb "npmioflHaTb" TpaeKTopnio npaKinnecKn Ha 
OflHH-flBa caHTHMeTpa. 

Ecjih BHHTOBKa npncTpejiaHa nerKHMH nynaMH Ha flncTaHnnn 200 m, Ta>Kejibie nyjin b KOHne #n- 
CTaHu,HH noHflyr caHTHMeTpa Ha nojiTopa-^Ba HH>Ke (ecjin npnneji ycTaHOBJieH ^Jia CTpejibSbi nerKHMH 
nyjiaMH). Ho Ha flncTaHnnn 400 m CKopocTb jierKon nyjin y>Ke na^aeT Sbicrpee, neM CKopocTb nyjin 
TJDKejiOH, KOTopaa HMeeT Sojiee coBepnieHHyio aapoflnHaMnnecKyio (J)opMy. no3TOMy Ha flncTaHnnn 
400-500 m TpaeKTopHH h tohkh nona^aHna oSenMn nyjiaMn coBna/iaiOT. Ha Sojiee flanbHnx flnciaH- 
nnax Jiencaa nyna eme Sojiee TepaeT CKopocTb no cpaBHeHHio c Ta>Kejion. Ha flncTaHnnn CTpejibSbi 
600 m JierKaa nyna nona^aeT b Ty >Ke TOHKy, hto h Ta>Kejiaa, ecjin en npn BbiCTpene npn^aTb Sojibinnii 
yron B03BbiineHHa. To ecTb Tenepb Ha#o noflHHMaTb ipaeKiopnio y>Ke npn cipejibSe JierKoii nynen. 
no3TOMy npn CTpejibSe H3 bhhtobkh, npncTpejiaHon Ta>KejibiMH nynaMn, Ha flncTaHnnn 600 m jierKHe 
nyjin noiiflyT HH>Ke (peanbHO Ha 5-7 cm). Ta>Kejibie nyjin Ha ^ajibHOCTax CTpejibSbi CBbinie 400-500 m 
HMeiOT Sojiee HacTHJibHyio TpaeKTopnio h Sojibinyio KynHOCTb, noaTOMy ohh Sojiee npeflnonTHTejibHbi 
/uia CTpenbSw no OTflaneHHbiM nejiaM. 

JierKaa nyna o6pa3na 1908 r. HMeeT nonepeiHyio Harpy3Ky 21.2 t/cm2. Ta>Kejiaa nyna o6pa3na 
1930 r. - 25,9 t/cm2 (ra6ji. 39). 

YTa>KejieHHe nyjin o6pa3na 1930 r. BbinojiHeHO 3a cneT yfljinHeHHoro HoenKa n KOHycoo6pa3Hon 
xboctoboh nacTH (6 Ha cxeMe 119). Jiencaa nyna o6pa3na 1908-1930 rr. HMeeT b xboctoboh nacTH ko- 
HHnecKoe yraySjieHne- HanHnne 3Toro BHyTpeHHero KOHyca (a Ha cxeMe 119) C03#aeT BbiroflHbie 
ycjiOBHa fljia oSTiopannn nopoxoBbix ra30B, TaK KaK xBOCTOBaa nacTb nyjin ot ^aBJieHHa ra30B pacniH- 
paeTca no flnaMeTpy h huotho npn>KHMaeTca k CTeHKaM KaHana CTBOJia. 



z r 




CxeMa 119. JierKaa h Ta>Kejiaa nyjin: 

a - Jiencaa nyna; 6 - Ta>Kejiaa nyna: 

1 - oSojiOHKa: 2 - cepflenHHK 

3to oScToaTejibCTBO no3BOJiaeT yBejinnnTb cpoK cnyacSbi CTBOJia, noTOMy hto JierKaa nyna xo- 
ponio Bpe3aeTca b Hape3bi, npn>KHMaeTca k hhm h nonynaeT BpamaTejibHoe #BH>KeHHe #a>Ke npn oneHb 
He3HanHTejibHOH BbicoTe Hape30B. TaKHM o6pa30M, BHyTpeHHHH nojibiH KOHyc JierKoii nyjin npn ee 
MeHbHieii Macce n hhcpthocth noBbiiuaeT >KHBynecTb ctbojiob. 

no stoh >Ke npnHHHe CTpenbSa JierKoii nynen H3 CTapwx bhhtobok c H3HomeHHbiMH CTBOJiaMn 
nojiynaeTca TOHHee n pe3yjibTaTHBHee, neM CTpenbSa Ta>KejibiMn nyjiaMn. Ta>Kejiaa nyjia npn npoxo>K- 
fleHHH CTaporo CTBOJia "cnecbiBaeTca" HepoBHOCTaMn paKOBHH ot p>KaBHHHbi n pa3rapa, KaK Hannjib- 
hhkom, yMeHbmaeTca b ^naMeTpe n npn Bbixo^e H3 CTBOJia HannHaeT "rynaTb" b HeM. JlerKaa nyjia no- 
CToaHHO pacninpeHa b ctopohm CBoeM KOHycHon ioSkoh h bo BpeMa paSoTbi b CTBOJie npn>KaTa k ero 
BHyrpeHHHM CTeHKaM. 

3anoMHHTe: CTpejibSa JierKoii nyjien noBbiniaeT >KHBynecTb ctbojiob b^boc H3 hobmx ctbojiob 
KanecTBO CTpejibSw (KynHOCTb 60a) nojiynaeTca Jiynnie npn CTpejibSe Ta>KejiOH nyjien. H3 CTapwx, H3- 
HomeHHbix ctbojiob KanecTBO CTpejibSbi nojiynaeTca jiyninnM npn CTpejibSe JierKoii nyjien c BHyipeH- 

HHM KOHyCOM XBOCTOBOH HaCTH. 

JierKHe nyjin hmciot npeHMymecTBO HacTHJibHOH TpaeKTopHH j\o flanbHOCTH 400-500 m. Hann- 
Haa c ^ajibHOCTH 400-500 m h Sojibiue Ta>Kejiaa nyjia HMeeT npenMymecTBa bo Bcex OTHomeHHax 
(3Heprna nyjin Sojibnie, pacceHBaHne MeHbnie h HacTHJibHee TpaeKTopna). Ta>Kejibie nyjin MeHbnie ot- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 251 

KJiOHaiOTca flepHBau,HeH h BeTpoM, HacTOJibKO Mem>me, HacKOJibKO Sojibine ohh BecaT no cpaBHeHHio c 
jierKoii nyjieM (npiuvtepHO Ha 1/4). Ha flHCTaHu,Hax CBbime 400 m BepoaTHOCTb nona^aHHa npn CTpenb- 
6e Ta>KejiOH nyneii BTpoe Sojibine, neM npn CTpenbSe JierKoii nyneii. 

IIpH npncTpejiKe Ha flHCTaHHHH 100 m Ta>Kejibie nyjin H^yT Ha 1-2 cm HH>Ke, HeM jierKne. 

Hochk (BepniHHa) Ta>KejiOH nyjin o6pa3ua 1930 ro#a OKpamHBaeTca b >KejiTbiH u,BeT. JlerKaa ny- 
Jia o6pa3ua 1908 r. ocoSbix OTJiHHHTejibHbix 3HaKOB He HMeeT. 

^ehctbhe nyjin no uejih. yEOHHOCTb nyjin 

IIopa>KeHHe >khboh OTKpbiToii uejiH npn nonaflaHHH b Hee onpeflenaeTca ySoiiHOCTbio nyjin. 
ySoHHOCTb nyjin xapaKrepH3yeTca >khboh chjioh y#apa, to ecTb 3HeprHeft b MOMem - BcrpeHH c u,ejibio. 
3Hepraa nyjin E 3aBHCHT ot SamiHCTHHecKHx cbohctb opy>KHa h BbiHHCJiaeTca no (})opMyjie: 

E = (gxv2)/S 

r,zje g - Bee nyjin; 

v - CKopocTb nyjin y nenn; 

S - ycKopemie CBoSoflHoro na^eHHa. 

HeM Sojibme Bee nyjin n neM Sojibine ee HananbHaa CKopocTb, TeM Sojibine 3Heprna nyjin. Coot- 
BeTCTBeHHO, 3Heprna nyjin TeM Sojibine neM Sojibine CKopocTb nyjin y u,ejin. CKopocTb nyjin y nenn 
TeM Sojibnie, neM coBepmeHHee ee SajuincTHHecKne KanecTBa, onpeflejiaeMbie (})opMOH nyjin n ee 06- 
TeKaeMOCTbio. fl,Jia HaHeceHHa nopa>KeHHa, BbiBOflamero H 3 CTpoa nejiOBeKa, ^ocTaTOHHa 3Hepraa ny- 
jih, paBHaa 8 kt m, h #jia HaHeceHHa Taicoro >Ke nopa>KeHHa BbiOHHOMy >KHBOTHOMy HeoSxoflHMa 3Hep- 
rna okojio 20 kt m. IlyjiH coBpeMeHHbix apMencKnx o6pa3u,OB CTpenKOBoro opy>KHa KannSpa 7,62 mm 
coxpaHaiOT ySoiiHOCTb noHTH #o npeflenbHon ^HCTaHUHH nojieTa. IlyjiH cnopTHBHbix MajioKajinSep- 
hmx naTpoHOB oneHb SbiCTpo TepaiOT CKopocTb n 3Hepraio. IIpaKTHHecKH Taicaa ManoKajinSepHaa nyjia 
TepaeT rapaHTnpoBaHHyio ySoiiHOCTb Ha ^HCTaHHHH Sojiee 150 m (TaSn. 41). 

Ta6jinu,a 41 

BajiJincTHHecKne flaHHbie MajioKajinSepHon nyjin 5,6 mm 



AanbHOCTi* * 


KHHerimecKafl aiieprHfl, jsj/h 


50 


11,8 


100 


10,0 


150 


8,5 


200 


6,8 



Ilpn CTpejibSe Ha oSbiHHbie npHuejibHbie ^HCTaHHHH nyjin Bcex o6pa3HOB SoeBoro CTpenKOBoro 
opy>KHa HMeiOT MHoroKpaTHbiii 3anac 3Heprnn. HanpnMep, npn CTpejibSe Ta>Kejion nyjieii H3 CHannep- 
ckoh bhhtobkh Ha flanbHOCTb 2 km 3Hepraa nyjin y nejiH paBHa 27 Kr m. 

34)(j)eKT fleiiCTBHa nyjin no >khbmm nenaM 3aBHCHT He tojibko ot 3Hepran nyjin. Bojibnioe 3Ha- 
neHHe HMeiOT TaKne (|)aKTopbi, KaK "SoKOBoe flencTBne", cnocoSHOCTb nyjin k fle(})opMaHHH, CKopocTb 
n (})opMa nyjin. "BoKOBoe fleMcTBHe" - y#ap b ctopohm - xapaierepHByeTca pa3MepaMH He TOJibKO caMOH 
paHbi, ho h pa3MepoM nopa>KaeMOH TKaHn no coceflCTBy c paHOH. C stoh tohkh 3peHHa ocTpoKOHen- 
Hbie fljiHHHbie nyjin oSjia^aiOT SojibinnM "Sokobbim" flencTBHeM BCJieflCTBne Toro, hto fljiHHHaa nyjia c 
JierKoii rojiOBHOH nacTbio HannHaeT "KyBbipKaTbca" npn nona^aHHH b >KHByio TKaHb. TaK Ha3biBaeMbie 
"KyBbipKaionineca" nyjin co CMemeHHbiM nenrpoM Ta>KecTH Smjih H3BecTHbi eme b KOHue npomjioro 
CTOJieTna n HeoflHOKpaTHO 3anpemajincb MOK^yHapoflHbiMH KOHBeHiniaMH no npnnnHe HyflOBHiHHoro 
B03flencTBna: KyBbipKaioniaaca no opraHH3My nyjia ocTaBJiaeT nocjie ce6a KaHan caHTHMeTpoB naTb b 
flnaMeTpe, HanojiHeHHbin pa3M03>KeHHbiM (})apnieM. B oSnteBoncKOBon npaKTHice OTHomeHne k hhm 
ABoncTBeHHoe - 3th nyjin, pa3yMeeTca, ySnBaiOT HanoBan, ho b nojieTe ohh H^yr Ha npe^ejie ycTOH- 
hhbocth h HepeflKO HaHHHaiOT KyBbipKaTbca ^a>Ke ot cnjibHbix nopbiBOB BeTpa. KpoMe Toro, npoSnB- 
Hoe flencTBHe no nejiH KyBbipKaioniHMHca nyjiaMH ocTaBJiaeT >KejiaTb Jiynniero. HanpnMep, npn 
CTpejibSe TaKoii nynen nepe3 flepeBaHHyio flBepb KyBbipKaioniaaca nyua npo^ejibiBaeT b ^Bepn orpoM- 
Hyio flbipy, n Ha stom ee SHepraa HCHepnbiBaeTca. H,ejib, Haxoflaniaaca 3a 3toh ^Bepbio, HMeeT maHC 
ynejieTb. 

CnocoSHOCTb nyjin k flec})opMaLi,HH yBennnnBaeT nopa>KaeMyio oSnacTb. Be3o6ojioneHHbie cbhh- 
noBbie nyjin npn nona^aHnH b TKaHb >KHBoro opraHH3Ma ^e^opMnpyiOTca b nepeflHen nacTn h ^aiOT 
oneHb Ta>Kejibie paHeHHa. B oxoTHKHben npaKTHKe fljia CTpejibSw no KpynHOMy 3Bepio H3 Hape3Horo 
opy>KHa npHMeHaiOTca TaK Ha3biBaeMbie 3KcnaHCHBHbie pa3BopanHBaiomHeca nojiyoSojionenHbie nyjin. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



252 



Be^ymaa nacTb 3thx nyjit h HeMHoro tojiobhoh nacra 3aKniOHeHbi b oSonoHKy, a hochk ocTaBJieH 
ocjiaSjieHHbiM, HHor^a npocTO H3 pySaniKH "Bbirjia^biBaeT" CBHHnoBaa 3aiiHBKa, HHor^a 3Ta 3anHBKa 
npHKpwTa KOJinanKOM, HHor^a b tojiobhoh nacTH BbinojiHaeTca BCTpenHbiM Kopnyc (cxeMa 120). 3th 
nyjiH HHor^a pa3pbiBaiOTca Ha nacTH npn BCTpene c nenbio h nosTOMy b CTapHHy Ha3biBanHCb pa3pbiB- 
hwmh (3to HenpaBHJibHoe Ha3BaHHe). IlepBbie o6pa3u,bi TaKHX nyjib H3roTaBJiHBanHCb b 70-x ro^ax 
XIX CTOJieTHa b apceHane JlyM-JlyM b6jih3h KajibKynrbi, h nosTOMy Ha3BaHHe ^yM-^yM npHJiHiuio k 
nojiyoSojionenHbiM nynaM pa3Hbix KannSpoB. B apMencKoii npaKTHKe TaKne nyjiH c MarKHM hochkom 
He npHMeHaiOTca H3-3a HeSojibinoro npoSnBHoro rqPlctbkh. 




t t 

CxeMa 120. Pa3BopaHHBaiomHeca nyjin: 

1 - (JmpMbi "Poce"; 2 h 3 - (JmpMbi "BecTepH" 

Ha ySoiiHoe ^encTBHe nyjiH Sojibinoe BJinaHne OKa3biBaeT ee CKopocTb. HenoBeK Ha 80% cocto- 
ht H3 BOflbi. OSbiKHOBeHHaa ocTpoKOHenHaa BHHTOBOHHaa nyna npn nona^aHHH no >KHBOMy opraHH3- 
My Bbi3biBaeT Taic Ha3biBaeMbiH rHflpo#HHaMHHecKHn y#ap, ^aBJieHHe ot KOToporo nepe^aeTca bo Bee 
ctopohw, Bbi3biBaa oSiuhh nioK h CHJibHbie pa3pynieHHa BOKpyr nyjiH. OflHaKO rHflpoflHHaMHnecKHH 
3(J)(J)eKT npoaBJiaeTca npn CTpenbSe no >KHBbiM nejiaM npn CKopocTH nyjin He MeHee 700 m/c. 

Hapa^y c ySonHbiM flencTBneM pa3JiHHaiOT eme TaK Ha3biBaeMoe "ocTaHaBJiHBaiomee flencTBne" 
nyjin. OcTaHaBJiHBaiomHM flencTBneM Ha3biBaiOT cnocoSHOCTb nyjin npn nona^aHnn b HanSonee Ba>K- 
Hbie opraHbi SbiCTpo paccTpanBaTb (^ymcnnH opraHH3Ma npoTHBHHKa TaK, htoSw oh He Mor OKa3aTb 
aKTHBHoe conpoTHBJieHne. HopManbHbiM ocTaHaBJiHBaioniHM fleftcTBHeM >KHBaa nenb ^ojDKHa momch- 
TanbHO o6e3Bpe>KHBaTbca n o6e3flBH>KHBaTbca. OcTaHaBJiHBaiomee ^encTBHe HMeeT Sojibinoe 3Hane- 
Hne Ha flHCTami,Hax 6oa b ynop h B03pacTaeT c yBejinneHneM KannSpa opy>KHa. IIo3TOMy KannSpbi nn- 

CTOJieTOB H peBOJIbBepOB oSblHHO fleJiaiOTCa 60JIbnie BHHTOBOHHblX. 

Jinn CHannepcKOH CTpenbSbi, oSmhho BbinojmaeMOH Ha cpe^Hnx flncTaHnnax (#o 600 m), ocTa- 
HaBJiHBaiomee fleMcTBne nyjin ocoSoro 3HaneHHa He HMeeT. 



nyjin cnEi^HAJibHoro ^ehctbha 



IIpH BefleHHH SoeBbix fleiicTBHH HeB03MO>KHO oSoHTHCb 6e3 nyjib cnennanbHoro flencTBHa - 
6poHe6oHHbix, 3a>KHraTejibHbix, TpaccnpyioinHx h t. r. 

IlaTpoHbi c 6poHe6oHHbiMH nynaMH npeflHa3HaHeHbi fljia nopa>KeHHa npoTHBHHKa 3a Spomipo- 
BaHHbiMH yKpbiTHaMH. Ot oSbiKHOBeHHbix nyjib 6poHe6oHHbie OTJiHnaiOTca HanHHHeM SpoHeBoro cep- 

fleHHHKa BblCOKOH npOHHOCTH H TBepflOCTH. Me>Kfly 060JIOHKOH H CepfleHHHKOM OSblHHO HaXOflHTCa 

MarKaa CBHHnoBaa pySaniKa, oSjierHaiomaa Bpe3aHne nyjin b Hape3bi h npefloxparonomaa KaHan ctbo- 
na ot HHTeHCHBHoro H3HOca. HHor^a SpoHeSoHHbie nyjin He hmciot cneiniajibHOH pySaniKH. Tor^a 
oSojiOHKa, aBJiaacb KopnycoM nyjin, H3roTaBJiHBaeTca H3 Mancoro MaTepnana. TaK ycTpoeHa (J)paHiiy3- 
CKaa SpoHeSoHHaa nyjia (3 Ha cxeMe 121), cocToamaa H3 TOMnaKOBoro Kopnyca h CTanbHoro SpoHe- 
SoHHoro cepflenHHKa. Hochk SpoHeSonHon nyjin OKpameH b nepHbin nBeT. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



253 




CxeMa 121. BpoHeSoiiHbie nyjin: 

1- OTenecTBeHHaa; 2 - HcnaHCicaa; 3 - 4)paHu,y3CKa>i 

BpoHenpoSHBaeMoe fleMcTBHe nyjit oSmhho BbiroflHO coneTaTb c ^pyrHMH BH^aMH fleMcTBHa: 
3a>KHraTejibHbiM h TpaccHpyiomHM. IIo3TOMy SpoiieSoiiHbiH cepflenHHK BCTpenaeTca b SpoHeSoiiHO- 
3a>KHraTejibHbix h 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibiio-TpaccHpyiomHx nyrax. 

TpaccnpyiomHe nyjiH npeflHa3HaneHbi fljia u,ejieyKa3aHHa, KoppeKTHpoBamia oraa npn CTpejibSe 
flo 1000 m. TaKHe nyjiH HanojiHeHbi TpaccHpyiomHM cocTaBOM, KOTopbiM fljia paBHOMepHoro ropeHHa 
3anpeccoBbiBaeTca b HecKOJibKO npneiviOB nofl oneHb bbicokhm flaBJiemieM bo H36e>KaHHe pa3pynieHHa 
cocTaBa npn BbiCTpene, ropemia ero Ha SojibinoM noBepxHOCTH h pa3pyniemiji nyjiH b noneTe (a Ha 
cxeMe 122). B oSojionice Tpacciipyiomiix nyjib OTenecTBeHHoro npoH3BOflCTBa cnepe^H noMemeH cep- 
flenHHK H3 cnnaBa CBHHu,a c cypbMoii, a c3a#H - CTaicaHHHK c 3anpeccoBaHHbiM b HecKOJibKO cnoeB 

TpaCCHpyiOHlHM COCTaBOM 




ffH#^ 4hZBi-1 &M&- 

CxeMa 122. TpaccnpyiomHe nyjin: 

a - nyna T-30 (CCCP); 6 - nyna SPGA (AHrjiHa); b - nyna T (Opamjjw) 

Bo H36e>KaHHe pa3pynieHHa cnpeccoBaHHoro Tpaccnpyiomero cocTaBa b nyne h HapynieHHa ero 
HopManbHoro ropeHHa Ha TpaccHpyiomnx nynax oSwhho He flenaeTca HaKaTKa (KaHaBKa) Ha Sokoboh 
noBepxHOCTH fljia o6>KHMa b Hee flynbua rHJib3bi. KpenneHHe Tpacciipyiomiix nyjib b ^yjitije rHJib3bi 
oSecnenHBaeTca, KaK npaBHJio, 3a cneT noca^KH hx b flynbu,e c HararoM. 

ripn BbiCTpene nuaMa ot nopoxoBoro 3apa^a 3a>KHraeT TpaccnpyiomiiH cocTaB nyjiH, KOTopbiM, 
cropaa b noneTe nyjiH, #aeT apKHH CBeTamHftca cjie,zj, xoponio bhahmh h riiqm h HOHbio. B 3aBHCHMO- 

CTH OT BpeMeHH H3r0T0BJieHH3 H npHMeHeHHS B H3rOTOBJieHHH TpaCCHpyiOmerO COCTaBa pa3JIHHHbIX 

KOMnoHeHTOB CBeneHne Tpaccepa MO>KeT SbiTb 3ejieHbiM, >KejiTbiM, opaH>KeBbiM h ManHHOBbiM. 

HanSojiee npaieniHHbiM aBJiaeTca ManHHOBoe CBeneHHe, xoponio 3aMeTHoe h HOHbio h flHeM. 

OcoSeHHOCTbio TpacciipyiomHx nynb aBJiaeTca H3MeHeHHe Beca h nepeMememie u,eHTpa Ta>Ke- 
cth nyjiH no Mepe Bbiropamui Tpaccepa. H3MeHeHHe Beca h npoflOJibHoe CMemeHHe u,eHTpa TJDKecTH He 
OKa3biBaiOT BpeflHoro bjihjihiui Ha xapaierep noneTa nyjiH. Ho nonepenHoe CMemeHHe u,eHTpa TaacecTH, 
Bbi3BaHHoe oflHOCTopoHHHM BbiropaHHeM Tpacciipyiomero cocTaBa, ^ejiaeT nyjiio flHHaMHHecKH He- 
ypaBHOBenieHHoii h Bbi3biBaeT 3HaHirrejibHoe yBejiHHeHHe pacceHBamia. KpoMe Toro, npn ropeHHH 
Tpaccepa Bbi^ejiaiOTca xHMHHecKH arpeccHBHbie npoflyierbi ropemui, KOTopwe pa3pyniaiome ^eiicTBy- 
iot Ha KaHan CTBOJia. ripn CTpenbSe H3 nyjieMeTa 3to He HMeeT 3HaneHiia. Ho CHaMnepcKHH otSophwh 
h TOHHbiii ctboji Ha^o Sepenb. no3TOMy He 3JioynoTpe6jiaiiTe TpaccHpyiomeii CTpejibSoM H3 CHaMnep- 
ckoii bhhtobkh. TeM Sojiee hto TOHHOCTb CTpejibSbi TpaccHpyiomHMH nyjiaMH H3 caMoro xoponiero 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



254 



CTBOJia ocTaBJiaeT >KejiaTb Jiynniero. Bonee Toro, Tpaccnpyioinaa nyna c noTepen Beca ot cropaHna 
Tpaccepa SbiCTpo TepaeT npoSnBHyio cnocoSHOCTb n Ha flncTaHnnn 200 m y>Ke He npoSnBaeT #a>Ke 
KacKy. Hochk Tpaccnpyioinen nyjin OKpauieH b 3ejieHbin u,BeT. 

3a>KHraTejibHbie nyjin BbinycKanncb p,o BTopon mhpoboh bohhm h b ee HanajibHWH nepnofl. Ily- 
jih 3th npeflHa3HaHanHCb ^Jia nopa>KeHHa jierKOBOcnjiaMeHJuoinHxca nejien. B hx KOHCTpyKnnax 3a- 
>KHraTejibHbiH cocTaB noMemanca name Bcero b tojiobhoh nacTH nyjin h cpaSaTbiBan (BoenjiaMeHajica) 
npn nonaflaHHH nyjin b nejib (cxeMa 123). HeKOTopwe 3a>KHraTejibHbie nyjin, HanpHMep 4)paHny3CKa» 
(a Ha cxeMe 123), 3aropanHCb eme b KaHane CTBOJia ot nopoxoBbix ra30B. ABTopy flOBOflHJiocb BH^eTb 
CTpenbSy TaKHMH nynjiMH npn SKcnepTHO-KpnMHHanHCTHHecKOM OTCTpene. 3pejiHme 6bmo oneHb 
BneHaTJiaiomHM ot CTpenKa nepe3 nojinroH yxoflnjin KpacHBbie >KejiTO-opaH>KeBbie iuapbi bcjikhkhoh c 
(J)yT6ojibHbiH m»h. Ho SoeBoro acJ^eiCTa ot 3Toro 4)eHepBepKa He Swjio aSconiOTHO HHKaKoro. 3a>Knra- 
TenbHbie nyjin, noaBHBinneca b KOHne IlepBOH mhpoboh bohhm ^Jia 6opb6bi c (J)aHepHO-nojiOTHaHbiMH 
aaponjiaHaMH npoTHBHHKa, OKa3anHCb HecocToaTejibHbiMn npoTHB nejibHOMeTanjinHecKon aBnannn. 
cDpaHny3CKne, noubCKHe, anoHCKne, ncnaHCKne 3a>KHraTejibHbie nyjin He hmchh HeoSxoflHMon npo- 
Shbhoh cnocoSHOCTH h SbiJiH He b cocToaHHH npoSnrb H nOfl>KeHb ^a>Ke >KeJie3HOflOpO>KHyiO HHCTep- 
Hy. IIojio>KeHHe He cnacano #a>Ke to, hto BnoaneflCTBnn 3a>KnraTejibHbin cocTaB CTann noMemaTb 
BHyrpn npoHHoro CTanbHoro Kopnyca. Hochk 3a>KnraTejibHon nyjin OKpanieH b KpacHbin nBeT. 



1% 


a 1 


*': 






i 




; 




I * 


*,i 




jjv 




5 -\\ 




4*\f 


B 








CxeMa 123. 3aMcnraTejibHbie nyjin: 

a - (J)paHii,y3CKaa nyna Ph: 1 - oSojionica, 2 - (J)oc(J)op, 3, 4 h 5 - ^OHHaa nacTb, 6 - jiencoiuiaBKaa 
npoSKa; 6 - ncnaHCKaa nyna PI- cepflenHHK, 2 - ohko, 3 - T»>Kejioe Teno, 4 - 3a>KnraTejibHbin cocTaB 
(4)oc(J)op); b - repMaHCKaa nyna SPr 1 - oSojionKa, 2 - 3aMcnraTejibHbin cocTaB (4)oc(J)op), 3 - ^OHHaa 
nacTb; 4 - jierKonnaBKaa npoSKa; r - aHranncKaa nyna SA: 1 - oSojionKa, 2 - 3a>KnraTejibHbin cocTaB, 3 
- flOHHaa nacTb; 4 - jiencoiuiaBKaa npoSKa 

no npHHHHe ManoM npoSnBaeMOCTn 3a>KHraTejibHbie nyjin ^OBOJibHO SbiCTpo CTann BbrrecHaTbca 
H3 SoeBoro npnMeHeHna SpoHeSonHO-3a>KHraTejibHbiMH nynaMn, KOTopwe oSmhho hmcjih KapSn^o- 
BOJIb(J)paMOBbIH HJIH CTajIbHOH SpOHeSOHHblH cepflenHHK. ConeTaHne 3a>KHraTejibHoro H 6pOHe60HHO- 
ro ^eiiCTBHa nojiynnjiocb oneHb Bbiro^HbiM. KoHCTpyKnnn SpoHeSonHO-3a>KHraTejibHbix nyjib bo Bpe- 

M3 BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl B pa3HbIX CTpaHaX SblJIH pa3JIHHHbIMH (cxeMa 124). OSblHHO 3a>KnraTejib- 

Hbift cocTaB no-npe>KHeMy pacnojiaranca b tojiobhoh nacra nyjin - TaK oh Ha#e>KHee cpaSaTbiBan, ho 
xy>Ke nofl>KHraji. He bcs 3a>KHraiomaa cyScTaHnna npoHHKana BCJiefl 3a SpoHeSonHbiM cepflenHHKOM b 
o6pa30BaHHyio hm npoSoHHy. Bo H36e>KaHHe 3Toro He^ocTaTKa BbiroflHee pa3MemaTb 3a>KHraTejibHbiii 
cocTaB no3a^H SpoHeSoiiHoro cepflenHHKa, ho b 3tom cjiynae CHH>KaeTca nyBCTBHTejibHOCTb Bocnua- 
MeHeHHa nyjin k fleMcTBHio no cjiaSbiM nperpa^aM. OpnrHHajibHO pemnjin 3Ty 3a^any HeMu,bi, ohh 
pacnojioacnjin 3a>KnraTejibHbin cocTaB BOKpyr SpoHeSonHoro cepflenHHKa (4 Ha cxeMe 124, cxeMa 
125). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



255 




1 2 3 

CxeMa 124 EpoHe6oiiHO-3a>KHraTejibHbie nynn: 

1 - OTenecTBeHHaa, 2 - HTantaHCKaa; 3 - aHraHHCicaa; 4 - repMaHCKaa 




CxeMa 125. BpoHe6oiiHO-3a>KHraTejibHaa nyra PtK KannSpa 7,92 (repMaHCKaa) 

TojiOBHaa nacTb 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbix nyjib OKpanieHa b nepHbiM u,BeT c KpacHbiM noac- 



KOM. 



BpoHe6oiiHO-3a>KHraTejibHO-TpaccHpyiomHe nyjin oSjia^aiOT oflHOBpeMeHHO 6poHe6oiiHbiM, 3a- 
>KHraTejibHbiM h TpaccHpyiomHM rqPlctbkqm. Ohh coctost h3 Tex 5Ke aneivieHTOB: oSojiohkh, SpoHe- 
SoiiHoro cepflenHHKa, Tpaccepa h 3a>KHraTejibHoro cocTaBa (cxeMa 126). HanHHHe Tpaccepa y 3thx 
nyjib cymecTBeHHO noBbiniaeT hx 3a>KHraTejibHoe fleMcTBHe. Hochk 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHO- 
TpaccHpyiomeH nyjin OKpaniHBaeTca b (|)HOJieTOBbiH h KpacHbift HBeTa. 




CxeMa 126. EpoHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejTbHO-TpaccHpyioiHHe nyjin: 

1 - OTenecTBeHHaa B3T-30; 

2 - HTanbaHCKaa 

,3,0 BTOpOH MHpOBOH BOHHbl B apMHJIX HeKOTOpblX CTpaH (b HaCTHOCTH, CCCP H FepMaHHH) 

npHMeHajiHCb TaK Ha3biBaeMbie npHCTpejiOHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbie nyjin. IIo H^ee ohh flOJi>KHbi Swjih %a- 
BaTb apicyio BcnbiniKy b momcht BCTpenH #a>Ke c (J)aHepHbiM ihhtom oSmhhoh MHineHH. IlyjiH 3th h b 

CCCP, H B TepMaHHH HMdlM OflHHaKOByK) KOHCTpyKU,HK). IipHHUHII HX fleHCTBHa 06bIHH0 6bIJI OCHO- 

BaH Ha tom, hto yflapHHK, HaxoflaniHHca Ha och nyjin h npeflHa3HaneHHbiH ^Jia HaKOJia Kanciojia, b no- 
xoflHOM cocToaHHH y#ep>KHBajica Ha MecTe B3aHMH0 coMKHyrbiMH rpy3HKaMH-npoTHBOBecaMH. 3th 
npoTHBOBecw npn BbiCTpene h BpameHHH nyjin uempoSoKHOH chjioh pacxo^HJiHCb b ctopohw, ocbo- 
6o>KflajiH hjih B3B0flHHH y^apHHK. IlpH BCTpene c uenbio h TopMO>KeHHH nyjin y/iapHHK HaKanbiBan 
Kanciojib, KOTopbift BOcnnaMeHaji 3a>KHraTejibHbiH cocTaB, ^aBaa oneHb apicyio BcnbiniKy. Kor^a-TO b 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



256 



,II,OCAAcD, Ky^a OTflaBann pjm yneSHbix nejien bcskhh naTpoHHbin "cSpofl", HeHy>KHbiH b apMHH, aB- 
Top CTpejian TaKHMH naTpoHaMH BbinycKa 1919 (!) r. narpoHbi SbiJin c jiaTyHHon rnjib3on h jiaTyHHOH 
oSojiohkoh nyjiH, nopox ot CTapocTH fleTOHnpoBan h opy>KHe CHJibHO Shjio b nueno. Ha flncTaHnnn 
300 m BcnbiniKH ot nona^aHna 3thx nynb Swjih 3aMeTHbi b apKnn cojiHenHbin #eHb HeBOopyaceHHbiM 
rjia30M. 3th nynn, no cymecTBy, aBJianncb pa3pbiBHbiMH, h6o ohh no-HacToameMy pa3pbiBanncb Ha 
ockojikh npn nonaflaHHH b (J)aHepHbiH mm. IIpH stom o6pa30BbiBanacb flwpa, b KOTopyio mo>kho Swjio 
npocyHyTb KynaK. IIo paccKa3aM oneBHflneB, nona^aHna TaKHMH nynaMn no >khboh nejin hmcjih 
y>KacHbie nocneflCTBna. 3tot Soenpnnac 6bui 3anpemeH 5KeHeBCKon KOHBeHnnen n bo BpeMa BTopon 
MnpoBon bohhw He nponBBOfliuica, pa3yMeeTca, He b nenax ryMaHH3Ma, a no npnnnHe floporoBH3Hbi b 
npoH3BOACTBe. CTapbie 3anacw naTpoHOB c TaKHMH nynaMn nomjiH b xo^. ,H,Jia CHannepcKon CTpenbSbi 
TaKne nynn HenpnroflHbi no npnnnHe Sojibinoro (oneHb Sojibinoro) paccenBaHna. Hochk npncTpejion- 
HO-3a>KHraTejibHOH nynn, TaK >Ke, KaK n y oSmhhoh 3a>KnraTejibHon, OKpamnBaeTca b KpacHbin nBeT. 
3to h SbiJin Te caMbie 3HaMeHHTbie pa3pbiBHbie nynn, KOTopbie He a^nmnpoBajincb hh y Hac, hh b 
TepMaHHH. Hx ycTponcTBO npeflCTaBJieHO Ha cxeMax 127, 128. 




CxeMa 127. Pa3pbiBHbie nyjin: 

a - nyna ^HCTaHUHOHHaa (TepMaHHa); 6 - nyna y^apiiaa (TepMaHHa); b - nyjia y^apHaa (Hcna- 



Hna) 




CxeMa 128. Pa3pbiBHbie nynn HHepuHOHHoro ^encTBHa: 

1 - oSojiOHKa; 2 - B3pbiBnaToe BemecTBo; 

3 - Kancionb; 4 - npeflOxpaHHrejib; 5 - y^apHHK 

BbinieonncaHHbie pa3HOBHflHOCTH cnennajibHbix nyjib npnMeHaiOTca bo Bcex naTpoHax CTpejiKO- 
Boro opy>Kna, He HCKjnonaa #a>Ke nncTOJieTHbix naTpoHOB, ecun Te Hcnojib3yKxrca ^jia CTpenbSbi H3 
nncTOJieT-nyjieMeTOB . 

OTenecTBeHHbiM nyjiaM npncBanBaiOTca cjieflyiomHe o6o3HaHeHna: n - nncTOJieTHaa; JI - oSwk- 
HOBeHHaa nerKaa BHHTOBOHHaa; IIC - oSbiKHOBeHHaa co CTanbHbiM cep#eHHHKOM; T-30, T-44, T-45, T- 
46 - Tpaccnpyiomne; B-32, B3 - 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbie; B3T - 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHO- 
Tpaccnpyiomaa; 113 - npncTpejiOHHO-3a>KHraTejibHaa; 3 - 3a>KnraTejibHaa. 

IIo 3thm MapKnpoBKaM mo>kho onpeflejiHTb BHfl SoenpnnacoB b amnKe c naTpoHaMH. 

B HacToamee BpeMa b SoeBOM npnMeHeHHn ocTanncb HanSonee npaKTHHHO ce6a 3apeKOMeHflo- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 257 

BaBiiiHe nerKHe oSbiKHOBeHHbie nyjin, Tpaccnpyiomne h 6poHe6oiiHO-3a>KHraTejibHbie. 

Ha CKJia^ax H3 flo chx nop ocTanncb ^OBOJibHO Sojibinne 3anacbi naTpoHOB co BceMH BbinieonH- 
caHHbiMH BH^aMH nyjib, h Bpeivta ot BpeMeHH 3th naTpoHbi nocTynaiOT KaK ana yneSHbix crpejibS, Taic 
h fljia SoeBoro npnMeHeHHa. B 3auHHKOBaHHOM BH^e SoeBbie BHHTOBOHHbie naTpoHbi MoryT xpaHHTbca 
70-80 JieT, He Tepaa SoeBbix KanecTB. 

ManoKajiHSepHbie BanoBbie cnopTHBHO-oxoTHHHbn naTpoHbi, BbinycKaBinneca b CCCP, MoraH 
xpaHHTbca 4-5 JieT 6e3 H3MeHeHH» SoeBbix KanecTB. IIo ncTeneHHH 3Toro cpoKa y hhx HanHHana H3Me- 
HaTbca KyHHOCTb 6oa no BbicoTe H3-3a HepaBHOMepHOCTH cropaHna nopoxa b pa3Hbix naTpoHax. Ilocjie 
7-8 neT xpaHeHna y TaKnx naTpoHOB b cb»3h c pa3Jio>KeHHeM KancioJibHoro cocTaBa pe3KO B03pacTano 
KOJinnecTBO oceneK. Ilocjie 10-12 JieT xpaHeHna MHorne napTnn 3thx naTpoHOB CTaHOBHJincb Henpn- 
roflHbi fljia ncnojib30BaHna. 

HejieBbie ManoKajinSepHbie naTpoHbi, H3roTOBJieHHbie oneHb KanecTBeHHO n CKpynyjie3HO, xpa- 
HHBnineca b repMeTHHHbix ynaKOBKax n 3au,HHKOBaHHbie, He Tepann cbohx KanecTB npn cpoKax xpa- 
HeHna 20 JieT n Sojiee. Ho flOJiro xpaHHTb ManoKajiHSepHbie naTpoHbi He CJie^yeT, noTOMy hto Ha ajih- 
TenbHbie cpoKH xpaHeHHa ohh He paccHHraHbi. 

naTpoHbi k oraecTpejibHOMy Hape3HOMy opy>KHio bo Bcex rocy^apcTBax MHpa CTapaiOTca ^enaTb 
KaK mo>kho 6onee KanecTBemio. KnaccHHecKyio MexaHHKy He oSiviaHenib. HanpHMep, He3HaHHrejibHoe 
H3MeHeHHe Beca nyjin ot pacneTHoro He OKa3biBaeT cyiHecTBeHHoro BJinaHna Ha mctkoctb CTpeubSbi 
npn Manbix flHCTaHHHJix, ho c yBejinneHneM ^ajibHOCTH #aeT 3HaTb o ce6e aobojibho cnnbHO. npn H3- 
MeHeHHH Beca oSbiKHOBeHHon bhhtobohhoh jierKOH nynn Ha 1% (VHan - 865 m/c) OTKnoHeHne TpaeK- 
tophh no BbicoTe Ha flanbHOCTH 500 m cocTaBHT 0,012 m, Ha 1200 m - 0,262 m, Ha 1500 m - 0,75 m. 

B CHaiinepcKOH npaKTHKe ot KanecTBa nynn 3aBHCHT oneHb MHoroe. 

Ha BbicoTy TpaeKTopnn nyjin bjihsiot He TOJibKO ee Bee, ho h HananbHaa CKopocTb nynn, n reo- 
MeTpna ee oSTeKaeMOCTH. Ha HanajibHyio CKopocTb nynn b cboio onepeflb bjihjiiot BenHHHHa nopoxo- 
Boro 3apa^a h MaTepnan oSojiohkh: pa3Hbiii MaTepnan oSecnenHBaeT pa3Hoe TpeHne nynn o ctchkh 

CTBOJia. 

KpaiiHe BaacHoe 3HaneHHe HMeeT SanaHcnpoBKa nynn. Ecjih Hemp tjdkccth He coBna^aeT c reo- 
MeTpHnecKOH ocbio, to pa36poc nyjib noBbimaeTca, oneflOBaTejibHO, CHH^aeTca MeTKOCTb CTpeubSbi. 
3to enjionib h pa^OM HaSjnoflaeTca npn CTpenbSe nyjiaMH c pa3JinHHon MexaHHHecKOH HeoflHopoflHOH 

HaHHHKOH. 

^leM MeHbine OTKJiOHemia b (})opMe, Bece h reoMeTpnnecKHx pa3Mepax npn H3roTOBJieHHH nynn 
flaHHOH KOHCTpyKHHH, TeM Jiyniue MeTKOCTb CTpeubSbi npn nponnx paBHbix ycjiOBHax. 

KpoMe Toro, HeoSxoflHMO HMeTb b BH^y, hto p>KaBHHHa Ha oSojionKe nynn, 3a6oHHbi, napannHbi 
n nponero po#a flec^opMauHH oneHb HeSjiaronprormo OTpa^aiOTca Ha noneTe nynn b B03flyxe h npn- 
BOflaT k yxyflineHHio KyHHOCTH CTpeubSbi. 

Ha MaKCHManbHoe ^aBJieHHe nopoxoBbix ra30B, BbiSpacbiBaioiHHX nynio, HMeeT BJinaHne 
HanaiibHoe (|)opc-flaBJieHHe, Bpe3aioiHee nynio b Hape3bi, KOTopoe b cboio onepe#b 3aBHCHT ot Toro, 
HacKOJibKO njiOTHO nyjia 3anpeccoBaHa b rajib3y n (J)HKCHpoBaHa b Hen o6>khmom flynbna 3a KOJibne- 
Byio HaKaTKy. npn pa3Hbix MaTepnanax rnjib3bi sto ycnjine 6y#eT pa3HbiM. nyna, koco noca>KeHHaa b 
rnjib3y, h no Hape3aM noH^eT "kocmm" o6pa30M, b noneTe 6y#eT HeycTOHHHBa h o6a3aTenbHO otkjio- 
HHTca ot 3aflaHHoro HanpaBJieHHa. nosTOMy naTpoHbi CTapwx BbinycKOB HeoSxoflHMO TiHaTenbHO 
ocMaTpHBaTb, OTSnpaTb h OTSpaKOBbiBaTb npn o6Hapy>KeHHH norpenmocTeH. 

Jlyniuyio KynHOCTb CTpeubSbi ^aiOT oSbiKHOBeHHbie nyjin, y KOTopbix oSojionKa 3anHTa cbhhhom 
6e3 flpyroM HanHHKH. npn CTpenbSe no >khboh nenn cneHHanbHbie nyjin He Hy>KHbi. 

KaK bw y>Ke ySe^HJiHCb, BHHTOBOHHbie Soenpnnacbi, oflHHaKOBbie c BH/iy h npeflHa3HaHeHHbie 
fljia OflHoro h Toro >Ke opy>KHa, HeoflHHaKOBbi. Ha npoTa>KeHHH HecKOJibKHx ^ecaTKOB JieT ohh H3ro- 
TaBJiHBanHCb Ha pa3Hbix 3aBO#ax, H3 pa3JiHHHbix MaTepnanoB, b pa3JiHHHbix ycnoBnax, npn HenpepbiB- 
ho MeHaioiHHxcji TpeSoBaHHax oScTaHOBKH, c nyjiaMH pa3Hoii KOHCTpyKHHH, pa3Horo Beca, pa3Hoii 3a- 
jihbkh cbhhhom, pa3Horo flHaMeTpa (cm. Ta6n. 38) h pa3Horo KanecTBa H3roTOBJieHHa. 

OflHH h Te ace c BH^y naTpoHbi hmciot pa3Hyio TpaeKTopnio nyjin h pa3JinHHyio KynHOCTb 6oa. 
npn CTpejibSe H3 nyjieMeTa 3to He HMeeT 3HaneHHa - nuioc-MHHyc 20 cm Bbiiue-HH>Ke. Ho flua CHaii- 
nepcKoii CTpeubSbi sto He roflHTca. "CSpofl" pa3JiHHHbix naTpoHOB, nycTb ^a>Ke caMbix xopomnx, He 

flaeT TOHHOH, KyHHOH H OflHOo6pa3HOH CTpeJIbSbl. 

no3TOMy CHannep OTSnpaeT hmchho fljia CBoero CTBOJia (ctboji CTBOJiy TO>Ke po3Hb, cm. ^ajiee) 
OflHOo6pa3Hbie naTpoHbi, oahoh cepnn, oflHoro 3aBOfla, oflHoro ro^a BbinycKa h, eme nynme, H3 oaho- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



258 



ro amnica. Pambie napTHH naTpoHOB pa3HaTca flpyr ot flpyra no BbicoTe TpaeKTopHH. IIo3TOMy no# 
pa3Hbie napTHH naTpoHOB CHaiuiepcicoe opy>KHe Hy>KHO npHCTpejiHBaib 3aHOBO. 

nPOBHBHOE ^EHCTBHE nyjiH 

IIpoSHBHoe fleMcTBHe nyiin xapaiereproyeTca rjiySnHon ee npoHHKHOBeHHa b nperpa^y onpe#e- 
jieHHOH nnoTHOCTH. 5KnBaa CHJia nyjiH b MOMeHT ee BCTpenn c nperpa^OH cymecTBeHHO BJinaeT Ha 
raySHHy npoHHKHOBeHHa. Ho KpoMe 3Toro, npoSnBHoe fleiicTBHe nyjiH 3aBHCHT ot pa^a ^pyrnx (})aK- 
TopoB, HanpHMep, ot KannSpa, Beca, (|)opMbi h KOHCTpyKnnn nyjiH, a TaK>Ke ot cbohctb npoSiiBaeMOH 
cpeflbi h ot yraa BCTpenn. YrjiOM BCipenH Ha3biBaeTca yron Me>Kfly KacaTejibHoM k TpaeKTopHH b toh- 
Ke BCTpenn h KacaTenbHOH k noBepxHOCTH uejiH (nperpa^bi) b toh >Ke tohkc HaHJiyniHHH pe3yjibTaT 
nojiynaeTca npn yrae BCTpenn, paBHOM 90°. Ha cxeivte 129 noKa3aH yron BCTpenn #jia cjrynaa BepTH- 
KanbHOH nperpa^bi. 



K&W 



Ztitss&i 




MRn wrtijwvff 



CxeMa 129. Yroji BCTpenn 

fljia BbiaBJiemia npoSiiBHoro rqPlctbiw nyjiH nojib3yiOTca H3MepeHHeM npoHHKHOBemia ee b na- 

KeT, COCTaBJieHHblH H3 CyXHX COCHOBblX flOCOK TOJimHHOH 2,5 CM Ka>Kflaa, C npOMOKyTKaMH MOKfly 

hhmh Ha TOJimHHy flOCKH. npH crpejibSe no TaKOMy naKeTy Jiericaa nyjia H3 CHannepcKon bhhtobkh 
npoSnBaeT: c paccToaHHa 100 m - ^o 36 aocok, c paccToaHHa 500 m - p,o 18 aocok, c paccToaHHa 1000 
m - flo 8 flOCOK, c paccToaHHa 2000 m - ^o 3 aocok 

npoSnBHoe ^encTBHe nynn 3aBHCHT He TOJibKO ot cbohctb opy>KHa n nyjin, ho h ot cbohctb 
npoSHBaeMOH nperpa^bi. JlerKaa BHHTOBOHHaa nyjia oSpa3ua 1908 ro#a npoSnBaeT Ha AHCTaimHH #0 
2000 m: 

- >Kejie3Hyio runny 12 mm, 

- CTanbHyio njiHTy #o 6 mm, 

- cjioh rpaBna hjih nieSHa p,o 12 cm, 

- cjioh necKa hjih 3eMJin #o 70 cm, 

- cjioh MarKon rjiHHbi ^0 80 cm, 

- cjioh TopcJ)a flo 2,80 m, 

- cjioh yTpaMSoBaHHoro CHera #o 3,5 m, 

- CJIOH COJIOMbl flO 4 M, 

- KHpnHHHyio CTeHy #o 15-20 cm, 

- CTeHy H3 flySoBoro flepeBa #o 70 cm, 

- CTeHy H3 cocHOBoro flepeBa ^o 85 cm. 

npoSHBHoe fleiiCTBHe nyjin 3aBHCHi ot paccToaHHa CTpejib6bi h ot yrjia BCTpenn. HanpHMep, 
SpoHeSoiiHaa nyjia oSpa3na 1930 ro#a npn nona^aHHH no HopMann (P90°) npoSnBaeT Spomo tojiiiih- 
hoh 7 mm c paccToaHHa 400 m 6e3 OTKa3a, c paccToaHHa 800 m - MeHee nojiOBHHbi, Ha flncTaminH 1000 
m SpoHa He npoSiiBaeTca coBepuieHHO, npn OTKJiOHeHHH TpaeKTopHH ot HopMann Ha 15° c paccToaHHa 
400 m CKB03Hbie npoSoHHbi b 7-mm SpoHe nojiynaiOTca b 60% CJiynaeB, a npn OTKJiOHeHHH ot HopMann 
Ha 30° y>Ke c paccToaHHa 250 m nyjia cobccm He npoSnBaeT SpoHio. 

BpoHeSoiiHaa nyjia KaniiS pa 7,62 mm npoSnBaeT: 



MaTepM&n 


paCCTOHHBiS 


GpOMD 7 MM 


400 H Ge3 OTKQ3B 


GpOUD 15 HH 


200 H Ge3 OTKQ3B 


KHCfty 


1600 H Ge3 OTKB3B 


GpoHesMJiei 


1400 H Ge3 OTKB3B 



npoSnBHoe ^encTBHe 5,6-mm nyjin MajioKajiiiSepiioro cnopTHBHoro naipoHa Sokoboix) oraa 
(HananbHaa CKopocTb nyjin 330 m/c, fliiCTamiiia 50 m): 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



259 



MaTepjtan 


rnytHraa npoHHKHOHeHHH nyjM (ch) 


ciam jMCTQBaa 


0,2 


«ejie3Q JDJMQB'Qe 


0,3 


me6enb h rpaBjdi 


Ha 5,0 


KHpnira 


2,0 


xejie3Q&eTQH 


1,2 


necoK, return, TJDma 


8,0 


nyfS cyxoii 


4,0 


$aHepa hhotq cjidihiaji 


2,0 


flaCKH CQCHQBbie 


9,0 


jBMBaji iKaiii) (b cpefljieH) 


12-15 



T»>KejibiH njiacTHHHaTbiii 6poHe>KHJieT BpeMeH Bcuhkoh OreHecTBeHHOH bohhm, Ha^eTbiH Ha #Ba 
BaTHHKa, y#ep>KHBaeT nerKyio bhhtobohhyio nynio #a>Ke npn BbiCTpene b ynop. 

OKOHHoe CTeKJio pa36HBaeT bhhtobohhyio nynio Bflpe6e3ra. fleno b tom, hto nacTHnbi CTeiaia, 
fleiiCTBya KaK Ha>KflaK, npn Bcrpene c y3KHM hochkom bhhtobohhoh nyjin MrHOBeHHO "cnecbiBaiOT" c 
Hee oSojiOHKy. OcTaBHiHeca (|)parMeHTbi nyjin neTaT no H3MeHHBmeHca HenpeflCKa3yeMOH TpaeKTopHH 
h He rapaHTHpyiOT nopa>KeHHa nejin, HaxoflHBiueHca 3a ctckjiom. TaKoe aBJieHne HaSjnoflaeTca npn 
CTpeubSe H3 bhhtobok h aBTOMaTOB SoenpnnacaMH c ocTpoKOHenHbiMH nynaMH. Y3khh hochk nyjin 
Ha Sojibinoii ckopocth pe3KO npHHHMaeT Ha ce6a Sojibiuyio a6pa3HBHyio Harpy3Ky h MrHOBeHHO pa3- 
pyniaeTca. TaKoro aBJieHHa He HaSjuoflaeTca y Tynbix nncTOJieTHbix nyjib h nyjib peBOJibBepa HaraH, 

JieTJHHHX C HH3KHMH fl03ByKOBbIMH CKOpOCTJIMH. 

IIo3TOMy npn CTpeubSe no nejuiM, pacnojio>KeHHbiM 3a ctckjiom, peKOMeH^yeTca CTpenaTb nun 
6poHe6oHHbiMH nyjiaMH, nun nyjiHMH, HMeioniHMH CTanbHon cepfleHHHK (c cepeSpaHbiM hochkom). 

KacKa Ha paccroaHHH #o 800 m npoSnBaeTca BceMH THnaMH nyjib, KpoMe TpaccHpyiomnx. 

C noTepen ckopocth nyjin ee npoSnBHoe ^encTBHe yMeHbiuaeTca (raSn. 42): 

TaSjinna 42 

IIoTepa ckopocth 7,62-mm nyjin 

BHHMAHHE. TpaccnpyiomHe nynn b cb»3h c BbiropaHneM Tpaccnpyiomero cocTaBa SwcTpo 
TepaiOT Maccy, a BMecrre c Hen h npoSnBHyio cnocoSHOCTb. Ha flHCTaHUHH 200 m TpaccHpyiomaa nyjia 
He npoSnBaeT #a>Ke KacKy. 

HananbHaa CKopocTb cnopTHBHbix MajioKajinSepHbix naTpoHOB co CBHHnoBbiMH nynaMH pa3JiHH- 
hwx napTHH n HanMeHOBaHHH KOJie6.neTca b npe^ejiax 280-350 m/c. HananbHaa CKopocTb 3ana^Hbix 
MajioKannSepHbix naTpoHOB c oSojionenHbiMH n nojiyoSojionenHbiMn nyjiaMH pa3JiHHHbix napTHH ko- 
jieSneTca ot 380 ao 550 m/c. 

IIATPOHM RJW CHAHIIEPCKOH CTPEJIbEM 



Ilpn CHaiinepcKOH CTpeubSe HanSonee npeflnoHTHrejibHbi hbs. BH^a naTpoHOB, cnennanbHO pa3- 
paSoTaHHbix ^Jia npnMeHeHHa b peanbHbix SoeBbix ycnoBnax. IlepBbiH H3 hhx TaK n HaBbiBaeTca: 
"cHannepcKne" ((})oto 195). IlaTpoHbi 3th H3roTaBJiHBaKxrca c ocoSoh TmaTejibHOCTbio, He TOJibico c 
OflHOo6pa3HOH HaBecKOH nopoxoBoro 3apa^a h nyjib, o^HHaKOBbix no Macce, ho n c oneHb tohhmm 
coSniOfleHHeM reoMeTpHnecKOH (|)opMbi nynn, cnennajibHbiM MarKHM MaTepnanoM rnjib3bi, c Sojiee 
TOJiCTbiM cuoeM TOMnaKOBoro noKpbiTHa. IlaTpoHbi "cHaiinepcKHe" HMeiOT oneHb BbicoKyio KynHOCTb 
6oa, He ycTynaiomyio KynHOCTH 6oa cnennanbHbix cnopTHBHO-nejieBbix naTpoHOB TaKoro >Ke KannSpa 
c naTyHHon rnjib3on. Ilyjia naTpoHa "cHannepcKnn" HnneM He OKpanieHa bo H36e>KaHHe H3MeHeHna 
BecoBoro SanaHca. 3th naTpoHbi cnennanbHO npeflHa3HaHeHbi fljia nopa>KeHHa >khboh chjiw npoTHB- 
HHKa. IIocMOTpHTe Ha npoAOJibHbin pa3pe3 nynn 3Toro 6oenpnnaca (<|)oto 196). B tojiobhoh nacTH ny- 
jih HaxoflHTca nycTOTa, a nojibiii hochk nynn BbinojmaeT (})yHKLi,Hio SanjiHCTHnecKoro HaKOHenHHKa- 
oSTeKaTejia. 3a hhm cjie^yeT CTanbHon cepflenHHK h y>Ke 3aTeM - CBHHu,OBaa 3anHBKa. U,eHTp Ta>KecTH 
TaKOH nyjin HecKOJibKO CMemeH Ha3a/i. Ilpn nonaflaHHH b nnoTHbie TKaHn (KOCTb) TaKaa nyjia pa3Bopa- 
HHBaeTca Sokom, n^eT KyBbipKOM, 3aTeM pa3BannBaeTca Ha ronoBHyio (crajibHyio) h xBOCTOByio 
(cBHHu,OByio) nacTH, KOTopbie ^BH>KyTca BHyTpn nenn caMOCToaTejibHO h HenpeflCKa3yeMO, He ocTaB- 
jiaa npoTHBHHKy niaHCOB Ha Bbi>KHBaHHe. Oxothhkh roBopnuH, hto TaKne Soenpnnacbi ycnenmo BanaT 
flaace KpynHoro 3Bepa. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



260 




cDoto 195. IlaTpoH "cHaiinepcKHH" Ha ^parMenre ynaKOBKH 

■ : * 




cDoto 196. IIpoflOJibHbiH pa3pe3 nyjin naTpoHa "cHaMnepcKHH" 

1 - nycToii SanjiHCTHHecKHH HaKOHenHHK; 2 - CTanbHOH cepflenHHK; 3 - CBHHnoBaa 3anHBKa; 4 - 
ckoc cepflenHHKa; 5 - nojibiM xboctobhk 

Bnaroflapa CTanbHOMy cep/ieHHHKy nyjin naTpoHOB "cHaiinepcKHe" HMeiOT 6poHenpo6HBaeMOCTb 
Ha 25-30% Bbinie, HeM oSbiHHbie jierKne nyjin. IlyjiH ^aHHoro BH^a SoenpmiacoB HMeiOT oSTeicaeMyio 
(})opMy Ta>KejiOH nyjin o6pa3na 1930 r, ho Bee, paBHbin Becy jierKOH nyjin, - 9,9 r Sjiaro^apa CTanbHO- 
My cepflenHHKy h nycTOTe b xboctoboh HacTH. TaK Smjio cneuHanbHO 3a#yMaHO pa3pa6oTHHKaMH fljia 
npH^aHHa jierKoii nyne nojie3Hbix KanecTB nyjin TJDKejion. IIo3TOMy TpaeKropna noneTa nyjin naTpo- 
hob "cHaiinepcKHe" cooTBeTCTByeT TaSn. 8 npeBbimeHHa cpe^HHx TpaeieropHH, npHBefleHHon b HacTO- 
ameM nocoSnH h HacTaBJieHHH no bhhtobkc CBJ\. 

KaK y>Ke Smjio CKa3aHO, nyjin naTpoHOB "cHannepcKHe" hhhcm He MapKnpyiOTca ((J)oto 197). Ha 
6yMa>KHbix nanKax sthx SoenpmiacoB HMeiOTca HaflnncH "cHaMnepcKHe". 



<f 



cDoto 197. IlyjiH naTpoHa "cHannepcKHH" 

BTopoM BHfl SoenpnnacoB, npeflHa3HaneHHbix ^Jia CHannepcKoii CTpeubSbi, HMeeT nynio co 
CTanbHbiM cepflenHHKOM, ronoBHaa nacTb KOTopoii OKpaiueHa b cepeSpncTbin hbct ((})oto 198). Hx TaK 
h Ha3biBaiOT - nyjin c cepeSpaHbiM hochkom (Bee nyjin 9,6 r). 



^ 



cDoto 198. Ilyjia c "cepeSpaHbiM" hochkom fljia CTpenbSbi no jierKoSpoHnpoBaHHbiM nejuiM 
CTanbHOH cepflenHHK 3toh nyjin 3aHHMaeT Sojibinyio nacTb ee oSbeivta (c})oto 199). 



AjieKcefl IIoTanoB: «HcKyccTBo CHaflnepa» 



261 




cDoto 199. IlyjiH #jia CTpenbSbi no nerKoGpoHHpoBaHHbiM uejiaM b pa3pe3e: 

1 - CBHHuoBaa 3ajiHBKa, 2 - crajibHOH cepfleHmnc; 3 - CBHHHOBaa pySauiKa Meayiy CTaubHbiM cep- 

fleHHHKOM H 060JIOHKOH 

B rojiOBHOH nacTH nyjin HaxoflHTca CBHHHOBaa 3anHBKa fljia Sojibineii ycroHHHBOCTH nyjin b no- 
neTe. TaKHe 6oenpHnacbi npeflHa3HaneHbi #jia CHaftnepcKOH pa6oTbi no jierKoSpoHnpoBaHHbiM n 
yKpenjieHHbiM HenaM. Ilyjia c cepflenHHKOM MapKnpoBKn "cepeSpaHbin hochk" npoSnBaeT: 



IlpeflMeT 


flHCTarajHa 


rjiySMHa npoHHRHOBeHHa. cm 


KacKy 


1700m 




SpoHeannei 1 jK3T TH.x.ejiHnh 


1200m 




SpycwBep seMJiHHoii 


10 00m 


25-35 


flepeBO cocHa 


10 00m 


25 


KHpnMiJ 


12 0m 


15 


ciajibHaH njiiiira 


5 0m 


0,8 


rjntua 


60 0m 


35 


CHexHafl HacHinb 


10 00m 


70-80 



Ha npoflOJibHOM pa3pe3e bh^ho, hto nynn c cepflenmiKOM HMeiOT oSTeKaeMyio (})opMy Taacejioii 
nyjin c KOHnnecKHM xboctobhkom. Ho nyjin 3th OTHOcaTca k KaTeropHH jierKnx (Bee 9,6 r) H3-3a 
CTanbHoro cepfleHHHKa, KOTopbiH Jierne cbhhhobofo TaKoro ace o6beMa. BajuincTHKa sthx nynb n Kyn- 
HOCTb 6oa npaKTHnecKH TaKaa ace, Kaic y naTpoHOB "cHannepcKne", n npn CTpeubSe hmh cneflyeT py- 
KOBOflCTBOBaTbca Bee toh ace TaSunnen npeBbiuieHna cpe^Hnx TpaeKTopHH no BHHTOBKe CBJ\. 

BbinieonncaHHbie #Ba Tnna SoenpnnacoB Gmjih pa3pa6oTaHbi npnivieHHTejibHO k BHHTOBKe CBfl, 
ho nx GajuincTHKa npaKTHnecKH cooTBeTCTByeT Ta6n. 9 npeBbimeHna cpe^HHx TpaeKTopHH #jia Tpex- 
jiHHenHOH bhhtobkh o6pa3Ha 1891-1930 rr., npnBefleHHon b ^aHHOM nocoSnn. 

Cneu,najiH3HpoBaHHbie naTpoHbi KannSpa 7,62 mm "cHannepcKne" n "cepeSpaHbin hochk", npe#- 
Ha3HaHeHHbie HMeHHO #Jia CHannepcKHx crpenbS, no Becy n nonepenHon Harpy3Ke aBJiaKxrca jierKHMH, 
npn 3tom HMea TaKyio ace coBepmeHHyio aspoflHHaMHnecKyio (})opMy, KaK n Taacenbie nynn o6pa3na 
1930 r, no3TOMy nx TpaeKTopna Ha ^HCTaHUHH #o 500 m cooTBeTCTByeT TpaeieropHH nerKOH nynn, a Ha 
flHCTaHUHH ot 500 flo 1300 m - TpaeKTopHH nynn TaacejioM. IIo3TOMy b TaSjinue npeBbimeHHa cpe^HHx 
TpaeKTopHH flna bhhtobkh CBJl yKa3aHbi SajuiHCTHnecKHe #aHHbie #Jia CTpenbSbi nerKOH nyjien, a 
HMeHHo: naTpoHaMH "cHaiuiepcKHMH", "cepeGpaHbrii hochk" h BanoBbiMH nyneMeTHO-BHHTOBOHHbiMH 
naTpoHaMH co CTaubHbiM cepflenHHKOM. 

IlyjiH naTpoHOB "cHaMnepcKHe" ^ejiaiOTca JierKHMH fljia noBbimeHHoro fleMcTBHa no acHBOH u,e- 
jih. CKopocTb nerKOH nyjin 6biCTpee, neM Taacejioft. KaK yace H3BecTHO, nyna, nona^aiomaa b acHByio 
u,ejib co CKopocTbio 700 m/c h Bbinie, Bbi3biBaeT rH#paBJiHHecKHH y#ap h conpaaceHHbiH c hhm 4)hbho- 
jiornHecKHH ihok, MmoBeHHO BbiBOflamnn uejib H3 CTpoa. TaKoe flencTBne nerKOH nynn CHaiinepcKoro 
naTpoHa no uejiH coxpaHaeTca npaKTHnecKH #o 400-500 m, nocne stoh #HCTaHHHH CKopocTb nyjin 
CHHacaeTca conpoTHBJieHHeM B03#yxa, ho nopaacaiomee flencTBHe hmchho nyjin naTpoHa "cHannep- 
ckhh" ot 3Toro Hnnyrb He yMeHbinaeTca. IioneMy? BHHMaTejibHO nocMOTpnTe Ha npoflOJibHbiH pacnnji 
3toh nynn. CTanbHOH cepAenHHK b ronoBHOH nacTH HMeeT nyrb 3aMeTHbiH ckoc npaBOH CTopoHOH 
BBepx (cm. 4>oto 196). 3to C03#aeT xotb h He3HaHHrejibHbiH, ho nepeBec Maccbi c o#hoh ctopohm ro- 
jiobhoh nacTH nynn. IIpH BpameHHH stot npoTHBOBec Bee Sonbine h Gonbine 3aHOCHT hochk nyjin b 
CTopoHy h OHa Bee Sonbuie h Sonbuie npnoSpeTaeT HeycTOHHHBoe nonoaceHHe no ropH30HTanH. IIo- 
3TOMy neM flanbuie flHCTaHu,Ha ^o u,ejiH, TeM HeycToiiHHBee CTaHOBHTca nyjia npn no^JieTe k hgb. Ha 
flHCTaHu,Hax CTpenb6bi ^anee 400-500 m nyna CHafinepcKHx naTpoHOB ^aace npn nona/iaHHH b MarKHe 
TKaHH pa3BopanHBaeTca 6okom h, ecnH He pa3BajiHBaeTca Ha nacTH, HannHaeT KyBbipKaTbca, ocTaBJiaa 
nocne ce6a (})apui. 

npn BceM 3tom nyna naTpoHa "cHannepcKHH" oneHb xopouio ^epacHTca Ha BeTpy (KaK roBopaT, 
"ctoht Ha BeTep") h rapaHTHpoBaHHO coxpaHaeT ycTOHHHBoe nojioaceHHe b noneTe Ha #HCTaHHHH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 262 

CTpeubSbi 200 m. 

KyHHOCTb 6oa naTpoHOB "cHaiinepcKHe" mo>kho CHirraTb aScojiKnuoii. Bee HeyflanH, cjiynaio- 
mneca npn paSoTe c sthmh naTpoHaMH, mo>kho oSbacHHTb TOJibKO noHH>KeHHbiM KanecTBOM CTBOJia 
hjih oninSKaMH CTpenKa. yHHKanbHbie SajiJiHCTHHecKHe flamibie BbinieonHcaHHoro Soenpnnaca h ero 
noBbinieHHoe fleftcTBHe no uejiii Bbi3BanH y HaTOBCKHx BoeHHbix 3aMeTHyio pacTepamiocTb bo Bpeivta 
nocjieflHHx SanKaHCKHx kohcjwihktob. 

OTBOP EOEnPHIIACOB 

B peanbHOH SoeBoii npaierHKe He Bcer^a npHxoflHTca CTpejiaTb SoenpimacaMH, H3roTOBJieHHbiMH 
h npeflHa3HaHeHHbiMH cneinianbHO fljia CHaMnepcKOH CTpejibSbi. IIoflHac npnxoflHTca CTpejiaTb tcm, 
hto ecTb b HanHHHH. 3au,HHKOBaHHbie BanoBbie naTpoHbi, H3roTOBJieHHbie b flOBoemioe, BoeHHoe h no- 
CJieBoeHHoe BpeMa (1936-1956 rr.), HepeflKO HMeiOT HenpaBHJibHyio "Kocyio" noca^Ky nyjin b flynbue 
rHJib3bi. 3to TaK Ha3biBaeMbie "KpHBbie" naTpoHbi, y KOTopbix nyna nyTb-Hyrb OTKJiOHeHa b6ok ot 06- 
meM och rHJib3a - nyna. TaKaa "KpHBaa" noca^Ka nyjin 3aMeTHa Ha rjia3. Ha rna3 3aMeTHa ^a>Ke HepaB- 
HOMepHOCTb noca^KH nyjin b rnjib3y no rjiySnHe: oneHb nacTO nyjin noca>KeHbi hjih cjihhikom raySo- 
ko, hjih npe3MepHO BbiCTynaiOT. 

IlyjiH c "kocoh" nocaflKoii noiiflyT no CTBOJiy TO>Ke "kocmm" o6pa30M, n no3TOMy tohhocth 
CTpejibSbi ohh He oSecnenaT. IlyjiH c HeoflHHaKOBOH noca^KOH jxapyi HeoflHHaKOBoe ^aBJieHHe b ctbo- 
Jie h o6o3HanaT pa36poc no BepTHKann. BH3yajibHbiM ocmotpom TaKHe naTpoHbi BbiSpaKOBbiBaiOTca h 
OT^aiOTca nyjieMeTHHKaM. Pa3yMeeTca, BanoBbie naTpoHbi c jierKHMH nyjiaMH o6pa3u,a 1908- 1930 rr. 
Syflyr HMeTb ropa3#o Sojibinnii pa36poc, neM CHannepcKne hjih cnopTHBHO-uejieBbie, ho Ha Boiuie 3to 
jiynme, HeM Hnnero. 

Mo>kho CTpejiaTb jhoSmmh naipoHaMH, hobwmh Ha bh#, He HMeiomHMH na noBepxHOCTH cnjib- 
hwx noTepTOCTeii, uapamiH, bmsthh, p>KaBHHHbi. 

IlaTpoHbi c noTepTOCT»MH CBH^eTejibCTByiOT o tom, hto hx oneHb flOJiro h Hen3BecTHO npn Ka- 
khx oScToaTejibCTBax TacKann no KapMaHaM h noflcyMKaM. 3th Soenpnnacbi Moryr OKa3aTbca noflMO- 
neHHbiMH - b TaKOM cjiynae ohh MoryT He cpaSoTaTb. 

Hejib3a npHMeHaTb naTpoHbi, HMeiomHe #a>Ke He3HaHHTejibHbie bmsthhw Ha rnjib3ax. flejio He b 
tom, hto TaKne Soenpnnacbi He 3axofl»T b naTpoHHHK; npn HeoSxoflHMOCTH hx mo>kho Ty/ja 3amaTb 
chjioh. ,H,ejio b tom, hto pacnpaMJunomaaca nofl flb»BOJibCKHM ^aBJieHneM BMjmiHa c Sojibhioh chjioh 
y^apaeT b CTemcy naipoHHHKa h ero MO>KeT ajieMemapHO pa3opBaTb. TaKne cjiynan SbiBann. Hejib3a 
npHMeHSTb naTpoHbi c p>KaBbiMH rnjib3aMH n p>KaBbiMH nyjiaMH. P>KaBaa oSojionica nyjin MO>KeT pa3- 
BanHTbca n 4)parMenibi flec})opMHpoBaHHOH nyjin nojieTjri b HenpeflCKa3yeMbix HanpaBJieHHax. P>Ka- 
Byio rnjib3y MO>KeT 3JieMeHiapHO pa3opBaTb. ripn stom SbiBaeT, hto ocTaTKH rnjib3bi He npocTO npn- 
ropaiOT k naTpoHHHKy, a HaMepTBO npHBapHBaiOTca k HeMy. BbiBaeT, hto b TaKOM cjiynae npn npopbiBe 
ra30B Ha3a^ 3aTBop npHBapHBaeTca k ctbojibhoh KopoSKe h, KpoMe Toro, CTpejiOK nojiynaeT CHJibHbiii 
ra30Bbifi y#ap b jihho c phckom noBpe^eHHa rjia3. 

Hejib3a Hcnojib30BaTb naTpoHbi BbinycKa nepBoii nojiOBHHbi 30-x roflOB h paHee. TaKne Soenpn- 
nacbi nacTO fleTOHnpyiOT; SbiBaeT, hto npn stom ctboji pa3HOCHT b kjiohbji, OTpbiBaa CTpejiKy nanbubi 
jieBon pyKn. 

Hejib3a HOCHTb naTpoHbi b KO>KaHbix no^cyMKax h naTpoHTaniax - TOJibKO b 6pe3eHTOBbix hjih 
Knp30Bbix. Ot conpHKOCHOBeHHa c KO>KeH MeTanji njiaKHpoBaHHbix SoenpmiacoB noKpbiBaeTca 3ejie- 

HblM HajieTOM H p>KaBHHHOH. 

H, pa3yMeeTca, Hejib3a CMa3biBaTb Soenpnnacbi - ohh nocjie 3Toro He CTpejiaiOT. Chjioh noBepx- 
HOCTHoro HaTa>KeHHa ^a>Ke caMaa rycTaa CMa3Ka paHO hjih no3flHO npoHHKaeT BHyrpb naTpoHa h 06- 
BOJiaKHBaeT KancioJibHbiH h nopoxoBOH 3apa^bi, KOTopwe nocjie 3Toro He cpaSaTbiBaiOT. ,H,jia npeflo- 
xpaHeHHa naTpoHOB ot BJiara hx pa3peniaeTca CMa3biBaTb tohkhm cjioeM CBHHoro cana, h TaKne 
Soenpnnacbi peKOMeH^yeTca Hcnojib30BaTb b nepByio onepeflb h noSbiCTpee. 

He 3a6biBaiiTe, hto TpaccHpyiomne nyjin nopTaT ctboji h Ha ^HCTaHUHH 200 m (h ^a>Ke MeHbnie) 
He npoSHBaiOT ^a>Ke KacKy. TpaccnpyiOHiHe nyjin npHMeHaiiTe no >KecTKoii HeoSxoflHMOCTH h ^jih ue- 
jieyKa3aHHa. 

Ecjih ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb, KannSpyHTe BanoBbie naTpoHbi no flnaMeTpy nyjin n OTSnpanTe jijm 
CTpejibSbi naTpoHbi c nyjiHMn, oflHHaKOBbiMH no flHaMeTpy h rjiy6HHe noca^KH b riuib3e. CHaMnepbi 
CTapoii (J)opMaii,HH BanoBbie naipoHbi (h ^a>Ke u,ejieBbie) o6a3aTejibHO B3BeniHBaiOT h OTSpaKOBbiBaiOT 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 263 

Te, KOTopwe HMeiOT OTKJiOHeHHa b oSmeM Bece. IIo bo3mo>khocth, TaK cneflyeT nociynaTb h BaM. 
BceM 3thm bw pe3KO noBbicme KyHHOCTt 6oa CBoero CTBOJia. 

Bcer^a HMeirre no HecKOJibKy niTyK naTpoHOB 6poHe6oHHO-3a>KHraTejibHbix h TpaccHpyiomHx. 
BoeBaa HeoSxoflHMOCTb mtokct noipeSoBaib hx npHMeHeHHa npn caMbix Heo>KHflaHHbix oScTOjnejib- 
CTBax. 

He npHMeHaiiTe naTpoHbi, y KOTopbix Kanciojib BbiCTynaeT Ha# #hom rHJib3bi. IIpH 3aKpbiBaHHH 
3aTBopa TaKoii naTpoH mtokct npe>KfleBpeMeHHO cpaSoTaTb. 

He npHMeHaiiTe naTpoHbi, HMeiomHe Koppo3HK> huh TpemHHbi Ha Kanciojie. Taicon Kanciojib 
MO>KeT npoSnTb yflapHHKOM. 

Ecjih npoH3oniJia ocenKa h 3tot naTpoH y Bac He nocjieflHHH, 6e3 co>KajieHHa BbiSpacbiBanre ero. 
Hejib3a "mejiKaTb" no 3TOMy naTpoHy BTopoii pa3. CnjibHbin y^apHHK bhhtobkh MO>KeT npoSnrb Kan- 
ciojib, h ra30BbiH noTOK b TaKOM cjiynae y^apaeT b jihho cipejunoiHero c MomHOCTbio SoKcepcKoro Ky- 
jiaKa 6e3 nepnaTKH. Kor^a-TO no mojioaocth aBTop b 3to He Bepnn, noKa He nojiynHJi bot TaKyio >KyT- 
Kyio ra30Byio onneyxy. OiHymefflie SbiJio TaKoe, Kaic SyflTO ronoBa OTopBanacb h Bee ocTajibHoe 
cyniecTByeT caMO no ce6e. 

OneHb peflKO, ho Bce-TaKH npoHCxoflnr BecbMa onacHoe aBJiemie, Ha3biBaeMoe 3aTa>KHbiM bbi- 
CTpejiOM. BbiBaeT, hto cShbihhhcji b komkh hjih OTCbipeBHinii nopox BoenjiaMeHaeTea He cpa3y, a ne- 
pe3 KaKoe-TO BpeM». no3TOMy npn ocenKe HHKorfla He cneuinTe cpa3y >Ke OTKpbiBaTb 3aTBop. nocne 
ocenKH cocHHTaiiTe flo flecaTH, h ecuH BbiCTpena He npoHBonflei", pe3KO OTKpbiBanre 3aTBop h BbiSpa- 
CbiBanTe Hapy>Ky HecpaSoTaBHinn naTpoH. Abtop 6bi.n CBH^eTejieM cjiynaa, Kor^a mojioaoh KypcaHT, 
He Bbiflep>KaB nojio>KeHHbie nocne ocenKH 5-6 ceicyHA, pBaHyn 3aTBop Ha ce6a, naTpoH BbmeTeji, ynan 
nofl Horn HHCTpyieropy h B3opBanca. Hhkto He nocTpaflan. Ho ecjin 6bi 3tot naTpoH cpaSoTan b mo- 
MeHT OTKpbiBaHHa 3aTBopa, nocjieflCTBHa Smjih 6bi y>KacHbiMH. 



PA3^EJI 9. TEOPHfl HAPE3HOrO CTBOJIA 

Ochobhoh nacTbio CTpenKOBoro opy>KHa aBJiaeTca ctboji. Ctboji no3BOJiaeT Hcnojib30BaTb 3Hep- 
raio nopoxoBoro 3apa^a, cropaioiHero b 3apaflHOH KaMope, htoSw cooSiHHib nyjie nocTynaTejibHoe h 
BpamaTejibHoe ^BH>KeHHa, pa3omaTb ee c hjokhoh CKopocTbio h BbiSpocnTb ee b hjokhom HanpaBJie- 

HHH. 

Ctboji npeflCTaBJiaeT coSoh ipySy, BHyTpeHHaa nojiocTb KOTopon Ha3biBaeTca KaHanoM CTBOJia. 
KaHan CTBOJia (cxeMa 130) no CBoeMy ycTpoiiCTBy flejiHica Ha cjie^yioinHe nacTn: naTpoHHHK, coeflH- 
HHTejibHbin KOHyc (nyjibHbiH Bxofl) h Hape3Haa nacTb. KaHanw ctbojiob b o6pa3nax no ycTpoiiCTBy 
npHMepHO oflHHaKOBbi h pa3JiHnaiOTca Jinnib onepTaHHeM naTpoHHHKa, hhcjiom h (|)opMOH Hape30B. 




CxeMa 130. Yctpohctbo KaHana CTBOJia 

naTpoHHHK cny>KHT fljia noMeiHeHna naTpoHa. cDopivtbi n pa3Mepw naTpoHHHKa onpeflejiaiOTca 
(J)opMon n pa3MepaMH rnjib3bi. Me>Kfly CTemcaMH rnjib3bi n CTeHKaMH naTpoHHHKa ^ejiaiOT 3a3op ot 
0,05 flo 0,12 cm. 3a3op oSecnennBaeT CBoSoflHoe BKna^biBaHHe naTpoHa #a>Ke npn Hajinnnn b naTpoH- 
HHKe nbijin hjih cjioa CMa3KH. 3a3op HeoSxoAHM, n6o, ecjin HeT 3a3opa, Her n flBHMceHHa. Ho cjihhikom 
Sojibinaa BejiHHHHa 3a3opa MO>KeT npnBecTH k pa3flyiHio hjih npoflOJibHOMy pa3pwBy rHJib3bi. 

B HeKOTopbix o6pa3nax opy>KH», y KOTopbix 3KcipaKHna rajib3bi npoHCxoflm npn HanHHHH #aB- 
jieHna nopoxoBbix ra30B b KaHane CTBOJia, b nejiax oSjierneHna 3KcipaKHHH ^ejiaiOT npoflOJibHbie Ka- 
HaBKH b naTpoHHHKe h nyjibHOM Bxofle. Ha cxeMe 131 H3o6pa>KeHbi KaHaBKH b naTpoHHHKe h nyjibHOM 
Bxo/ie nyjieMeTa IIIKAC. Bo BpeMa BbiCTpejia nopoxoBbie ra3bi npoHHKaiOT b npoflOJibHbie KaHaBKH h 
OKa3biBaiOT ^aBJieHHe Ha Hapy>KHyio noBepxHOCTb rnjib3bi, Sjiaroflapa neMy OHa c MeHbiHHM ycnjineM 
Sy^eT npn>KHMaTbca k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa. TaKne KaHaBKH nojiynnjin Ha3BaHne "KaHaBKH PeBejuin" 
no (})aMHJiHH HTanbaHCKoro opy>KeHHHKa, KOTopwii hx H3o6peji. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



264 



no Alt 





CxeMa 131. IlaTpoHHHK nyneMeTa IIIKAC 

IlyjibHbiH Bxofl cjijokht #jia oSecneneHna nocTeneHHoro Bpe3aHna nyjin b Hape3bi h fljia npn^a- 
HHa nyne npaBHJibHoro nepBOHanajibHoro HanpaBJieHna. OSwhho nynbHbin bxoa coctoht h3 rjia^KOH 
h Hape3HOH HacTeM. Dia^Kaa nacTb HMeeT bh# yceneHHoro KOHyca. Hape3Haa nacTb nyjibHoro Bxo^a 
HMeeT nojia c OTJiorHM no^beMOM, nocTeneHHO yBejinHnBaiomnMca ot Hyna #o HopManbHOH Bejinnn- 
hw, hto oSecnenHBaeT Bpe3aHHe nyjin b Hape3bi. 3Ta Hape3Haa nacTb He flOJi>KHa SbiTb KopoTKon, h6o 
b TaKOM cnynae Hpe3MepHoii KpyTH3Hoii noflbeivta nojien Hape30B mwkct SbiTb copBaHa h pa3pynieHa 
oSojiOHKa nyjin. Ctaa He flOJDKHa SbiTb h ajihhhoh - b TaKOM cnynae nyjia, nojiynnBinaa CBoSoflHoe 
ycKopeHHe b 3toh ^jinHe, ncnbiTbiBaeT CHJibHyio Harpy3Ky npn BCipene c noBbiiueHHeM nojien Hape- 
30b, KaK c npenaTCTBHeM, h ee oSojionKa mtokct SbiTb Taioice pa3pyiueHa. OSwhho Hape3Hyio nacTb 
nyjibHoro Bxofla ^eJiaiOT He MeHee 0,5 h He Sojiee 1,5 BejiHHHHbi KannSpa, b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot ocoSeH- 
HOCTeii opy>KHa h SoenpnnacoB. 

Hape3Haa nacTb CTBOJia cjijokht #jia npn^aHna nyne BpamaTejibHoro flBnaceHna. IIyjia, ^Bnraacb 
no Hape3aM, BpamaeTca BOKpyr CBoeii och h, nofloSHO rnpoBOJiHKy, jictht tojiobhoh nacTbio nocToaH- 
ho Bnepefl. HHane fljinHHaa nyjia, BbmeTeB H3 CTBOJia, Hanana 6w Secnopa^OHHO KyBbipKaTbca b nojie- 
tc 

Hape3bi npeflCTaBJiaiOT coSoii KaHaBKH, Bbiomneca baojib noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia. Ka>Kflbin 
Hape3-KaHaBKa HMeeT #Be rpaHH h #ho. rpaHb, KOTopaa Be^eT nynio npn flBH>KeHHH ee no KaHany 
CTBOJia n Ha KOTopyio flaBHT oSojiOHKa nyjin, flBH^ymeiica no KaHany CTBOJia, Ha3biBaeTca SoeBoii 
(cxeMa 132). 3Ta rpaHb BH^Ha c Ka3emiOH nacTH KaHana co ctopohm naTpoHHHKa. IIpoTHBonojio>KHaa 
rpaHb Hape3a Ha3biBaeTca xojioctoh. Ha 3Ty rpaHb oSojionKa nyjin npn #BH>KeHHH no Hape3aM He %a- 
bht. XonocTaa rpaHb Hape3a xoponio npocivtaTpHBaeTca c ^yjibHOH nacTH KaHana CTBOJia. IIpoMe>KyT- 
kh, BbiCTynaiOHine Me>Kfly KaHaBKaMH-Hape3aMH, Ha3biBaiOTca nojiaMH Hape30B. ^naivieTp KaHana 
CTBOJia no nojiaM (^naMeTp CBepjiemia CTBOJia) Ha3biBaeTca KannSpoM CTBOJia (cxeMa 133). 

Hapua 



rpaHb 




CxeMa 132. KaHan Hape3Horo CTBOJia co ctopohw naTpoHHHKa 




CxeMa 133. YcipoHCTBO Hape3Hoii nacTH KaHana CTBOJia (nonepeHHbiii pa3pe3): 

a - ninpHHa Hape3a; b - ninpHHa nojia; c - rjiySnHa Hape3a; d - KannSp opy>KHa; dl - ^HaMeTp no 
Hape3aM. 

Hape3bi npaMoyrojibHOH (J)opMbi 

Hape3bi BbinojiHaiOTca npoxo^OM cneiniajibHoro MeTHHKa hjih npoflaBJiHBaiOTca cnenHanbHbiM 
HHCTpyMeHTOM - flopHOM. flopHnpoBaHHbie CTBOJiw BCJieflCTBHe ynjiOTHeHna CTpyKTypw MeTanjia 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 265 

npoHHee h Sojiee >KHBynH b SKcmiyaTanHH, neM oSpaSoTaHHbie Hape3aHHeM. Ho Hape3aHHbie ctbojim 
Sojiee hhctw nocne oSpaSoTKH h ^aiOT Jiynniyio KynHOCTb Soa. 

HanpaBJieHHe Hape30B BCTpenaeTca KaK npaBoe (Pocchji, CCCP, TepMaHHa, AiviepHKa), Taic h Jie- 
Boe (AHrjina h cDpaHuna). IIpaBoe HanpaBJieHHe Hape30B oSycnoBJieHO TeM, hto ^aBJieHHe nyjin Ha 
SoeBbie rpaHH Hape30B Bbi3biBaeT peaKnnio KpyneHHa CTBOJia b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio HanpaB- 
jieHHio BpameHHa nyjin. 3th HanpjDKeHHa cyinecTBemibi, h ohh Moryr hjih 3aKpyHHBaTb (3aBHHHH- 
BaTb) ctboji b CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy, hjih BbiBHHHHBaTb ero OTiyfla. OSbiHHaa TexHOJiorHnecKaa pe3b6a 
b SojibiHHHCTBe CTpaH MHpa npaBoro BpameHna h, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, ctboji c npaBbiM HanpaBJieHHeM 
Hape30B Sy^eT "BKpyHHBaTbca" b CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy, a He "BbiKpynnBaTbca" H3 Hee. H3bcctho, hto 
^a>Ke raiiKH paHO hjih no3#HO caMH OTKpyHHBaKxrca, a opy>KeHHbie ctbojiw npn pa3Hbix HanpaBJieHHax 
Hape30B h pe3b6w noca^KH b CTBOJibHyio KopoSicy OTKpyT»TC» h no#aBHO. AHrjinncKHe h (J)paHHy3- 
CKne ctbojiw c jieBbiMH Hape3aMH HMeiOT cooTBeTCTBeHHO jieByio pe3b6y coeflHHeHHa co ctbojibhoh 
kopoSkoh. H xoTa ceiriac flaace Ha cnopTHBHOM bwcokotohhom opyacHH ctbojibi 3anpeccoBaHti b 

CTBOJIbHbie KOpoSKH C TeXHOJIOrHHeCKHM "HaTarOM" (HTO, KCTaTH, yBeJIHHHBaeT npOHHOCTb naTpOHHH- 

Ka) h 3aKOHTpeHbi innmibKaMH (KaK b aBTOMaTe AKM), Hape3bi OTenecTBeHHbix ctbojiob Tpa^HnHOHHO 
ocTanHCb npaBoro BpameHHa. 

Ha KanecTBO Soa opy>KHa (3Hepraio h KynHOCTt) HanpaBJieHHe BpameHna Hape30B BJinaHna He 
HMeeT. Ho CJie^yeT noMHHTb, hto npn npaBOM BpameHHH Hape30B OTKnoHeHne nynn Ha flepHBaunio 
Sy^eT BnpaBO, a npn jicbom BpameHnn - bjicbo. 

,H,jia nojiyneHHJi Sojiee npoHHbix BbiCTynoB Ha oSojionKe nyjin nocjie ee Bpe3aHH» b Hape3bi 
(cxeMa 134) h ^Jia y^oScTBa hhctkh opy>KHa >KejiaTejibHO iunpHHy Hape30B ^ejiaTb bo3mo>kho Sojib- 
nieii. 




* s 

CxeMa 134: 

A - (J)opMa oSojiohkh nocjie Bpe3aHna b Hape3bi; 

B - ynpomeHHaa (J)opMa oSojiohkh nocjie Bpe3aHna b Hape3bi 

Bpe3aHne oSojiohkh nyjin Sy^eT TeM Jierne, neM y>Ke nojia (BbiCTynaiomHe nacTn) Hape30B. Oa- 
HaKO npn cjihhikom y3Knx nojiax iunpHHa nx MO>KeT OKa3aTbca HacTOJibKO Manon, hto ohh He Sy^yr 
yflOBJieTBopaTb npe^ejiaM npoHHOCTH h Sy^yr pa3pyiuaTbca. npaKTHnecKH SepyT ninpHHy nojia, paB- 
hoh npHMepHO nojiOBHHe HinpHHbi Hape3a (cm. cxeMy 133). HanpnMep, fljia bhhtobok h KapaSnHOB 
MocHHa ninpnHa Hape3a 3,81 mm, ninpnHa nojia 2,17 mm. 

Ot rjiySnHbi Hape30B 3aBncnT BbicoTa BbiCTynoB Ha oSojiohkc nyjin (cxeMa 134). npn Mejncnx 
Hape3ax He3HaHHTejibHbin h3hoc nojien (BbiCTynoB) MO>KeT npnBecTn k cpbiBy nyjib c Hape30B. Hcxo/ia 
H3 3Toro rjiySnHy Hape30B ^ejiaiOT bo3mo>kho Sojibinen. OflHaKO c yBejinneHneM rjiySnHbi Hape30B 
yBejiHHHBaeTca ycnjine, HeoSxoflHMoe fljia Bpe3aHna nyjin b Hape3bi, hto MO>KeT Bbi3BaTb pa3pwB oSo- 
jiohkh hjih fleMonia>K (pa3pyiueHHe) nyjin. KpoMe Toro, rjiySoKne Hape3bi co3flaiOT Sojibnine BbiCTynbi 
Ha oSojiOHKe nyjin, KOTopbie Sy^yr yBejiHHHBaTb cnjiy conpoTHBJieHHa B03flyxa b nojieTe. YnHTbiBaa 
Bee 3th cooSpaaceHHa, rjiySnHy Hape30B ^ejiaiOT paBHOH ot 1/50 p,o 1/70 KannSpa opy>KHa (1,5-2%). 
fl,jia TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok h KapaSnHOB rjiySnHa Hape30B paBHa 0,12-0,15 mm. 

HeM Sojibiue KOJinnecTBO Hape30B, TeM KyHHee Son CTBOJia. B TpexjiHHeiiHbix BHHTOBKax flope- 
BOJnou,noHHoro BbinycKa Swjio Tpn Hape3a, no3>Ke hx yBejinnnjin #o neTbipex. B opy>KHH HopManbHbix 
KannSpoB nx HHor^a ^ejiaiOT 5-6, ho He Sojiee, ncxo^a H3 BbinieonHcaHHbix TexHHnecKHx ocoSemio- 
CTeii npoeKTHpoBaHna. 

B npaKTHKe CTpejiKOBoro opy>KHa b pa3Hoe BpeMa h no pa3HbiM npHHHHaM npHMeHajincb pa3- 
jiHHHbie npo(})HJiH Hape30B: np»MoyrojibHbiH, ipaneneHflajibHbiH, cerMenrHbiH, CKpyrjieHHbiii n ^a>Ke 

KOMSHHHpOBaHHblH. 

npaMoyrojibHOH Ha3biBaeTca TaKaa (})opMa Hape30B, y KOTopoM rpaHH oflHoro h Toro >Ke Hape3a 
napajuiejibHbi (cm. cxeMy 133). B OTenecTBeHHbix CTBOJiax npHHaTbi Hape3bi npaMoyrojibHon (J)opMbi. 
npeHMyniecTBa HMemio TaKoii (})opMbi Hape30B - b ee Ha#e>KHOCTH, ^ojiroBeHHOCTH n 3kohomhhhocth 
b HBroTOBJieHHH h no3TOMy OHa HanSojiee npHMeroieMa b opy>KeHHbix CHCTeMax (cxeMa 135). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



266 




CxeMa 135: 

A - Hape3bi 7,62-mm bhhtobkh CnpnHr(|)HJibfla o6p. 1903 r.; 

B - Hape3bi 7,62-mm bhhtobkh KA o6p. 1891/1930 rr. 

TpaneueHflajibHaji (})opMa Hape30B noxo>Ka Ha npaMoyrojibHyio h OTJinnaeTca ot Hee tcm, hto 
CMOKHbie rpaHH Hape30B He napanjiejibHbi flpyr flpyry. TaKaa (})opMa Hape30B npoflHKTOBaHa CTpeMJie- 
HneM cflenaTb flec^opMannio oSojiohkh nyjin npn Bpe3aHHH b Hape3bi MeHee pe3KO "cflBHHyTon" (cxeMa 
136) n, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, coxpamiTb ee npoc})HJib h MexaHnnecKyio npoHHOCTb, yBennHHTb rjrySnHy 
Hape30B h noBbiCHTb ^aBJieHHe b ctbojic Opy>KHe c TpanenenflanbHon (J)opMOH Hape30B cjio>KHee h 
flopo>Ke b npoH3BOflCTBe, neM opy>KHe c Hape3aMH npaMoyrojibHon (})opMbi, ho KynHOCTb 6oa TaKHx 
ctbojiob Jiynnie. CHannepcKne bhhtobkh c TpanenenflajibHbiMn Hape3aMH nponBBOflnjincb h npoH3BO- 
flaTca b Abctphh (JmpMon "MaHJiHxep". 




CxeMa 136. Hape3bi TpanenenflanbHon (})opMbi 

BbimeonHcaHHbie (})opMbi Hape30B b npnHnnne OTBenaiOT 3KcnjiyaTannoHHbiM TpeSoBaHnaM, ho 
ocTaiomneca b yraax Hape30B (Me>Kfly #hom Hape3a n rpaHbio) TBep^bie nacTnnbi oSojiohkh nyjin h 
npo/iyKTOB cropaHHa nopoxa Moryr Bbi3BaTb noaBJieHne Koppo3HH, h6o nncTKa n CMa3Ka yraoB Hape- 
30b 3aTpyflHeHa. K TOMy 5Ke yrnbi Hape30B HennoTHO 3anojiHaiOTca Maccon nyjin, h b sthx MecTax 
HaSjnoflaeTca npopbiB nopoxoBbix ra30B. IIpH stom HecKOJibKO na^aeT ^aBJieHne b CTBOJie h pacKaneH- 
Hbie nopoxoBbie ra3bi, HCTeKaiomHe no He3anojiHeHHbiM MecTaM c SojibinoM CKopocTbio, pa3pyniaiome 
fleiicTByiOT Ha ctboji. 

CTapaacb jinKBH^npoBaTb 3tot HeflOCTaTOK, Ha HeKOTopwx opyaceiiHbix cncTeMax p,o chx nop 
npnMeHaiOTca TaK HaBbiBaeMbie Hape3bi cerMeHTHon (})opMbi. CerMeHTHon Ha3biBaeTca TaKaa (})opMa 
Hape30B, y KOTopon Hape3bi b ceneHnn, nepneH^HKyjiapHOM ocn CTBOJia, npeflCTaBJiaiOT (J)nrypy cer- 
Menra (cxeMa 137). TaKne Hape3bi b Hanane XX CTOJieTna Sbuin npnHaTbi Ha oneHb Heruioxon bhhtob- 
Ke TOHHoro 6oa anoHCKoro opy>KeHHHKa ApncaKa (cxeMa 138). Ilpn TaKon (})opMe Hape30B, He HMeio- 
men yraoB, nyjia 3anojiHaeT npocBeT KaHana CTBOJia nonHOCTbio. Ho ctbojim c TaKHMH Hape3aMH 
oneHb Tpy^oeMKH h #oporn b npon3BO#CTBe, k TOMy >Ke npn OTcyTCTBnn SoeBbix rpaHen, Ha KOTopbie 
oSbiHHO onnpaeTca nyjia npn #BH>KeHHH, nyjia ^encTByeT Ha onopHyio nacTb cerMeHTa, KaK Ha kjihh, 
Bbi3biBaa yBejinneHHyio nonepenHyio flec^opMannio CTBOJia h CHH>Kaa ero >KHBynecTb. IIosTOMy cer- 
MeHTapHbie Hape3bi ninpoKoro pacnpocTpaHeHna He nojiynnjin. 




CxeMa 137. Hape3bi cerMeHTHon (})opMbi 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



267 



CxeMa 138. Hape3bi 6,5-mm bhhtobkh CHCTeMbi ApncaKa 

HeAOCTaTKH cerMenrapHbix Hape30B ycTpaHeHbi b CTBOJiax c Hape3aMH CKpyrjieHHOH <|)opMbi 
(cxeMa 139), r^e SoeBaa rpaHb HMeeT nonyKpyrjiyio (})opMy. B Taioix Hape3ax HeT yniOB, ohh hhhcm 
He 3a6HBaiOTca, b hhx He HaBOJiaKHBaeTca CBHHeu,. Ctbojim c TaKHMH Hape3aMH oneHb nerKO hhcthtb. 
Ho ohh eme Sojiee floporn b nponBBOflCTBe, neM cerMenrapHbie Hape3bi, h npnMeHaiOTca Ha onem, p,o- 

pOrHX OXOTHHHbHX CHCTeMaX. 




CxeMa 139. CKpyrjieHHaa (})opMa Hape30B 

B CBoe BpeMa fljia noBbimeHHa >KHBynecTn ctbojiob b HeKOTopbix CHCTeMax nojia Hape30B ^ejia- 
jih ninpe caMHx Hape30B. TaKne Hape3bi Sbijih Ha pyccKoM TpexjiHHeiiHOH bkhtobkc nepBbix BbinycKOB 
h Ha HiBeiiHapcKOH BHHTOBKe CHCTeMbi "IIlMHflT-PySHHa" (cxeMa 140). C npHHaTHeM Ha BOopy>KeHHe 
naTpoHOB c nynaMH Sojiee coBepmemiOH (J)opMbi, b MeHbinen creneHH H3HaniHBaiomeH ctboji, ot Ta- 
koh reoMeTpHH Hape30B OTKa3anHCb. 





CxeMa 140. Hape3bi 7,5-mm bhhtobkh CHCTeMbi "UlMH^T-PySHHa" o6p. 1889-1896 rr. 

Ecjih pa3BepHyTb BHyTpeHHioio noBepxHOCTb KaHana CTBOJia B^ojib och c HaHeceHHbiM Ha Hen 
Hape30M, to onepTaHne Hape3a npeflCTaBHTca b BH^e jihhhh, KOTopaa MO>KeT SbiTb npaMoii hjih Kpn- 
boh (cxeMa 141). 

t 

t & 4 

CxeMa 141. Bn^bi Hape30B (pa3BepTKa): 

a - Hape3 nocToaHHoii KpyrHBHbi; 6 - Hape3 nporpeccHBHOH KpyrH3Hbi; b - Hape3 CMemaHHoii 

KpyTH3HbI 

Hape3, nojiynaiomnHca npn pa3BepTKe b BH^e np»MOH jihhhh, Ha3biBaeTca Hape30M nocToaHHoii 
KpyrHBHbi (a Ha cxeMe 141). Yroji Ha cxeMe, xapaKTeproyiomHii HaiaiOH hjih KpyTH3Hy Hape30B, Ha3bi- 
BaeTca yrjiOM HaiaiOHa hjih KpyrH3Hbi Hape30B. 

Hape3, npn pa3BepTKe npeflCTaBJiaiomHHca b BH^e kphboh jihhhh c B03pacTaiomeH KpyTH3HOH 
ot Hanana Hape30B k flynbHon nacTH, Ha3biBaeTca Hape30M nporpeccHBHOH KpyTH3Hbi (6 Ha cxeMe 
141). 

IIpeHMymecTBO Hape30B nocToamiOH KpyrH3Hbi coctoht b npocTOTe roroTOBJieHHa, HeflOcraTOK 
- b HepaBHOMepHOCTH H3HOca. IIpH Hape3ax nocToamiOH KpyrH3Hbi ^aBJieHHe Ha SoeByio rpaHb nepe- 
MeHHO h npHHHMaeT HCKJiiOHHTejibHO Sojibiuyio BejiHHHHy b tot MOMeHT, Kor^a ^aBJieHHe nopoxoBbix 
ra30B b CTBOJie HanSojibmee. B MecTe HanSojibHiero ^aBJieHHa nponcxoflnr ycHJiemibiH h3hoc SoeBbix 
rpaHeii Hape30B. 

IIpH Hape3ax nporpeccHBHOH KpyrH3Hbi npn HanSojibineM ^aBJieHHH yroji HaHMeHbiHHH, cjieflo- 
BaTejibHO, ^aBJieHHe Ha SoeByio rpaHb TO>Ke 6y#eT cpaBHHrejibHO HeSojibniHM. IIpH na^eHHH ^aBJie- 
HHa, 6jiH>Ke k flyjibHOMy cpe3y npn B03pocmeH KpyTH3He Hape30B hx SoeBbie rpaHH Sy^yr HcnbiTbi- 
BaTb ropa3flO MeHbiune pa3pyuiaiomHe ycnjina npn npoxo>KfleHHH no hhm nyjin. 

Hape3bi nporpeccHBHOH KpyrHBHbi 3aMeTHO yjiynmaiOT KynHOCTb 6oa CTBOJia, oflHaKO ohh He 
HaniJiH mnpoKoro pacnpocTpaHeHna b CTpejiKOBOM opy>KHH H3-3a cjio>khocth roroTOBJieHna h npnMe- 
HaiOTca b apTHjniepHHCKHx CHCTeMax. TaKne Hape3bi BbinojmaiOTca Ha OT^ejibHbix o6pa3nax ocoSo 
TOHHoro CHaiinepcKoro opy>KHa. 

^jiHHa ynacTKa KaHana CTBOJia, Ha kotopom Hape3bi nocToamiOH KpyTH3Hbi ^ejiaiOT o#hh noji- 
Hbiii oSopoT, Ha3biBaeTca niaroM Hape30B. 

3Haa fljiHHy mara Hape30B h ^yjibHyio CKopocTb nyjin, mo>kho noflcnnraTb hhcjio oSopoTOB nyjin 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



268 



BOKpyr ee och b momcht BbuieTa H3 KaHajia CTBOJia no (J)opMyjie: 

hhcjio oSopoTOB =(V js,yjibuas)/uiaT Hape30B. 

IJpuMep. OnpeflenHTb hhcjio oSopoTOB nyjiH bhhtobkh MocHHa o6pa3u,a 1891-1930 it. ^yjibHaa 
CKopocTb 860 m/c, fljiHHa niara Hape30B 0,24 m. 

Pemenue. 860/0,24 = 3583 oSopoTa b CQKynj\y. 

KyHHOCTb 6oa CTBOJia yBejiHHHBaeTca c yMeHbineHHeM niara Hape30B h yBejinneHHeM oSopoTOB 
nyjiH. Ho flo pa3yMHbix npe^ejiOB - npH cjihhikom Kpyibix Hape3ax nyjia 6y#eT cpbiBaTbca c hhx, h 
npH cjihhikom SojibiHHx oSopoTax ee MO>KeT pa3opBaib HempoSoKHOH chjioh. 

Ilyjia flOJi>KHa Bpe3aTbca b Hape3bi h 3anojiHHTb hx nojiHOCTbio, j\o caMbix ^OHbeB h HeMHoro 
(oneHb HeMHoro) c h3jihhikom. Me>Kfly nonepenHbiMH pa3MepaMH nyjiH h KaHana CTBOJia aojdkho co- 
SjnoflaTbca TaKoe cooTHonieHHe, npn kotopom nnomaflb nonepenHoro ceneHna nyjm Ha 1 -2% npeBbi- 
Hiana 6bi nnomaflb ceneHna CTBOJia. Ilyjia, cboSoaho, c jno(})TaMH H^ymaa no CTBOJiy, HannHaeT "6oji- 
TaTbca" b HeM ot ctchkh #o ctchkh, pa36nBaeT ctboji h OTKJiOHaeTca ot npHuejibHoro HanpaBJieHna. 
KynHOCTH 6oa TaKHMH nyjiaMH He 6y#eT. KaHanw ctbojiob BbinojmaiOTca oneHb TmaTejibHO, ho Bee 
paBHO y ctbojiob oflHoro n Toro >Ke o6pa3u,a opy>KHa flHaMeTpw KajinSpoBOHHbix CBepjieHHH h paccTO- 
aHHa MOK^y flOHbaMH Hape30B He Sy^yr oflHHaKOBbi BCJieflCTBHe H3HOca oSpaSaTbiBaiomero HHCipy- 
MeHTa. Ilpn CTpejibSe onepeflJiMH 3to 3HaneHna He HMeeT, ho b CHaiinepcKOH cipejibSe craHOBHTca 3 a- 
MeTHbiM. IIo3TOMy no# Ka>Kflbiii ctboji >KejiaTejibHO nofloSpaTb naTpoH c nyjieii cooTBeTCTByiomero 
flnaivieTpa. IlyjiH BHHTOBOHHbix naTpoHOB Bcer^a ^ejiaiOTca no flnaivieTpy Sojibiue, HeM HOMHHanbHbiH 
KamiSp opy>KHa, h #a>Ke HeMHoro Sojibine paccToaHna Meatfly flOHbaMH Hape30B (cm. TaSji. 38). Ka>K- 
flbiii peajibHbiii ^HaMeTp KOHKpeTHoro KaHana CTBOJia aojckch conparaTbca c KOHKpeTHbiM ^naMeTpoM 
nyjiH. IIo3TOMy npn CTpejibSe KaKOH-jinSo oahoh napTneii naTpoHOB KynHOCTb CTpejibSw #a>Ke H3 
oneHb xoponiero HOBoro CTBOJia MO>KeT OKa3aTbca HeyflOBJieTBopHTejibHon. 3HaiomHe CHaMnepbi 3apa- 
Hee noflSnpaiOT noflxoflaiHHe napran naTpoHOB no pe3yjibTaTaM KynHOCTH npn npoSHbix OTCTpejiax. 

HecMOTpa Ha to hto BbiiueonHcaHHaa cncTeMa H3MepeHHa KannSpa CTBOJia "ot nojia j\o nojia" 
Hape3a aBJiaeTca MOK^yHapoflHOH, b 3ana^Hbix CTpaHax Bee Sojibiue n Sojibine npaKTHKyeTca HBMepe- 
Hne KannSpa "ot .znia #o #Ha" Hape3a, hto, Ha B3rjum aBTopa, npn no^SopKe TOHHoro CHaiinepcKoro 
opy>KHa h SoenpnnacoB Sojiee npaBHJibHO, n6o no3BOJiaeT cpa3y opneHTnpoBaTbca b peanbHbix pa- 
MeTpax CTBOJia n noflSnpaTb k hhm naTpoHbi c nyjiaMH cooTBeTCTByiomero /niaMeTpa. K npnMepy, Ka- 
jinSp aMepnKaHCKon bhhtobkh M-16 paBeH 5,6 mm, ho oh onpe^ejieH no "flOHbW Hape30B. KajinSp 
Haiuero aBTOMaTa AK-74 paBeH 5,45 mm, ho oh npHH»T no KJiaccHnecKOMy o6pa3uy - no "nojiaM" 
Hape30B. B peanbHOCTH BHyTpeHHHe KannSpbi oSohx o6pa3u,OB opy>KHa oflHHaKOBbi. KannSp nyjib k 
hhm paBeH 5,61-5,62 mm. KaK sto hh cipaHHO, b npaKTHKe MajioKajinSepHoro cnopTHBHoro opy>KH» 
H3HaHanbHO yiBepflHJiacb HeKJiaccnnecKaa (J)opMyjiHpoBKa - no flOHbaM Hape30B. PeanbHbin KannSp 
cbhhhoboh 6e3o6ojioneHHon nyjin oSbiHHoro cnopTHBHO-oxoTHHHbero MajioKajniSepHoro naTpoHa pa- 
BeH 5,62 mm, a KannSp CTBOJia no ^OHbaM Hape30B paBeH 5,59-5,60 mm. 

B Hanie BpeMa (oneHb pe^Ko) BCTpenaiOTca TpexjiHHeiiHbie CHaiinepcKHe bhhtobkh ^OBoeHHoro 
BbinycKa c H3yMHiejibHO KyHHbiM 6oeM. y TaKnx bhhtobok KaHan CTBOJia BbinojiHajica na TaK Ha3biBa- 
eMbiii "jierKHH KOHyc" c pa3HHu,eH b ^naMeTpax y Ka3emiOH h ^yjibHoii HacTeM b 2-3%. IIpH stom cbo- 
flHTca Ha HeT HCTHpaHne oSojiohkh nyjin o ctchkh KaHana CTBOJia h nyjia Bee BpeMa "o6>KHMaeTca", 
hto He no3BOJiaeT eft "ryjiaTb" no CTBOJiy. 

TOHHOCTb H3r0T0BJieHH3 CTBOJia H HHCTOTa o6pa6oTKH erO KaHana OKa3bIBaiOT Ha TOHHOCTb H 

KyHHOCTb 6oa HenocpeflCTBemioe h cyniecTBeHHoe BJinaHHe. IIIepoxoBaTOCTb, rpySocTb o6pa6oTKH 
KaHana CTBOJia, HapynieHne ero coochocth, HepoBHOCTH ^Ha Hape30B yBejiHHHBaiOT pacceaHne npn 

CTpejibSe H3 BHHTOBOK flO 20%. 

OopMa flyjibHoro cpe3a CTBOJia ^ejiaeTca TaKoii, htoSw npeflOTBpaTHib cjiynanHbie noBpe>KfleHHa 
(3a6oHHbi) noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia b jiyjibHOH nacTH, HapyiuaiomHe KyHHOCTb 6oa opy>KHa. 
HanSojiee xopoiuo npeflOxpaHaeT KaHan CTBOJia ot noBpe>KfleHHH ^yjibHaa nacTb cneu,HajibHOH (})opMbi 
c "SopTaMn" (cxeMa 142). 

I i 3 *f 




CxeMa 142. cDopMbi ^yjibHoro cpe3a CTBOJia 

1 - 3aKpyrjieHHaa; 2-e (J)acKaMH; 3 - co cc|)epHHecKOH BbieMKoii; 4 - c pa33eHKOBKoii 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 269 

HenepneHflHKyjiapHOCTt nnocKOCTH ^ynbHoro cpe3a k och KaHajia CTBOJia Ha 1% npn CTpejibSe 

H3 BHHTOBKH Ha flajIbHOCTb 100 M flaeT OTKJIOHeHHe nyjIH 60JIbHie 10-TH CM. IIpH 3TOM KOHTpOJIbHblH 

pa^nyc Kpyra, BMemaiomero Jiynniyio nojiOBHHy npoSoHH, yBejiHHHBaeTca Ha 10%. 

BBIEOP HOPMAJIbHOrO KAJIHBPA 

KannSp bhhtobok, KapaSnHOB h nyneMeTOB ot 6,5 #o 8 mm, ycTaHOBHBHiHHca b KOHue XIX Beica 
h ^OMHHHpyiOHiHH b coBpeMemiOM opy>KHH, Ha3biBaeTca HopManbHbiM KannSpoM. KannSp MeHbHie 
HopManbHoro (oSbiHHO 5,6 mm) Ha3biBaeTca ManbiM. y MHornx B03HHKaeT ecTecTBeHHbiH Bonpoc, no- 
neMy BHHTOBOHHbie KanH6pbi BbiSpaHbi HMeHHO b TaKHx npe^ejiax? J\qro b tom, hto corjiacHO 3aKO- 
HaM (J)H3hkh neM MeHbHie Tejio, flBHraiomeeca b ra30o6pa3HOH cpe^e, TeM Sojibiue y^ejibHoe conpo- 
THBJieHHe 3toh cpe^bi oho HcnbiTbiBaeT. HeM 6ojibine Teno, TeM MeHbHie eMy conpoTHBJiaeTca 
OKpy>KaiOHiaa ra30o6pa3Haa aTMOC(|)epa. 3to ^OBOJibHO cno>KHbiH (|)H3HHecKHH npouecc. IlyjiH Majibix 
KannSpoB ^a>Ke npn orpoMHOH HananbHOH ckopocth 1200-1300 m/c H3-3a Sojibiuoro y#ejibHoro co- 
npoTHBJieHHa oneHb SbiCTpo TepaiOT CKopocTb h He jieT»T flajiee 2,5 km. Ilocjie #HCTaHHHH 400-500 m 
hx TpaeieropHH pe3KO noHH>KaiOTca h npoSHBHaa cnocoSHOCTb na/jaeT. B to >Ke BpeMa raySHHHbiM 
120-mm CHapafl c HananbHOH CKopocTbio 550 m/c b coctojihhh nponeTeTb 12 km h Sojiee. J\a, npn 
CTpenbSe Ha peanbHbix flHCTaHunax oSmeBoiicKOBoro 6oa 400 m npn Maiibix KannSpax mo>kho 3HanH- 
TenbHO yjiynniHTb HacTHJibHOCTb TpaeKTopHH npn HanajibHOH ckopocth nyjin 900-950 m/c. IIpH 3tom 
yBejiHHHBaeTca ^ajibHOCTb npaMoro BbiCTpena #o 450-470 m. OflHaKO fljia CHaMnepcKOH h nyneMeTHoM 
CTpenbSbi Ha flanbHHe AHCTaHHHH sto He roflHTca. IIpH CTpejibSe Ha Sojibiune ^ajibHOCTH Jiencaa nyjia 
c yMeHbnieHHbiM KannSpoM TepaeT Bee npeHMymecTBa. KpoMe Toro, bo Bee BpeMeHa Sbuia uejiecooS- 
pa3HOCTb npHMeHeHHa e^HHoro naTpoHa fljia bhhtobok h nyneMeTOB. 

IlyjiH HopManbHoro KannSpa npn cpeflHHx CKopocTax 750- 850 m/c jieT»T ^OBOJibHO flaneKO. 
yBejiHHHBaTb KannSp Sojiee 8 mm y>Ke Henejiecoo6pa3HO H3-3a yBejinneHHa Beca opy>KHa h hochmoix) 
3anaca naTpoHOB. ySomioe fleMcTBHe nyjin HopManbHoro KannSpa coxpaHaeTca #a>Ke Ha ee H3JieTe. 
TpaeKTopna nyjin HopManbHoro KannSpa ^ocTaTOHHO HacTHJibHa h npe#CKa3yeMa fljia tohhoh CTpejib- 
6w Ha flHCTaHUHJix ^0 1300 m, nosTOMy CHaMnepcKHe bhhtobkh bo Bcex CTpaHax Mnpa h Soenpnnacbi 
k hhm H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca nofl HopManbHbiH KannSp. 

Ctbojim Manbix KajinSpoB HMeiOT Sojiee KyHHbiM 6oii, neM ctbojim KannSpoB HopManbHbix. 3to 
oSbacHaeTca TeM, hto 6oh opy>KHa TeM KynHee, neM Sojibiue ero y/iejibHaa #jiHHa b KannSpax. Ho no 
BbinieH3Jio>KeHHbiM npHHHHaM 3(})4)eKTHBHOCTb npHMeHemui Manbix KajinSpoB b CHaMnepcKOH npaKrn- 
Ke hocht cnopHbiM xapaKTep. 

BHEPAIJH5I CTBOJIOB 

KaK noKaBbiBaeT npaKTHKa, ctbojim orHecTpenbHoro opy>KHa npHxofljrr npn CTpejibSe b KOJieSa- 
TejibHoe flBH>KeHHe (cxeMa 143). XapaKTep h pa3Max KOJieSaHna 3aBHcaT ot MHornx 4)aKropoB: ajihhm 
CTBOJia, ero nonepenHbix pa3MepoB, HanHHHJi h MecTa pacnojio>KeHHa cocpeflOTOHemibix Mace, ycjio- 
bhh KpenjieHHa, Maccw h t. a. KojieSaHHa CTBOJia npn BbiCTpejie nponexoflaT npeHMymecTBeHHO b 
BepTHKanbHOH njiocKOCTH. C H3MeHeHHeM fljiHHbi CTBOJia MeHaiOTca ycjiOBHa KOJieSaHHH h nepHOflH- 
necKH H3MeHaeTca pacceHBaHHe, npoxo^a nocjieflOBaTejibHO nepe3 MaKCHMyM h MHHHMyM. Ha Kane- 
ctbo CTpejibSw sto HMeeT oneHb Sojibinoe BjmaHHe BCJieflCTBHe H3ra6a CTBOJia Ha CTapwx CHCTeMax. 
HtoSw yMeHbniHTb KOJieSaHHa CTBOJia, ero npH>KHMajiH k jio>Ke CTBOJibHbiMH HaKJia^KaMH. CnopTHB- 
Hoe opy>KHe ^ejiaiOT c tojictbimh MaccHBHbiMH CTBOJiaMH, 3to 3HaHHTejibHO yvieHbinaeT KOJieSaHHa 
ctbojiob npn CTpejibSe h 3aMeTHO noBbiniaeT KyHHOCTb 6oa, ho b KanecTBe SoeBoro opy>KHa TaKne ch- 
CTeMbi HenpHroflHbi H3-3a "HenoflbeMHOCTn" - ohh BecaT ot 6 flo 8 Kr. B TpexjiHHeiiHbix CHaiinepcKHx 
BHHTOBKax KyHHOCTb 6oa 3aMeTHO noBbiiuajiH oneHb npoHHbiM "rjiyxHM" KpenjieHHeM uiTbiKa. IHtmk, 
paSoTaa KaK npoTHBOBec, noHTH B^Boe yMeHbiuaeT KOJieSaHHa CTBOJia h Ha CTOJibKO >Ke yjiyniuaeT 
KyHHOCTb 6oa. Ho TOJibKO oneHb njiOTHO "noca>KeHHbiH" Ha ctboji h 3a>KaTbin b KpenjieHHH hitmk. Ec- 
jih oh Sy^eT KanaTbca Ha CTBOJie, pa36poc ot 3Toro tojibko yBejiHHHTca. Cjie^yeT ynecTb, hto bhhtob- 
Ky, npncTpejiaHHyio paHee 6e3 HiTbiKa, npn nocTaHOBKe HiTbiKa Hy>KHO 3aHOBO npHCTpejiHBaTb. IUrbiK, 
pacnojio>KeHHbiH cnpaBa, CMemaeT u,eHTp tjdkccth opy>KHa h, cjieflOBaTejibHO, H3MeHaeT ero SajiaHCH- 
poBKy. IIlTbiK OTKJiOHaeT Hemp tjdkccth BnpaBO, Tor^a KaK cnjia OT^anH ^eiiCTByeT b HanpaBJieHHH 
och KaHana CTBOJia h CMemaeT opy>KHe BJieBO npn CTpejibSe. npn 3tom cpe^Haa TOHKa nona/iaHHa ot- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



270 



KJiOHHTca BJieBO. OnwTaMH ycTaHOBJieHO, hto npn CTpejibSe co ihtmkom Ha flHCTaHnnn 100 m cpe^Haa 
TOHKa nona/iaHHa (CTII) OTKJiOHaeTca bjicbo Ha 6-8 cm h bhh3 Ha 8- 10 cm. 3to CMemeHHe CTII kom- 
neHCHpyeTca npHBefleHHeM bhhtobkh k HopManbHOMy 6010 3aHOBO h b oSmhhom ycTaHOBJieHHOM no- 
paflKe. 








CxeMa 143. (|)a3bi KOJieSaHHa ^ynbHOH nacTH CTBOJia 

K BHHTOBKe CBfl noflxoflHT niTbiK aBTOMaTa AKM, ho npHCTpenHBaTb ee co hitmkom He npHHa- 
to. IIlTbiK yfljiHHaeT h 6e3 Toro fljiHHHyio CB,3,. Bmccto 3Toro fljia ynyHiueHHa KyHHOCTH 6oa Ha ctboji 
CBJl nnoTHO npHKpemiaiOT npoTHBOBec - CTanbHOH hjih cbkhhobmh, bccom ot 0,5 flo 2 Kr - no >Kejia- 
hhk) h TeMnepaMeHTy CTpejiica. MecTO npHKpenneHHa npoTHBOBeca BbiSnpaeTca onbrmbiM nyreM, 3M- 
nnpHHecKH. IIpoTHBOBec HOKenaTejibHO 3a>KHMaTb Ha CTBOJie BHHTaMH bo H36e>KaHHe fle(J)opMHpoBa- 

HHa CTeHOK CTBOJia. OSblHHO npOTHBOBeC nJIOTHO npHMaTblBaiOT K CTBOJiy MaTepnaTOH H30JICHTOH. 

KojieSaHHa CTBOJia npn BbiCTpene h npHHHHbi, hx nopo>KflaiomHe, nonHOCTbio He HByneHbi, h b 
hx npnpofle flo chx nop MHoro HeoSbacmiMoro. CnHiaeTca (n MaTeMaTHnecKH #OKa3aHo), hto oSecne- 
HHTb BbineT nyjin b o#Hy h Ty >Ke (})a3y KOJieSaHHH npaKTHnecKH HeB03MO>KHO H3-3a HeH36e>KHoro pa3- 
Spoca BpeMeHH #BH>KeHHa nyjin no KaHany CTBOJia BCJieflCTBHe BJinaHHa pa3JiHHHoro po#a npHHHH 
(pa36poc MaKCHManbHoro ^aBJieHHa ra30B, Beca nynn, KanecTBa nopoxa h t. p,.). Ho KaK-TO CTapnnoK 
opyaceHHHK, oScTyKaB ^epeBaHHOH nanoHKon b o6meM-TO Henjioxon ctboji bhhtobkh AB KannSpa 
7,62 mm n HaHeca mcjiom BepTHKanbHyio pncKy caHTHMeTpax b naTHafluaTH ot ^ynbHoro cpe3a, CKa3an 
aBTopy: "3to MepTBaa TOHKa, b KOTopoii KOJieSaHHH CTBOJia hct! OipoKbie KycoK CTBOJia no 3toh ot- 
MeTKe, h bw He no>KajieeTe!" Abtophtct 3Toro MacTepa Sbiji bchhk, h b tom, hto oh CKa3an, hhkto He 
3acoMHeBanca. Ilocjie Toro KaK ctboji yKopoTHJin #o otmctkh, yKa3aHHon MacTepoM, KynHOCTb He 
npocTO pe3KO yjiynniHJiacb - OHa yjiyniunjiacb (J)aHTacTHHecKH. Ha ^HCTaHUHH 100 m pa36poc He bh- 
xoflHJi 3a raSapHT TpexKoneenHOH MOHeTbi. 

nOHHTHE OB ynPyrOM COnPOTHBJIEHHH CTBOJIA 



Pa3flejiHM ctboji Ha pa# ynacTKOB h coBMecTHM ero nofl rpa(J)HKOM H3MeHeHHa ^aBJieHHa BHyrpn 
CTBOJia npn BbiCTpejie (cxeMa 144). Hap, kphboh ^aBJieHHa pacnojio>KHM MaTeMaTHnecKH paccHHiaH- 
Hyio corjiacHO conpoTHBJieHnio MaTepnanoB KpnByio ynpyroro conpoTHBJieHHa CTBOJia ^aBJieHHio 
BHyrpn Hero. Mw nojiynnM KapTHHy conpoTHBJieHHa CTeHOK CTBOJia b paBJinnHbie nepnoflbi BbiCTpejia. 



HD01 




"^(■Alf 



CxeMa 144. KpnBaa ynpyroro conpoTHBJieHHa CTBOJia bhhtobkh o6pa3na 1891-1930 rr n KpnBaa 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



271 



^aBJieHHa ra30B b CTBOJie 

KaK BHflHO H3 cxeMbi 144, ^aBJieHHe nopoxoBbix ra30B b KaHane CTBOJia b ceneHHax aa h 66 bm- 
nie npeflenbHO ^onycTHMoro. CHH>KeHHe 3anaca npoHHOCTH b sthx ceneHnax cflejiaHO c nejibio nojiy- 
HHTb KOHCTpyierHBHO yflo6Hbie pa3Mepbi CTBOJia, HHane npHimiocb 6bi 3HanHTejibHO yBejiHHHTb pa3Me- 
pbi CTBOJia b yKa3aHHbix ceneHiiax. 3anoMHHTe: BHHTOBOHHbie ctbojim npH Hcnojib30BaHHH 
Heflo6poKaHecTBeHHbix CTapbix 6oenpHnacoB HeH3BecTHoro npoHCxo>KfleHHa c fleTOHnpyiomnM nopo- 
xom name Bcero pa3pwBaiOTca cpa3y >Ke 3a naTpomiHKOM. Ilo stoh npHHHHe npH OTJia^Ke opy>KHa 
Hejib3a npoH3BOflHTb CBepjieHHe h Kpene>KHbie pa6oTbi (HanpHMep, npH nocTaHOBKe onTHHecKoro npn- 
nejia) b6jih3h naTpomniKa h y3JiOB 3anHpaHHa. 

HH>KeHepHO-pacHeTHbiM nyreM (Ta6ji. 43) 6buio ycTaHOBJieHO, hto npH ^aBJieHHH b KaHane ctbo- 
jia, paBHOM 3/4 npeflejibHoii ynpyrocTH MeTaiuia, #a>Ke CKOJib yroflHO 6ojibinaa TOJimHHa ctchok He 
o6ecnenHT ctboji ot noaBJieHHa ocTaTOHHbix fle(|)opManHH Ha ero BHyrpeHHeH noBepxHOCTH. OnbiT- 
hwm nyreM ycTaHOBJieHO, hto yBejiHHHBaTb TOJimHHy ctchok CTBOJia, H3roTOBJieHHoro H3 opy>KeHHoii 
yrjiepoflHCTOH CTann, #o BejiHHHHbi, npeBbiniaiomeH 1 1/2 KanH6pa, Henejiecoo6pa3HO, TaK KaK ^ajib- 
HeHiuee yBejinneHHe TOJimHHbi ctchok Jinnib He3HaHHTejibHO yBejiHHHBaeT npoHHOCTb CTBOJia h b to 
>Ke BpeMa noBbiiuaeT ero Bee. 

Ta6jiHua 43 

3aBHCHMOCTb npe^ejia ynpyroro conpoTHBJieHHa CTBOJia ot TOJimHHbi ctchok CTBOJia 



TojiLi^nna cTeHOK crsona a flnasieTpax itanana 


0,1 


0,25 


0,50 


0,75 


1,0 


1,25 


1,50 


1,70 


2 


00 


^H 


1,2 


1,5 


2 


2,5 


3,0 


3,5 


4,0 


4,5 


5,0 


00 


?J$* 


0,17 


0,34 


0,50 


0,58 


0,53 


0,66 


0,68 


0,69 


0,70 


0,75 



CpeflCTBOM yBejiHneHHa npoHHOCTH CTBOJia 6e3 ero yuDKejieHna aBJiaeTca CKpenjieHne ctchok 

CTBOJia, CyiHHOCTb KOTOpOrO COCTOHT B TOM, HTO CTBOJI H3rOTaBJIHBaeTCa MHOrOCJIOHHbIM, H3 HeCKOJIb- 

khx Tpy6, Ha/ieBaeMbix o^Ha Ha ^pyryio "c HaTaroM". IIpH stom nponcxoflHT yBejinneHne npoHHOCTH 
(ynpyroro conpoTHBJieHna) CTBOJia (Tpy6bi) 3a chct nepepacnpeflejieHHa Hanpa>KeHHa BHyrpn ero ctc- 
hok BCJieflCTBHe Harpy>KeHHa nx TaKHM BHyipeHHHM ^aBJieHneM, npn kotopom BHyTpeHHHe cjioh no- 
jiynaiOT miacTHHecKyio fle(|)opManHio, a Hapy>KHbie npaKTHnecKH He ^e<J)opMHpyiOTca TaKoe aBTO- 
CKpenjieHHe CTBOJia Ha3biBaeTca aBTO(J)peTa>KeM. B HacToamee BpeM» aBTO(})peTa>K npnMeHaeTca fljia 
H3roTOBJieHHa ctbojiob apTHJuiepHHCKHx chctcm h cnennajibHoro flHBepcnoHHoro opy>KHa. Bo BpeMa 
BTopoii MHpoBon bohhw aBTO(j)peTa>KHMe ctbojiw flOBOJibHO HacTO npHMeHajiHCb b KpynHOKajiH6ep- 
Hbix nyjieMeTax h npoTHBOTaHKOBbix pjoKbax. ABTO(|)peTa>KHMH ctboji HMeeT hcckojibko MeHbHinii 
pa36poc nyjib, hcm ctboji moho6jiok, no3BOJiaer CTpejiaTb 6oenpHnacaMH noBMiueHHOH moihhocth, 
HMeeT noBbimeHHyio >KHByHecTb HHor^a TaKaa KOHCTpyKinia npHMeHajiacb h b CHannepcKHx bhhtob- 
Kax. 

J\o cnx nop npHMeHaeTca TaK Ha3biBaeMoe jienHnpoBaHne ctbojiob. JleiiHep - tohkhh BHyTpeH- 
hhh cjioh (Tpy6Ka) flByxcjioiiHoro (jieiiHHpoBaHHoro) CTBOJia, BCTaBJieHHbiii BHyrpH Hapy>KHoii Hecy- 
meM o6jio>kkh h CMeHaeMbiii npn H3HOce BHyrpeHHeH noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia. OneHb nacTO Jieii- 
Hepw H3roTaBJiHBanHCb H3 6poH3bi. BpoH30Bbin jieiiHep Ha 20-25% yMeHbiuaeT TpeHne npoxoacfleHna 
no HeMy CHapa^a (nyjin) h 3HaHHTejibHO noBbiniaeT HanajibHyio CKopocTb MeTaTejibHoro nopa>Kaiome- 
ro sjieMema 6e3 yBejinneHHa nopoxoBoro 3apa^a. Ilpn stom jieiiHHpoBaHHbie ctbojim MeHee noflBep- 
>KeHbi neperpeBy. Bo BpeMa BTopoii MnpoBoM bohhm JieiiHHpoBaHHbie ctbojim npHMeHajincb HeMnaMH 
b npoTHBOTaHKOBbix n 3eHHTHbix opy^HJix B HacToamee BpeMa jieHHepw-BCTaBKH Hcnojib3yiOTca b 
nHeBMaTHnecKOM opy>KHH fljia noBbinieHHa HanajibHOH ckopocth nyjin. KynHOCTb 6oa jieiiHHpoBaHHO- 
ro CTBOJia ocTaBJiaeT >KejiaTb jiyHiuero. 

nPHHipffl ABTOMATHHECKOH nEPE3AP^KH OPY^KHfl 



IIepe3apaflKa coBpeMeHHoro CHaiinepcKoro opy>KHa nponcxoflHT hjih BpynHyio, hjih aBTOMaTH- 

HeCKH, B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT KOHCTpyKU,HH. IIpH CTpeJIb6e H3 HeaBTOMaTHHeCKHX Mara3HHHbIX BHHTOBOK 

co CKOJib3>HHHM 3aTBopoM (TaKHx KOHCTpyKu,HH noflaBJiaiomee 6ojibiHHHCTBo) nocjie BblCTpeJia CTpe- 
jiok noBopanHBaeT pyKoaTKy 3aTBopa BBepx, npoTHB nacoBOH CTpejiKH Ilpn stom B3BOflHTca KypoK h 
6oeBbie BbiCTynw 3aTBopa (hjih 6ocboh jihhhhkh) Bbixo^aT H3 3au,enjieHHa c 6oeBbiMH BbiCTynaMH 
CTBOJibHon kopo6kh (hto oTKpbiBaeT ctboji). CjieflyiOHiHM ^BH>KeHHeM CTpejioK TaHeT 3aTBop Ha ce6a, 
BbiTacKHBaeT H3 naTpoHHHKa 3au,enjieHHyio Bbi6pacbiBaTejieM CTpejiaHyio rnjib3y, KOTopaa HaTanKHBa- 
eTca Ha OTpa>KaiOHiHH BbiCTyn h Bbi6pacbiBaeTca b BbiBOflHoe okho 3a npeflejibi opy>KHa. OnepeflHOH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 272 

naTpoH, paHee npn>KaTbiH CBepxy 3aKpwTbiM 3aTBopoM, npn otkpwtom 3aTBope ycHJineM npy>KHHbi 
noflaeTca BBepx h CTaHOBHTca nepefl 3aTBopoM. IIpH #BH>KeHHH 3aTBopa Bnepefl oh HaTaiiKHBaeTca Ha 
naTpoH, noflaeT ero Bnepefl, k CTBOJiy, h 3aroHaeT b naTpoHHHK. IIpH noBopoTe pyKoaTKH 3aTBopa bhh3 
ero SoeBbie BbiCTynw 3axofl>rr 3a SoeBbie BbiCTynbi CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh. Opy>KHe totobo k BbiCTpeny. 

IIepe3apaflKa coBpeMeHHoro nojiyaBTOMaTHnecKoro (caM03ap>mHoro) CHaiinepcKoro opy>KHa 
npoHexoflHT no nprnmnny OTBO^a nacTH nopoxoBbix ra30B H3 KaHana CTBOJia h HHepnnH noflBn>KHbix 
HacTeii IIoflBH>KHbie nacTH - sto ra30Bbin nopnieHb, TOJiKaTejib h 3aTBopHaa paMa. 

ra300TBOflHoe OTBepcTHe b CTBOJie HaxoflHTca oSbiHHO b ero BTopoii nojiOBHHe, r,zje flaBJieHne 
ra30B y>Ke ynano h He OKa3biBaeT cymecTBemioro BJinaHna Ha pa3roH nyjiH, ho ^ocTaTOHHO bcjihko, 
HToSbi c SojibiuoH CKopocTbio OTSpocHTb Ha3a# noflBH>KHbie HacTH. IIpH BbiCTpene, KaK TOJibKO nyna 
MHHyeT ra300TBOflHoe OTBepcTHe, npoHHKHiHe nepe3 Hero b ra30Byio KaMepy nopoxoBbie ra3bi flaBjrr 
Ha nopnieHb h OTSpacbiBaiOT ero Ha3a#. IIopnieHb conpa>KeH c TOJiKaTeneM (uitokom) h 3aTBopHon pa- 
moh (HHor^a ohh cocTaBJiaiOT o#ho nejioe, KaK b aBTOMaTe KananrnHKOBa). 3a to BpeMa, noKa nyna 
npoxoflHT ocTaBmyioca flncTamiHio CTBOJia, Ta>Kejibie noflBH>KHbie nacTH npoxoflaT Bcero HecKOJibKO 
MHJiJiHMeTpoB. Ho npH 3tom ohh HaSnpaiOT cymecTBeHHyio CKopocTb, ot 5 flo 10 m/c (y pa3Hbix 06- 
pa3u,OB opy>KHa). Kor^a nyna y>Ke noKHHyna ctboji h ^aBJieHne nopoxoBbix ra30B b HeM ynano, no- 
flBH>KHbie nacTH npoflOJi>KaiOT ^BHraTbca Ha3a# chjioh HHepnnn npn 3aflaHHon hm ckopocth. Otxoaji 
Ha3a^, 3aTBopHaa paMa (KaK h npn OTBOfle ee Ha3a# 3a pyKoaTKy) nepeflHHM ckocom (JmrypHoro na3a 
noBopanHBaeT 3aTBop n BbiBOflnr ero SoeBbie BbiCTynw H3 Bbipe30B CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh. IIpoHCxoflHT 
OTnnpaHHe 3aTBopa h OTKpbiBaHHe KaHana CTBOJia. OTKpbiBaHne KaHana CTBOJia nponcxoflnr y>Ke to- 
rp,a, Kor^a nyna OTJieTena ot opy>KHa Ha 40-50 MeTpoB n ^aBJieHna b KaHane CTBOJia y>Ke npaKTHnecKH 
HeT - HHane ero 6bi.no 6bi npocTO He OTKpbiTb. 

3aTBopHaa paMa c 3aTBopoM no HHepnnn npoflOJiacaeT flBnaceHHe nmap, h 3anenoM BbiSpacbiBa- 
Tena BbiTacKHBaeT rnjib3y H3 naTpoHHHKa. y#ep>KHBaacb BbiSpacbiBaTejieM b namenKe 3aTBopa, rnjib3a 
HaTaiiKHBaeTca Ha OTpa>KaTejibHbiH BbiCTyn CTBOJibHOH kopoSkh h BbiSpacbiBaeTca Hapy>Ky nepe3 bm- 

BOflHOe OKHO CTBOJibHOH KOpoSKH. 

Ilpn ^BH>KeHHH nmap, no#BH>KHbix nacTeii KypoK nofl ^encTBHeM 3aTBopHon paMbi noBopannBa- 
eTca Ha3a^ n CTaHOBHTca Ha SoeBon b3bo#. Pa3o6maioinHH MexaHH3M pacnemiaeT menTano co cnyc- 
kobwm KpiOHKOM. OnepeflHon naTpoH b Mara3HHe no# fleiicTBHeM npy>KHHbi noflHHMaeTca BBepx £0 
ynopa b 3arn6bi Sokobbix CTeHOK Mara3HHa. 

Ilocjie ocTaHOBKH b 3aflHeM KpaiiHeM nojioaceHHH no^ flencTBneM B03BpaTHon npyacnHbi (hjih 
CHCTeMbi B03BpaTHbix npy>KHH) noflBH>KHbie nacTH noflaiOTca Bnepefl. 3aTBop BbiTaiiKHBaeT H3 Mara3H- 
Ha BepxHHH naTpoH n ^ocbuiaeT ero b naTpoHHHK. IIpH noflxo^e 3aTBopa k naTpoHHHKy 3anen BbiSpa- 
CbiBaTejia 3acKaKHBaeT b KOJibneByio npoTOHKy rnjib3bi hjih 3a ee 3aKpanHy. Bo3flencTBneM (JmrypHoro 
na3a 3aTBopHon paMbi Ha Beflymnn BbiCTyn 3aTBopa noaneflHHH noBopannBaeTca, ero SoeBbie BbiCTynbi 

BXOflST B Bbipe3bl CTBOJibHOH KOpoSKH, H 3aTBOp 3annpaeTC3. IIpH flBH>KeHHH CHCTeMbi Bnepefl BblKJIIO- 

naeTca aBTOcnycK (pa3o6n(HTejib). Opy>Kne totobo k BbiCTpejiy. fljia CTpejibSw hjokho OTnycTHTb 
cnycKOBon KpionoK h BHOBb ero Ha>KaTb. 

Ha HeKOTopbix cncTeMax, HanpnMep Ha SecmyMHoii bhhtobkc BCC (BHHTope3), noBopanHBaio- 
nieroca KypKa HeT. Ero c^ymcnHH BbinojiHaeT y^apHHK, CMOHTHpoBaHHbiii b 3aTBope. npn OTxofle no- 
flBH>KHbix nacTen Ha3a^ B3BOflHTca npy>KHHa y^apHHKa, npn flBH>KeHHH noflBH>KHbix nacTeii n 3aTBopa 
BnepeA y/iapHHK, y#ep>KHBaeMbiH menTanoM, ocTaeTca Ha MecTe bo B3BefleHHOM nojio>KeHHH. 

CHaiinepcKoe opy>KHe Sojibinon mohihocth MO>KeT nojiHoneHHO paSoTaTb TOJibKO npn >KecTKOM 
3annpaHHH HenoflBH>KHoro CTBOJia. B pa3Hoe BpeMa Ha pa3Hbix cncTeMax npaKTHKOBajincb BceB03- 
MO>KHbie cnocoSbi 3annpaHHa - Kanaiontneca pbinarn, KJinHba, pojihkh, nepeKOCbi 3aTBopa, SoeBbie 
ynopw n t. fl. HanSojiee y^anHbiM MexaHH3MOM 3annpaHna CTBOJia, hto noflTBepflnjia MHorojieTHaa 
npaKTHKa, OKa3anocb npnMeHeHHe Bpainaioineroca 3aTBopa (SoeBon jihhhhkh), KOTopbin caM no ce6e 
aBJiaeTca ^eTajibio 3annpaHHa. BoeBbie BbiCTynbi Ha 3aTBope (SoeBoii jinnnHKe) npn noBopoTe 3toh 
fleTajiH BOKpyr ocn 3axofl»T 3a SoeBbie BbiCTynw (Bbipe3bi) b ctbojibhoh KopoSKe n oSecnennBaiOT 
3thm >KecTKoe, HenoflBH>KHoe n Ha^e>KHoe 3annpaHne CTBOJia (cxeMa 145). CncTeMa 3annpaHHa ckojib- 
3amHM 3aTBopoM c noBopoTOM oSecnenHBaeT Sojibinyio KynHOCTb h CTaSnjibHOCTb 60a, noTOMy hto 
npn CKOJib3anieM b o^hom h tom >Ke npoflOJibHOM HanpaBJieHHH 3aTBope npeflCTaBJiaeTca B03MO>KHbiM 
BbinojiHHTb b nepe^HeM Topne 3aTBopa cneu,HajibHoe yrjiySjieHne fljia KOHTaKTa c aohhoh nacTbio 
rnjib3bi, TaK Ha3biBaeMyio namenKy 3aTBopa. HamenKa 3aTBopa oxBaTbiBaeT co Bcex ctopoh rnjib3y no 
3aKpanHe (cxeMa 146), hto no3BOJiaeT cneHTpHpoBaTb no och 3aTBop n naTpoH, neM yMeHbmaiOTca He- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



273 



Hy>KHbie nonepenHbie Hanpa>KeHna, B03HHKaiomHe npn BbiCTpene. KpoMe Toro, namenKa no3BOJiaeT 
yflep>KHBaTb rnjib3y npn ee 3KCTpaKHHH Ha3a# H3 naTpoHHHKa b oflHOoSpaBHOM nojio>KeHHH #o momch- 
Ta BbiSpacwBaHHa ee Hapy>Ky. CymecTByeT MexaHnnecKaa 3aKOHOMepHOCTb, BJinaiomaa Ha Bn6paii,Hio 
CTBOJia: HeM 6jiH>Ke k /my rHJib3bi Haxoflnrca 3annpaioinHH 3JieMenr (SoeBbie ynopbi), TeM MeHbine 
panoH ynpyrnx fle^opMannii y3Jia 3annpaHHa, ctbojibhoh kopoSkh h CHCTeMbi co ctopohm Ka3eHHon 
nacTH b uejiOM. MexaHnnecKn pa3rpy>KaeTca CTBOJibHaa KopoSKa. CooTBeTCTBeHHO MeHbine nonepen- 
Hbie Hanpa>KeHHa h Bbi3biBaeMbie hmh BHSpaunn CTBOJibHon kopoSkh h CTBOJia. Ilpn stom ynynmaeTca 
KynHOCTb 6oa opy>Kna h ero SoeBaa >KHBynecTb. 




CxeMa 145. 3annpaHHe CTBOJia 




^WP toffl» 



^^ 



CxeMa 146. Hamenica 3aTBopa 

IlepeflHaa nnocicocTb 3aTBopa (namenKn 3aTBopa hjih SoeBoii jihhhhkh), na KOTopyio onnpaeTca 
flHO rnjib3bi npn BbiCTpene, Ha3biBaeTca 3epicajiOM 3aTBopa. 3a3op Me>Kfly Hapy>KHon noBepxHOCTbio 
flHa rnjib3bi (mjianKH rnjib3bi) naTpoHa, noflamioro b naTpoHHHK n 3aHHMaioinero b HeM KpaiiHee ne- 
peflHee nojio>KeHHe, n 3epKanoM 3aTBopa Ha3biBaeTca 3epKanbHbiM 3a3opoM. y bhhtobok 3epicajibHbiH 
3a3op oSbinHO paBeH 0,1 mm. 

PABOTA THJIb3W nPH BMCTPEJIE 



Ilepefl BbiCTpenoM Me>K#y CTeHKaMH rnjib3bi h CTeHKaMH naTpoHHHKa, a TaK>Ke MOK/iy #hom 
rHJib3bi (nuianKon) n #hom namenKn (3epKanoM) 3aTBopa oSmhho HMeiOTca 3a3opw, Heo6xo#HMbie fljia 
oSecneneHna noflann naTpoHa b naTpoHHHK h Hafle>KHoro 3annpaHna 3aTBopa. Pa3Hnn,a b ^naMeTpe 
naTpoHa n naTpoHHHKa Ha3biBaeTca flnaMeTpanbHbiM 3a3opoM. y cncTeM, paSoTaiomnx Ha TpexjinHen- 
hhx naTpoHax, HopManbHbin flnaMeTpajibHbin paSonnn 3a3op TO>Ke paBeH 0,1 mm. 

Ilpn BbiCTpene, b nepnofl HapacTaHna flaBJieHna nopoxoBbix ra30B, rnjib3a pa3#yBaeTca, yBejin- 
nnBaeTca b /niaMeTpe, BbiSnpaeT HanajibHbin flnaMeTpajibHbin 3a3op h ee CTeHKH BnnoTHyio npn>Kn- 
MaiOTca k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa. IIojiHoe npn>KaTHe CTeHOK rnjib3bi c noBepxHOCTbio naTpoHHHKa npo- 
ncxoflHT CHanana b HanSonee tohkhx MecTax ctchok rnjib3bi, a hmchho - y CKaTa, n pacnpocTpaHaeTca 
no Kopnycy rnjib3bi k ee #Hy no Mepe flanbHenniero HapacTaHna flaBJieHna. To ecTb, Kor^a nepeflHaa 
nacTb rnjib3bi (ot CTBOJia) HaMepTBO npn>KaTa BHyTpeHHHM ^aBJieHneM k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa, 3a#Haa 
nacTb eme CBoSo^Ha n He npn>KaTa. 3anoMHHM 3tot momcht. 

npn>KaTaa k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa rnjib3a oSecnennBaeT oSTiopaunio nopoxoBbix ra30B. Ilpn 
flajibHenmeM HapacTaHHH flaBJieHna ra30B npn>KaTaa k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa rnjib3a ^aBHT Ha naTpoH- 
HHK H3HyrpH n Bbi3biBaeT ero ynpyryio flec|)opMaii,Hio. nponcxoflnr coBMecraaa ynpyraa flec^opMauna 
CTeHOK rnjib3bi n naTpoHHHKa. HanSojibinero 3HaneHna 3Ta ^e^opManna ^ocTnraeT b MOMeHT MaKcn- 
ManbHoro ^aBJieHna nopoxoBbix ra30B (cxeMa 147). 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



274 




— ft* —~rf a- -n-f ■>*—*- 



CxeMa 147. CxeMa chji, fleiicTByiomiix Ha SyTbiJioniiyio rajib3y npn BbiCTpcne 

IIpH cna^e ^aBJieHHa nopoxoBbix ra30B nojiynaeTca oSpaTHaa KapTHHa. Ctchkh naTpoHHHKa, 
nojiyHHBniHe ynpyryio flecjxDpMauHio, stoh >Ke ynpyroM fle(|)opMaii,HeH B03BpamaiOTca Ha3a# k nepBO- 
HaHanbHOMy ^HaMeTpy. Ctchkh rHJib3bi B03BpamaiOTca tojibko Ha BanHHHHy ynpyron ^e^opMauHH h 
He flOxofl»T ^0 CBoero nepBOHanajibHoro ^HaivteTpa Ha BejiHHHHy ocTaTOHHOii fle4)opMaii,HH MeTamia, 
H3 KOToporo OHa cflenaHa. IIo3TOMy CTpanaHbie rnjib3bi Bcer^a Sy^yr HeMHoro pa3#yTbi. 

B hobom opy>KHH 3to pa3flyrHe rnjib3bi Bcer^a 6y#eT MeHbnie flnaMeTpajibHoro 3a3opa, h pa- 
MeTp rHJib3bi Sy^eT MeHbnie flnaivieTpa naTpoHHHKa, noaTOMy rHJib3bi 6e3 3aTpyflHeHHH H3BJieKaiOTca h 
BbiSpacbiBaiOTca. Ecjih opy>KHe CTapoe, c "pa36HTbiM" naTpoHHHKOM, rHjib3a npn BbiCTpene pa3#yBa- 
eTca HacTOJibKO, hto ee ocTaTOHHaa flec^opMauHa npeoSjia^aeT Ha# ^e^opMaHHeii ynpyron (KOTopaa 
B03Bpan(aeT flnaivteTp rajib3bi b nepBOHananbHoe nojio>KeHHe), n b TaKOM cnynae ee "3a>KHMaeT" 06- 
paTHon ynpyron fle^opMainieH cy>KaiomHxca CTeHOK naTpoHHHKa. THJib3y noflnac "npHXBaTbiBaeT" 
HacTOJibKO, hto CHJibi HHepu,HH noflBH>KHbix HacTeM aBTOMaTHKH He xBaTaeT Ha to, HToSbi H3BJienb ee 
H3 naTpoHHHKa. IIpH 3tom oneHb nacTO jiOMaiOTca 3au,enbi-Bbi6pacbiBaTejiH. 

TaK paSoTaeT BHHTOBOHHaa rnjib3a Ha pacuinpeHHe. Ho cymecTByeT eme h cmia OT^anH. Bcnefl- 
CTBHe ^aBJieHHa nopoxoBbix ra30B Ha aho rHjib3bi nocneflHaa CMemaeTca k 3aTBopy h BbiSnpaeT 
HanajibHWH 3epKanbHbiH 3a3op. THJib3a CMemaeTca CHanana cboSo^ho, 3aTeM c HapacTaiomHMH topmo- 
3JHHHMH CHJiaMH Tpemia o ctchkh naTpoHHHKa, CHanana b nepeflHeii (B03Jie cicaTa), 3aTeM b 3aflHeii na- 

CTH. 

IIpH BbicoKOH npoHHOCTH KpenneHHa nyjiH b flyjibu,e rHJib3bi nocneflHaa CMemaeTca c caMoro 
Hanana npn HanHHHH chji Tpemia. BBH^y 6ojibiuoH Sokoboh noBepxHOCTH cmia TpeHHa B03pacTaeT 
SbiCTpee, HeM cnjia ^aBJieHHa Ha #ho, no3TOMy c B03pacTaHHeM ^aBJieHHa ra30B nponcxoflHT nocjieflo- 
BaTejibHaa ocTaHOBKa OT^ejibHbix ynacTKOB rHJib3bi, HanHHaa c Tex MecT, r^e ee ctchkh HanSojiee toh- 
kh, to ecTb HanHHaa c flynbua rnjib3bi h mcct b6jih3h CKaTa. Kopone, rnjib3y flbaBOJibCKHM ^aBJieHHeM 
HaMepTBO npn>KHMaeT nepeflHeii nacTbio k CTeHKaM naTpoHHHKa, b to BpeMa KaK 3a#Haa nacTb B03Jie 
iujianKH eme #BH>KeTca (pacTarHBaeTca) nmap,. IHnanKa rnjib3bi BbiSnpaeT 3epKanbHbin 3a3op h flaBHT 
HenocpeflCTBeHHO Ha 3epKano 3aTBopa, Bbi3biBaa ynpyryio fle^opMainiio fleTaneii y3Jia 3aniipaHHa. 
IIpoHCxoflHT ynpyraa oceBaa npoflOJibHaa fle<|)opMaii,Ha rHJib3bi. Ilpn He3HaHirrejibHOM (paSonnx pa3- 
MepoB) 3epKanbHOM 3a3ope h HeH3HOiueHHbix fleTanax y3Jia 3anHpamia ynpyraa flec^opManna nocne 
na^eHHa flaBJieHna b ctbojic B03BpamaeT npoflOJibHbie pa3Mepbi 3thx fleTaneii h CTpejiaHoM rajib3bi b 
nepBOHanajibHoe cocToamie. OcTaTOHHaa npoflOJibHaa flec|)opMaii,iia riuib3bi npn stom Mana h b pacneT 
He npHHHMaeTca. Ho ecjiH 3aniipaiomHH y3eji H3HOineH h MOK/iy paSoHHMH onopHbiMH noBepxHOCTa- 

MH SoeBblX BblCTynOB 3aTBOpa H OnOpHblX Bbipe30B CTBOJIbHOM KOpoSKH, B3aHMHO BOCnpHHHMaiOmHX 

Harpy3KH BbiCTpena, ecTb BbipaSoTKH h jiio(})Tbi, ynpyraa fle(})opMaii,Ha rmib3bi nepepacTaeT CHanana b 
njiacTHHHyio, 3aTeM b ocTaTOHHyio, a npn oneHb SojibiiiHx jiio(})Tax SoeBbix coHJieHeHHH HacTynaeT 
npoflOJibHbiii pa3pbiB riuib3bi. Hame Bcero stot pa3pbiB npoHexoflHT b6jih3h injianiCH rmib3bi, h6o b 
3toh nacTH rmib3a eme flBH>KeTca npn BbiCTpane, a b nepeflHeii HacTH - y>Ke HeT. 

Opy>KHe c H3HonieHHbiM MexaHH3MOM 3aniipaHHa h pa3flyTbiM naTpoHHHKOM mo>kho Hcnojib30- 
BaTb. Ho fljia 3Toro rmib3y Ha^o CMa3biBaTb jhoSwm MHHepanbHbiM MacnoM, xoTb py>KeiiHbiM, xoTb 
aBTOMoSiuibHbiM. Macno 3anojiHaeT flHaMeTpanbHbiH 3a3op MOK/iy CTeHKaMH rmib3bi h CTeHicaMH na- 
TpoHHHKa. KaK H3BeCTHO, nJIOTHOCTb >KHflKOCTH B 800 pa3 60JIbHie HUOTHOCTH B03flyxa, n03TOMy JIIO(})T 

pa3flyroro naTpoHHHKa KOMneHCHpyeTca stoh nnoTHOCTbio, h rmib3a He pa3flyBaeTca. Bo3BpaTHoe 
ynpyroe conpoTHBJieHHe naTpoHHHKa CMa3aHHyio rmib3y He "npHXBaTbiBaeT". r^e ecTb CMa3Ka, TaM 
hct TpeHHa, ocTaHaBJiHBaiomero rnjib3y. no stoh npHHHHe CMa3aHHaa rmib3a MO>KeT chjioh OTflaHH 
npaKTHnecKH cboSoaho CMemaTbca Ha3a^, k 3epKany 3aTBopa, #a>Ke npn ^OBOJibHO SojibinoM H3HOce 
y3Jia 3anHpaHHa. Ho ecjiH bm CMa3biBaeTe rmib3y, to 3anoMHHTe: Hejib3a CMa3biBaTb nacTb rmib3bi 
B03Jie niJianKH h ocTaBJiaTb cyxiie ynacTKii B03Jie CKaTa h flyjibii,a. 3a 3th cyxiie ynacTKii rmib3y BHyT- 
peHHHM flaBJiemieM BbiCTpena "npHXBaTHT" k naTpoHHHKy, a ee 3a^Haa CMa3aHHaa nacTb cboSoaho 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 275 

ABHHeTca nmap,, n ee OTopBeT KaK pa3 Ha rpaHnue CMa3aHHbix h HecMa3aHHbix ynacTKOB. Jlynnie, ko- 
r/ia CMa3biBaiOT #Be TpeTH rajib3bi co CTopoHbi nyjin. flojiro flep>KaTb naTpoHbi b CMa3aHHOM cocToa- 
hhh Hejib3a: CMa3Ka BCJieflCTBne noBepxHOCTHoro HaTJDKeHHa npoHHKaeT BHyTpb naTpoHa h oSBOJiaKH- 
BaeT KancioJibHbiH h nopoxoBOH 3apa^bi, nocne nero ohh He cpaSaTbiBaiOT. B CHannepcKnx BHHTOBKax 
oSbiHHO 3apaHee CMa3biBaiOT naTpoHHHKH MacnoM cpeflHeft rycTOTbi (npn cmibHbix Mopo3ax - Bepe- 

TeHHblM MaCJIOM, oSblHHbIM KepOCHHOM HJIH COJiapKoM). CMa3aHHOrO naTpOHHHKa OSbiHHO XBaTaeT Ha 

flecaTb BbiCTpenoB. Ecjih ecTb rpa^HTOBaa CMa3Ka - opy^enHaa hjih xots 6bi aBTOMoSHJibHbiH HHrpon, 
- TaKoii CMa3KH b naTpoHHHKe XBaTaeT BbiCTpenoB Ha RBajmarb. Tpa(J)HT caM no ce6e ecTb npeKpacHoe 
CMa3biBaiomee BemecTBO. 

B Ch6hph flo chx nop CTpejiaiOT H3 TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok h aMepnicaHCKHx BHHnecTepoB, 
ocTaBHiHxca eme co BpeivteH rpa>KflaHCKOH bohhm. IlaTpoHHHKH 3Toro opy>KHa y>Ke ^ocTaTOHHO pa3#y- 
tm, ho My>KHKH noKpbiBaiOT naTpoHbi co Bcex ctopoh (n ^a>Ke co ctopohm mjianKn) pacnjiaBJieHHbiM 
napa(J)HHOM hjih bockom. IIpH TaKOM noKpwTHn SoenpnnacoB CTapoe opyacne 6e30TKa3HO paSoTaeT £0 
chx nop. 3acTbiBHiee noKpbmie He npoHHKaeT BHyrpb naTpoHa, He nopTHT SoeBon 3apa^ h npeKpacHO 
npeflOxpaHaeT ero ot cbipocTH, KOTopaa b Tanre npncyrcTByeT Be3#e. 

C yMeHbHieHHeM mccctkocth y3Jia 3anHpaHna npn ero H3HOce hjih HeyflanHOM KOHCTpyHpoBaHHH 
opy>KHa yBejiHHHBaeTca 3epKanbHbiH 3a3op h cooTBeTCTBeHHO yBejiHHHBaiOTca oceBbie pacT»>KeHHa h 
nonepenHbie pa3pbiBbi rnjib3. Ilpn fle(})opManHH Bcero 0,34 mm y>Ke HanHHaiOT noaBJiaTbca npn3HaKH 
KOJibu,eBoro (b o^hom MecTe) pacTa>KeHHa ctchok HanSojiee TBep^wx rnjib3. IlpH #e(})opMaHHH 0,48 
mm pe3KO yBejiHHHBaeTca kojihhcctbo rnjib3 c npH3HaicaMH pa3pymeHHa. IIpH Sojibiuon fle^opMainiH 
fleTanen y3Jia 3annpaHHa pe3KO yxy^maeTca OTnnpaHne CTBOJia n OTKpbiBaHne 3aTBopa #a>Ke npn CMa- 
3aHHbix rnjib3ax H3-3a oceBoro CMemeHHa rnjib3bi chjioh OT^ann Ha3a# H3 KOHycHoro naTpOHHHKa. B 
cncTeMax c pynHon nepe3apaflKon 3to He HMeeT npHHHHnHanbHoro 3HaHeHna: 3aTBop OTKpwBaeTca 
Tyro, ho Bce-TaKH OTKpwBaeTca. Ho aBTOMaTHnecKne CHCTeMbi HannHaiOT npn nepe3apaflice "cnoTbi- 
KaTbca". OcoSeHHO 3to omymaeTca npn CTpejibSe H3 nyjieMeTOB. Bojibinoe BJinaHne Ha yBejinneHne 
3epicajibHoro 3a3opa OKa3biBaiOT KOHCTpyKnHOHHbie ocoSemiocTH Toro hjih HHoro o6pa3u,a opy>KHa, a 
HMeHHo: CHCTeMa 3annpaHHa, KOHCTpyKuna #Ha naineHKH 3aTBopa, KOHCTpyKuna Ka3eHHoro cpe3a 
CTBOJia. HeyflanHoe KOHCTpynpoBaHHe conpa>KeHHa 3aTBopa h Ka3eHHoro cpe3a CTBOJia Bcer^a BJieneT 
3a coSon yBejinneHHe 3epicajibHoro 3a3opa h, KaK aneflCTBne, 3aTpyflHeHHyio 3KCTpaKnnio rnjib3bi n ee 
pa3pbiB. OcoSeHHO xapaKTepHO 3th momchtm npoaBJunoTca b caM03ap»flHon BHHTOBKe ToKapeBa 
(CBT), r^e 3annpaHne nponcxoflm npn nepeKoce 3aTBopa 3aflHen nacTbio bhh3. Ilpn stom Tpy^HO co- 
xpaHHTb CTaSnjibHoe nojio>KeHHe 3aTBopHon nameHKn OTHOCHTejibHO niJianKn naTpoHa n CTaSnjibHoe 
nojio>KeHHe 3epKana 3aTBopa OTHOCHTejibHO Ka3eHHoro cpe3a CTBOJia. Ilpn BbiCTpejie CTBOJibHaa ko- 
poSKa CBT H3rn6aeTca ot ynnpaHna b Hee 3a#HHM onopHbiM KpaeM nepeKomemioro 3aTBopa. K TOMy 
>Ke naTpoHHHK b flaHHon BHHTOBKe HMeeT TOHKne CTeHKH fljia oSjierneHHa Beca n nosTOMy nojiynaeT 
Sojibiuyio ynpyryio flec^opMannio. 3toix) flOCTaTOHHO, htoSw nocjie HacTpejia 8000 BbiCTpejiOB OTpbiB 
mjianKH rajib3bi, HeBbiSpoc rnjib3bi h otpmbw BbiSpacbiBaTejia npeBpaTHJincb Ha BHHTOBKe CBT b 
xpoHHnecKoe aBJieHHe. 

Ha jierKOCTb 3KCTpaKnnn rnjib3 h npoHHOCTb hx Ha pa3pbiB OKa3biBaiOT BJinaHne KaK CBonciBa 
opy>KHa, TaK h CBOHCTBa naTpoHa. 

B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT HeOflHOpOflHOH 3aKaTKH (3anpeCCOBKH, 3aBajIbU,OBKH) nyjIH B THJIb3e pa3JIHH- 

Hbi h ycHJina, cflBHraiomHe nyjno c MecTa. C yBejinneHneM npoHHOCTH KpenjieHna nyjin b .zjyjibne 
rnjib3bi yBejiHHHBaeTca MaKCHManbHoe ^aBJieHne ra30B, nocKOJibKy yBejinnnBaeTca nacTb 3apa^a, cro- 
paiomaa b ycjiOBnax nocToaHHoro oSbeMa. HeM Sojibine flaBJieHne, TeM Sojibine BJinaHne Bcex ocTanb- 

HblX (})aKTOpOB Ha npOHHOCTb H 3KCTpaKU,HIO ITUIb3bI. HeM 60JIbHie flaBJieHHe, TeM MeHbHie KOHeHHbie 

3a3opw Me>Kfly rHJib3oii n OKpy>KaiomHMH ee ^eTanaMH opy>KHa. npn bmcokom ^aBJieHnn ra30B rnjib3a 
c caMoro Hanana Sy^eT CMemaTbca npn Hajinnnn 3HaHHTejibHbix chji TpeHna. B pe3ynbTaTe 3Toro 
CTeHKH rajib3bi OKa>Kyrca Sojiee pacTaHyTbiMH b occbom HanpaBJieHHH k MOMeHTy MaKCHManbHoro 
^aBJieHHa ra30B, neM sto npoH30injio 6bi npn cjiaSoM KpenneHHH nyjin. nosTOMy He yflHBJianiecb, ec- 
jih npn CTpejibSe BanoBbiMH naTpoHaMH y Bac Bjspyr pa3opBeT rnjib3y nonojiaM n nacTb ee ocTaHeTca b 
naTpoHHHKe - 3HannT, OHa SbiJia 3aKaTaHa njiOTHee flpyrnx. 

Bojibinoe BJinaHne Ha paSoTy rnjib3bi OKa3biBaeT Hapy>KHaa (})opMa flHa rnjib3bi. Ka3anocb 6w, He 
Bee jih paBHO, HMeeT jih rnjib3a 3aKpanHbi fljia 3axBaTa BbiSpacwBaTejieM hjih >Ke Ha Hen ^jia 3Toro 
CflejiaHa KOJibu,eBaa npoTOHKa. Ka3anocb 6bi, rnjib3bi c npoTOHKoii ^a>Ke y^oSHee ajih paSoTbi aBTOMa- 
THnecKoro opy>KHa. OflHaKO HanHnne KOJibu,eBOH npoTOHKH ^Jia 3au,ena BbiSpacwBaTejia b coneTaHHH c 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 276 

HH3KHMH MexaHHHecKHMH xapaKTepHCTHKaMH npoHHOCTH b 3HaHHTejibHOH CTeneHH ocjiaSnaeT conpo- 
THBJieHHe flHa rniib3bi OT>KHMaiomHM Harpy3KaM. 3a cneT rniacTHHecKoii fle^opManHH OKaTH» /nia 
npoHexoflHT flononHHTejibHoe oceBoe pacTa>KeHHe ctchok h yBejinneHne nonepenHbix pa3MepoB #oh- 
hoh nacTH rHJib3bi, neM h oSbacHaeTca yxy^nieHHe npoHHOCTH h 3KCTpaKu,HH rnjib3bi, ocoSemio npn 
Sojibinoii flec})opMaLi,HH y3Jia 3anHpaHH». B cb»3h c 3thm HeSjiaronpnaTHoe BJinaHne OKa3biBaeT Ha pa- 
6oTy rHJib3bi h TaKoft Ha nepBbiii B3rjiafl OTflaneHHbiH (|)aKTop, Kaic (})opMa Hapy>KHOH noBepxHOCTH /nia 
rnjib3bi. Pa3JiHHHoro po#a yraySjieHHa Ha noBepxHOCTH #Ha rHJib3bi ^Jia pacnojio>KeHHa 3HaKOB KJieii- 
MeHHa yMeHbmaiOT onopHyio noBepxHOCTb h cnocoScTByiOT fle^opManini /nia. 

KpoMe Toro, nHJiKH^pHHecKaa nuib3a c KOJibneBoM npoTOHKoM TpeSyeT oneHb tohhoh o6pa6oT- 
kh naTpoHHHKa no fljnnie. rnjib3bi c KOJibneBoii npoTOHKoii b naTpoHHHKe ynnpaiOTca CKaTOM b CKaT 
naTpoHHHKa h TaKHM o6pa30M (})HKCHpyiOTca. IIpH 3tom TpeSyeTca oneHb Sojibiuaa TOHHOCTb H3roTOB- 
jieHHa rHJib3bi no fljnme n, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, tohhoctb H3roTOBJieHHa opy>KHa, CTpejunomero TaKHMH 
SoenpnnacaMH. IIpH caMOM He3HaHHiejibHOM OTCTynjieHnn ot 3Toro TpeSoBaHna b CTopoHy yBejinne- 
HHa yBejiHHHBaeTca n "npoBan" rnjib3bi b naTpoHHHK, a oneflOBaTejibHO, yBejiHHHBaeTca h 3epKanbHbin 

3a30p CO BCeMH BblTeKaiOHtHMH nOCJieflCTBHJIMH. 

IIo3TOMy npeflnoHTHTejibHee HMeTb rnjib3y c 3aicpaHHOH. TaKaa rnjib3a He "npoBajinrca" b na- 
tpohhhk - flajibine Ka3eHHoro cpe3a CTBOJia ee He nycTHT 3aKpanHa. rHJib3aM c ynopoM BbiCTynaiomen 
3aKpanHbi He TpeSyeTca Sojibiuaa TOHHOCTb no fljiHHe apn H3roTOBJieHHH. LLLnanKa (aho) TaKoii rnjib3bi 
HMeeT BTpoe Sojibiuee conpoTHBJieHne OKHMaiomHM HarpyBKaM. H KpoMe Toro, 3aKpanHa ^Jia 3anena 
BbiSpacbiBaTena HaMHoro Ha#e>KHee, HeM KOJibneBaa npoTOHKa. IIpHMeHeHHe b OKonHbix ycjiOBHax na- 
tpohob c 3aicpaHHOH fljia bhhtobok h nyjieMeTOB HaMHoro Ha^e>KHee, HeM naTpoHOB c npoTOHKoii. 
3thm h oSbacHaeTca to, hto BceM H3BecTHbiii TpexjinHenHbiii naTpoH c 3aicpaHHOH cymecTByeT Ha bo- 
opyaceHHH Pocchhckoh (Cobctckoh) ApMHH Sojiee 100 JieT, h, no Been bh^hmocth, CTpejunb sthmh 
naTpoHaMH Sy^yr eme oneHb #ojiro- 

Jlim nerKOCTH roBJieneHna CTpejiHHOH rnjib3bi H3 naTpoHHHKa rHJib3bi cnjibHbix BHHTOBOHHbix 
SoenpnnacoB ^ejiaiOT KOHHnecKOH SyTbuiOHHoii (J)opMbi. CooTBeTCTBeHHO, TaKoft ace KOHHnecKOH 
(})opMbi ^eJiaiOT h naTpoHHHK. IIpHHeM BHyTpeHHHe CTeHKH naTpoHHHKa BbinojiHaiOTCJi fljia yMeHbnie- 
HHa TpeHHa c oneHb Sojibiuoii hhctotoh h o6pa6aTbiBaiOTca noHTH #o 3epKanbHoro coctojihhji. 

cDopMbi rHJib3 HenpepbiBHO nbiTaiiHCb coBepnieHCTBOBaTb. Opy>KeHHHKaM h CTpejiKaM HeoflHO- 
KpaTHO npHxoflHJiocb BH/ieTb rnjib3bi c KOJibu,eBOH HaicaTKOH (ro(J)poM) nocpe^HHe. 3tot ro<|)p, a hho- 
r#a h HecKOJibKO roc|)poB, flenaeTca pjm Toro, htoSm rHJib3a Morjia pacTaHyibca no och, He pa3opBaB- 

HIHCb. 

CaMH rnjib3bi BbinojiHJHOTca c oneHb Sojibiuon TOHHOCTbio. CjiynaeTca, hto rnjib3bi (ocoSemio 
BoeHHoro BpeMeHH BbinycKa) hmciot MeHbHinii ^naMeTp, neM nojio>KeHO. TaKne rnjib3bi npn BbiCTpene 
hjih pa3flyBaiOTca, hjih, nanie Bcero, pa3pbiBaiOTca (flaiOT TpeniHHy) b npoflOJibHOM HanpaBJieHHH. Ta- 
Koe aBJieHHe npoHCxo^HT h npn cnjibHO pa3flyTOM naTpoHHHice. 

C pa3flyTH»MH n pa3pwBaMH MeTanjinnecKHx SyrbiJiOHHbix rnjib3 Soponncb c caMoro hx H3o6pe- 
TeHna - c KOHna nponuioro CTOJieTHa - h SopiOTca flo chx nop. K nyneMeTHbiM 3anHpaiOHiHM MexaHH3- 
MaM npHcnocaSjiHBaiOT pa3JiHHHbie MeTamiHHecKHe npoKJia^KH, yMeHbHiaioniHe 3epicajibHbiH 3a3op 
npn H3HOce MexaHH3MOB. B nepBOH nojiOBHHe XX ctojicths b pa^e CTpaH b nyneMeTHbix CHCTeMax 
npHMeHajiHCb MacnaHbie KanejibHHu,bi ^Jia CMa3biBaHHa naTpoHOB npn no^ane b naTpoHHHK. y nyjie- 
MeTOB MeHajiH H3HonieHHbie ctbojim c pa3flyTbiMH naTpoHHHKaMH. "IIoflceBHiHe" 3aTBopbi hjih pa3- 
flBH>KHbie SoeBbie ynopw (nyneMeTbi TopiOHOBa n flercapeBa pothmh) MeHann Ha peMOHTHbie Sojib- 
nien fljiHHbi. Bojie3Hb nonepenHoro pa3pbiBa rnjib3bi b nyneMeTax ^o chx nop #aeT ce6a 3HaTb. K 
nyneMeTy ^errapeBa (JJJ1, ,H,nM) ^a>Ke nojiaranca npnSop fljia H3BJieneHHa oSopBaHHOH nacTH rnjib- 
3bi. Oh npeflCTaBJian coSoh CTep>KeHb b BH^e BHHTOBOHHoro naTpoHa c rapnyHOM; npn oSpbiBe rajib3bi 
ero BCTaBJiajin bmccto SoeBoro naTpoHa, 3aTBopoM 3aflBHrann b naTpoHHHK h BbiTacKHBanH Ha3a^ 
BMecTe c (})parMeHTOM oSopBaHHOH rnjib3bi. 

y bhhtobok BOCCTaHOBJieHHe HopManbHoro 3epKanbHoro 3a3opa Me>Kfly nepeflHen nnocKOCTbio 

3aTBOpa H flHOM THJIb3bI np0H3B0flHTC3 nyTeM 3aMeHbI SoeBoii jihhhhkh (3aTBopa y CB,H,) Ha nOBbl- 

nieHHyio, c noBbinieHHbiMH no och 3aTBopa SoeBbiMH BbiCTynaMH, hjih HanaiiKOH Ha 3epKane 3aTBopa. 
Ho TaKne Benin flOJi>KeH ^ejiaTb onbiTHbin opy>KeHHHK. 

B HacToanieM nocoSnH paccMOTpeHa paSoTa rnjib3 cmibHbix SoenpnnacoB fljia bhhtobok h ny- 
jieMeTOB npn >KecTKoii CHCTeMe 3annpaHHa. B nncTOJieTax h nncTOJieT-nyjieMeTax, r^e npHMeHaiOTca 
ManoMOiHHbie naTpoHbi, co cboSoahmmh h nojiycBoSoflHbiMH 3aTBopaMH, paSoTa rnjib3 HecKOJibKO 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 277 

HHaa. Ho TpeSoBaHHa k MaTepnajiaM, H3 KOTopwx HBroTaBJiHBaKxrca rHJib3bi, oflHHaKOBbi fljia Bcex th- 
noB SoenpnnacoB. 

MaTepnan, H3 KOToporo H3roTOBJieHbi rajib3bi, flOJi>KeH cooTBeTCTBOBaTb cneu,H(J)HHecKHM 
Harpy3KaM BbiCTpena. rnjib3bi, H3roTOBJieHHbie H3 cjihhikom ynpyroro MaTepnana, HanHHaiOT pBaTbca 
npn pacniHpeHHH h pacT»>KeHHH. 

rHJib3bi H3 npe3MepHO iuiacTHHHoro MeTanjia, KOTopbiM npaKTHnecKH He HMeeT ynpyrocTH 06- 
paTHoii flec})opMaLi,HH, nocjie na^eHHa ^aBJieHHa b ctbojic ocTaiOTca b pa3#yTOM coctojihhh, "3a>KHMa- 
Kxrca" naTpoHHHKOM h He Bbixofljrr nocne BbiCTpena. KpoMe Toro, MaTepnan rnjib3bi flOJi>KeH oSecne- 

HHBaTb B03M05KHO MeHbHIHH K03(|)(|)HnHeHT TpeHHJI. 

HAeaiibHbiM MaTepnajiOM, OTBenaiomHM noHTH BceM npeflbaBJiaeMbiM TpeSoBaHHaM ana H3ro- 
TOBJieHHa rHJib3 BHHTOBOHHbix naTpoHOB, aBJiaeTca naTyHb. Ho naTyHb flopora h, KpoMe Toro, npn 
fljiHTenbHOM xpaHeHHH OHa CTaHOBHTca xpynKOH. no3TOMy HanSojiee npHMeroieMbM MaTepnajiOM fljia 
H3roTOBJieHHa rajib3 aBJiaeTca Mancaa CTaub, nnaKHpoBaHHaa (SHMeTajiJiroHpoBamiaa) TOMnaKOM. 
Cjioh TOMnaKa SepeTca tojiihhhoh, cocTaBJiaiomeH 4-6% TOJiiHHHbi ctchkh rHJib3bi. ToMnaK npe#o- 
xpaHaeT rajib3y ot Koppo3HH h pe3KO CHH>KaeT KoscJ^HiiHeHT TpeHHa, cnocoScTBya ynyHiueHHio 3kc- 
TpaKu,HH rHJib3bi nocjie BbiCTpena. 

rnjib3bi, KaK h oSojiohkh nyjib, H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca TaK>Ke H3 xojiOflHOKaTaHOH CTann c nocnefly- 
iomHM noKpbiTHeM cneu,HajibHbiM jiaKOM (oSmhho 3ejieHoro HBeTa), KOTopbiii ynynniaeT ycjiOBHa pa- 
SoTbi rHJib3bi npn BbiCTpene, ^aeT CMa3biBaiomHH 3(|)4)eKT, ynynmaeT K03(|)4)HHHeHT TpeHHa h npeflo- 
xpaHaeT naTpoH ot Koppo3HH. 

rnjib3bi H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca MeTOflOM raySoKOH Bbrra>KKH. TexHOJiorHnecKH 3tot npouecc p,o- 

BOJIbHO CJIO>KHbIH H OTBeTCTBeHHblH. 

^CHBYHECTb BHHTOBOHHWX CTBOJIOB 

npOflOJDKHTeJIbHOCTb CpOKa, CJiy>K6bI BHHTOBOHHOrO CTBOJia 3aBHCHT OT MHOrHX npHHHH: KOH- 

CTpyKHHH CTBOJia, KOJiHHecTBa SoenpHnacoB, copTOB nopoxa h SKcnnyaTaHHOHHbix ycjiOBHH. npe- 
^ejibHoe hhcjio BbicTpenoB, KOTopoe mo>kho cflenaTb H3 KOHKpeTHoro CTBOJia flo TaKoM CTeneHH ero 
H3HOca, npn KOTopon ctboji SpaKyeTca, Ha3biBaeTca >KHBynecTbio CTBOJia. Ctboji CHannepcKoro opy- 
>kh» CHHTaeTca HeroflHbiM ajih flajibHeiiHiero npHMeHeHHa, ecjin oh HMeeT TaKoM h3hoc KaHana c flyjib- 
hoh h Ka3eHHOH nacreM, hto npn CTpejibSe H3 Hero pacceHBamie npeBbiiuaeT ^onycTHMbie npeflejiw. 

CHannepcKHe ctbojiw 6paKyKxrca b Tex cnynaax, ecjin ohh HMeiOT TpemHHbi hjih pa3flyTHa. 

H3hoc h paBpyuieHHa CTBOJia 3aBHC»T ot Sojibiuoro nnana (J)aKTopoB pa3JiHHHOH npnpoflbi. 
y^anHbiH CHaiinepcKHH ctboji ocoSo KyHHoro 60a Hy>KHO Sepenb. J\jm Toro htoSm coxpaHHTb ctboji 
SoecnocoSHbiM KaK mo>kho flOJibine, Ha/io xoponio npe^CTaBJiHTb ce6e Te Bpe^Hbie fljia Hero npoueccbi, 
KOTopwe npoHexoflaT b KaHane CTBOJia bo BpeMa BbiCTpejia h nocjie Hero. 

Ochobhoh npHHHHoii MexaHHHecKoro H3HOca KaHana CTBOJia aBJiaeTca HCTHpaHHe ero BHyrpeH- 
hhx noBepxHOCTeM b pe3yjibTaTe: 

- flaBJieHHa Me>Kfly BbiCTynaMH oSojiohkh nyjin h nojiaMH Hape30B, B03HHKaiomero BCJieflCTBHe 
BpamaTejibHoro flBH>KeHHa nynn; 

- TpeHHa npn flBH>KeHHH nyjm; 

- ycHjraa, B03HHKaiomero npn Bpe3aHHH nojieii Hape30B b oSojionKy nyjm; 

- HenpaBHJibHOH hhctkh KaHana CTBOJia. 

nona^aHHe b KaHan CTBOJia necKa, rpa3H, nbum h t. n. npHBOflHT k noaBJieHHio Ha ero CTeHKax 
uapanHH h pacTHpaHHio CTBOJia no flnaivieTpy. OcoSeHHO sto 3aMeTHO npn Bbixo^e H3 KaHana CTBOJia, 
Ha paccToaHHH 4-5 cm ot ^yjibHoro cpe3a. nwjib, Bcer^a HMeioniaaca b aTMOC(|)epe, ecTecTBeHHbiM 06- 
pa30M nona^aeT b ctboji h oca>KflaeTca Ha ero BHyTpeHHHx CTeHKax b6jih3h ^yjibHoro cpe3a. nyjia npn 
BbiCTpejie "TaHeT" 3a coSoii 3th nacTHHKH nbijin, KOTopwe fleiiCTByiOT KaK Ha>KflaK. H3BecTHO, hto 
OflHH rpaMM nbijin bmhocht TaKHM o6pa30M 3a coSoh o^hh rpaMM MeTaiuia. Co BpeMeHeM b KOHne Ka- 
Hana CTBOJia o6pa3yeTca pacTpyS, oneHb nacTO HacTOJibKO Sojibnioro flnaMeTpa, hto BCTaBJieHHbiii b 
ctboji c flyjibHOH nacTH SoeBoii naTpoH HHor^a "npoBajiHBaeTca" b KaHaji CTBOJia BMecTe c flyjibii,eM 
rHJib3bi no caMbie CKaTbi. Hto HHTepecHO, KOH(})Hrypaii,Ha Hape30B npn stom coxpaHaeTca, ho nyjia 
HanHHaeT "ryjiaTb" no CTopoHaM h tohhocth 60a He MO>KeT SbiTb h penn. 

PacTepTOCTb nyjibHoro Bxofla h ^yjibHOH nacTn ^OBOJibHO nacTO nojiynaeTca BCJie^CTBHe Henpa- 

BHJIbHOH HHCTKH CTajIbHbIM HIOMnOJIOM. CTBOJI HH B KOeM CJiyHae HeJIb33 HHCTHTb C ^yJIBHOH HaCTH. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 278 

OrajibHOH niOMnoji MeflJiemio, ho BepHO CTHpaeT nojia Hape30B. Ctboji CHaMnepcKOH bhhtobkh npo- 
THpaeTca yfljiHHeHHbiM niOMnonoM c nnacTMaccoBbiM noKpbiTneM h tojibko co ctopohw Ka3eHHoii na- 
cth. IIpoTHpKH, Ha KOTopwe HaMaTbiBaeTca BeTonib hjih KOCTpHHHaa naioia, >KejiaTejibHO HMeTb Jia- 
TyHHbie - ohh npaKTHnecKH He H3HaniHBaiOT BHyTpeHHHe ctchkh CTBOJia. Ecjih >Ke npHxoflHica 

HHCTHTb CTBOJI CTajIbHbIM HITaTHbIM HIOMnOJIOM, TO Ha Hero 06a3aTeJIbH0 flOJDKHa Ha^eBaTbCa THJIb3a c 

OTBepcTHeM, npocBepjieHHbiM b paiiOHe KancioJibHoro rae3fla. TaKaa rnjib3a, nocTaBJieHHaa b naipoH- 
hhk, He no3BOJiHT HiOMnony pacTHpaTb Hape3bi b paiiOHe nynbHoro Bxo#a. 

Hh b KoeM anynae Hejib3a ^onycKaTb y^apoB no CTBOJiy, Bbi3biBaK>mnx ero noraSbi h BMaTHHbi. 
Ctboji c BMaTHHaMH noflJie>KHT HeMeflJieHHOH BbiSpaKOBKe. H He H3-3a yxyflineHna KynHOCTH 6oa, a no 

TOH npHHHHe, HTO TaKOH CTBOJI MO>KeT 3JieMeHiapHO pa30pBaTb B6jIH3H BMSTHHW CO CTOpOHbl naTpoH- 

HHKa. riornS CTBOJia, #a>Ke caMbiM He3HaHHiejibHbiH, Bbi3biBaeT noBbimeHHbiH pa36poc. 

Ctboji, paSoTaiomnn b 3KCTpeManbHbix ycjiOBnax, oneHb noflBep>KeH pa3flyTnio. IIphhhhoh pa3- 
flyTHa cjiy>KHT nona^aHne b ctboji KpynHbix nacTHneK necKa, komkob rpa3H, CHera, ocTaBJieHne b 
CTBOJie CMa3KH hjih bojiokoh BeToniH nocjie hhctkh. MexaHH3M pa3flyiHa cjieflyiomnii: nyjia npn bm- 
CTpejie flBH>KeTca no CTBOJiy, h TOJiKaiomne ee nopoxoBbie ra3bi ^BH>KyTca BnnoTHyio k Heii c toh >Ke 
CKopocTbio. Kor^a nyjia, HaTOJiKHyBnincb Ha nperoncTBHe, "npnTopMa>KHBaeT", #a>Ke He3HaHHiejibHO, 
nopoxoBbie ra3bi OTpa>KaiOTca Ha3a# ot ^ohhoh nacTH nyjin, h 3Ta oSpaTHaa BOjma BCTpenaeTca c oc- 
HOBHbiM noTOKOM ra30B. Ha MecTe BCTpenn 3thx ra30Bbix noTOKOB B03HHKaeT oSjiacTb noBbimeHHoro 
^aBJieHHa, KOTopaa n pa3#yBaeT ctboji b ctopohm (cxeMa 148). Ecjih nperoncTBHe HeSojibinoe, nyjia 
npeoflOJieBaeT ero h BbiSpacbiBaeTca H3 CTBOJia. Ecjih nperoncTBHe HenpeoflOJiHMO, B03HHKmaa 06- 
jiacTb noBbimeHHoro ^aBJieHHa pa3pwBaeT ctboji. IIo 3toh npHHHHe ctboji 3anpemaeTca 3aKpwBaTb 
hjih 3aTbiKaTb neM-jinSo. 

m 




ttocatpwttui 
uptimes 

CxeMa 148. Pa3flyiHe CTBOJia 

He3HaHHTejibHbie pa3flyrroi, HMeiomne npn npocMOipe KaHana CTBOJia Ha cbct (J)opMy TeMHbix 
KOJieu, (hjih nojiyKOJieu,), Ha3biBaiOTca KOJibneBbiMH. Ohh onem, Mano bjihsiot Ha KynHOCTb h cnjiy 60a 
hjih /ia>Ke coBceM He bjihjhot. Ho b nponecce 3KcnjiyaTau,HH KOJibneBoe pa3#yTHe yBejiHHHBaeTca Bee 
Sojibiue n Sojibme. PaHO hjih no3#HO KOJibneBoe pa3#yTHe npeBpamaeTca b npoflOJibHoe. npn stom 
npoHCxo^HT 3HaHHTejibHbiH npopbiB ra30B b paiiOHe pa3flyrroi, cxofl nyjin c Hape30B, na^eHHe moijjho- 
cth BbiCTpejia flo 20%, h ecTecTBemio, noBbiiuaeTca pa36poc. 

KaK sto hh noKaaceTca CTpaHHbiM, pa3flyiroi b ManoKanHSepHbix CTBOJiax nponcxoflaT TaKHM >Ke 
o6pa30M, KaK n b CTBOJiax HopManbHoro KannSpa. npn BbiCTpejie b CTBOJie MajioKannSepHOH bhhtobkh 
o6pa3yeTca ^aBJieHne okojio 1400 Kr/cM2. Ctbojim ManoKanHSepHbix bhhtobok He pa3pwBaeT, ho pa3- 
flyTHa b hhx - flOBOJibHO nacToe aBJieHne. 

npHHHHOH pa3flyiHa CTBOJia MajioKanHSepHOH bhhtobkh oneHb nacTO aBJiaeTca HaBOJiaKHBaHne 
CBHHu,a Ha CTeHKH KaHana npn CTpejibSe nyjiaMH CTapbix "3aTacKaHHbix" naTpoHOB co CTepToM ocaji- 
koh. Pa3flyiHe ctbojiob y ManoKanHSepHbix SnaTJiOHOBCKHx bhhtobok - oSbiKHOBemioe aBJieHne. npn 
hh3khx TeMnepaTypax 3hmoh, Kor^a nopox He cropaeT nojmocTbio h nyjia 3acTpeBaeT b CTBOJie, 6naT- 
jiOHHCTbi name Bcero BbiSnBaiOT ee He niOMnojiOM, a cjieflyiomen nyjieii. TaKne Bemn nponcxoflJiT Ha 
copeBHOBaHHax, Kor^a pe3ynbTaT ^oSbiBaeTca jiioSoh neHoii h pa3flyiHe opy>KHa He b cneT. 

nPABHJIbHAH HHCTKA OPY^CHH H YXO^ 3A HHM 

PaSoTa opy>KeHHoro CTBOJia Taacejia. B ero KaHajie bo BpeMa BbiCTpejia pa3BHBaiOTca BbicoKne 
^aBJieHHa, a npoflyKibi cropaHna nopoxa h KancioJibHoro cocTaBa xHMHnecKH arpeccHBHbi n Bpe^Hbi 
fljia MeTamia, H3 KOToporo H3roTOBJieH ctboji. KpoMe Toro, npn stom o6pa3yiOTca TBep^bie npo^yKTbi, 
KOTopwe nopTaT nojinpoBaHHyio noBepxHOCTb KaHana CTBOJia. 

HanSojiee arpeccHBHO ^eiiCTByiOT npo^yKTbi cropaHna KancioJibHoro cocTaBa. HanpHMep, pac- 
KaneHHbie nacTHnbi xjiopncToro Kanna coe^HHaiOTca c MeTaiuiOM noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia, b pe- 
3yjibTaTe Hero CTanb b TaKnx MecTax CTaHOBHTca jierKonjiaBKoii. PacnjiaBJieHHbie nacTHLi,bi 3toh CTann 
nopoxoBbie ra3bi BbiHOcaT Hapy>Ky, Ha nx MecTe KaHan CTBOJia CHanana TepaeT SjiecK h ^ejiaeTca mep- 
maBbiM, co BpeMeHeM noKpwBaeTca cwnbio, a 3aTeM h mcjikhmh paKOBHHaMH. 3to aBJieHne Ha3biBaeT- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 279 

ca pa3rapoM CTBOJia. Pa3rap CTBOJia HaSjnoflaeTca cpa3y >Ke nocne nynbHoro Bxofla. Ho 3to eme He 
bcc XjiopHCTbiii KanHH, ocTaBniHHca Ha noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia, rHrpocKonHHHO "HaTarnBaeT" 
Ha ce6a aTMOC(|)epHyio BJiary H3 oicpy>KaioiHero B03flyxa. B pe3ynbTaTe nero npoHCxoflm sjieKipoxn- 
MHnecKHH nponecc pa3teflaHHa CTanH, to ecTb HHTeHCHBHoro pacaBJieHHa ctchok CTBOJia. K 3thm 
KpaiiHe He>KejiaTejibHbiM sbjiquksm npHCoeflHHaeTca enie h rqPlctbkq pTyTH KancioJibHoro cocTaBa, 
KOTopaa yrjiySnaeTca b TOJiiHHHy MeTamia, ocnaSjiaeT cb»3h Meac^y ero nacTHnaMH h Bbi3biBaeT noaB- 
jieHHe MHKpocKonHHecKHx TpeniHHOK, ycHJiHBaa 3thm pa3rap CTBOJia. 

MexaHHnecKoe pacrnpaHHe aBJiaeTca rjiaBHoM npHHHHOH H3HOca opy>KeHHbix He xpoMnpoBaH- 

HblX CTBOJIOB. XpOMHpOBaHHbie CTBOJIbI C nOBblHieHHOH HBHOCOCTOHKOCTbK) BblXOflflT H3 CTpOJI TJiaB- 

HbiM o6pa30M no npHHHHe CHJibHoro pa3rapa CTBOJia c Ka3eHHOH nacTH. 

IIpH BbiCTpejie nofl B03#eHCTBneM KOJioccanbHbix flaBJieHHH h bmcokhx TeMnepaTyp b MeTajuie 
KaHana CTBOJia HacTynaeT aBJieHne TaK Ha3biBaeMOH okkjiio3hh (ot naTHHCKoro occlusio - CKpbiT- 
HOCTb). Oho 3aianoHaeTca b npoHHKHOBeHHH arpeccHBHbix nopoxoBbix ra30B b nopbi h MracpocKonn- 
necKHe nojiocTH MeTanjia. IIpH ynpyron fle^opMauHn ctchok CTBOJia nopbi MeTamia pacninpaiOTca, h 
pacKaneHHbie ra3bi no# ^aBJieHneM raySoKO npoHHKaiOT b hhx. Ilocjie BbiCTpena ctboji oxjia>KflaeTca h 
chjioh toh >Ke ynpyron fle(|)opManHH B03BpamaeTca b nepBOHanajibHbie oSbeMbi, nopbi yMeHbHiaKxrca, 
h norjioiHemibie ra3bi BbiflejunoTca H3 hhx nocTeneHHO. riponecc Bbi^ejieHna ra30B H3 MeTanjia OKaH- 
HHBaeTca nepe3 3-5 flHeii, h Ha npoTa>KeHHH 3Toro BpeMeHH npoflyKibi ropeHHa xhmhhcckh fleMcTBy- 
k)t Ha MeTami CTBOJia, CHH>Kaa ero MexaHnnecKoe conpoTHBJieHHe H3HOcy. OcnaSjieHHaa TaKHM o6pa- 
30m paSonaa noBepxHOCTb KaHana CTBOJia HHTeHCHBHee cpaSaTbiBaeTca ot TpeHna npn npoxo>KfleHHH 
no HeMy nynn. 

Bee BbimeonHcaHHbie xHMnnecKHe nponeccbi b KaHane CTBOJia HanHHaiOTca cpa3y >Ke nocjie bm- 
CTpena h npoflOJDKaKxrca #o Tex nop, noKa opy>KHe He 6y#eT TmaTejibHO BbiHHmeHO. 

CBoeBpeMeHHaa n npaBHJibHaa nncTKa h CMa3Ka KaHana CTBOJia h Bcero opy>KHa b hcjiom - e#HH- 
CTBeHHbin cnocoS coxpaHHTb ero ajih SoeBoro npHMeHeHna Ha fljiHiejibHbiH cpoK. 

Harap, ocTaBHiHHca b KaHane CTBOJia nocjie BbiCTpena, HMeeT KHCJiOTHyio peaKHHio. HanSojiee 
nojiHoneHHO oh HeHTpaiiH3yeTca BeiHecTBaMH, HMeioiHHMH iHejiOHHyio peaKHHio. IU,ejiOHb h KHCJiOTa, 

KaK H3BeCTHO H3 Kypca XHMHH, B3aHMHO HeHTpajIH3yK)TCa. 

B CTannoHapHbix apMeMcKHx ycjiOBHax fljia hhctkh KaHanoB ctbojiob h flpyrnx nacreM opy>KHa, 
noABeprninxca B03fleHCTBHio nopoxoBbix ra30B, npHMeHaeTca TaK Ha3biBaeMbiH PHC (pacTBop hhctkh 
opy>KHa). 

PHC npnroTaBJiHBaeTca b cneflyioiHeM cocTaBe: 

- BOfla, npHroflHaa fljia nHiba, -In, 

- yraeKHCJibiH aMMOHHH - 200 r, 

- ^ByXpOMOBOKHCJIblH KajIHH (xpoMnHK) - 3-5 r. 

PacTBop npHroTaBJiHBaeTca b tom KOJinnecTBe, KaKoe HeoSxoflHMO fljia hhctkh opy>KHa b Tene- 
Hne oflHHx cyTOK. HeSojibHioe kojihhcctbo pacTBopa pa3peuiaeTca xpaHHTb He Sojiee 7 cyTOK b non- 
jiHTpoBbix SyTbiJiKax, 3aKynopeHHbix npoSKOH, b tcmhom MecTe h B^ajiH ot HarpeBaTejibHbix npnSo- 
poB. B MacneHKH PHC HaiiHBaTb 3anpeiHaeTC». 

HncTKy KaHana CTBOJia npoH3BOflaT epninKOM, CMoneHHbiM b pacTBope, 3aTeM KaHan CTBOJia npo- 
TnpaiOT naKJien. HncTKy pacTBopoM cneflyiOT npoflOJi>KaTb #o nojmoro y^ajieHHa Harapa, to ecTb ^o 
Tex nop, noKa CMoneHHbiH pacTBopoM epniHK hjih naiaia He Sy^eT Bbixo^HTb H3 KaHana CTBOJia 6e3 
npn3HaKOB Harapa. Ilocjie nero npoTepeTb KaHan CTBOJia cyxoii naKneii, a 3aTeM hhctoh BeTonibio. Ha 
CJieflyiontHH fleHb npoBepHTb KanecTBO npoH3BefleHHOH hhctkh h, ecjin npn npoTnpaHHH KaHana ctbo- 
na hhctoh BeTonibio Ha Heii 6y#eT o6Hapy>KeH Harap, npoH3BecTH noBTopHyio HHCTKy b tom 5Ke no- 
paflKe. 

no OKOHHaHHH hhctkh Hape3HOH HacTH KaHana CTBOJia TaKHM >Ke nopaflKOM BbiHHCTHTb naTpoH- 
hhk co ctopohw CTBOJibHOH KopoSKH h TeM >Ke nopaflKOM BbiHHCTHTb ra30Byio KaMepy, ra30Bbiii nop- 
nieHb, ra30Bbiii peryjunop n nponne fleTann ra300TBOflHoro y3Jia (y aBTOMaTHnecKoro opy>KHa). 

BHHMaHne: pacTBop PHC aBJiaeTca jiynniHM cpe^CTBOM HeHipajiroaHHH npo^yKTOB ropeHHa 6o- 
eBoro 3ap»#a n npeKpacHO pa3MarnaeT TBep^bie nacTHHbi Harapa, npHropeBHine k MeTajuiy. Ho ero 
Hejib3a flOJiro ocTaBJiaTb Ha noBepxHOCTH opyacna bo H36e>KaHHe noaBJieHna pacaBHHHbi. nocne npn- 
MeHeHHa ocTaTKH pacTBopa THiaTejibHO CHHMaiOT c noBepxHOCTen opy>KHa. Opy>KHe BbiTnpaeTca Hacy- 
xo cyxoii BeTonibio, 3aTeM KaHan CTBOJia, naipoHHHK, fleTann ra300TBOflHoro y3Jia, 3aTBop, 3aTBopHaa 
paMa h flpyrne noBepxHOCTH CMa3biBaiOTca jhoSmm opy>KeHHbiM HeiiTpajibHbiM MacjiOM (otjihhhc 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 280 

HeiiTpajibHoro Macua - oho He naxHeT KepocHHOM). 

Ecjih HeT PHC, nocne CTpejibSw KaHan CTBOJia h Bee fleTajin, conpHKacaBmneca c nopoxoBbiMH h 
KancioJibHtiMH ra3aMH, CMa3biBaiOT mejionHbiM MacnoM (oho naxHeT KepocHHOM) h b TaKOM coctojihhh 
ocTaBJiaiOT Ha hcckojibko MHHyr. IU,ejiOHHoe Macno ^OBOJibHO Hennoxo OTbeflaeT Harap h HeHTpanH3y- 
eT ero. Ho mejionHoe Macno TO>Ke Hejib3a flOJiro ocTaBjnrrb Ha noBepxHOCTH opy>KHa: coflep>Kamaaca b 
HeM menoHb Bbi3biBaeT Koppo3Hio MeTanjia. nocne hhctkh mejionHoe Macno TinaTejibHO yflanaiOT, h 
opy>KHe CMa3biBaeTca HeHTpanbHbiM MacnoM. 

OneHb xoponio hhctht opy>KHe oSbiKHOBeHHbiH KepocHH. KepocHH oSjia^aeT noBbimeHHOH Te- 
KynecTbio h nosTOMy ^OBOJibHO raySoKO npoHHKaeT b nopbi MeTajuia. KepocHH HMeeT cnjibHyio me- 
jiOHHyio peaKnnio, no3TOMy ^OBOJibHO nerKO HeirrpajiroyeT KHCJiOTHbie npoflyierbi cropaHHa h SbiCTpo 
"oTbeflaeT" jiioSoh Harap, p>KaBHHHy, rpa3b. Mo>kho Hcnojib30BaTb oSbiKHOBeHHbiH KepocHH, ho oh 
coflep>KHT HeSojibHioe KOJinnecTBO bo^m. ,3,jiji o6e3BO>KHBaHHa KepocHHa Ha^o xoponio npo>KapeHHyio 
Ha CKOBopo^e CTOJiOByio cojib BCbinaTb b SyrbiJiKy c KepocHHOM (2 CTOJiOBbie jio>kkh cojih Ha 1 Jinip 
KepocHHa), 3aKpbiTb npoSKoii h xopouieHbKo B36ojiTaTb. Hepe3 flBoe cyTOK o6e3BO>KeHHbiH KepocHH 
CJiHBaiOT c oca^Ka b ^pyryio SyrbuiKy h pa3JiHBaiOT no MacjieHKaM. KepocHH b MacneHKe mo>kho ho- 
CHTb c coSoh b nojieBbix ycjiOBHax. KpoMe Toro, b 3hmhhx ycjiOBHax KepocHH otjihhho paSoTaeT b Ka- 
necTBe 3hmhch CMa3KH. 

OSbiKHOBeHHaa HejiOBenecKaa cniOHa HMeeT cjiaSoinejiOHHoii cocTaB h MO>KeT npHMeHSTbca /uni 
HeHTpanH3aii,HH KHCJiOTHoro fleiiCTBHa npo/iyKTOB cropamia nopoxa h KancKwra. KpoMe Toro, CJie^yeT 
ynecTb, hto npoflyKTbi cropaHHa SoeBoro 3apa^a Sojibine BOflopacTBopnMbi, HeM MacnopacTBopHMbi. 
IIo3TOMy bw cflenaeTe npaBHJibHO, ecjiH cpa3y 5Ke nocne CTpejibSw epuiHKOM, CMoneHHbiM cjiiohoh, 
npoTpeTe KaHan CTBOJia. Hepe3 napy MHHyT ctboji npoTpnTe Hacyxo - bw yBH^HTe, ckojibko rapn OKa- 
aceTca Ha epniHKe h npoTHpoHHoii naKJie. Pa3yMeeTca, 3Toro Hejib3a ^ejiaTb npn MHHycoBOH TeMnepa- 
Type. 3hmoh opy>KHe Jiynme hhcthtb Bee TeM >Ke KepocHHOM. 

B CTapwe BpeMeHa, Kor^a He Smjio pa3HOo6pa3Ha cnennajibHbix pjoKeiiHbix Macen, bhhtobkh 
hhcthjih oSbiKHOBeHHOH MbuibHOH BOfloM. Mbmo, KaK H3BecTHO, oSjia^aeT mejiOHHOH peaKinieii, h ep- 
hihk, CMoneHHbiH MbuibHbiM pacTBopoM, oneHb xoponio CHHMaeT Harap co ctchok KaHana CTBOJia. IIo- 
tom, pa3yMeeTca, ctboji Hy>KHO npoTepeTb Hacyxo h CMa3aTb jhoSmm MHHepaiibHbiM MacnoM hjih cbh- 
hwm canoM. 

B ycnoBHax SoeBoro BbDKHBaHHa, Kor^a HeT hh py>Keiuioro Macua, hh Mbina, hh tcm Sojiee Ke- 
pocHHa, BMecTO Bcero 3Toro c ycnexoM npnMeHaeTca cepaa 30Jia ot KOCTpa. OHa TO>Ke HMeeT mejion- 
Hyio peaKnnio. 3ojia HaHOCHTca Ha MOKpbin epniHK hjih jnoSyio BeTonib. Ilocjie hhctkh ctboji cpa3y >Ke 
npoTHpaeTca Hacyxo h CMa3biBaeTca. 

IIpaBHJibHOH hhctkoh 6y#eT TOJibKO TaKaa, KOTopaa HeiiTpajiH3yeT Bpe^Hoe xHMHnecKoe B03- 
fleiiCTBHe OKKJH03HH (cm. Bbime) nopoxoBbix h KancioJibHbix ra30B Ha npoTa>KeHHH Bcero BpeMeHH hx 
fleiiCTBHa, noKa ohh OKOHnaTejibHO He BbiH^yT H3 MeTaiuia. BnHTOBKy Hy>KHO noHHCTHTb KaK mo>kho 
SbiCTpee nocjie CTpejibSw, aa>Ke nocjie oflHoro-eflHHCTBemioro BbiCTpejia. HnKaKaa ycranocTb He mo- 
>KeT SbiTb onpaB^aHHeM pjm Toro, htoSm OTJio>KHTb HHCTKy opy>KHa Ha cjie^yioinHH flem>. HncTKa 
npoH3BOflHTca b cjie^yiomeM nopaflKe: CHanajia KaHan CTBOJia npoTnpaeTca cyxoM BeTonibio, 3aKpen- 
jieHHOH Ha npoTHpKe. 3thm CHHMaeTca cjioh MarKoro Harapa. 3aTeM ctboji npoTHpaeTca >KecTKoii ko- 
CTpHHen, Tyro HaMOTaHHOH Ha npoTHpKy h cmohchhoh jhoSwm niejiOHHbiM cocTaBOM H3 HHCJia Bbinie- 
onHcaHHbix. 3to ^eJiaeTca ^jia y^ajieHHa TBep^wx npo^yKTOB ropeHHa, npHropeBHinx k MeTaiuiy. 
MarKoii BeTonibio ohh He y^anaiOTca, a HaoSopoT, eme rjiy6>Ke BTHpaiOTca b MeTami. OneHb xoponio, 
noHTH H^eajibHO fljia 3thx nejieii noflxoflaT cnen,HanbHbie jiaTyHHbie epniHKH, TO>Ke CMoneHHbie nie- 
jiohhwm cocTaBOM, KOTopwe npeKpacHO CHHMaiOT He TOJibKO TBepflbie nacTHii,bi Harapa, no h Hacjioe- 
HHa TOMnaKa ot nyjibHbix oSojioneK, KOTopbie CKanjiHBaiOTca no yrjiaM KaHaBOK Hape30B. HMeHHO nofl 
sthmh HaBOJiaKHBaHHaMH h CKonjieHHaMH h npoHCxoflHT HanSojiee HHTeHCHBHoe p>KaBJieHHe MeTanjia 
CTBOJia. IU,ejiOHHOH cocTaB ocTaBbTe b CTBOJie na HecKOJibKO MHHyr h 3aTeM npoTpnTe KaHan CTBOJia 
hhctoh cyxon BeTonibio. EpmoM CMa>KbTe KaHaji CTBOJia cjiaSoniejiOHHbiM MacjiOM (mejiOHHbiM Mac- 
jiom, pa36aBJieHHbiM 1 :4) hjih MacjiOM HeHTpanbHbiM. Ecjih ecTb B03MO>KHOCTb, 3aTKHHTe ctboji c flyjia 
npoSKoii h 3anojiHHTe ero KepocHHOM. 

KaK yace roBopHJiocb, Bbi^ejieHHe npo^yKTOB cropaHHa SoeBoro 3apa^a H3 nop MeTanjia nponc- 
xoaht Ha npoTa>KeHHH A-6 flHeii. Ha cjie/iyioniHH ^eHb noBTopnre HHCTKy - bbi yBH^HTe, ckojibko rapn 
"oTnoTejio" H3, Ka3anocb 6bi, TniaTejibHO BbinnnieHHoro CTBOJia. TaKoe >Ke noBTopnTe h Ha cjieflyio- 
mHH fleHb - ^0 Tex nop, noKa Bee npo^yKTbi cropaHna He Sy^yr HeHTpajiH30BaHbi, He BbiHflyr Hapy>Ky 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 281 

h He 6yflyT yflaneHbi. 

nponecc Bbi^ejieHHa ra30B H3 nop MeTajuia npoHCxoflm SecnpepbiBHO, h 3th ra3bi ocTaiOTca Ha 
noBepxHOCTH MeTajuia nofl cnoeM Macna h He3aMeTHO OKa3biBaiOT pa3pyiuaiomee ^eiiCTBHe h ^anee. 
IIo3TOMy Ha npoT»>KeHHH noHTH He^ejiH nocne CTpejibSbi BaM npH^eTca opy>KHe HHCTHTb, hhcthtb h 
HHCTHTb. H ^a>Ke ecjiH nepe3 napy He^ejib nocne Taicon KanHTanbHOH hhctkh bbi nporoHHTe no CTBOJiy 
Sejiyio TpanoHKy, bh o6Hapy>KHTe Ha Hen cjie^bi OTnoTeBmen KonoTH. Ecjih OHa nepHaa, to HHnero 
CTpanmoro - 3to ecTecTBeHHbiH nponecc "oTnoTeBaHna" H3 MeTamia npoflyKTOB cropaHna. Ho ecjin 
OHa pw>Kaa - 3to y>Ke nnoxo. 3to CJie^bi p>KaBHHHbi. 3to 3HanHT, hto bm HeflOCTaTOHHO hohhcthjih 
opy>KHe cpa3y nocne CTpejibSbi. BepnTe b pyKH niOMnoji h HannHanTe Bee CHanajia. IIo 3thm npnHHHaM 
b apMHH hhctjit opy>KHe OKeflHeBHO, He3aBHCHMO ot Toro, CTpenajiH H3 Hero hjih HeT. 3anoMHHTe: 
cpa3y >Ke nocne hhctkh opy>KHa KaHan CTBOJia CMa3biBaeTca MacnoM. Ecjih opy>KHe npeflnojiaraeTca 
HHCTHTb Ha cjieflyiomnH fleHb, flonycKaeTca npHMeHeHHe cjiaSoinejiOHHoii CMa3KH. Ecjih HeT, to KaHan 
CTBOJia CMa3biBaeTca HeiiTpajibHbiM MacjiOM. 

AHajiorHHHbiM o6pa30M nponBBOflHica HHCTKa h CMa3Ka naTpoHHHKa h Bcex nacTen opy>KHa, 
HMeBHiHx KOHTaKT c npoflyKiaMH ropeHHa SoeBoro 3ap>ma. 

OSpamanre ocoSoe BHHMaHHe Ha HHCTKy naiueHKH 3aTBopa. KancioJibHbie ra3bi, KOTopwe arpec- 
CHBHee nopoxoBbix, npopBaBHincb Me>K#y KancioJieM h rnjib3on, pa3be#aiOT "Kpy>KOHeK" BOKpyr bw- 
xofla y^apHHKa. Ecjih Harap b 3tom MecTe He y^anaTb h He SopoTbca c Koppo3Hen, B03HHKaeT y>Ke He 
Kpy>KoneK, a yrjiySjieHne. 

TmaTejibHO BbinnmaHie Bee paSonne noBepxHOCTH fleTanen ra300TBOflHoro y3Jia aBTOMaTHne- 
ckhx bhhtobok. 3to MecTO oneHb no#Bep>KeHO p>KaBJieHHio ot fleiiCTBHa nopoxoBbix ra30B. 

OneHb noflBep>KeHbi p>KaBJieHHio He xpoMnpoBaHHbie KaHanbi ctbojiob TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok. 
Ho h xpoMnpoBaHHbie ctbojiw bhhtobok CBfl cjie^yeT hhcthtb He MeHee TinaTejibHo: y "3anymeH- 
Hbix" ctbojiob CBJl paHO hjih no3flHO HacTynaeT xnMHnecKoe npoHHKHOBeHHe Ha MOJieKynapHOM 
ypoBHe arpeccHBHbix ra30B nofl xpoMOBoe noKpbiTne, pa3BHBaiOTca HeBH^HMbie, CKpbiTbie no# xpo- 
mom oSiunpHbie xHMnnecKHe nponeccw, h xpoMnpoBaHHoe noKpbiTne BHe3anHO HanHHaeT OTCJian- 
BaTbca, o6Ha>Kaa H3befleHHbie cbinbio, HHHeM He 3amnmeHHbie y^acTKH. Opy>KHe Hejib3a 3anycKaTb. 
,H,a>Ke b SoeBbix ycjiOBHax CHannepw npn ManennieH bo3mo>khocth nporapaiOT ctbojiw h npoH3BOfljn 
HeoSxoflHMbie paSoTbi no yxo/iy 3a opy>KHeM. 

Opy>KHe, 3aHeceHHoe c Mopo3a b Tenjioe noMemeHne, He pa36npaHTe h He hhcthtc cpa3y. Mh- 
HyT nepe3 20-30 oho "oTnoTeeT", to ecTb noKpoeTca KanejibKaMH KOHfleHCHpoBaHHbix BO^aHbix napoB. 
TojibKO nocjie 3Toro opy>KHe pa36npaeTca n npoTHpaeTca Hacyxo. 

JleTOM npn SoeBOM npHMeHeHHH opy>KHe BbiTnpaeTca Hacyxo bo H36e>KaHHe HannnaHHa necKa n 
nbijin. OceHbio h BecHOH opy>KHe CMa3biBaeTca tohkhm cjioeM HeiiTpajibHoro Macjia. 

B 3hmhhx ycjiOBnax opyacne HanHHaeT npnoSpeTaTb nyBCTBHiejibHOCTb k 3arycTeHHio CMa3KH. 
Ho CMa3biBaTb opy>KHe HeoSxoflHMO no toh npnHHHe, hto Ha He noKpbiTbix CMa3Kofi nacrax npnjimia- 
iot chokhhkh, KanejibKH BOflbi, h Bee 3to npHMep3aeT flpyr k flpyry. ABTOMaTHKa h noflBH>KHbie nacTH 
npeKpamaiOT paSoTaTb. nosTOMy 3hmoh npn oneHb hh3khx TeivmepaTypax (MHHyc 30°C h 6ojiee) 
opyacne b conjieHeHHax noflBH>KHbix nacTen CMa3biBaeTca KepocHHOM (mo>kho h flHBejibHoii cojiapKon, 
ho TOJibKO oneHb tohkhm cjioeivi). 3tot cnocoS npoBepeH Ha Boinie. 

npn nocTaHOBKe opy>KHa Ha fljinrejibHoe xpaHeHne, nocjie KanHTanbHOH hhctkh ero MeTamiHHe- 
CKne nacTH noKpbiBaiOTca tohkhm cjiocm opy>KeHHoro HeiiTpajibHoro Macjia. Tojictwm cjioeM CMa3bi- 
BaTb Hejib3a - Macjio nofl ^eiiCTBHeM coScTBeHHoro Beca onjibiBaeT bhh3, coSnpaeTca b komkh, MeTajui 
o6Ha>KaeTca h p>KaBeeT. He npHMeHairre fljia KOHcepBau,Hn opy>KHa Macjia cjiynanHbie n He opy>KeHHbie 
- 5KH^KHe ManiHHHbie Macjia SbiCTpo BbicwxaiOT, aBTOMoSHJibHbie >KHflKne MOTopHbie Macjia HMeiOT b 
CBoeM cocTaBe cepy, rycTbie (cojih^oji) no^CbixaiOT h o6pa3yiOT rniemcy, nofl KOTopoii MeTajui HnneM 
He 3amHmeH. Hh b KoeM cjiynae He npHMeHaiiTe pacTHTejibHbie Macjia - ohh 3arycTeBaiOT HacTOJibKO, 
hto noflBH>KHbie nacTH opy>KHa nepecTaiOT ^BHraTbca. 

0(|)HnHajibHO >KHBynecTb ctbojiob CHaiinepcKHx TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok cocTaBJiaeT 20 tmc. 

BblCTpeJIOB, BHHTOBOK CB^I, - 25 TbIC. BblCipeJIOB. Ho CBOeBpeMeHHbIM rpaMOTHbIM yXOflOM 3a opy>KH- 

eM 3tot pecypc mo>kho npo^JiHTb B^Boe. O^hh h3 npnaTejieii aBTopa, TaoKHbiii oxothhk, ^o chx nop 
CTpejiaeT H3 TpexjiHHeHHOH bhhtobkh BbinycKa 1912 ro^a, H3 KOTopon CTpejiajin enie ero p,en n OTeu,. 
npn jnoSbix ycjiOBnax stot Tae>KHHK hhctht h CMa3biBaeT BHHTOBKy e>KeflHeBHO. B CTBOJie 3aMeTHbi 
npH3HaKH H3HOca, ho TaM HeT hh pa3rapa, hh cbinn, hh TeM Sojiee paKOBHH. Boh 3Toro npnpaSoTaHHO- 
ro CTBOJia Ha y^HBJieHHe KynHbiii. Ha Bonpoc, CKOJibKO BbiCTpejiOB H3 3Toro opy>KHa npoH3BefleHO, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 282 

OXOTHHK OTBeTHJi: 

"Hhkto He CHHTan, ho no nojiHHHKa e>KeronHO paccTpenHBaeM". (Ohhh uhhk BMemaeT 440 na- 

TpOHOB.) 

JI02KH H nPHKJIA^W 

JIo>Ka aBJiaeTca ohhoh H3 cocTaBHbix nacTeii CHarniepcKoii bhhtobkh. y Mara3HHHbix (ipexjiH- 
HefiHbix) bhhtobok jio>Ka cjiy>KHT fljia coeaHHemia Bcex HacTeii h njia y^oScTBa aeiicTBHa bhhtobkoh 
npn CTpenbSe. B cooTBeTCTBHH c sthm Ha3HaneHHeM k no>Ke npeabaBJiaeTCJi p»fl TpeSoBaHHH, raaB- 
HeHHine H3 KOToptix cneayiomHe: 

- JIo>Ka AOJi>KHa HMeTb <|)opMy h pa3Mepbi, oSecnenHBaiomHe ynoScTBO oSpameHHa c bhhtobkoh 
bo Bcex cjiynaax ee npHMeHeHHa, h SbiTb nocTaTOHHO npoHHOH npn MHHHManbHO bo3mo>khom Bece. 

- MaTepnaji jio>kh hojdkch oSjiaaaTb xopouien ycTOHHHBOCTbio npoTHB BJiarn. 3to TpeSoBamie 
Hpe3BbiHaiiHO Ba>KHO, TaK KaK jio>Ka OKa3biBaeT BJiHamie Ha MeTKOCTb CTpejibSbi h CTaSnubHOCTb 6oa 

BHHTOBKH. 

- yCTpOHCTBO JIO>KH HOJDKHO oSeCneHHBaTb 0flH006pa3H0e nOJIO>KeHHe CTBOJia H CTBOJIbHOH KO- 

PoSkh, He H3MeHaeMoe npn SKcnnyaTauHH, a TaK»ce npn cSopKe h pa36opKe. 

- JIo>Ka AOJi>KHa H3roTaBJiHBaTbca H3 MaTepnana, He H3MeHaiomero cbohx cbohctb npn fljiHiejib- 
hoh 3KcnjiyaTau,HH h npn xpaHeHHH. MaTepnan 3tot apji>KeH xoponio npnpaSaTbiBaTbca k MeTanny 

CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSKH. 

IIocjieflHee TpeSoBamie HanSojiee aKTyanbHO. JIo>Ka He apji>KHa KopoSnTbca h TpecKaTbca npn 
xpaHeHHH h 3KcnjiyaTau,HH. JIo>kh name Bcero H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca H3 6epe30Boii HpeBecHHbi. JlynniHe 
jio>kh hjiji oneHb ynanHbix ctbojiob H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca H3 opexa, 6yKa hjih rpaSa. ^peBecHHa 3thx no- 
pofl npaKTHnecKH He KopoSnTca, He TpecKaeTca h xoponio npnpaSaTbiBaeTca k MeTamiy. B jhoSom 
CJiynae npeBecHHy njia TOHHoro opy>KHa noHBepraiOT njiHTejibHOMy BbicyuiHBaHHio. ^eM npjibine bm- 
cyiueHa HpeBecHHa HJia jio>kh, tcm MeHbiue OHa KopoSnTca h BeneT 3a coSoh ctboji h CTBOJibHyio ko- 
poSKy. ^jih H3roTOBJieHHa jio>k h npHKJiaflOB ocoSo TOHHoro opy>KHa ^peBecHHy BbicyuiHBaiOT b TeM- 
HOTe npn ecTecTBeHHbix TeMnepaTypax Ha npoTJDKemm no 10 JieT. B noonenHee BpeMa nn» 
npoH3BOHCTBa jio>k Bee name CTana npHMeHaTbca nuacTMacca. B KOHu,e 50-x ronpB nna roroTOBneHna 
jio>k CHaMnepcKHx bhhtobok Hanann npHMerorib MHorocjioiiHyio npeBecnHy H3 npoKJieeHHoro 6epe30- 
Boro iunoHa, pacnojio>KeHHoro BOJiOKHaMH nepneHnnKymipHO npyr k npyry. TaKHe jio>kh OKa3ajmcb 
HanSonee npaKinnHbiMn b H3roTOBJieHHH h 3KcnjiyaTau,HH. H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca BnnoTb no Hannix nHen. 

fl,jia BJiarocToiiKOCTH Hapy>KHaa noBepxHOCTb jio>kh hhcto o6pa6aTbiBaeTca, nponHTbiBaeTca 
cochoboh CMOJioii hjih 5-10%-hwm pacTBopoM He^TeSmyMa b MHHepanbHOM Macjie (mo npnnaeT no- 
BepxHOCTH KopHHHeBbiii HBei) h naKnpyeTca. TaKaa oSpaSoTKa npeBecnHbi jio>kh nenaeT ee Hernrpo- 
CKonHHHOH, HeM jio>Ka npenoxpaHaeTca ot pa36yxaHHa h noonenyioineH ycyniKH. KpoMe Toro, nponn- 
TaHHaa cmojioh npcBecnHa jio>kh npenoxpaHJieTca ot 3arnHBaHHa h ot nopa>KeHHa HaceKOMbiMH. 
JIo>kh, H3roTOBJieHHbie H3 6epe30Boii flpeBecHHbi, b HeKOTopwx cjiynaax (Ha 3aKa3) noKpwBaiOTca mo- 

PHJIKOH H rOpaHHM paCTBOpOM, COCTOJIinHM H3 paBHblX HaCTeM BOCKa, KaHH(})OJIH H CKHnHflapa. 

B jio>Ke Mara3HHHoii bhhtobkh paBJinnaiOT Tpn nacTH: u,eBbe, nieiiKy h npnioiafl (7, 2, 3 Ha (})oto 
200). B jio>Kax SoeBbix bhhtobok HMeeTca eme h CTBOJibHaa HaKJia^Ka (4 Ha (})oto 200). IlepeflHaa 
nacTb jio>kh, Ha3biBaeMaa u,eBbeM, cjiy>KHT ^Jia noMemeHHa CTBOJia co CTBOJIbHOH kopoSkoh, ^Jia 
npe/ioxpaHeHHa CTBOJia ot noraSoB npn cjiynanHbix y^apax, ^Ji» npeapxpaHeHHJi pyK CTpejiKa ot o>ko- 
tob npn chjibho HarpeTOM ctbojic 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 283 

cDoto 200. JIo>Ka Mara3HHHoft bhhtobkh: 

1 - neBbe; 2 - iueftKa jio>kh; 3 - npHKJia^; 4 - CTBOJibHaa HaKJia^Ka; 5 - Kpene>KHbie jio>KeBbie 
KOJibna; 6 - hiomiioji 

IIonepeHHbie h npoflOJibHbie pa3Mepw neBba b MecTe ero oxBara jieBoft pyKoft ycTaHaBJiHBaiOTca, 
Hcxofla H3 coo6pa>KeHHH y^oScTBa y^ep>KaHHa opy>KHa, nonepenHbie pa3Mepw ocTanbHoft nacTn neBba 
onpeflenaiOT H3 coo6pa>KeHHft npoHHOCTH. 

IIoflroHKa jio>kh k CTBOJibHoii KopoSKe flOJi>KHa SbiTb oflHOo6pa3HOH h paBHOMepHoft, no BceMy 
pa3Mepy CTBOJibHoii kopoSkh. HeoflHOo6pa3Hoe nojio>KeHHe CTBOJibHoii kopoSkh b cnennajibHO bm- 
SpaHHOM rHe3fle jio>kh npn Mecmbix HecHMMeTpHHHbix npnjieraHnax Bbi3biBaeT oflHOCTopomiHe 
HanpjDKeHHa npn BbiCTpene h yBejinnnBaeT KOJieSaHna CTBOJia, hto npHBOflnr k yBejinneHHio pa36poca. 
Bojiee Toro, oho H3MeHaeT hx xapaKTep b Henpe#CKa3yeMyio CTopoHy. TmaTenbHO nofloraaTb CTBOJib- 
Hyio KopoSicy k jio>Ke oneHb Tpy^HO. IIosTOMy name Bcero CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy "ca>KaiOT" b rne3flO 

JIO>KH Ha RBQ OnOpHbie TOHKH - nOfl naTpOHHHKOM H nOfl XBOCTOBHKOM C JHO(|)TOM MOKfly HHMH. Y Soe- 

Bbix Mara3HHHbix bhhtobok HopManbHoro KannSpa ynop ctbojibhoh kopoSkh oSasaTejibHO onnpaeTca 
Ha onopHbiii Harenb, npnneM onopHbie noBepxHOCTH Harejia h BbiCTyna CTBOJibHoii kopoSkh flOJi>KHbi 
KOHTaKTHpoBaTb no Bceft miomaflH. Ecjih HMnyjibc OT^anH npHHHMaeTca HareneM cSoKy, to 3to bbi- 
3biBaeT npn BbiCTpene Bee Te >Ke OflHOCTopomiHe HanpjDKeHHa c BbiTeKaiomHMH noaneflCTBHaMH. Eoft 
TaKoii bhhtobkh TaK>Ke He Sy^eT TOHHbiM. OSbiHHO nocne noflroHKH onopHoro BbiCTyna h Harejia #pyr 
k Apyry CHanana 3aTarHBaiOT #o ynopa onopHbift bhht, 3aTeM xboctoboh, nocne nero xboctoboh bhht 
"oTnycKaKxr" Ha non-oSopoTa Ha3a#. 3to ^ejiaeTca #Jia Toro, htoSm npeflOTBpaTHTb Hanpa>KeHHbift 
H3rn6 CTBOJibHoii kopoSkh. JlyHHiHft BapnaHT conpa>KeHHa MeTajuiHHecKHx nacTeft bhhtobkh c #epe- 
BaHHbiMH flocTHraeTca b tom onynae, Kor#a CTBOJibHaa KopoSKa xoponio noca>KeHa h npnpaSoTaHa c 
nocaflOHHbiM MecTOM jio>kh, a ctboji Sy^eT paSoTaTb KaK CTepaceHb c oahhm 3aKpenjieHHbiM kohuom. B 
cnopTHBHOM h nejieBOM opy>KHH flua 3thx nejieft Ha ctbojibhoh KopoSKe ^ejiaeTca TOJiCTaa CTanbHaa 
pn(})jieHaa "nofloniBa" npaBHJibHbix npaMoyrojibHbix pa3MepoB. IIocaflOHHoe MecTO jio>kh HMeeT TaKyio 
>Ke npaMoyrojibHyio (J)opMy. Bee 3to no3BOJiaeT njiOTHO noca^HTb CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy b noca^OHHOM 
rHe3fle h nnoTHO, flo OTKa3a, 3aTaHyrb onopHbift h xboctoboh coeflHHH* TenbHbie bhhtm. IIpH stom 
nojiynaeTca onem. miOTHaa H^eanbHaa noca^Ka h npn>KaTHe MeTajuiHHecKHx nacTeft k ^epeBaHHoft 
jio>Ke 6e3 jik)(})tob h CMemeHHH. B TaKOM anynae ctboji He aojdkch KacaTbca neBba jio>kh, KOTopoe 
HMeeT yfljiHHeHHyio (J)opMy /uia y^oScTBa y#ep>KaHHa, KpernieHna anraSoK h ^pyrnx noflCoSHbix npn- 
cnocoSjieHHH. 

B SoeBbix BHHTOBKax, r^e ecTb HeoSxoflHMOCTb fljiHHHoro u,eBba h ctbojibhoh HaKna^KH, 3th fle- 
peBaHHbie nacTH flOJi>KHbi nnoTHO oxBaTbiBaTb ctboji no Been ^jinHe (hto c^ejiaTb BecbMa HenpocTo), 
hjih HeoSxoflHMO noca^HTb ctboji Ha flBa MaTepnaTbix mjhkhx cajibHHKa b Hanane h b KOHne u,eBba. 
Me>Kfly hhmh flOJi>KeH SbiTb jho(})t, fljia nero nojiyKpyrjibiM pe3ii,OM (3aTOHeHHOH 3aKpaHHOH rnjib3bi) 
BbiSnpaeTca cjioh ^epeBa BOKpyr CTBOJia npnMepHO Ha 1 mm. B KpaiiHeM cjiynae ctboji ca>KaeTca Ha 
OflHH cajibHHK, hto6m oh He SojiTajica Me>Kfly neBbeM h HaKJiaflKoii. ,U,peBecHHa ^Jia H3roTOBJieHHa jio>k 
fljia Toro h Bbiflep>KHBaeTca hcckojibko JieT, htoSw Bee, hto Morjio b Heft fle(J)opMHpoBaTbca, "noKpy- 
THTbca", noKopoSnTbca, npn cynnce noKpyrnjiocb h noKopoSHJiocb. Ilocjie nero jio>Ka Bbipe3aeTca Ha 
CTaHKe hjih BpyHHyio, h Sojibnie b Heft Hnnero y>Ke He KopoSnTca h He nepeKpynHBaeTca. 

JIo>Ka, KOTopaa HanHHaeT KopoSnTbca h "noKpynHBaTbca" Ha totobom opy>KHH, Bbi3biBaeT MecT- 
Hbie OflHOCTopoHHne SoKOBbie Hanpa>KeHHa MeTajnia, Beflymne k ero noBbinieHHoft BH6pau,HH npn bm- 
CTpejie. JIo>Ka, H3 KaKHx 6bi nopofl flepeBa OHa hh SbiJia H3roTOBJieHa, flOJi>KHa SbiTb 6e3 cynKOB h 
MecTHbix ynjiOTHeHnft. CynoK, ynnpaiontHftca b CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy b KaKOM-TO o^hom MecTe, C03fla- 
eT 3th caMbie MecTHbie Hanpa>KeHHa h 3aMeTHO yxy^niaeT Soft bhhtobkh. CynoK, BbiCTynaioninft H3 
u,eBba h ynnpaiomHHca b ctboji, pe3KO noBbiniaeT pa36poc. JIo>Ka, H3roTOBJieHHaa H3 HeBbiflep>KaHHoft, 
HenpocyiueHHoft flpeBecHHbi, KopoSnTca HacTOJibKO, hto npn fljinrejibHOM xpaHeHHH opy>KHa Ha ciaia- 
flax crnSaeT BHHTOBOHHbie ctbojim. Ot jiojkh 3aBHCHT oneHb MHoro. MacTepa CTapoft (})opMaii,HH ot- 
SopHbie ctbojiw noflroHajin nofl opexoBbie hjih KJieeHbie ninoHOBbie jio>kh h "ca>KajiH" 3th ctbojiw b 
jio>kh HaMepTBO, Ha snoKCH^Hbift KJieft. KyHHOCTb 6oa TaKnx bhhtobok h KapaSHHOB, He HMeiomnx 
BHyrpn nocaflOHHbix jho(})tob h CMemeHHft, yjiynniaeTca. 

Ha aBTOMaTHHecKnx BHHTOBKax CBJl cjie^yeT cjie^HTb 3a nnoTHOCTbio coeflHHeHHa npHKJia^a co 
CTBOJibHoii KopoSKoft. OcjiaSjieHHbift bhht KpenjieHHa Bbi3biBaeT HiaTaHne npHKna^a h HenpeflCKa3ye- 
Mbift pa36poc. 

BHHMaHHe! CMa3biBaTb jio>Ky opy>KeftHbiMH MHHepanbHbiMH MacjiaMn Hejib3a. flepeBO ot 3Toro 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 284 

CTaHOBHTca xpynKHM. fljia Toro htoSm npefloxpamrib jio>Ky ot fleiiCTBHa BJiara, ee b cyxoM BH^e CMa- 

3bIBaiOT TOHKHM CJIOeM JIbHaHOH OJIH(|)bI (hJIH JII06OH paCTHTeJIbHOH OJIH(|)bl). 

BoeHHbie h oxoTHHKH-npoMbicjiOBHKH xopomo 3HaiOT, hto Ha npiipofle Bcer^a npncyTCTByeT 
BJiara, KOTopaa SepeTca HeH3BecTHO OTKy^a. OTCbipeBaeT Bee - h oSMyHflHpoBainie, h opy>KHe. HtoSw 
coxpaHHTb CHaMnepcKyio BHHTOBKy ot bo^bi, Jiynnie Bcero noKptrrb ee cuoeM BOCKa. J\jih 3Toro b 4 
nacTax ropanero TepneHTHHa (hjih >KHBHHHoro HaTypanbHoro CKHnH^apa) pacTBopaiOT 1 nacTb nnejiH- 

HOrO BOCKa. 3THM paCTBOpOM, KOTOpblH MO>KHO HOCHTb C C060M B MaCJieHKe, nOJIb3y»Cb TaMnOHOM H3 

KycKa BeToniH hjih Sinrra, noKpbiBaiOT o^hh pa3 Hapy>KHyio noBepxHOCTb MeTanjiHHecKHx h flepeBaH- 
hmx HacTeft bhhtobkh. TepneHTHH flOBOJibHO SbiCTpo HcnapaeTca, a tohkhh cjioh BOCKa ocTaeTca. 
Bock #ep>KHTca Ha opyacHH aobojibho u,einco, b otjikhhc ot MaoiaHoro noKpbiTHa, h npeKpacHO 
npeflOxpaHaeT opy>KHe ot CHera, KaneneK bo^bi h t. r. (cnocoS (})hhckhx CHaMnepoB). 

BJIH5IHHE KAHECTBA OPY^CHH HA METKOCTb CTPEJIbEbl 

Ha KyHHOCTb 60a opy>KHa h, aneflOBaTejiBHO, Ha MeTKOCTb CTpejibSw BJinaeT MHO>KecTBO (})aKTO- 
poB. IIpe>Kfle Bcero KyHHOCTb 60a CTBOJia CHaMnepcKOH bhhtobkh onpeflejiaeTca KaneciBOM h tohho- 
ctbio ero H3roTOBJieHHa, hhctotoh o6pa6oTKH KaHana CTBOJia h nnoTHOCTbio noca^KH CTBOJia b 
CTBOJibHyio KopoSKy. IHepoxoBaTOCTb, rpySocTb o6pa6oTKH KaHana CTBOJia, HepoBHOCTb ^Ha Hape30B 
yBejiHHHBaiOT paccenBaHHe npn CTpeubSe H3 bhhtobok Ha 20%. flua CHaMnepcKHx bhhtobok ctbojibi 
H3roTaBJiHBaiOT Ha OT^ejibHOM, hobom h HeHBHOineHHOM oSopyflOBaHHH, Hcnojib3ya poKymne hh- 
CTpyivteHTbi ocoSoh tohhocth H3roTOBJieHHa. Ho #a>Ke npn sthx ycnoBHax ctboji MO>KeT nojiyHHTBca 
y^anHbiM hjih HeyAanHbiM. Bojibiuoe 3HaneHHe HMeeT tohhoctb o6pa6oTKH onopHbix noBepxHOCTeM 

CTBOJIBHOH KOpoSKH H COOTBCTCTByiOmHX nOBepXHOCTCH SoeBBIX BblCTynOB 3aTBopa hjih SoeBoii JIH- 

hhhkh. B cjiynae HecHMMeTpHHHOH o6pa6oTKH sthx njiocKOCTeii oflHOCTopomiaa ynpyraa flec})opMa- 
u,Ha MO>KeT npHBecTH k yBejiHHeHHio pacceHBaHHa #o 50%. 

HeKanecTBeHHaa (cm. paHee) noca^Ka b jio>Ky CTBOJia Mara3HHHoii bhhtobkh omyTHMO BJinaeT Ha 
KyHHOCTb 60a. noKopoSjiemiaa JIo>Ka yBejiHHHBaeT pa36poc nyjib eme Sojibiue. 

K yBejiHHeHHio pacceHBaHHa npHBOflHi Hen36e>KHbiH npn 3KcnjiyaTau,HH h3hoc opy>KHa. C yBe- 
jiHHeHHeM H3HOca KaHana CTBOJia yxy^maiOTca ero SajiJiHCTHHecKne CBoiiCTBa - yMeHbmaeTca Hanajib- 
Haa CKopocTb h yBejiHHHBaeTca paccenBaHHe. "noHonieHHbiii", ho o6epe>KeHHbiH h yxo>KeHHbiH KaHan 
CTBOJia coxpaHaeT KynHOCTb 60a Heonpeflejiemio flOJiroe BpeMa, ho p>KaBHHHa h ee rjiySoKne CJie^bi 
(paKOBHHbi), no flaHHbiM opy>KeHHHKa H. M. cDmiaTOBa, Moryr yBejiHHHTb paccenBaHHe H3 bhhtobkh h 
KapaSnHa Ha 20-30%. KpoMe Toro, nopa>KeHHbiH p>KaBHHHOH ctboji SbiCTpee HBHanniBaeTca, hto Be^eT 
k yxy^HieHHio KynHOCTH 60a. 

PacTepTOCTb CTBOJia BaneflCTBHe HenpaBHJibHoii hhctkh aHanornHHa BJinaHHio ecTecTBeHHoro 

HBHOCa. 

npn noraSax CTBOJia BCJie^CTBHe #a>Ke He3HanHTejibHbix y^apoB cSoKy Ha6jno#aeTca OTKJiOHe- 
HHe nyjib b CTopoHy nornSa. 

BjinaHHe Ha mctkoctb HeHcnpaBHbix, H3HOiueHHbix h njioxo 3aKpenjieHHbix npim,ejiBHBix npn- 
cnocoSjieHHH o6meH3BecTHO. IIIaTaHHa MyniKH, uejiHKa, npimejiBHoM njiaHKH, KpomineHHa onTHHe- 
CKoro npHu,ejia cpa3y CBO^aT MeTKOCTb CTpejibSw Ha HeT. 

Pa3flyiHa CTBOJia bSjihbh ^yjibHoro cpe3a pe3KO yBejiHHHBaiOT pa36poc fla>Ke ManoKajiHSepHoro 
opy>KHa. 

HanSojiee 3HaHHiejibHoe BjinaHHe Ha MeTKOCTb OKa3biBaiOT yBejinneHHa 3a3opoB MexaHH3Ma, ko- 
Topbie Moryr npHBecTH k yrjiOBbiM KOJieSaHHaM CTBOJia. KojieSaHHa CTBOJia npn BbiCTpejie B03HHKaiOT 
BCJieflCTBne pa3JiHHHbix tojihkob h y^apoB BHyTpn caMoro opy>KHa, KaK-To: npn y#ape SoiiKa no Kan- 
ciojiio, npn noHTH MrHOBeHHOM HapacTaHHH flaBJieHHa nopoxoBbix ra30B, npn Bpe3aHHH nyjiH b Hape- 
3bi, npn y^apax fleTaneii noflBH>KHOH CHCTeMbi h HacTeM opy>KHa flpyr flpyra. 3th KOJieSamia HaKJia- 
flbiBaiOTca flpyr Ha flpyra h npn coBnafleHHH b pe30HaHC, hto SbiBaeT ^OBOJibHO nacTO, OKa3biBaiOT 
cymecTBeHHoe BjinaHHe Ha KyHHOCTb 60a opy>KHa. HeM Sojibnie b opy>KHH jiio(J)tob, BbipaSoTOK h 3a- 
3opoB, TeM 6ojibnie fleTajiH opy>KHa Sy^yT SojiTaTbca h CTynaTb flpyr flpyra, cooTBeTCTBeHHO, tcm 
SojibHie Sy^eT KOJieSaHHH, Bbi3biBaiomHx pasSpoc nyjib npn CTpejibSe. 

fl,a>Ke He3HaHHTejibHbie op>KaBJieHHa paSoniix noBepxHOCTeii yBejiHHHBaiOT 3th jiio(})Tbi h Bbipa- 
Sotkh. no3TOMy Hepe^KO h npn xoponmx CTBOJiax pa36ojnaHHbie BCJieflCTBHe Heyxo>KeHHOCTH Mexa- 
HH3Mbi opy>KHa (ocoSeHHO aBTOMaTHHecKoro) Bbi3biBaiOT 3aMeTHoe CHH>KeHHe KyHHOCTH 60a. H 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 285 

HaoSopoT, yxo>KeHHbie MexaHH3Mbi, BOBpeMa BbiHHmeHHbie h CMa3aHHbie, no#flep>KHBaiOT BbicoKyio 
TOHHOCTb 6oa opy>KHa npn H3HOineHHbix, ho yxo>KeHHbix h coxpaHeHHbix CTBOJiax. 

IIpH BbiSope CHaMnepcKoro opy>KHa cjie^yeT noMHHTb, hto KyHHOCTb 6oa Bcer^a 6y#eT Jiyniue y 
HeaBTOMaTHHecKHx Mara3HHHbix bhhtobok, HeM y aBTOMaTHnecKHx. 3to oSbaciiaeTca TeM, hto y He- 
aBTOMaTHHecKoro opy>KHa HeT no#BH>KHbix nacTen, oSecnenHBaiomHx paSoTy aBTOMaTHKH, h, coot- 

BeTCTBeHHO, HeT H JHO(|)TOB MOKfly 3THMH HaCTSMH, BbI3bIBaiOmHX H3JIHHIHHe BnSpaUHH Opy>KHa npH 

CTpenbSe. 

IIpH cSopKax CHaMnepcKHx Mara3HHHbix bhhtobok ocoSemio Ba>KHO npaBHJibHoe h o#HOo6pa3- 

HOe 3aBHHHHBaHHe BHHTOB ynOpa H XBOCTOBOrO BHHTa CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSKH. CjiaSoe 3aBHHHHBaHHe 

3thx bhhtob 3HaHHTejibHO yBejiHHHBaeT pacceHBaHHe BbiCTpenoB, noHTH He H3MeHaa cpeflHeii tohkh 
nonaflaHHa. KpoMe Toro, He npn>KaTbiH k jio>Ke ctboji nojiynaeT B03MO>KHOCTb ^BHraTbca B^ojib neBba, 
BCJieflCTBne nero cnynaiOTca cflBHra ^epeBa C3a#H rae3fla ynopa h pacKOJibi jio>kh 3a ynopoM. IIosto- 
My cjiaSoe 3aBHHHHBaHHe 3thx CTaraBaiomHx Kpene>KHbix bhhtob He#onycTHMO. CnjibHoe >Ke nepeTa- 

THBaHHe 3THX BHHTOB MO>KeT npHBCCTH K H3rn6y Mara3HHHOH H CTBOJIbHOH KOpoSKH. IIpH 3TOM Soil 

bhhtobkh H3MeHaeTca Henpe#CKa3yeMO. 

H3 Bcero BbinieH3Jio>KeHHoro tojikobmh CTpejiOK c^ejiaeT bbiboa: opy>KHe Ha^o Sepenb h nocTO- 
3hho yxa>KHBaTb 3a hhm. HaiiTH h npnoSpecTH y^anHO roroTOBJiemibiH ctboji TOHHoro, a TeM nane 
ocoSo TOHHoro 60a HenpocTO h Hejierico. OSmhho ctbojiw TaKoro KanecTBa nona^aiOTca o#hh h3 #e- 
caTH. Co BpeMeHeM, nocjie Ha-CTpejia HecKOJibKHx cotch BbiCTpejiOB, noBepxHOCTb KaHana CTBOJia 
npnpaSaTbiBaeTca h KyHHOCTb 60a 3aMeTHO ynyHiuaeTca. XoponiHH, otSophmh, npncTpejiaHHbiH h 
c6epe>KeHHbiH ctboji Tpy^HO nepeoneHHib. ApTHJiJiepncTbi roBopjrr: "Oaho c6epe>KeHHoe opyflne cto- 
ht flByx HOBbix". CHaiinepbi no 3TOMy noBOfly HMeiOT aHanornHHoe MHeHHe: OflHa OTSopHaa, npncTpe- 
jiaHHaa h cSepeaceHHaa BHHTOBKa ctoht ^ecaTH Haxoflamnxca b nnpaMH^e. 

OTBOP OPy^CH5I 

OrSop opy>KHa no KynHOCTH 60a npon3BOflHTca tojibko npaKTHnecKHM OTCTpejiOM opy>KHa. Ilpn 
3tom CTpejibSa Be^eTca c Mancoro ynopa Ha flHCTamniH He MeHee 100 m ^Jia ctbojiob HopManbHoro 
KannSpa n He MeHee 50 m ^Jia MajioKajniSepHoro. Pa36poc fljia ctbojiob HopManbHbix KannSpoB Ha Ta- 
koh flHCTami,HH He flOJi>KeH npeBbiniaTb 8x8 cm, ho b peanbHOCTH Hepe^KO BbiaBJiaiOT ctbojiw c KyHHO- 
CTbio 60a 5x4 cm. TaKne cjiynan nponcxoflaT ^OBOJibHO nacre. B npaKTHKe aBTopa Smji cjiynaii, Kor^a 
Heo>KHflaHHO fljia cjijokhbmx cepniiHaa BHHTOBKa CBY (cHaMnepcKaa BHHTOBKa yKoponeHHaa) noKa3a- 
jia KyHHOCTb 4x3 cm. KyHHOCTb 60a TpexjiHHeiiHbix bhhtobok 6e3 HiTbiKa c oahhmh canbHHKaMH, 
HaMOTaHHbiMH Ha ctboji flyjibHOH nacTH, HHor^a npn OTSope opy>KHa BbiaBJiajiacb b pa3Mepe 3x2 cm, a 
HHor^a n BOoSme nyjia b nyjiio. OflHaKO CJie^yeT ynecTb, hto xoponiHH ctboji, OKa3aBiHHHca Ha njioxo 
H3roTOBJieHHOH jio>Ke, MO>KeT noKa3aTb OTBpaTHiejibHyio KyHHOCTb. IIo3TOMy ctoht npoSoBaTb pa3Hbie 
ctbojiw Ha pa3Hbix jio>Kax. 

KyHHOCTb 60a MajioKajinSepHbix ctbojiob KOJieSjieTca b iunpoKHx npe^ejiax b 3aBHCHMOCTH ot 

CHCTeMbl. y OXOTHHHbHX MOfleJieH OH MO>KeT SblTb OT 10x12 flO 3x3 CM. y BHHTOBOK "BHaTJIOH", pa3- 

jihhhwx MOflejieii pa36poc oSwhho ot 3x2 #o 2x1,5 cm. IIosTOMy b onepannax no o6e3Bpe>KHBaHHio 

TeppOpHCTOB (0C06eHH0 npH HeoSxOflHMOCTH B3aTb npOTHBHHKa 5KHBMM) >KeJiaTeJIbHO HCnOJIb30BaHHe 
BHHTOBOK "BHaTJIOH-4", "BHaTJIOH-6", "BHaTJIOH-7", oSjia^aiOHlHX 60Jiee KyHHbIM, CTa6HJIbHbIM H 

cnjibHbiM 6oeM no cpaBHeHHio c oSbiHHbiMH oxoTHHHbHMH o6pa3u,aMH. 

^EOEKTW KAHAJIA CTBOJIA, OnPE^EJWEMWE BH3yAJIbHWM OCMOTPOM 

Ilpn oSbiKHOBeHHOM BH3yanbHOM ocMOipe KaHana CTBOJia npn ero OTSope mo>kho o6Hapy>KHTb 
Maccy fle(J)eKTOB. Ha ocHOBaHHH pe3yjibTaTOB ocMOipa ^ejiaiOTca BbiBOflbi, ctoht jih OTCTpejiHBaTb 

CTBOJI Ha KyHHOCTb. 

KaHan CTBOJia mo>kho npocMaTpnBaTb c Ka3eHHOH nacTH n c ^yjibHOH nacTH, HanpaBHB npoTHBO- 
nojio>KHbiH KaHan CTBOJia Ha hctohhhk CBeTa. IIpH ocMOTpe CTBOJia c ^yjibHOH nacTH b CTBOJibHyio ko- 
poSKy BKJiaflbiBaeTca Sejiaa 6yMa>KKa, CTBOJiy npn^aiOT TaKoe nojio>KeHHe, htoSm CBeT OTpa>Kajica ot 
SyMarn h ocBeman KaHaji CTBOJia. IlaTpoHHHK ocMaTpnBaeTca c Ka3eHHon nacTH. 

B KaHane CTBOJia mo>kho HaSjiiOflaTb cjieflyioniHe HeHopMajibHbie aBJieHHa. 

B HexpoMHpoBaHHbix CTBOJiax HaSjiiOflaeTca MCJib\MopM3auM}i b bkrq HacjioeHHH hjih SyropKOB 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 286 

Ha noBepxHOCTH KaHana. 3to npoHCxoflm npn cipejibSe nyneM c MejibXHopoBoM oSojiohkoh. B TaKHx 
>Ke CTBOJiax HaSjnoflaeTca OMeAHeHHe, noaBJunomeeca npn cipejibSe nyjiaMH, njiaKHpoBamibiMH tom- 
naKOM. OMeAHeHHe npoaBJiaeTca b BH#e HaneTa >KejiTO-KpacHoro nBeTa. MejibXHoproanHa h OMeAHe- 
HHe HaSniOflaiOTca npn CTpejibSe H3 hobmx HenpnpaSoTaHHbix ctbojiob h Hcne3aiOT nocne hhctkh jia- 

TyHHblM epHIHKOM, CMOHeHHbIM MaCJIOM. ^,e(})eKTOM CTBOJia He CHHTaiOTCa. 

MaTOBaH noeepxHOCTb KaHajia CTBOJia xapaKieproyeTca MecTHbiM noTeMHeHHeM KaHajia, ho 
3to He aBJiaeTca p>KaBHHHOH h flec})eKTOM He CHHTaeTca. 

KoJibueBoe noTeMHeHHe momcct SbiTb no Been OKpy>KHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia hjih nacra ee, ho 3to 
b xpoMnpoBaHHbix CTBOJiax He aBJiaeTca pa3#yTHeM h He CHHiaeTca HeflOCTaTKOM. 

TeMHbie KOJibua b Kanajic CTBOJia nojiynaiOTca b pe3yjibTaTe c>KaTHa CTBOJia b MecTax noca^KH 
Ha ctboji fleTajieii (npnnejibHOH kojioakh, ra30BOH Kaivtepbi, ynopHoro KOJibna neBba jio>kh, TpySiCH 

CTBOJia H T. fl.), JiQ^QKiaMK He CHHTaiOTCa H BO BHHMaHHe He npHHHMaiOTCJI. 

CnnpajibHbie iiojiockh Ha xpoMHpoBamiOH noBepxHOCTH jibjijiiotcji pe3yjibTaTOM MexaHHne- 
ckoh o6pa6oTKH KaHana CTBOJia (cneflbi HHCTpyMeHTa). J\o xpoMHpoBaHHa cneflbi HHCTpyMenra He3a- 
MeTHbi; nocne xpoMnpoBaHna cneflbi HHCTpyMeHTa BbiCTynaiOT Sojiee pejibecjmo b BH#e cnHpanbHbix 
nonocoK. 

CepoBaTbifl oTTeHOK, nepHbie tohkh, nepepe3bi nojieii, KOJibua Bbi3BaHbi ocoSemiocTaMH 
TexHOJiorHnecKoro nponecca xpoMHpoBaHHa; HeflOCTaTKaMH He CHmaiOTca. 

Pa3AyTHe onpeflejraeTOi HanHnneM Ha noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia TeHeBoro nonepenHoro 
KOJibna, xopouio BH^HMoro c Toro KOHu,a CTBOJia, k KOTopoMy oho 6jiH>Ke pacnojio>KeHO. HanHHHe pa3- 
flyTHa noflTBep>KAaeTca nporoHOM no CTBOJiy moMnojia c Tyro HaMOTaHHOH Ha npoTnpKy BeTonibio. B 
MecTe pa3flyTHa #a>Ke HeonbiTHbiii CTpejiOK cpa3y nonyBCTByeT cnaSnHy. TaK onpeflejiaeTca pa3#yTHe 
flaace y MajioKajinSepHoro opy>KHa. Ilpn He3HanHTejibHOM KOJibueBOM pa3#yTHH h coxpaHeHHH KynHO- 
cth 6oa MajioKajinSepHbie bhhtobkh ^onycKaiOTca k flajibHeiinieH 3KcnjiyaTanHH. IIpH pa3#yrHH 6oe- 
bwx bhhtobok Ha paccToaHHH ot flyjibHoro cpe3a He Sojiee 45 mm ^yjibHyio nacTb paccBepjiHBaiOT Ha 
^HaMeTp 9+0.2 mm c BbiSnpaHneM MeTaiuia b paiioHe pa3flyiHa. Ilpn pa3#yTHH rjiy6>Ke 45 mm bhhtob- 
Ka SpaKyeTca. 

CeTKa pairapa HaSjnoflaeTca b BH#e nepeceKaiomnxca nojiocoK hjih tohkhx jihhhh Ha noBepx- 

HOCTH XpOMHpOBaHHblX CTBOJIOB, KaK npaBHJIO C Ka3eHHOH HaCTH. 3tH nOJIOCKH H JIHHHH nOSBJiaiOTCa B 

nponecce CTpejibSbi. C yBejinneHneM KOJinnecTBa BbiCTpejiOB b nojiocKax o6pa3yiOTca TpemHHbi h 
HanHHaeTca BbiKpaniHBaHHe xpoMa CHanana b BH#e ToneK, 3aTeM BbiKpomeHHOCTb yBejinnnBaeTca h 
nepexoflHT b ckojim xpoMa. 

Ckoji xpoMa npeflCTaBJiaeT coSon HanSojiee apKO Bbipa>KeHHbiH pa3rap xpoMOBoro noKpwTHa 
KaHana CTBOJia b Ka3eHHoii nacTH h aBJiaeTca cjieflCTBneM yBejinneHHa pa3rapa. CeTKa pa3rapa h ckoji 
xpoMa aBJiaiOTca Hen36e>KHbiMH b xpoMHpoBaHHbix CTBOJiax, h ohh He Moryr CHHiaTbca He^ocTaTKOM 
KaHana CTBOJia, TaK KaK c hx noaBJieHneM ctboji eme coxparoieT xopomyio KynHOCTb 6oa. Ctbojim c 
ceTKOH pa3rapa TpeSyiOT Sojiee TinaTejibHOH hhctkh. IIpH HeflOCTaTOHHoii HHCTKe b MecTax CKOJia 
xpoMa MO>KeT noaBHTbca p>KaBHHHa, BJieKymaa 3a coSoh BbiKpaniHBaHHe cjioa xpoMa. 

Cbinb - nepBHHHoe nopaaceHne KaHana CTBOJia b BH^e ToneK h MejiKnx KpannH. 

LtapaiiMHbi - cjieflCTBne nona^aHHa b ctboji necnnHOK h nacTHu, rpa3H - npoaBJiaiOTca b BH^e 
nepToneK, HHor^a c 3aMeTHbiM no^beMOM MeTanjia no KpaaM. Cbinb h napanHHbi MoryT He OKa3biBaTb 
BJinaHHa Ha KynHOCTb 6oa. 3to npoBepaeTca OTCTpejiOM CTBOJia. 

PaivOBMHbi - 3HaHHiejibHbie yrjiySjieHHa b MeTanjie Ha noBepxHOCTH KaHana CTBOJia, o6pa30- 
BaBmneca b pe3yjibTaTe nporpeccnpyioniero pa3rapa CTBOJia h He6pe>KHoro yxo^a 3a opy>KHeM. PaKO- 
BHHbi o6pa3yiOTca ot ^jiHTejibHoro op>KaBJieHHa CTBOJia b MecTax CKOJia xpoMa. P>KaBHHHa y^anaeTca 
H3 KaHana CTBOJia o6e3BO>KeHHbiM KepocnHOM hjih yaHT-cnnpnTOM jiaTyHHbiM epniHKOM. P>KaBbiii c 
paKOBHHaMH ctboji b CHannepcKOM opy>KHH HenpnrofleH h SpaKyeTca cpa3y »ce nocjie ocMOTpa. P»ca- 
Bbie ctbojim HHKorfla He ^aiOT TOHHoro h KynHoro 6oa. 

CTepTOCTb nojieii napc30B hjih oKpyrjieHne nojien Hape30B ocoSchho 3aMeTHbi Ha jieBon Be- 
flynten SoeBoii rpaHH. Ecjih KaHan CTBOJia yxo>KeH h 6e3 CJie^OB p>KaBHHHbi, TaKoii ctboji ^onycKaeTca 
k OTCTpejiy Ha KynHOCTb. OneHb nacTO npnpaSoTaHHbie ctbojim hmciot KynHOCTb 6oa Jiynme, neM ho- 
Bbie. 

OsajibHaH pacTepTOCTb 11a rpoiiiiMKa HHor^a BH^Ha b BH^e tcmhoh noJiocKH b HH>KHeH nacTH 
naTpoHHHKa co ctopohw Mara3HHa. 06pa3yeTca ot pacTHpamia moMnojiOM h npn CTpejibSe 3arpa3- 
HeHHbiMH naTpoHaMH. Mo>KeT Bbi3BaTb pa3flyTne n npoflOJibHbiii pa3pbiB rnjib3bi. ITpn KOHTpojibHOM 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 287 

OTCTpene, ecuH Ha rHJib3e 3aMeTHO npoflOJibHoe pa3iiyTHe, BHHTOBKa SpaKyeTca. Ha MajioKajinSepHbix 
BHHTOBKax 3tot ^e(j)eKT cpa3y BH^eH npn Hapy>KHOM ocMOTpe h nacTO aBJiaeTca npHHHHoii HeBbiSpoca 
rajib3bi. 

IIpH HanHHHH b naTpoHHHKe paKOBHH, cneflOB p>KaBHHHbi h ckojiob xpoMa (y XpOMHpOBaHHblX 
ctbojiob), Bbi3biBaiomHx Tyroe H3BJieneHHe rnjib3bi, opy>KHe SpaKyeTca h peMomy He noflJie>KHT. 

Hapy>KHbiM ocmotpom CTBOJia mo>kho BbiaBHTb cnejiyiomHe fle(})eKTbi: 

- BMflTHHbi CTBOJia, BbiCTynaiomHe b KaHan CTBOJia. Ctboji peMOHTy He noflJie>KHT h SpaKyeTca; 

- TpeuniHbi; ctboji c TpemHHaMH SpaKyeTca; 

- ctboji c HBHbiM pa3A>THeM, ycTaHOBJieHHbiM no BbinyKJiocTH MeTanjia Ha Hapy>KHOH noBepx- 
hocth. J\jm CHannepcKoro npHMeHeHHa HenpnrofleH; 

- 3a6oHHbi Ha AyjibHOM cpe3e - y opy>KHa, ctbojiw KOToporo He HMeiOT njiaMeracHTejieii hjih 
KOMneHcaTopoB, 3to flo-BOJibHO nacToe aBJiemie. 3a6oHHbi pe3KO CHH>KaiOT KynHOCTb 6o». IIpHnoflHa- 
Tbiii MeTauji aKKypaTHO 3anHmaeTca Ha^HJieM 3anoflJiHHO c paSoHHMH noBepxHOCTSMH; 

- paSoHHbi Ha Ka3ciiHOM cpe3e (ycTbe) naTpoHHHKa, nperorrcTByiomHe flocbuiKe naTpoHa b na- 
tpohhhk, o6Hapy>KHBaK)Tca ocmotpom naTpoHHHKa h no HajiHHHio u,apanHH Ha CTpejiaHbix rajib3ax. 
fl,OBOJibHO peflKoe aBJiemie. B npaKTHKe aBTopa Smji Taicon cjiynaii, jibhbhihhcji cjie#CTBHeM BpeflH- 
TejibCTBa oflHoro CHaMnepa jjpyroMy nepefl copeBHOBaHHSMH. TaKne 3a6oHHbi h 3ayceHu,bi aKKypaTHO 
CHHMaiOTca Hafl(})HJieM 3anoflJiHu,o c noBepxHOCTbio MeTamia. 

IIpH Hapy>KHOM ocMOTpe oSpamaeTca BHHMaHHe Ha npoHHoe 3aKpenjieHHe Ha CTBOJie ocHOBaHHa 
MyniKH, ra30BOH Kaivtepbi, npHuejibHOH kojiojikh, ynopHoro KOJibua ueBbJi jio>kh. Bee 3th ^eTajiH 
flOJi>KHbi SbiTb npoHHO 3aKpenjieHbi Ha CTBOJie h He HMeTb KanKH. IIpeflOxpaHHTejib MyniKH He flOjraceH 
nepeMemaTbca b ocHOBaHHH ot ycnjina pyKH. Myiuica He flOJi>KHa HMeTb H3rn6a h copBamiOH pe3b6w. 
OHa flOJi>KHa SbiTb nepneH^HKyjiapHa k och KaHana CTBOJia h Tyro BBHHHHBaTbca b OTBepcTne npeflo- 
xpaHHTejia (TOJibKO kjiiohom). 

OBHAPy^CEHHE H3rHBA CTBOJIA 

H3rn6 CTBOJia y bhhtobok h aBTOMaTOB - aBJiemie ^OBOJibHO nacToe. CoSctbchho, penb H#eT o 
HenpaMOJiKHeiiHOM KaHane CTBOJia. TaKaa HenpaMOJiHHeiiHOCTb B03HHKaeT He TOJibKO npn jxe(j)opMa- 
hhjix roTOBoro CTBOJia, ho ixa>Ke b npouecce ero H3roTOBJieHHa. IforaSbi ctbojiob BCTpenaiOTca h Ha 
SoeBOM opy>KHH, h Ha MajioKajinSepHbix BHHTOBKax. .HBJiemie 3to He>KejiaTejibHoe, h6o npn He3HanH- 
TejibHOM nojioroM H3ra6e CTBOJia yxy^iuaeTca KynHOCTb 6oa, a npn 3HanHTejibHOM ctboji MO>KeT pa30- 
pBaTb. 

H3rn6 CTBOJia onpejxejiaeTca ocmotpom onepTaHHH TeHeM b KaHane CTBOJia c Ka3eHHoii h flyjib- 
hoh nacreM. 

fl,jia 3Toro HaflO TmaTejibHO nponncTHTb h npoTepeTb KaHaji CTBOJia, noMecTHTb ctboji Ha flepe- 
Bamiyio noflCTaBKy, HanpaBHTb ero ojj,hhm kohhom (HanpnMep, iiyjibHbiM) Ha hctohhhk pacceamioro 
CBeTa (okho) h ocMOTpeTb. IIpH 3tom rjia3 ocMaTpHBaiomero flOJi>KeH SbiTb pacnojio>KeH Ha paccToa- 
hhh 5-7 cm ot jjpyroro KOHua CTBOJia (cxeMa 149). Ilpn ocMOTpe nocreneHHO noflHHMaTb oSpameH- 
Hbiii k HCTOHHHKy CBeTa KOHeu, CTBOJia flo Tex nop, noKa b KaHane CTBOJia He CTaHeT bhjihoh tchb ne- 
penjieTa okohhoh paMbi. IIoBopaHHBaa ctboji BOKpyr och, BbiaBHTb onepTaHHa tchh. J\ji% 
HCCJieflOBaHHa jxpyroM nojiOBHHbi CTBOJia noBepHyrb ero k HCTOHHHKy CBeTa ^pyrHM kohhom (KaBeH- 
hoh nacTbio). Ecjih ctboji He H3orHyr, to npn ero BpameHHH BOKpyr och Ha 360° Tera> b KaHane CTBOJia 
flOJi>KHa SbiTb noxo>Ka Ha (})opMy paBHoSejjpeHHoro TpeyrojibHHKa c ocHOBaHneM, oSpameHHbiM k 
ocMaTpHBaiomeMy (A Ha cxeMe 150). 



Cate/i 




rjt&ictAtiirw&mutnia 

CxeMa 149. Ocmotp KaHana CTBOJia 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



288 




CxeMa 150. TeHeBbie TpeyrojibHHKH b KaHajie CTBOJia: 

A-b npaMOM CTBOJie; B-b H3orHyTOM CTBOJie 

OnepTaHHe TeHeBoro TpeyrojibHHKa He ^ojdkho H3MeHaTbca npn BpameHHH CTBOJia b npouecce 
npocMOTpa; TeHeBoii TpeyrojibHHK xapaKTepH3yeT tojibko Ty nacTb CTBOJia, Ha KOTopoii oh bh^ch, to 
ecTb nojiOBHHy CTBOJia, noaTOMy ctboji AOjraceH SbiTb npocMOTpeH c oSohx kohhob. B H3orHyTOM 
CTBOJie ctopohm TeHeBoro TpeyrojibHHKa HCKpHBJieHbi, h KpHBH3Ha hx H3MeHaeTca no Mepe BpameHHa 
CTBOJia BOKpyr ero och. Ecjih ctboji cepe/niHOH H3orHyr bhh3, to ctopohm TpeyrojibHHKa BbirHyibi 
Hapy>Ky (B Ha cxeMe 150). Ecjih ctboji morayr BnpaBO hjih BJieBO, to ctopohm TpeyrojibHHKa BorHyibi 
b CTopoHy, npoTHBonojio>KHyio H3rn6y (nporaSy) CTBOJia. IIpH cjio>khom MHO>KecTBeHHOM H3ra6e Te- 
HeBOH TpeyrojibHHK npepbiBHCT h nacTH ero cflBHHyibi OTHOCHTejibHO flpyr flpyra. Harjia^HO 3to 
npeACTaBJieHO Ha cxeMe 151. 




Pacnojio>KeHHe TeHH b HenorayroM rjia^KOM CTBOJie 




Pacnojio>KeHHe TeHH b HenorHyroM Hape3HOM CTBOJie 



CTpejia H3ra6a HanpaBJieHa bhh3 




AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 289 



CTpena H3rH6a HanpaBJieHa BBepx 



CTpena H3ra6a HanpaBJieHa bjicbo 




Cmpe/ia U3zu6a nanpaejiena enpaeo 

Pacnojiootcenue menu e Kana/ie cmeojia c no/iozuM u3zu6om na odnou nemeepmu ezo dnunu om 
dyjibnozo cpe3a 



Cmpejia U3zu6a nanpaejiena enu3 




CTpena H3ra6a HanpaBJieHa BBepx 

Pacnojiootcenue menu e xanajie cmeojia npu uojiozom U3zu6e cmeojia nocepedune 

CxeMa 151 

HcKa>KeHHbie TeHH b KaHane CTBOJia Bcer^a CBH^eTejibCTByiOT o HanHHHH b HeM H3rH6a. Bhhtob- 
kh, CTBOJibi KOTopwx HMeiOT nojiorHH H3ra6, flonycKaiOTca k flajibHeHinen cjiy>K6e, ecjin ohh y/iOBJie- 
TBopaiOT HopManbHOMy 6010. Ctbojim c nonorHM H3ra6oM, He yflOBJieTBopaiomne HopManbHOMy 6010, 
noflJie>KaT BbinpaBJieHHio. Ecjih BbinpaBHTb ctboji He npeflCTaBJiaeTca B03MO>KHbiM hjih >Ke b nponecce 
BbinpaBJieHHa ctboji nojiynnjica "nepeKOBaHHbiM" c neperaSoM b oSpaTHyio CTopoHy h c BMjmiHaMH, 
BHHTOBKa SpaKyeTca. 

IIPHMEHAHHE. IIpH onpeflejieHHH H3rn6a CTBOJia no TeHaM KOJibneBoe TeMHoe rormo b KaHa- 
jie CTBOJia nofl ocHOBaHHeM MyniKH TpexjinHenHoii bhhtobkh nojiynaeTca b pe3yjibTaTe npoTa>KKH Ha 

3aBOflaX OCHOBHOrO npOHBBOflCTBa H BO BHHMaHHe He npnHHMaeTca. 

nPABKA H30rHYTWX CTBOJIOB 

J\jik npaBKn H3orHyToro CTBOJia: 

- OT/jejiHTb ctboji co CTBOJibHOH KopoSicoH ot jio>kh (npnioiafla, neBba); 

- npoHHCTHTb h Hacyxo npoTepeTb KaHan CTBOJia; 

- onpeflejiHTb xapaKTep n MecTO H3rn6a no (})opMe TeHH b KaHane CTBOJia; 

- npn nojioroM H3rn6e nojio>KHTb ctboji Ha Me^Hyio HaKOBanbHio cneniiajibHOH (})opMbi (cxeMa 
152) TaK, hto6w MecTO H3ra6a Haxo^HJiocb Ha^ nojioii nacTbio HaKOBanbHH, a BepmnHa ero 6buia 
HanpaBJieHa BBepx. B 3aBHCHMOCTH ot ajikhm H3rn6a ctboji yKJia^biBaeTca nonepeK HaKOBanbHH no 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



290 



flnaroHajiH, ho TaK, HToSbi ero BepniHHa pacnojiaranacb nocepeflHHe nojioM nacTH HaKOBajibHH; 

- BbinpaBHTb CTBOJI MeflHbIM MOJIOTKOM BeCOM OT 0,4 flO 2 KT. CHJia yflapa MOJIOTKOM flOJDKHa 

SbiTb TaKoii, HToSbi ctboji He nojiynHJi nepernSa b npoTHBonojio>KHyK) CTopoHy hjih bmsthh; 

- npoBepHTb no tchh npaMOJiHHeHHOCTb CTBOJia h, ecjin OKa>KeTca, hto ctboji He BbinpaBJieH, no- 
BTopHTb npaBKy. 

BHHMAHHE! IIpaBKOH BbinpaBJiaiOTca, Ka3anocb 6w, 6e3Hafle>KHbie ctbojiw; Sojiee Toro, sthm 
CTBOJiaM B03BpamaeTC» KyHHbiM h CTaSnjibHbiH 6oh. Ho npaBKa CTBOJia - oneHb Tpy^Hbiii, aKKypaTHbiM 

H OTBCTCTBeHHblH npOHCCC, H OHa MO>KeT SbiTb BbinOJIHeHa TOJIbKO OnblTHbIM Opy>KeHHHKOM. 




CxeMa 152. HaKOBanbHa ^Jia npaBKH CTBOJia: 
1 - noflCTaBKa; 2 - HaKOBanbHa; 3 - onopa 

PACCBEPJIOBKA ^YJIbHOH HACTH CTBOJIA BHHTOBKH HJIH KAPABHHA 



3toh onepaHHeii BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeTca KyHHOCTb 6oa CTBOJia. CyTb 3aKJiiOHaeTca b tom, hto CBep- 
jiom BbiSnpaeTca pacTpyS hjih pa3flyiHe h BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeTca hctkhh flynbHbiii nepena^. J\jis pac- 
CBepjiOBKH Heo6xo/niMo: 

- onpeflejiHTb fljiHHy pa3flyTna hjih nmoca (pacTepTOCTn) ^yjibHOH nacTH KaHana CTBOJia; 

- ycTaHOBHTb ctboji Ha TOKapHOM CTaHKe TaK, HToSbi SbiJia Bbiflep>KaHa coocHOCTb KaHana CTBOJia 
co CBepjiOM, 3a>KaTbiM b naTpoHe; 

- paccBepjiHTb KaHan CTBOJia co ctopohw flyjibHoro cpe3a Ha ^naMeTp 8,8+0.2 mm Ha fljiHHy pa3- 
flyiHa hjih H3HOca, ho He Sojiee neM Ha 46,5 mm y BHHTOBOHHbix ctbojiob h He Sojiee neM 30±1 mm y 
KapaSnHOB. (rioneMy TaK? IIoTOMy hto npn stom npaKTHnecKH coxpaHaeTca pacneTHaa TpaeKTopna 
nyjin); (fl,onycKaeTca paccBepjiOBKa KaHana CTBOJia HenocpeflCTBemio cpa3y Ha /uiHHy 45±1,5 mm y 
bhhtobok h Ha fljiHHy 30±1 mm y KapaSnHOB.) 

- pa3BepHyib paccBepjieHHyio nacTb KaHana CTBOJia Ha toh fljiHHe pa3BepTKoii ^naMeTpoM 9 mm 
(cxeMa 153); 

- 3aHHCTHTb nJIOCKHM JIHHHbIM HanHJIbHHKOM H Ha>KflaHHbIM nOJIOTHOM CJieflbl pa3flyTH» 3ano#- 

jihho c Hapy>KHOH noBepxHOCTbio flyjibHoii nacTH CTBOJia h 3ayceHHbi Ha ^yjibHOM cpe3e; 

- npOBepHTb Soft CTBOJia b coSpamiOM opy>KHH. 




CxeMa 153. 06pa6oTKa ^yjibHOH nacTH KaHana CTBOJia: 

a - bhhtobkh; 6 - KapaSnHa 

OSbiHHO paccBepjiOBKa ^yjibHOH nacTH KaHana CTBOJia CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh He npoHBBOflHica. 
Ho b noflaBJiaiOHieM SojibiHHHCTBe cjiynaeB paccBepjiOBKa BOCCTaHaBJiHBaeT KynHOCTb 6oa CTBOJia. 
CHaiinepcKyio BHHTOBKy nocjie TaKoM onepauHH cjie^yeT, pa3yMeeTca, 3aHOBO npncTpejiaTb. Ha (})poH- 
Te My>KHKH o6Hapy>KHJiH OflHy nojie3Hyio ocoSemiocTb paccBepjiOBKH: ecjin no SoKaM toh nacTn, ot- 
Ky/ja paccBepjieH pacTpyS, HacBepjiHTb 30-40 OTBepcTHH ^naMeTpoM 2-3 mm, to TaKaa paccBepjiemiaa 
nacTb HanHHaeT paSoTaTb KaK scJ^eKTHBHbiii njiaMeracHTejib. npn 3tom yMeHbiuaeTca ra30Bbiii bm- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 291 

xnon Bnepefl h MeHbine noflHHMaeTca nbuin, CHera h t. p,. nepefl CTpenKOM h 3thm MeHbine ^eMacKH- 
pyeTca no3Hu,Ha. 

H3HOC KAHAJIA CTBOJIA no nOJMM, OKPYrJIEHHE HJIH CKPOIIIEHHOCTb 

yrjioB nojiEii hape30b 

J\im BbMBJieHHa sthx HeHcnpaBHOCTeM HeoSxoflHMO TmaTejibHO npoTepeTb KaHan CTBOJia, 
ocMOTpeTt ero h oSMepmb bohckobmm KannSpoM K-2. 

(I) CKpyraeHHe hjih CKpomemiocTb yrjioB nojieii Hape30B, a TaK>Ke h3hoc KaHana CTBOJia no no- 
jijim (icajiH6p K-2 BxoflHT b KaHan CTBOJia c ^ynbHOH nacTn) flonycKaKxrca, ecjin BHHTOBKa y^OBJieTBO- 
paeT TpeSoBaHHaM HopMajibHoro 6oa. 

IIpH Bxo>KAeHHH KannSpa K-2 b KaHan CTBOJia (KaK c paccBepjieHHOH, TaK h HepaccBepjiemiOH 
AyjibHOH nacTbio) c flyjibHOH nacTH Ha fljiHHy Sojiee 45 mm ot flynbHoro cpe3a BHHTOBKy, He yflOBJie- 
TBopaiomyio BCJieflCTBne 3Toro TpeSoBamiaM HopMaiibHOio 6o», SpaKOBaTb. 

IIpH Bxo>KfleHHH KannSpa K-2 b HepaccBepjieHHbiH KaHan CTBOJia c ^yjibHOH nacTH Ha fljinHy ao 
45 mm BHHTOBKy, He yflOBJieTBopaiomyio BCJieflCTBne 3Toro TpeSoBaHHaM HopMajibHoro 6oa, OTnpa- 

BHTb B BblHieCTOJHHHH peMOHTHblH OpraH. 

(II) CKpyraeHHe hjih CKponieHHOCTb yraoB nojien Hape30B, a TaK>Ke h3hoc KaHana CTBOJia no no- 
ji»m (KajinSp K-2 bxoaht b KaHan CTBOJia c ^yjibHOH nacTH Ha /uiHHy He Sojiee 1 mm, a b KaHan CTBOJia 
c paccBepjieHHOH ^yjibHOH nacTbio Ha fljiHHy He Sojiee 5 1 mm ot ^ynbHoro cpe3a) ^onycKaiOTca, ecjin 
BHHTOBKa npn 3tom y^OBJieTBopaeT ipeSoBaffliaM HopMajibHoro 6oa. 

Ilpn Bxo>KfleHHH KannSpa K-2 b KaHan CTBOJia c ^yjibHOH nacTH Ha ^Jimiy ot 1 ao 45 mm y bhh- 
tobkh, yflOBJieTBopaiomeH TpeSoBaHHaM HopMajibHoro 6oa, a TaK>Ke npn Bxo>KfleHHH KannSpa K-2 b 
KaHan CTBOJia #o 45 mm y bhhtobkh, He yflOBJieTBopjnoinen BCJie^CTBHe 3Toro TpeSoBaHHaM HopManb- 
Horo 6oa, paccBepjiHTb ^ynbHyio nacTb KaHana CTBOJia (cm. paHee). 

OKCH^HPOBAHHE OPY^CHH 

B HacToamee BpeMa apMencKoe opy>KHe fljia npeflOxpaHeHna ot op>KaBJieHHa h fljia npHflaHna 
eMy KpacHBoro BHeniHero BH#a noKpwBaeTca cnennajibHbiM KpacamHM cocTaBOM. Opy>KHe npe>KHHx 
jieT BbinycKa h coBpeMeHHbie nncTOJieTbi ^Jia 3thx nejieii noRpbiBanncb tohkoh okch^hoh mieHKOH. 
Okch#hoh nneHKOH noKpwBaiOTca o6pa3u,bi ocoSo TOHHoro CHannepcKoro opy>KHa h oxoTHHHbn Kapa- 
Shhw. Hn>Ke npnBOflaTca cnocoSw BopoHeHna (oKCH^npoBaHna), HanSojiee nacTO npnMeHaeMbie b 
opy>KeHHOH npaKTHKe co BpeMeH IlepBOH mhpoboh bohhm. 

OKCHAHpoeaHHe aHrjiHHCKHM "pacaBbiM" JiaKOM 

JJjia BopoHeHHa 3thm cnocoSoM SepyTca TexHHnecKaa cojiaHaa KHCJiOTa h a30THaa KHCJiOTa b 
OflHHaKOBbix oSbeMax, CMeniHBaKxrca h b stoh cmcch pacTBopaKxrca >Kejie3Haa KyBHenHaa OKanHHa h 
»ce.ne3Hbie (cTanbHbie) CTpy>KKH b oflHHaKOBbix KOJinnecTBax ao Tex nop, noKa ohh He nepecTaHyr pac- 
TBopaTbca. nojiyneHHyio >KH^KOCTb HaHOcaT Ha HeoSxo/niMyio ^eTanb hjih ctboji hcckojibkhmh cjioa- 
mh c o6a3aTejibHOH npocyniKoii nocjie HaHeceHna Ka>Kfloro CJioa. 

3tot nponecc oneHb flOJirnii n MO>KeT npoflJiHTbca HecKOJibKO cyTOK. Ho nojiynaeMoe noKpbiTne 
HMeeT oneHb KpacHBbiii TeMHO-KopHHHeBbin u,BeT h npe^oxpaHaeT opy>Kne ot p>KaBHHHbi, KaK HHKaKoe 
Apyroe. Opy>KHe, noKpbiToe "p>KaBbiM" JiaKOM, MO>KeT npojie>KaTb He^ejiio b BO^e 6e3 npn3HaKOB op- 
>KaBJieHH». 

OKCHAHpoeaHHe cejiHTpon 

,H,eTajiH opy>KHa onycKaiOT b pacnjiaBJieHHyio Knnaniyio cejiHTpy (KajinnHyio hjih HaTpneByio) h 
Bbiflep>KHBaiOT TaM ^0 npn^aHHa MeTanjiy oneHb KpacHBoro TeMHO-CHHero u,BeTa. IIpHJiHnniyio cejiHT- 
py 3aTeM CMbiBaiOT ropanen boaoh. OKCH^Haa njieHKa ^ep>KHTca oneHb AOJiro. TaK bopohhjih peBOJib- 
Bepbi-HaraH n "Cmht-Bcccoh" Ha TyjibCKnx 3aBOflax enie cto JieT Ha3a/i n coxpaHHBniHeca o6pa3Ubi 
3Toro opy>KHa ^o chx nop He noTepajin BHenmero BH^a. 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 292 

OKCHAHpoeamie rnnocyjib^HTOM 

JlQjaiib onycKaiOT b HacbiineHHbiii pacTBop MeflHoro Kynopoca, npeflBapmejibHO ^oSaBHB b Hero 
no KannaM 5-6 Kanejib cepHon khcjiotm. fleTanb BbiflepacHBaeTca flo nBeTa KpacHOH mqhh. 3aTeM ee 
nponojiacKHBaiOT b ropanen BO#e h onycKaiOT Ha 20-30 ceicyHfl b npo^njibTpoBamibiH HacbimeHHbiH 
pacTBop rnnocyjibcJfflTa. Ilocjie Hero AeTaub Bbiflep>KHBaeTca b pacTBope KanHHHbix KBacnoB 1:10 Ha 
npoTJDKeHHH 10-12 nacoB, 3aTeM ee npoMbiBaiOT, cyuiaT h CMa3bmaiOT ojih(|)oh. IIoKpbiTHe nojiynaeTca 
HBeTa nepHOH nnacTMaccbi h ^ep>KHTca oneHb ^ojiro. 

LU,CJIO'IHOC OKCHAHpOBaHHe 

fl,eTajib KHnaTaT npn TeMnepaType 125-130° Ha npoTJDKeHHH 40-90 MHHyT b pacTBope 700 r Kay- 
CTHnecKOH coflbi, 100 r HHTpaTa HaTpna, 100 r 6ypw h 1 ji BOflbi, 3aTeM npoMbiBaiOT h noKpbiBaiOT 

OJIH(|)OH. 

BopoHeHHe (orHeeoe oKCHAHpoeaHHe) BTopocTeneHHbix AeTajieii 

BopoHeHHe (orHeBoe OKcnflnpoBaHHe) BTopocTeneHHbix AeTajieii (KpoMe ctbojiob, 3aTBopoB h 
CTBOJibHbix KopoSoK) npoH3BOflHTca HarpeBOM AeTajieii Ha onie flo nBeTOB no6e>KajiocTH (ho He nepe- 
flep>KaTb!) c nocneflyiomHM onycKaHHeM hx b jno6oe MHHepanbHoe Macno. Hjih b MeTanjinnecKOM 
aiHHKe 3acbinaiOT fleTanb ^peBecHbiM TOJineHbiM yraeM h HarpeBaiOT Ha orHe. 

BHHMAHHE: nepefl jhoSmm bh^om OKCHflnpoBaHna fleTann o6e3>KHpHTb b 10%-hom pacTBope 
coflbi hjih noTania. 

CTBOJIbl npH >KHflKOCTHOM OKCHflHpOBaHHH nJIOTHO 3aKpbIBaTb npoSlCaMH CO CTOpOHbl naTpOHHH- 

Ka h flyjibHoro cpe3a. 

OGmcapMciicKaii MHCTpyKUHH no OKCH/HipoBaHiiio AeTajieii bhhtobkh m KapaGnna 

Jinn npeflOxpaHeHHa MeTajiJinnecKHx AeTajieii bhhtobkh h icapaSnHa ot p>KaBJieHHa noBepxHOCTb 
fleTanen OKcn^HpyeTca. 

,3,jis nojiyneHHa KanecTBeHHoro OKCH^Horo noKpbiTna peKOMeH^yeTca BbinojiHJiTb onepannn b 
TaKOH nocjieflOBaTejibHOCTH: 

1. IloflroTOBKa noBepxHOCTH. 

2. OKCHAHpOBaHHe. 

3 . Ilocjieflyiomaa OT^ejiica. 

I. IIoAroTOBKa noBepxHOCTH 

a) 06e3>KHpHBaHHe 

1 . fl,eTajiH o6e3>KHpHBaTb b BaHHe, coflep>KameH pacTBop cjie^yiomero cocTaBa: 
Kajibu,HHHpoBaHHaa hjih KaycTHnecKaa co#a 100 r 

Bop,a 1 ji 

2. ,3,eTajiH o6e3>KHpHBaTb npn SypHOM KHneHHH pacTBopa b TeneHne 20-30 MHHyr. 

3. OcBe>KaTb (KoppeKTHpoBaTb) pacTBop Hy>KHO no Mepe ero nspacxoflOBaHHa nyreivi ^oSaBJie- 
HHa cocTaBHbix nacTeii flo nepBOHaHajibHoii KOHnenipanHH. ILnaBaiomHe na noBepxHOCTH o6e3>KHpH- 
Baiomero pacTBopa >KnpoBbie 3arpa3HeHna aojckhw BpeMa ot BpeMeHH y^anaTbca. 

6) IIpOMblBKa B BOfle 

Ilocjie o6e3>KHpHBaHHa fleTann npoMbiTb b BOflonpoBOflHOH npoTOHHon BO^e (npn KOMHaTHon 
TeMnepaType) 3-4-KpaTHbiM norpy>KeHHeM. 

Xopomo o6e3>KHpeHHaa ^eTanb flOJi>KHa nojiHOCTbio CMannBaTbca boaoh. Ecjih Bo^a npn npo- 
MbiBKe noKpbiBaeT noBepxHOCTb fleTann He nojiHOCTbio, a coSnpaeTca KanjiaMH, 3to yKa3biBaeT Ha He- 

flOCTaTOHHOe 06e3>KHpHBaHHe. 

b) TpaBJieHne 

Ilpn HanHHHH p>KaBHHHbi Ha noBepxHOCTH AeTajieii, a Taioice npn noBTopHOM OKCHflnpoBamiH hx 
c nejibio y^ajieHna nepBOHanajibHOH okch^hoh njieHKH TpaBJieHne ^eTajien npon3BOflHTb no HHCTpyK- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 293 

nnn (npHJio>KeHHe 5). 

r) IIpoMbiBKa b BOfle 

Ilocjie TpaBJieHHa fleTann npoMbiTb b xojioahoh npoTOHHOH BO#e 3-4-KpaTHbiM norpjoKeHneM. 

TIPHMEHAHHE. IJocjie mpaenenun u npoMbieKu eo U36ej/canue potcaenenuH ne pa3peuiaemcn, 
nmodbi dema/iu naxodwiucb na eo3dyxe ceuuie 10 cexynd. IJpu ebwyotcdeHHOu 3adepjKKe demajiu 
HeoOxoduMO onycxamb na 5 Munym e MUJibnuu pacmeop, nocne nezo eunymb u ebicyiuumb; o6pa30- 
eaewancn MbiJibnan nnentca npedoxpannem demajiu om potcaenenun. 

OSmne 3aMenaHHa no onepannaM noflroTOBKn noBepxHOCTH 

1 . IIpH HanHHHH Ha noBepxHOCTH fleTanen TOJiCToro cnoa CMa3KH hjih >Knpa nepefl o6e3>KHpHBa- 
HHeM nojiHOCTbio y^ajiHTb hx, npoTHpaa cyxHMH TpanicaMn; nocne nero fleTann OTnpaBHTb ^Jia o6e3- 

>KHpHBaHHa. 

2. IIpy>KHHbI BHHTOBKH H KapaSnHa TpaBJieHHK) He nOflBepraTb, a HHCTHTb Ha>KflaHHbIM nOJIOT- 

hom hjih Kpau,eBanbHOH meTKon. 

II. OKCM/JlipOBaHMC 

a) OKCH^HpoBaHHe 

1 . ^.eTaiiH oKCHflnpoBaTb b BaHHe, coflepacameH pacTBop cjie^yiomero cocTaBa: 
KaycTHnecKaa co#a 700 r 

HnTpaT HaTpna 100 r 

Hhtpht HaTpna 100 r 

Bofla 1 ji 

TIPHMEHAHHE. B xanecmee OKucnumeneu odunaxoeo npuMenuMbi numpam u numpum nampun 
ujiu kcijiuh e cyjujue, ne npeeuiuajoiqeu 200 z Kate e yKa3annou CMecu, max u e omdejibHocmu. 

2. IIpHroTOBJiaTb pacTBop Hy>KHO b cneuHanbHOM no/iorpeBaeMOM Saice, npeflBapnrejibHO xopo- 

HIO OHHHieHHOM OT rp»3H H TmaTeJIbHO npOMblTOM BOflOH. 

IIpeflBapHTejibHO pa3flpo6jieHHyio Ha MenKHe KycKH (pa3MepoM 40-50 mm b nonepenHHice) Kay- 
CTHnecKyio cofly 3arpy>KaiOT b 6aK, 3annBaiOT boaoh h KnrorraT #o pacTBopeHna 3aTeM bboajit HHTpar 
n hhtpht HaTpna. nocne pacTBopeHna KOMnoHeHTOB OKcn^npyiomero cocTaBa pacTBop ocTaBJiaeTca b 
nonHOM noKoe Ha 2-4 naca. 3thm npHroTOBJieHHe pacTBopa ^Jia OKcnflnpoBaHna 3aKaHHHBaeTca. 

Ilepefl OKCH^HpoBaHHeM rqtsljiqPl pacTBop noflorpeBaeTca flo SypHoro KnneHna. 

3. fl,eTajiH, noflroTOBJieHHbie k OKcnflnpoBaHnio, norpy>KaTb b SypHO KHnainnii pacTBop b ceTna- 
TblX >KeJie3HbIX Kop3HHax. 

4. HananbHaa TeMnepaTypa pacTBopa (npn norpy>KeHHH fleTanen b BaHHy) 136-138°C, KOHenHaa 
(b KOHu,e OKCHflnpoBaHHa) - 142-145°C. fl,Jia 3aKaneHHbix fleTaneii TeMnepaTypa BaHHbi npn norpy>Ke- 
hhh 140°C c nocTeneHHbiM noBbimeHneM ee k KOHny OKcnflnpoBaHna #o 145-146°C. 

TIPHMEHAHHR. 1. I7pu3HaKOM u3MenenuH KOHijenmpaijuu pacmeopa npu nocmoHHHOM o6-bejvie 
cjiyjKum meMiiepamypa Kunenun. noHuotcenue meMtiepamypu Kunenun c coxpanenueM odhejua ceude- 
mejibcmeyem 06 yMenbiuenuu Komjenmpaijuu, a noeuiuenue mejunepamypbi Kunenun - 06 yeenimenuu 
KOHijeHtnpaijuu. Hapyiuenue peotcuMa eannu eedem k nonuj/cenujo xanecmea oxpacxu. 2. Hmo6u no- 
eucumb meMiiepamypy Kunenun pacmeopa na 1°C, cjiedyem dodaeumb 10 z edxozo nampa na Kaotcduu 
jiump pacmeopa. IJoHUJ/ceHue meMnepamypu Kunenun pacmeopa docmuzaemcn pa36aejienueM ezo eo- 
donpoeodnou eodou ujiu eodou nocne onojiacKueanun (cm. nuotce - npuMenanue). 

5. ,3,eTajiH Bbi#ep>KHBaTb b pacTBope b nponecce OKcnflnpoBaHna 1,5 naca. 
6) OnojiacKHBaHne 

Bo BpeMa OKCHflnpoBaHna fleTann nepe3 Ka>Kflbie 25-30 MHHyr BbmnMaTb H3 OKcnflnpyioniero 
pacTBopa n onojiacKHBaTb b BOflonpoBOflHon BO^e npn KOMHaTHon TeMnepaType, onycKaa nx b BO#y 2- 
3 pa3a. 

TIPHMEHAHHE. Boda nocne ononacKueanun Mootcem dumb ucnonb3oeana dnn nononnenun ok- 
cudupoeoHHOu eannu. 

B) IIpOMblBKa BOflOH 

nocne OKCHflHpoBaHHa fleTann npoMbiTb BOflonpoBOflHon boaoh (acejiaTejibHO nofl ^aBJieHneM H3 
SpaHflcnoiiTa) j\o nojmoro yp,anemw ocTaTKOB OKCHAnpyioniero pacTBopa c noBepxHOCTH fleTanen. 
OSmne 3aMenaHna no onepau,naM OKcnflnpoBaHna 
1. Ilpn norpy>KeHHH fleTanen b OKcnflnpyioninn pacTBop bcs noBepxHOCTb nx ^0Ji5KHa nojmo- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 294 

CTbK) OMblBaTbCa pacTBopoM 

2. IloaBJieHHe Ha noBepxHOCTH OKCH^iipyeMbix fleTajieM HaneTa 3ejieHoro hjih >KejiToro uBeTa 
yKa3biBaeT Ha noBbinieHHyio TeMnepaTypy OKCH/nipyiomero pacTBopa (hjih noBbiiueHHyio KoimeHTpa- 

HHK) KayCTHHeCKOH COflbl), flJia nOHH>KeHHa KOTOpOH B BaHHy HeoSxOflHMO floSaBHTb BOflbl. 

3. Ilo Mepe nojib30BaHHa pacTBopoM b BaHHe fljia OKCHflHpoBamia nponcxoflHT HaKanjiHBaHHe 
oca^Ka TH^paTa okhch >Kejie3a. Oca^oK nepHOflnnecKH y^anaTb cneuHanbiibiMH CKpeSicaMH npn TeM- 
nepaType pacTBopa HecKOJibKO HH>Ke tohkh KHnemia. 

III. IIocjieAyiomaH OTACJiKa 

a) Bbiflep>KKa b MbiJibHOM pacTBope 

1 . Ilocjie OKCHflHpoBaHHa fleTanH norpy>KaTb b KnnamHH MbiJibHbiM pacTBop CJieflyiomero cocTa- 
Ba: 

Mbmo TBepfloe 30 r 

Bofla 1 ji 

TIPHMEHAHHR: 1. Bo u36eotcaHue ceepmueanun Mbina MUJibnuu pacmeop cjiedyem zomoeumb 
na npedeapumeiibHO npoKunnueHHOu eode. 2. IJpu ceepmueanuu Mbina pacmeop ebuiueawm u 3aMenn- 
wm ceeoKUM. 3. BpeMH eudepotcKu demaneu e zopnneM MbiJibHOM pacmeope 3- 5 Munym. 

6) CyniKa 

BbmyTbie H3 MbiJibHoro pacTBopa ^eTajiH npocyniHBaTb Ha B03#yxe flo nonHoro yflajiemui BJiani 
c noBepxHOCTeM. 

b) IIpoMacjiHBaHHe 

1 . IIpocynieHHbie fleTanH noMemaiOT b BaHHy, coflepacamyio BepeTeHHoe Macno hjih pjoKeiniyio 
CMa3Ky. 

2. TeMnepaTypa CMa3KH b BaHHe 105-1 15°C; Bbmep>KKa b BaHHe 2-3 MHHyTbi. 
TIPHMEHAHHE. YIpuMennmb xonodnyw cjua3Ky ne peKOMendyemcn. TopHHue CMa3aHHue dema- 

jiu nojueiqamb Ha cneijuajibmie cmojiu dun omexaHun u3JiuiuKa Macjia u no oxjiaotcdenuu ux Hyotcno 
npomupamb om mdbiniKa Macjia u om Kpacuoeamozo najiema. IJocjie smozo demanu nanpaeumb na 
Kownpojib Kanecmea OKcudnozo noKpumun. 

KoHTpojib KanecTea oKCHAHoro noKpbiTHH 

KanecTBO OKCHAHoro noKpbiTHa ycTaiiaBJiHBaeTca BHeniHHM ocmotpom noBepxHOCTH OKCH/nipo- 
BaHHbix fleTaneii. IIoBepxHOCTb ^eTaneH nocjie OKCH^HpoBaHHa flOJi>KHa HMeTb poBHyio oicpacicy nep- 
Horo HBera. 

fl,jia fleTaneii c rpySo oSpaSoTaHHOH noBepxHOCTbio, a Taioice fljia ynacTKOB, noflBeprayibix 
MecTHoii CBapKe hjih HiTaMnoBKe, flonycKaeTca cjiaSaa pa3HHna b OTTeHKax HBera. 

Ha noBepxHOCTH OKCH^HpoBamibix fleTaneii He aojdkho SbiTb KpacHOBaToro oca^Ka h He3aoKCH- 
AHpoBaHHbix ynacTKOB. ,3,eTajiH c KpacHbiM HaneTOM B03BpaiHaTb Ha npoTHpKy, a ^eTajiH c He3aoKCH- 
AHpoBaHHbiMH ynacTKaMH noflBepraTb noBTopHOMy OKCH^HpoBaHHio, fljia nero nocjie o6e3>KHpHBaHHa 
h npoMbiBKH BOfloii o6pa6oTaTb npn KOMHaTHoii TeMnepaType b HHrnSHpoBaHHOH cojishoh KHCJiOTe no 
HHCTpyKHHH (npHJio>KeHHe 5) flo pacTBopeHHa okch^hoh njieHKH. 3aTeM fleTanH CHOBa TmaTejibHO 
npoMbiTb BOfloii h flanbine o6pa6oTaTb, KaK fleTanH, BHOBb nociynHBiiiHe Ha OKCHflHpoBamie. 

B cjiynae p>KaBJieHHa fleTaneii b caMoii BaHHe HeoSxoflHMO ohhcthtb BaHHy h oShobhtb pacTBop. 

TexHHKa 6e3onacHocTH 

Bpbi3rn mejiOHHoro pacTBopa pa3be#aiOT TKaHb o#e>Kflbi h npn nonaflamiH Ha Tejio Bbi3biBaiOT 
o>KorH, no3TOMy jinua, 3aH3Tbie mejiOHHbiM OKCH/nipoBaHHeM, aojihchu bo BpeMa paSoTbi Ha^eBaTb 
6pe3eHTOByio cneuoflOK^y, pe3HHOBbie canorn h pe3HHOBbie nepnaTKH. 

Ilo OKOHHaHHH paSoTbi nojibi b noMemeHHH ^Jia OKCHflHpoBKH flOJi>KHbi SbiTb TmaTejibHO npo- 
MbiTbi BOfloii, a Bee BaHHbi bo H36e>KaHHe 3arpa3HeHHa flOJi>KHbi SbiTb HaicpbiTbi KpbiniKaMH. 

IIpHJioaceHHe 5. HHCTpyKijHH no ohhctkc AeTajiefl ot p^caBHHHbi xhmhhcckhm cnocoSoM 

A. OSmne CBeAeHHH 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBo cHaiinepa» 



295 



1 . OHHCTKa CTajIbHblX RQTailQpL OT p>KaBHHHbI flOJDKHa npOHBBOflHTbCJI B HHraSlipOBaHHOH COJI3- 

hoh KHCJiOTe, npeflCTaBJiaiomeH CMecb cojijihoh khcjiotm (y#. Bee 1,18) c hhfhShtopom MapKH IIB-5 
(0,8-1% no OTHOineHHio k o6beMy cojishoh khcjiotm). HeHHrHSnpoBaHHyio KHCJiOTy npHMeHSTb 3a- 
npemaeTca. 

HHrnSHpoBaHHaa cojiaHaa KHCJiOTa xoponio OHHmaeT CTanbHbie fleTanH ot p>KaBHHHM, npaKra- 
necKH He pacTBopaeT MeTanji. 

2. HHrnSHpoBaHHaa cojiaHaa KHCJiOTa OTrpy>KaeTca noTpeSHiejiaM c 3aBO#OB MnHHCTepcTBa 

XHMHHeCKOH npOMMHIJieHHOCTH B oSblHHMX >KeJie3HOflOpO>KHMX UHCTepHaX HJIH B 6yTHJIHX. 

3. OnncTKa CTanbHbix ^eianeM ot p>KaBHHHbi coctoht h3 cjieflyiomnx ocHOBHbix onepainiH: nofl- 

TOTOBKH RQTSLJIQpL K OHHCTKe, TpaBJieHHS B KHCJiOTe, npOMblBKH c naccHBHpoBaHHeM, npoTHpKH, cyniKH 
H CMa3KH. 

B. IIoAroTOBKa AeTajiefl k ohhctkc 

4. 06e3>KHpHTb fleTanH b BaHHe, coflep>KameH pacTBop CJieflyiomero cocTaBa: 
Kajibu,HHHpoBaHHaa hjih KaycTHnecKaa cop,a 100 r 

Bofla 1 ji 

HJIH 

Mmjio TBepfloe 30 r 

Bop,a 1 ji 

06e3>KHpHBaHHe Be^eTca npn KnneHHH pacTBopa. 

5. IIpoMbiTb fleTanH b xojiOflHoii npoTOHHoii BOfle h oxjiaflHTb flo KOMHaTHoii TeMnepaTypbi (18- 
20°C). Xoponio o6e3>KHpeHHaa ^eTanb flOJi>KHa nojiHOCTbio CMaHHBaTbca boaoh. Ecjih BO#a npH npo- 
MbiBKe noKpbiBaeT noBepxHOCTb fleTanH He nojiHOCTbio, a coSnpaeTca KanjiaMH, to 3to yKa3biBaeT Ha 

HeflocTaTOHHoe o6e3>KHpHBaHHe. 

TIPHMEHAHHE. IJpu hcuiuhuu na noeepxHocmu demaneu mojicmozo cjioh cmci3ku neped o6e3- 
otcupueaHueM, neodxoduMO ee ydanumb cyxou eemoiubio. 

B. TpaBJiemie 



6. BblTpaBHTb fleTajIH B 3MajIHpOBaHHMX, flepeB3HHbIX HJIH B CBapHbix >Kejie3Hbix BaHHax, co- 

Aep>KamHx pacTBop cjieflyromero cocTaBa: 



Bawu 


Ann Kamx nerajieti iftHMemiens 


Cocras TpaBHUbuoti Bam>i, 
H 


Bona 


HM~H6H|)OBaiWail 

conanan 
mcnoTa 


1 


QifiiHO nopaxetf-ux pxaBLM-toii m He tuemutK noji^wBaHhbK 
noeepxHotTeii 


— 


100 


2 




50 


50 


noeepxHotni 


3 


He twru-to nopaxeHHbK p^aff-moii c noj>fWBKOJi bucokoto KaueCTBa, 


SO 


20 







7. fljia npHroTOBJieHHa pacTBopa b OTMepeHHoe KOJinnecTBO bo^m bjihtb HHraSiipoBaHHyK) co- 
jiaHyio KHCJiOTy; BOfly b KHCJiOTy jihtb Hejib3a, TaK KaK 3to MO>KeT npHBecTH k pa36pbi3rHBaHHio khc- 
jiotm H K CHJIbHbIM oacoraM. 

8. TeMnepaTypa TpaBHJibHoro pacTBopa h norpyaceHHbix b Hero fleTaneii flOJiaciia SbiTb b npe^e- 
jiax 10-30°C. 

BpeMa Bbi/iep>KKH fleTaneii b TpaBHJibHoM BaHHe ycTaHaBJiHBaeTca onbiTHbiM nyTeM; b 3aBHCHMO- 
cth ot cocTaBa BaHHbi, CTeneHH nopa>KeHHa p>KaBHHHOH noBepxHOCTH OHHmaeMbix fleTanen h cocTaBa 
MeTanjia BpeMa Bbiflep>KKH MO>KeT KOJieSaTbca ot 20 MHHyr #o 3 nacoB. 

IIo HCTeneHHH ycTaHOBJieHHoro BpeMemi TpaBJiemia BbiHyTb ^eTanH H3 TpaBHJibHoro pacTBopa h 
TmaTejibHO npoMbiTb b BaHHe c xojioahoh npoTOHHoii boaoh, nocjie nero OTnpaBHTb fleTann Ha npo- 
MbiBKy b pacTBope naccHBaTopoB hjih Ha peMOHT h OKCHflHpoBamie. 

9. IIpH TpaBJieHHH CHJibHO nop>KaBeBHiHx fleTaneii cjie^yeT pacTBopaTb TOJibKO nacTb pacaBHHHbi, 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 296 

TaK KaK ocTaBinaaca p>KaBHHHa ot flencTBHJi khcjiotm CHJibHO pa3pwxjiaeTca h mtokct SbiTb crona 

meTKOH H CMblTa BOflOH. 

10. YflajiaTb p>KaBHHHy H3 KaHanoB ctbojiob npn xoponieM coctoahhh okch^hpobkh Hapy>KHbix 
noBepxHOCTen hjokho nyTeM 3anHBKH TpaBHJibHoro pacTBopa b KaHan CTBOJia, npn stom ctboji ycra- 
HaBJiHBaiOT b HaiaiOHHoe nojio>KeHHe h hh>khhh KOHeu, ero 3aKpbiBaiOT npoSicoH. 

11. TpaBHJibHbiii pacTBop fleftcTByeT (npii6jiH3HTejibHo) b Teneffiie 20 3aKna#OK rqtsljiqPl npn 
cpeflHeM npoflOJi>KHTejibHOCTH ohhctkh, nocne nero pacTBop CHJibHO 3arpa3HaeTca h ero HeoSxoflHMO 

3aMeHHTb. 

12. riepcoHan, o6cny>KHBaiomHH TpaBHJibHbie BaHHbi, aojckch HMeTb pe3HHOBbie nepnaTKH, (J)ap- 

TyK H OHKH. 

BHHMaHHe! IIpH TpaBJieHHH ctbojiob c xpoMHpoBaHHbiMH KaHanaMH HeoSxoflHMO npeflOxpaHHTb 
KaHan CTBOJia ot nona^aHiia b Hero HHraSiipoBaHHOH cojiaHoii khcjiotm, TaK KaK OHa pa3be#aeT xpoM. 
JJjia 3Toro KaHan CTBOJia #o o6e3>KHpHBaHHa cjierKa CMa3biBaTb nymeHHoii CMa3Koii h npoHHO 3aKyno- 

pHBaTb C 06OHX KOHHOB pe3HHOBbIMH HJIH flepeBJIHHblMH IipoSKaMH. 

r. IIpoMbiBKa b pacTBope liacciiBa ropoB 

13. HeoKCHflHpyeMbie Rejaim c uejibio o6pa30BaHHa Ha hx noBepxHOCTH njiemai, OTnacTH 
npeflOxpaHaiomeH ot p>KaBJieHHa, nocjie TpaBJieHHa h npoMbiBKH norpy3HTb b >Kejie3Hyio BaHHy, co- 
flep>Kamyio pacTBop CJie#yiomero cocTaBa: 

^.ByxpOMOBOKHCJIblH KanHH (xpoMnHK KanHeBbiii) 20 r 

KaycTHnecKaa co#a 50 r 

Bofla 1 ji 

A30THCTOKHCJIMH HaTpHH - HHTpHT HaTpHJI 30 T 

Bofla 1 ji 

14. IIpoMbiBaTb fleTanH b KHnameM pacTBope. BpeM» Bbi#ep>KKH fleTaneii b BaHHe 10-15 MHHyr. 

J\. IIpoTHpKa H CMa3Ka 

15. Ilocjie npoMbiBKH b pacTBope naccHBaTopoB TmaTejibHO npoTepeTb ^eTanH Hacyxo hjih npo- 
cyniHTb, a 3aTeM (ecjin ohh He H^yr HenocpeflCTBemio Ha peMOHT) norpyBHTb Ha 2-3 MHHyTbi b BaHHy 
c py>KeiiHOH CMa3KOH, HarpeTOH #o TeMnepaTypw 105-1 15°C. 

PEMOHT JI02KH 

KanecTBO jio>kh OKa3biBaeT Ha TOHHOCTb CTpejibSw KOJioccanbHoe 3HaneHHe. TmaTejibHO noflo- 
rHaHHoe h npHpaSoTaHHoe k MeTajiJinnecKHM nacTSM jio>Ka b 3HaHHiejibHOH Mepe oSecnenHBaeT opy- 
>khio KyHHbiii h CTaSnjibHbiH 6oh. KpoMe Toro, jio>Ka - 3to rjiaBHoe yKpaiueHne bhhtobkh, noflnac 
HacToamee npoH3BefleHHe HCKyccTBa, KOTopoe npoHBBOflHT BnenaTJieHHe He TOJibKO Ha 3HaTOKOB. J\o 
chx nop He pa3ra#aH (J)eHOMeH B03#eHCTBH5i flH3aiiHa opjoKHa Ha ncnxHKy CTpejiKa. y^oSHO ckoh- 
CTpynpoBaHHaa h y^anHO oc^opMJieHHaa jio>Ka HenoHjrmbiM o6pa30M npn^aeT CHaMnepy omymeHHe 
yBepeHHoro npeBoexoflCTBa, ho Ta>Kejibie ycjiOBHa paSoTbi CHaiinepcKOH bhhtobkh 3aBHC»T He tojibko 
ot BbiCTpejia. Mopo3, >Kapa, CHer, BJiara, pe3Kne nepena^bi TeMnepaTyp, y^apHbie Harpy3KH, Hen36e>K- 
Hbie b SoeBOM npHMeHeHHH, noHeMHory nopTaT caMyio npoHHyio flpeBecHHy. B jio>Ke noaBJiaiOTca 
TpemHHbi, BbiSoHHbi, Bbi>K>KeHHbie MecTa, OTKOJiw flpeBecHHbi h caMbie pa3Hbie Henpe#CKa3yeMbie #e- 
(})eKTbi. PaHO hjih no3flHO B03HHKaeT Bonpoc 3aMeHe OT^ejibHbix ^epeBaHHbix HacTeM hjih jio>kh b ue- 
jiom. Ho He ctoht c 3thm cneuiHTb. 3a flOJiroe BpeMa paSoTbi CTapaa jio>Ka npnpaSaTbiBaeTca k MeTaji- 
jinnecKHM nacTSM HacTOJibKO njiOTHO h ecTecTBeHHO, hto HOBaa jio>Ka HaBpafl jih oSecnenHT TaKyio 
ecTecTBeHHyio noca^Ky CTBOJia Ha Hen. 3to hmchho tot cjiynaii, Kor^a CTapwii flpyr Jiyniue hobwx 
flByx. C hoboh jio>KeH ^a>Ke oneHb xoponniH ctboji MO>KeT noTepaTb KynHOCTb. KpoMe Toro, HOBaa 
jio>Ka b Haiue BpeMa ctoht HefleiueBO, a OTpeMOHinpoBaTb CTapyio mo>kho h cbohmh pyKaMH. 

HanSojiee nacTbiM flec})eKTOM jio>kh aBJiaeTca noaBJieHne TpemnH. fljia ycTpaHeHHa ^e(})eKTa b 
TpemHHy 3anHBaiOT snoKCH^HbiH Kneii Ha bcio rjiySnHy TpemHHbi. Ecjih OTKOJioJiacb MejiKaa ^eTaub 
hjih MejiKHH (J)parMeHT, ero nocjie CKJienBaHHa npn>KHMaiOT CTpy6u,HHOH k ochobhoh Macce jio>kh h 
Bbiflep>KHBaiOT b TaKOM cocToaHHH cyTKH flo nojiHoro 3acTbiBaHHa anoKCHflHoro Knea. Ecjih npoH30- 



AjieKceii IloTanoB: «HcKyccTBO CHaiinepa» 297 

men pacKOJi b KpynHOH nacTH - iueiiKe, ueBbe, npHKna^e, - CKnenBaeMbie anoKcnflHbiM KJieeM nacTH 
CTarHBaiOT oahhm hjih flByMa fljiHHHbiMH tohkhmh iuypynaMH. IIpeflBapHTejibHO BbiCBepjiHBaioT Ka- 
Hanbi fljia nocTaHOBKH niypynoB, KOTopwe no flnaMeTpy paBHbi TOJimHHe niypyna 6e3 pe3b6bi. 3to ^e- 
jiaeTca bo H36e>KaHHe Hanpa>KeHHH b ^peBecHHe. Hejib3a BKpynHBaTb niypyn, He npocBepjiHB npeflBa- 
pHTenbHO flua Hero KaHan. 3thm mo>kho Bbi3BaTb noaBJieHHe hobmx TpemHH. Ilepefl BKpynHBaHneM 
uiypynbi CMa3biBaiOTca 3noKCHflHbiM KJieeM. IHypynbi BKpynnBaiOTca 3anoflJiHHO c noBepxHOCTbio 
ApeBecHHbi. 

OTpeMOHTHpoBaHHaa BbinieonHcaHHbiM cnocoSoM nacTb jio>kh nojiynaeTca Kpenne, neM OHa 6bi- 
na #o nonoMKH. 

Ecjih b jio>Ke o6pa30BaiiHCb BbiSmbie, BbimepSjiemibie, OTKonoTbie hjih Bbi>K>KeHHbie MecTa, to 
TaKne flec})eKTbi 3anojiHaiOTca nocTaHOBKOH BKJieeic. KaK 3to flejiaeTca, npe#CTaBJieHO Ha cxeivtax 154- 
156. 3th cxeMbi h noacHeHna k hhm no3BOJi»iOT npeflCTaBHib KapTHHy peMOHTa neBba, nprncjiafla, h 
ocTanbHbix nacTeii jio>kh. 

Jljm peMOHTHbix BKJieeK SepeTca ^peBecHHa oflHHaKOBOH nopoflbi h (J)aKTypbi, BOJiOKHa BKneiiKH 
pacnonaraiOTca o6a3aTejibHO B^ojib bojiokoh jio>kh. Bkjichkh H3roTaBJiHBaiOTca oneHb TmaTejibHO, He 
enema, no npnHnnny "ceMb pa3 OTMepb, o#hh pa3 OTpe>Kb". BKneraca flOJDKHa oneHb nnoTHO, 6e3 3a30- 
poB, noMemaTbca b aKKypaTHO pa3flejiaHHbin fljia ee nocTaHOBKH na3. MecTO nocTaHOBKH BKJienKn bh- 
3yanbHO He aojdkho OTJinnaTbca ot ocTanbHon 4)aiCTypbi jio>kh. Cjie^yeT ynecTb, hto KneeHaa ^peBe- 
CHHa Bcer^a npomiee HeKJieeHon. 

Jlim CKJienBaHna npHMemieTca oSbiHHbin Smtoboh anoKcnflHbin Knen (anoKCHflHaa CMOJia). 
IIpoHHOCTb CKJienBaHna npn 3tom HeoSbinanHO BbicoKa. Ilocjie Toro KaK jio>Ka c npoKJieeHHbiM flec})eK- 
tom Bbiflep>KaHa 24 naca (BpeMa, HeoSxoflHMoe fljia nojiHonemioro 3acTbiBaHH» anoKcnflHoro Knea), 
BbiCTynaiomne nacTH bkjichkh oSpaSaTbmaiOT 3anoflJiHHO c Jioacen. 

Ho 3TO QUiQ He BCe. OTpeMOHTHpOBaHHOH TaKHM o6pa30M JIO>Ke Hy>KHO npHflaTb KpaCHBblH 

BHemHHH BHfl. HaBepmiKa TaKaa jio>Ka, SbiBinaa b fljimejibHOM ynoTpeSjieHnn, oSo^paHa, nonapanaHa 
n CMOTpnTca Henpe3eHTa6ejibHO. 

CHanana jio>Ky oSflnpaiOT Ha>KflaHHon 6yMaroH cpemieH 3epHHCTOCTH, npn 3-tom 3amnn(})OBbi- 
BaiOT napannHbi n CHHMaiOT ocTaTKn CTaporo jiaKa. 3aTeM jio>Ky mnn(|)yiOT mcjikoh Ha>KflaHHon 6yMa- 
ron, a 3aTeM caMon MejiKon, TaK Ha3biBaeMon "mhkpohkoh". Ilocjie OKOHnaHna TaKoii cyxon mnn(|)OB- 

KH nOBepXHOCTb JIO>KH CMaHHBaiOT BOflOH, BblTHpaiOT, BblCymHBaiOT H CHOBa mJIH(J)yK)T "mhkpohhoh" 

Ha>KflaHHon SyMaroH. rioneMy TaK flenaeTca? IIoTOMy hto yBJia>KHeHHe "nomiHMaeT" MenKne 3ayceH- 
nbi flepeBa, KOTopwe nocjie BbicyninBaHna ocTaiOTca b "epmncTOM", B3flbi6jieHHOM coctojihhh, n b Ta- 

KOM COCTOaHHH OHH CHHMaiOTCa MeJIKOH Ha>KflaHHOH SyMarOH. HHOr^a B 3aBHCHMOCTH OT (})aKTypbI 

flpeBecHHbi TaKyio onepannio npnxoflHTca noBTopaTb 2-3 pa3a. 

Ilocjie mjin(})OBKH jio>kh ee noKpbiBaiOT mophjikoh. B 3aBHCHMOCTH ot Toro, KaKoro OTTeHKa n 
rycTOTbi xotst floSnTbca, noKpbiTne flpeBecHHbi mophjikoh noBTopaiOT nocjie nojmoro BbicwxaHna 
jio>kh. TaKHM o6pa30M npn^aiOT >KejiaeMyio OKpacKy jio>KaM, H3roTOBJieHHbiM H3 cbctjioh ^peBecHHbi - 
6epe3bi. 

JIo>kh, H3roTOBJieHHbie H3 opexa, 6yKa, rpaSa, mophjikoh oSmhho He o6pa6aTbiBaiOTca. OaKTypa 
ApeBecHHbi opexa caMa no ce6e ^ocTaTOHHO KpacnBa, Sjiaropo^Ha h b OKpacKe He Hy>K/iaeTca. 

BHHMAHHE! BHyTpeHHHe noBepxHOCTH jio>kh, conpa>KeHHbie n KOHTaKTHpyiomne c MeTamiH- 
necKHMH nacTSMH - ctbojiom h ctbojibhoh kopoSkoh, - He mjiH(J)yiOTca h mophjikoh He oSpaSaTbiBa- 
Kxrca! 

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